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2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)

Power Quality Factor Improvement using Shunt


Active Power Line Conditioner
Maravathu Nagarjuna1,P.C.Panda 2,Azmera Sandeep3

1,2,3Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology,Rourkela-769008, India.


lmarothu.nagarjuna@gmail.com, 2pcpanda@nitrkl.ac.in, 3sandeep4254@gmail.com
II. SHUNT ACTIVE POWER LINE CONDITIONER
Abstract- This paper describes an improvement method of
power quality using shunt active power line conditioner (APLC)
for a three phase supply system feeding three phase unbalanced
non-linear load. A control algorithm is presented for an APLC to
compensate

harmonics

and

unbalance

factor.

Sensing

load

currents, dc bus voltages compute reference currents of APLC.


APLC driving signals are produced with the reference signals via
a hysteresis band current controller. MATLAB/simulink power
system toolbox is used to simulate the proposed system. The
proposed method restricts both THD and unbalance factor of
input currents and a power quality factor is designated which
integrally reflects the two quality aspects (i.e., harmonic and
unbalance factor) before and after compensation. Power quality
factor improvement with the proposed shunt APLC has been
verified by the simulation results.
Keywords -Shunt active power line conditioner, p-q theory,
Power quality factor, Hysteresis band current controller, Non
linear load.

I. [NTRODUCTION
The power filters can be called active power line
conditioners(APLCs) as they can totally counterbalance the
nonlinear loads of power systems: reactive power,
harmonics,unbalances, etc. There are different configurations
of APLCs, from passive and active filters to hybrid filters. The
main focus is to optimize the model utilizing advantages of
each filter with the different load configurations. To mitigate
the load harmonic components current or voltage harmonic
components are injected by the active power filters using a
DCIAC converter[I]. The progress of power and control
stages of active power filters (APFs) are made possible to
compensate the harmonics, reactive power and unbalances.

The more usual APLC configuration is the shunt or


parallel connection [2]. In this paper, three-phase controlled
diode bridge rectifier with resistive-inductive loading are
considered as a non-linear load on three-phase ac supply.
These non-linear load demands distorted sinusoidal currents
from ac supply.
APF solve the demerits of passive filters by using the
power electronic converter to achieve the harmonic current
mitigation. The developments in the shunt active power filters
is to suppress the current harmonics and compensate reactive
power simultaneously. The shunt active power filters are
operated as a current source parallel with the non-linear load
[7]. The switching mode power electronic converter of active
power filter is controlled to obtain a compensation current,
which is equal and opposite to reactive and harmonic currents
generated by the non-linear load. So, the supply current will
be sinusoidal and in phase with supply voltage.
A voltage-source converter with [GBT switches and an
energy storage capacitor on dc bus is implemented as a shunt
APF [5]. The main target of the APF is to eliminate
harmonics, reactive power and to compensate the unnecessary
effects of non-sinusoidal ac mains.

The three important aspects of an active power filters are:

The power converter configuration (the strategy as


well as the topology of converter and the switching
device used);
The control scheme (the way to obtain APF control
reference signals);
The control methodology (how the AC/OC converter
follows the reference signals, normally through the
PWM method or hysteresis band controller).

[SBN No. 978-[-4799-39[4-5/14/$31.00 2014 [EEE

Fig: 1. A shunt APLC scheme.

II.

POWER-QUALITY FACTOR

The power-quality factor (PQF) is been suggested using


the Fourier techniques to assess the quality of the power

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2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)
transfer of a three-phase network. The PQF considers various
quality aspects (QA) notably the current and voltage harmonic
levels, the phase displacements between corresponding phase
voltages and currents at the fundamental frequency, and the
degree of unbalance in the different phase voltages and
currents [3]. The various QAs are measured separately so that,
if needed, the particular quality aspect that requires correction
can be recognized easily.
A high level of power quality is understood as a low level
of disturbances; agreement on acceptable levels of
disturbances is needed [6]. Under steady-state conditions,
three power-system parameters - frequency, waveform
distortion, and symmetry - can serve as frames of reference to
classify the disturbances according to their impact on the
quality of the available power[8]. The power factor has been
considered as another prominent quality aspect.

The power quality factor (PQF) is chosen as a single


measurable indicator which integrally reflects the various
power-quality aspects defined in the previous sections.

(4)
where Wi are judiciously selected weight factor that sum up to
I and QAi are the defined quality aspects.
D. Definition of the Voltage-quality Factor
The voltage quality factor (VQF) is chosen as a single
measurable indicator which integrally reflects the various
voltage quality aspects QAi(i= 1, 3) formulated above. This is
defined as

A. Total Current and Voltage Harmonic Distortion:


The total voltage and current harmonic distortion VTHDand
ITHD' respectively, for single-phase and three-phase networks
have been expressed as

(5)
where wi are judiciously selected weight factor of the voltage
waveform that sum up to 1.

(1)
IV.
where V and I represents rms values and 1 and h denote the
fundamental and the harmonic order, respectively.
The total voltage and current harmonic distortions VTHD
and ITHD are considered as two quality aspects for a three
phase unbalanced system and are given by

(2)
where Vel and lel represents the equivalent fundamental phase
voltage and current.
B. Unbalance Factor:
Relevant quality aspects are the unbalance factors of the
voltage and current VUNB and IUNB respectively expressed as

INSTANTANEOUS REACTIVE POWER THEORY

In 1983, Akagi, Kanazawa and Nabae introduced the


instantaneous reactive power theory, the so-called p-qtheory,
[4]. The main target was to realize an effective scheme to
optimize nonlinear loads using active power filters. Primarily,
it was implemented to three-phase three-wire balanced
systems, and then it was diversified to four-wire unbalanced
systems.
This theory represents the power terms in new a--O axes,
Where a and abc axes are coplanar and the 0 axis is
orthogonal to both. In a coordinates, the power terms are the
instantaneous real and imaginary powers, respectively. The
load current can be illustrated in the real and imaginary
components. The main purpose of p-q control scheme is to get
a constant source power after the compensation with APFs.
Also, it is required to introduce the O-axis to consider four
wire systems. The instantaneous zero-sequence real power
will be the new power term. So, an additional compensation
aim is to nullify the neutral current. A necessary constraint of
the static compensation is that the active power of the
conditioner will be zero.
The abc system is transformed to Oa coordinates as follows:

VO

factor, a

exp

e:lI)

[:;]

Jl

V2

V2

V2

1
0

,f3

,f3

[::l

(6)

C. Definition of the Power-quality Factor


So, the instantaneous real power is:

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2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)

(12)

The p-q theory defines two instantaneous real powers, Po and


Pa(3' and one instantaneous imaginary power, qa(3'

[ 1
Po
Pa(3
qa(3

eo

where:

(8)

[Tr1

The instantaneous currents in Oa coordinates are:

10

1
;;;- Po,

(9)

..J2

..f3

..J2

..f3

..J2

All represented power terms (po(t),Pa(3(t) and qa(3(t)),


can be indicated as the sum of a constant term, equal to its
average value in a period, and a variable term. The first one is
assigned with a capital letter and the second one with a "-"
symbol over the proportional term.

where:

poet)

e(3 = e + e,
io is the instantaneous zero-sequence current,
iap is the instantaneous active current of the a-axis,
i(3p is the instantaneous active current of the -axis,
iaq is the instantaneous reactive current of the a-axis,
i(3q is the instantaneous reactive current of the -axis.

Po + poet),
(13)

To get a constant source power

Pco(t)

(Po + Pa(3), theequations are:

PLO(t) - PLO

PLO(t),

Now, it is possible to formulate the instantaneous power


components of the three axes.

(14)
where the subscript "c" with respect to the compensator, and
the subscript "L" with respect to the load.
These equations represent the power terms. So, the
compensation currents can be formulated in Oa coordinates
as:

So, the instantaneous real power is:

pet)

poet) + PaCt) + P(3(t)


= Po(t) + Pap (t) + P(3p (t) + Paq (t) + P(3q (t)
=

-e"ef3
f3

e"ef3
f3

eolo + e"2 +e2 Pa(3 + e"2 +e2 Pa(3 + e"2 +e2 qa(3 + e"2 +e2 qa(3
f3

f3

(15)

(11)

The currents and powers in abc axes can be calculated


from the Oa terms through the inverse transformation. If [T]
is the transformation matrix from abc to Oa axes, it is
possible to write:

wheree (3

e + e.

Finally, the compensation currents in abc coordinates are:

[;::l $ 1 ; [::l
1

Icc

..f3

..J2

iC(3

(16)

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2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)
VI.
Source

PiJses

Hysteresis bard

currentcontrol1er

The simulation results were obtained by using Matlab


Simulink Power System Toolbox software, for a three phase
power system with a shunt APLC. The proposed method has
been simulated under two cases, balanced non-linear load and
unbalanced non-linear load conditions. For a three phase
balanced sinusoidal supply system using shunt APLC both
cases are investigated by detailed simulation study. The
simulation results are discussed below.
Case 1: Balanced non-linear load
Fig:4 shows the simulation results of the proposed
algorithm under three phase mains voltages when balanced
non-linear load is connected. The three-phase mains currents
after compensation are balanced, sinusoidal and in phase with
three-phase mains voltages. The instantaneous reactive power
theory is feasible. After compensation the THD of source
current is reduced and is presented in Table 1.

Fig: 2. Schematic block diagram of three-phase shunt APF system.


HYSTERESIS BAND CURRENT CONTROLLER

200
0
-200
-400
0

+_

\/

Hysteresis
comparator

0.03

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

Time (sec)

20
0
-20
-40

rtr h

-.J
IGBT trigger
f...J

-60
0

Time (sec)

40
30

signal

ill/eas

0.02

40

20

Power
circuit

Filter
current (A)

error

0.01

60

Load
current (A)

The hysteresis band control is shown in Fig: 3. A single


phase inverter and a sinusoidal reference are presented. When
the obtained current crosses a band around the current
reference, the switching devices change (it turns ON/OFF) and
the current goes back to the band.

400

Source
voltage (V)

V.

SIMULATION RESULTS

10
0
-10
-20

------

-30

Fig: 3. Control scheme of hysteresis-band method

-40
0

The control performance is later: the currents are obtained


and compared with the reference signals; the inputs of a
hysteresis comparator will be the error signals; their outputs
are the IGBT trigger pulses. If the measured current is more (a
fifty per cent of the band value) than the reference current, it is
required to adjust the corresponding switching devices to
obtain a negative inverter output voltage; this voltage in turn
decreases the output current, and it returns to the reference
current band. On the other hand, if the measured current is
lesser (a fifty per cent of the band value) than the reference
current, the switching devices adjusted to get a positive
inverter output voltage; this in turn increases the output
current, and it returns to the reference signal band. As a result,
the output current will be in a band following the reference
current.

80

Time (sec)

60

Source
current (A)

40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
0

Time (sec)

Fig: 4. Three phase source voltage, load current, filter current and source
current when balanced non-linear load is connected.

Case 2: Unbalanced non-linear load


Fig:5 shows the simulation results of the proposed
algorithm under three phase mains voltages when unbalanced
non-linear load is connected. The three-phase source currents
after compensation are balanced, sinusoidal and in phase with

414

2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)
three-phase mains voltages. The instantaneous reactive power
theory is feasible. After compensation the THD and unbalance
factor of source current are reduced and are presented in
Tablel.

load conditions. The low level of harmonics and unbalances


means the high level of Power quality factor. For the two
cases the power quality factor has been improved.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Source
voltage (V)

400

This work was supported by Central Power Research


Institute of Bangalore (vide no. 3/5/R & D/RSOP/2011).

200
0
-200

Load
current (A)

-400
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

REFERENCES

0.08

100

[1]

50

[2]

[3]

-50

-100
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

[4]

Filter
current (A)

40

20

[5]

[6]

-20

-40
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

[7]

80
60

Source
current (A)

40
20
0
-20

[8]

-40
-60
-80
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

H Akagi, 'Trends in active power line conditioners", IEEE Transactions


on power Electronics, vol 9, no 3, 1994, pp263-268.
Ledwich G, Ghosh A. "A Flexible DSTATCOM Operating in Voltage
or Current Control Mode". IEEProc. Generation, Transm. and
Distribution, Vol. 149, No. 2,2002, pp. 215-224.
Antonio
Moreno-Munoz
(Ed.),
::Power
Quality
Mitigation
Technologies in a Distributed Environment", Springer-Verlag London
Limited 2007.
Akagi H, Kanazawa Y, Nabae A. "Generalized Theory of the
Instantaneous Reactive Power in Three-Phase Circuits". Proceedings
IPEC83, Tokio, Japan, 1983 pp.1375- 1386.
L. Gyugyi and E. C. Strycula, "Active AC power filters", IEEE liAS
Annu. Meeting, 1976, p. 529.
Singh B, AI-Haddad K, ChandraA. "A Review of Active Filters for
Power Quality Improvement". IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 5, 1999, pp. 960-971.
Oleg Vodyakho and Chris C. Mi, Senior "Three-Level Inverter- Based
Shunt Active Power Filter in Three-Phase Three-Wire and Four-Wire
Systems", IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, Vo1.24, No. 5,May
2009.
"Practical definitions for powers in systems with non-sinusoidal
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Del., voUl, no.l, pp. 79-101, Jan. 1996.

Fig: 5Three phase source voltage, load current, filter current and source
current when unbalanced non-linear load is connected.
TABLE 1: RESULTS WITH AND WITHOUT ACTIVE POWER FILTER
(APF) FOR CASES I AND 2

ITHDwithout apf
ITHDwithapf
I UNBwithout apf

Balanced Non-linear
load

Unbalanced Non-linear load

29.17%

21.04%

3.47%

4.64%

5.39%

0.76%

PQFwithout apf

85.40%

86.70%

PQFwithapf

98.20%

97.30%

I UNBwithapf

VI.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, a control method is presented to compensate


unbalanced and harmonic currents. The shunt active power
filter has been simulated and investigated for two cases i.e. for
balanced and unbalanced non-linear loads. The results shows
that the shunt active power filter compensated the harmonic
and unbalanced components of the load current. The total
harmonic distortion and unbalance factors are measured for
the source current and power quality factor is derived
considering the measured harmonics and unbalances of the
source currents under balanced and unbalanced non-linear

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