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14 views5 pagesPower Quality Factor Improvement Using Shunt Active Power Line Conditioner

Jan 25, 2016

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Power Quality Factor Improvement Using Shunt Active Power Line Conditioner

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Power Quality Factor Improvement Using Shunt Active Power Line Conditioner

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Active Power Line Conditioner

Maravathu Nagarjuna1,P.C.Panda 2,Azmera Sandeep3

lmarothu.nagarjuna@gmail.com, 2pcpanda@nitrkl.ac.in, 3sandeep4254@gmail.com

II. SHUNT ACTIVE POWER LINE CONDITIONER

Abstract- This paper describes an improvement method of

power quality using shunt active power line conditioner (APLC)

for a three phase supply system feeding three phase unbalanced

non-linear load. A control algorithm is presented for an APLC to

compensate

harmonics

and

unbalance

factor.

Sensing

load

APLC driving signals are produced with the reference signals via

a hysteresis band current controller. MATLAB/simulink power

system toolbox is used to simulate the proposed system. The

proposed method restricts both THD and unbalance factor of

input currents and a power quality factor is designated which

integrally reflects the two quality aspects (i.e., harmonic and

unbalance factor) before and after compensation. Power quality

factor improvement with the proposed shunt APLC has been

verified by the simulation results.

Keywords -Shunt active power line conditioner, p-q theory,

Power quality factor, Hysteresis band current controller, Non

linear load.

I. [NTRODUCTION

The power filters can be called active power line

conditioners(APLCs) as they can totally counterbalance the

nonlinear loads of power systems: reactive power,

harmonics,unbalances, etc. There are different configurations

of APLCs, from passive and active filters to hybrid filters. The

main focus is to optimize the model utilizing advantages of

each filter with the different load configurations. To mitigate

the load harmonic components current or voltage harmonic

components are injected by the active power filters using a

DCIAC converter[I]. The progress of power and control

stages of active power filters (APFs) are made possible to

compensate the harmonics, reactive power and unbalances.

parallel connection [2]. In this paper, three-phase controlled

diode bridge rectifier with resistive-inductive loading are

considered as a non-linear load on three-phase ac supply.

These non-linear load demands distorted sinusoidal currents

from ac supply.

APF solve the demerits of passive filters by using the

power electronic converter to achieve the harmonic current

mitigation. The developments in the shunt active power filters

is to suppress the current harmonics and compensate reactive

power simultaneously. The shunt active power filters are

operated as a current source parallel with the non-linear load

[7]. The switching mode power electronic converter of active

power filter is controlled to obtain a compensation current,

which is equal and opposite to reactive and harmonic currents

generated by the non-linear load. So, the supply current will

be sinusoidal and in phase with supply voltage.

A voltage-source converter with [GBT switches and an

energy storage capacitor on dc bus is implemented as a shunt

APF [5]. The main target of the APF is to eliminate

harmonics, reactive power and to compensate the unnecessary

effects of non-sinusoidal ac mains.

well as the topology of converter and the switching

device used);

The control scheme (the way to obtain APF control

reference signals);

The control methodology (how the AC/OC converter

follows the reference signals, normally through the

PWM method or hysteresis band controller).

II.

POWER-QUALITY FACTOR

the Fourier techniques to assess the quality of the power

411

2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)

transfer of a three-phase network. The PQF considers various

quality aspects (QA) notably the current and voltage harmonic

levels, the phase displacements between corresponding phase

voltages and currents at the fundamental frequency, and the

degree of unbalance in the different phase voltages and

currents [3]. The various QAs are measured separately so that,

if needed, the particular quality aspect that requires correction

can be recognized easily.

A high level of power quality is understood as a low level

of disturbances; agreement on acceptable levels of

disturbances is needed [6]. Under steady-state conditions,

three power-system parameters - frequency, waveform

distortion, and symmetry - can serve as frames of reference to

classify the disturbances according to their impact on the

quality of the available power[8]. The power factor has been

considered as another prominent quality aspect.

measurable indicator which integrally reflects the various

power-quality aspects defined in the previous sections.

(4)

where Wi are judiciously selected weight factor that sum up to

I and QAi are the defined quality aspects.

D. Definition of the Voltage-quality Factor

The voltage quality factor (VQF) is chosen as a single

measurable indicator which integrally reflects the various

voltage quality aspects QAi(i= 1, 3) formulated above. This is

defined as

The total voltage and current harmonic distortion VTHDand

ITHD' respectively, for single-phase and three-phase networks

have been expressed as

(5)

where wi are judiciously selected weight factor of the voltage

waveform that sum up to 1.

(1)

IV.

where V and I represents rms values and 1 and h denote the

fundamental and the harmonic order, respectively.

The total voltage and current harmonic distortions VTHD

and ITHD are considered as two quality aspects for a three

phase unbalanced system and are given by

(2)

where Vel and lel represents the equivalent fundamental phase

voltage and current.

B. Unbalance Factor:

Relevant quality aspects are the unbalance factors of the

voltage and current VUNB and IUNB respectively expressed as

instantaneous reactive power theory, the so-called p-qtheory,

[4]. The main target was to realize an effective scheme to

optimize nonlinear loads using active power filters. Primarily,

it was implemented to three-phase three-wire balanced

systems, and then it was diversified to four-wire unbalanced

systems.

This theory represents the power terms in new a--O axes,

Where a and abc axes are coplanar and the 0 axis is

orthogonal to both. In a coordinates, the power terms are the

instantaneous real and imaginary powers, respectively. The

load current can be illustrated in the real and imaginary

components. The main purpose of p-q control scheme is to get

a constant source power after the compensation with APFs.

Also, it is required to introduce the O-axis to consider four

wire systems. The instantaneous zero-sequence real power

will be the new power term. So, an additional compensation

aim is to nullify the neutral current. A necessary constraint of

the static compensation is that the active power of the

conditioner will be zero.

The abc system is transformed to Oa coordinates as follows:

VO

factor, a

exp

e:lI)

[:;]

Jl

V2

V2

V2

1

0

,f3

,f3

[::l

(6)

So, the instantaneous real power is:

412

2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)

(12)

Pa(3' and one instantaneous imaginary power, qa(3'

[ 1

Po

Pa(3

qa(3

eo

where:

(8)

[Tr1

10

1

;;;- Po,

(9)

..J2

..f3

..J2

..f3

..J2

can be indicated as the sum of a constant term, equal to its

average value in a period, and a variable term. The first one is

assigned with a capital letter and the second one with a "-"

symbol over the proportional term.

where:

poet)

e(3 = e + e,

io is the instantaneous zero-sequence current,

iap is the instantaneous active current of the a-axis,

i(3p is the instantaneous active current of the -axis,

iaq is the instantaneous reactive current of the a-axis,

i(3q is the instantaneous reactive current of the -axis.

Po + poet),

(13)

Pco(t)

PLO(t) - PLO

PLO(t),

components of the three axes.

(14)

where the subscript "c" with respect to the compensator, and

the subscript "L" with respect to the load.

These equations represent the power terms. So, the

compensation currents can be formulated in Oa coordinates

as:

pet)

= Po(t) + Pap (t) + P(3p (t) + Paq (t) + P(3q (t)

=

-e"ef3

f3

e"ef3

f3

eolo + e"2 +e2 Pa(3 + e"2 +e2 Pa(3 + e"2 +e2 qa(3 + e"2 +e2 qa(3

f3

f3

(15)

(11)

from the Oa terms through the inverse transformation. If [T]

is the transformation matrix from abc to Oa axes, it is

possible to write:

wheree (3

e + e.

[;::l $ 1 ; [::l

1

Icc

..f3

..J2

iC(3

(16)

413

2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)

VI.

Source

PiJses

Hysteresis bard

currentcontrol1er

Simulink Power System Toolbox software, for a three phase

power system with a shunt APLC. The proposed method has

been simulated under two cases, balanced non-linear load and

unbalanced non-linear load conditions. For a three phase

balanced sinusoidal supply system using shunt APLC both

cases are investigated by detailed simulation study. The

simulation results are discussed below.

Case 1: Balanced non-linear load

Fig:4 shows the simulation results of the proposed

algorithm under three phase mains voltages when balanced

non-linear load is connected. The three-phase mains currents

after compensation are balanced, sinusoidal and in phase with

three-phase mains voltages. The instantaneous reactive power

theory is feasible. After compensation the THD of source

current is reduced and is presented in Table 1.

HYSTERESIS BAND CURRENT CONTROLLER

200

0

-200

-400

0

+_

\/

Hysteresis

comparator

0.03

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

Time (sec)

20

0

-20

-40

rtr h

-.J

IGBT trigger

f...J

-60

0

Time (sec)

40

30

signal

ill/eas

0.02

40

20

Power

circuit

Filter

current (A)

error

0.01

60

Load

current (A)

phase inverter and a sinusoidal reference are presented. When

the obtained current crosses a band around the current

reference, the switching devices change (it turns ON/OFF) and

the current goes back to the band.

400

Source

voltage (V)

V.

SIMULATION RESULTS

10

0

-10

-20

------

-30

-40

0

and compared with the reference signals; the inputs of a

hysteresis comparator will be the error signals; their outputs

are the IGBT trigger pulses. If the measured current is more (a

fifty per cent of the band value) than the reference current, it is

required to adjust the corresponding switching devices to

obtain a negative inverter output voltage; this voltage in turn

decreases the output current, and it returns to the reference

current band. On the other hand, if the measured current is

lesser (a fifty per cent of the band value) than the reference

current, the switching devices adjusted to get a positive

inverter output voltage; this in turn increases the output

current, and it returns to the reference signal band. As a result,

the output current will be in a band following the reference

current.

80

Time (sec)

60

Source

current (A)

40

20

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

0

Time (sec)

Fig: 4. Three phase source voltage, load current, filter current and source

current when balanced non-linear load is connected.

Fig:5 shows the simulation results of the proposed

algorithm under three phase mains voltages when unbalanced

non-linear load is connected. The three-phase source currents

after compensation are balanced, sinusoidal and in phase with

414

2014 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies (ICACCCT)

three-phase mains voltages. The instantaneous reactive power

theory is feasible. After compensation the THD and unbalance

factor of source current are reduced and are presented in

Tablel.

means the high level of Power quality factor. For the two

cases the power quality factor has been improved.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Source

voltage (V)

400

Institute of Bangalore (vide no. 3/5/R & D/RSOP/2011).

200

0

-200

Load

current (A)

-400

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

REFERENCES

0.08

100

[1]

50

[2]

[3]

-50

-100

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

[4]

Filter

current (A)

40

20

[5]

[6]

-20

-40

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

[7]

80

60

Source

current (A)

40

20

0

-20

[8]

-40

-60

-80

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Time (sec)

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

on power Electronics, vol 9, no 3, 1994, pp263-268.

Ledwich G, Ghosh A. "A Flexible DSTATCOM Operating in Voltage

or Current Control Mode". IEEProc. Generation, Transm. and

Distribution, Vol. 149, No. 2,2002, pp. 215-224.

Antonio

Moreno-Munoz

(Ed.),

::Power

Quality

Mitigation

Technologies in a Distributed Environment", Springer-Verlag London

Limited 2007.

Akagi H, Kanazawa Y, Nabae A. "Generalized Theory of the

Instantaneous Reactive Power in Three-Phase Circuits". Proceedings

IPEC83, Tokio, Japan, 1983 pp.1375- 1386.

L. Gyugyi and E. C. Strycula, "Active AC power filters", IEEE liAS

Annu. Meeting, 1976, p. 529.

Singh B, AI-Haddad K, ChandraA. "A Review of Active Filters for

Power Quality Improvement". IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 5, 1999, pp. 960-971.

Oleg Vodyakho and Chris C. Mi, Senior "Three-Level Inverter- Based

Shunt Active Power Filter in Three-Phase Three-Wire and Four-Wire

Systems", IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, Vo1.24, No. 5,May

2009.

"Practical definitions for powers in systems with non-sinusoidal

waveforms and unbalanced loads: A discussion", IEEE Trans. Power

Del., voUl, no.l, pp. 79-101, Jan. 1996.

Fig: 5Three phase source voltage, load current, filter current and source

current when unbalanced non-linear load is connected.

TABLE 1: RESULTS WITH AND WITHOUT ACTIVE POWER FILTER

(APF) FOR CASES I AND 2

ITHDwithout apf

ITHDwithapf

I UNBwithout apf

Balanced Non-linear

load

29.17%

21.04%

3.47%

4.64%

5.39%

0.76%

PQFwithout apf

85.40%

86.70%

PQFwithapf

98.20%

97.30%

I UNBwithapf

VI.

CONCLUSION

unbalanced and harmonic currents. The shunt active power

filter has been simulated and investigated for two cases i.e. for

balanced and unbalanced non-linear loads. The results shows

that the shunt active power filter compensated the harmonic

and unbalanced components of the load current. The total

harmonic distortion and unbalance factors are measured for

the source current and power quality factor is derived

considering the measured harmonics and unbalances of the

source currents under balanced and unbalanced non-linear

415

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