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# THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

## Department of Materials Engineering

APPLIED SCIENCE 278
Engineering Materials
FINAL EXAMINATION, Spring 2010
This is a Closed Book Examination.
The use of calculators containing stored information of relevance to this course is forbidden.
Time: 2.5 hours (12pm to 2:30pm)
Instructions:
Some useful formulae, material data and phase diagrams are given in the appendix of the exam.
It is Ok to detach the appendix from the question pages.
The use of sketches or schematic diagrams is encouraged wherever these will aid in solving or
discussing a problem.
If you run out of space, please use the back sides of the question pages or request another exam
booklet.
Initial beside your name in the invigilators report.
Your cheat sheet will be checked and returned to you in a week. You can pick up from
Room 309 Frank Forward building.
Please do not discuss the final exam with students who are scheduled to take the make-up
exam.

## 3. Phase diagram I (10 pts)

a) The phase diagram of material A and B is isomorphous. The melting point of A Tm,A is higher
than Tm,B. Please sketch the phase diagram of material A and B, label the liquidus and solidus
lines and your axes. (5 pts)
b) An alloy of A and B is composed of 40 wt % of A. This alloy was originally in solid phase,
and is heated up to temperature T1, where a liquid phase is in equilibrium with a solid phase. If
the liquid phase is composed of 70 wt% B, and the solid phase is composed of 20 wt% B.
Determine the mass fractions of the liquid phase and the solid phase. (5 pts)

## 4. Phase diagram II (10 pts)

The following is the phase diagram of Pb and Sn. A Pb-Sn alloy is cooling from liquid phase to
room temperature very slowly. A, B, C and D are four possible cooling routes.

## Figure 1: An optical image of the microstructures after cooling is completed.

a) In Figure 1, the black regions are rich in Pb. Identify the phases of the white particles, black
stripes and white stripes.
b) Which cooling route resulted in the microstructures in Figure 1? What are the temperature
ranges in which they were formed? (You can read the temperatures from the Pb-Sn phase
diagram.)
3

## 6. Glass transition of polymersmultiple choices (10 pt)

Choose from the following list, the methods that can increase glass transition temperatures are:

B: lower strain rates
D: lower density
E: double bonds in polymer chains
F: increase measurement temperature
G: increase crystallinity
H: smaller degree of polymerization
I: increase stress

8. Polymers (8 pt)
An alternating copolymer has a number average molecular weight of 160 000 g/mol and a
number average degree of polymerization of 2500. If one of the mers is tetrafluorethylene,
identify which of the following polymers is the other mer: ethylene, propylene,
tetrafluorethylene and vinyl chlorine. Given: mstyrene = 104.14 g/mol, methylene = 28.05 g/mol,
mpolypropylene = 42.08g/mol, mtetrafluoroethylene = 100.02 g/mol, mvinyl chlorine = 62.49 g/mol.
(Hint: the mer molecular weight in alternating co-polymer of ababab. = 0.5 x ma + 0.5 x
mb)

Appendix
Useful Formulae
Hx
Hz

Hy
Hz

2G 1  Q

Ur

1
V y uH
2

V 1  H

HT

ln 1  H

VT

KH Tn

U=
nO

V y2

nA / N A
Vc

a
2

k l

rate

Ae Q

t recrx

Ace Q RT

V o  kyd

Hs

K 1V n

V fs

uH f

2d sin T

d hkl

Nv

 Qv
N exp

RT

RT

1

E
10

W R V cos I cos O

2E
2

VT

Q
K 2V n exp

RT

V theoretical #

V y Vu

toughness |

H s

Vm

a
V o 1  2

Ut

Vm

a
2V o
Ut

Vc

2 EJ s

Sa

Vc

2 E J s  J p

Sa

Vy
K

K
2Sr

f y T

YV Sa

K
B t 2.5 Ic
Vy

3F f L
2bd 2
6

V min
V max

WL

S
u 100
RS

WD

R
u 100
RS

CD  Co
u 100
CD  CL
Co  CL
u 100
CD  CL

D (T 0  T ) E

VA  VB

Er ( t )

VAo  VBo 

RT X
ln
nF Y

EwA

U
Es
Us

Ec

Ec

E f V f  E mVm

Em E f
EmV f  E f Vm

x M

Mw

w M

DPn

nn

Mn
m

DPw

nw

Mw
m

Ff
E f / Em
=
Fc
E f / Em  Vm / Vf

lc

Mn

V *f d
2W c

% crystallinity

Uc (Us  Ua )
u 100
U s (Uc  Ua )

Useful Constants

6fjmj

r d n
or r O n
Vt

U
Es
Us

Ff
Ef Vf
=
Fm
Em Vm

Q
rate of hardenig v exp

RT

Ewll

W
wu
wy

V t
Ho

R = 8.314 Jmol-1K-1
i.e. d { O

t

V o exp