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Q No 1: What is meant by Organization Behavior?

Describe the interpersonal role and informational role of


managers.
Meaning of Organizational Behavior:
An Organization is considered to be a group of two or
more people, who consciously contribute their efforts towards
the achievement of certain goals.
Two words: organization and behavior, which means
understanding the organization and understanding behavior of
people in the organization.
Explanation of Interpersonal role:
The role deals with maintaining good relation between the
employee and the employer and the employee internal and
external groups etc.
FigureheadThis symbolizes social inspirational legal and ceremonial
obligation to be fulfilled by managers. Here, the managers is
seen as an icon of status and authority.
For Exe. The CEO of a company congratulating a new
group of trainees a professor of one department meeting
with other professors to discuss a common issue, a
reputed restaurants head chef greeting its customers.
LeaderA leader is one who can protect the organization during crisis
time. Leader can be within as well as outside the organization.
It is the prime duty of a manager to motivate and direct the
employees.
For Exe. Mahatma Gandhi Winston Churchill, Adolf
Hitlar, Nelson Mandela are world leaders and vijaya Mallya of

Kingfisher group, Ratan Tata of TATA Steel,Bill Gates of


Microsoft, etc,are wellknown and famous leaders of the
corporate world.

LiaisonThe managers acts as a network that gathers the information,


exchanges it with other and develops its knowledge base.
For Exe. A class representative acting as a liaison
officerbetween the class and the department teacher.
Explain of Informational Role:
The next set of discus the importance of information sharing
and handling.
MonitorThis calls for assessing of the internal operationanalyzing their
success ratio and the problems, as well as opportunities.
For Exe. A managers informing the marketing head
about the specific marketing strategy a competitor is planning
to implemenT
DisseminatorThe next important role to be performed by the manaer is to
procure relevant information required b the company people
from the external environment and then distributing it
wherever necessary.
SpokespersonA manager has to be capable enough to represent his own
department/unit/division/company in front of the external
groups regarding the companys plans, policies, profits, results,
decisions etc.

For Exe. Maneka Gandhi acting as a spokespersons for


the WWF to save the lives of the rarest species and especially
the Royal Bengal Tigers,Amitabh Bachchan acting as a
spokesperson for ICICI Prudential, Nirupama Rao[IFS] acting as
a spokesperson in negotiations between Indian and Pakistan.

Q No 2. What is the meaning of organization design?


Explain the following elements of organization
structure:
[a] Hierarchy
[b] Division of work
[c] Unity of comman
Meaning Of Organization Design:
Organization design refers to managerial decisions
that determine the structure and processes which in turn and
control the activities in an organization.
Explain Of Hierarchy:
It is an important concept as it depicts the creation and linkage
between other components of the organization. It is also known
as the chain of command. As we know, an organization is
sliced into three levels viz, top, middle and bottom level. Across
these levels are many positions that are held by people.
Depending upon these positions people enjoy their authority
and responsibilities.
Explain Of Division Of Work:
Being human we have our own physical as well as mental
limitations, Due to this, a person needs to perform the task
where he is well qualified/skilled/experienced. F.W.Taylor has
introduce the concept of specialization in his scientific
management theories. Since then companies have universally
practiced this system. Division of work is also required to brimg

about efficiency in performing a task. By repeating the task


agai and again the person become specialized in it. Thus to
increase productivity, to reduce complexities and confusions at
work, division of work is very essential
Explain Of Unity Of Command:
no man can serve two master alone, Henri Fayol borrowed this
idea from Bible and implemented in this principles of
administrative management. Unity of command means that a
subordinate has to be responsible to one senior only. He will be
getting the order from one boss and will be answerable to that
boss only. This is done to minimize misunderstanding and
chaos.

Q No 3. Define the termLearning. Explain any three


theories of learning.
Definition of learning:
In the earlier units you have learnt about organizational and
interpersonal behavior. In this unit we will get an understanding
about the concept learning. Learning is vital both for
individuals as well as organizations. It is vital because new
possibilities are emerging and new threats control us
continuosly. We are living in a world that is ever changing.
Explain of any three theories of learning:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Social learning
Cognitive learning
Programmed learning

1. Classical conditioning:
This approach explain the learning of reflex
behavior. An example of a reflex behaviour is when stuck
with a pin we flinch without thinking. Pavlov a Russian
scientist conducted a remarkable experiment on his dog.
Pavlov observe that his dog began to salivate as soon as
food was offered to it. It did not salivate when a bell was
rung.

Food

Salivation

Bell

Bell

No
Salivation

Food

Bell

Salivation

Salivation

2. Operant conditioning:
B. F skinner is closely associated with this
learning theory. Operant conditioning is based on the fact
that voluntary behaviours are learnt. As human beings we
learn behaviour because we find it rewarding. In the same
way we can unlearn behaviour if its consequence becomes
unrewarding or punishing. Thus a child learns to become
obedient because he is rewarded with parental love and
appreciation. Similarly a child stops bad behaviour when
punished. In organizations also operant conditioning is
found frequently. When an individual works hard he or she

is paid accordingly, when an individual takes the initiative


he or she is appreciated. Similarly, if a person remains
absent the may lose his pay. If he is late he may not be
allowed to enter the organization. Operant conditioning
therefore is an important tool for managers, who want the
employees to learn productive voluntary behaviours and
give up voluntary unproductive behaviours.

3. Social learning:
this theory of learning is an extension of operant
conditioning. Albert bandura demonstrated that people
learn or unlearn behaviours even by watching others
being rewarded or punished for a particular behaviour. We
decide on our behaviour by watching others. In other
words we keenly watch others around us then develop a
mental picture of a behavior and its result and finally we
try the behaviour ourselves.
Q No 4. What is meant by conflict? Describe the Sources
of Conflict?
Meaning Of Conflict:
Robbins says that, conflict is a perceived difference of values
between two or more parties that results in mutual opposition.
It implies both, opposing interests or goals; opposing or
incompatible behaviour. It is a process in which A deliberately
tries to offset the efforts of B by some from of bloking that
result in frustrating his goal or frustrating his interests.
Description Of Sources Of Conflict:
In any effective and efficient organization it is important that
the employees should have a shared objectives and strive to
achieve.
[a] Interdependence:

In organization for the accomplishment of the goal a


certain amount of interaction is necessary. It is basically
the dependence of one part on the other for resources and
information. These is no such direct relationship between
interdependence and conflict, but it is said that
interdependence increases the chance of conflict.
Pooled interdependence:
when department have very
little interaction with each other but can be affected by
each others action, then it is known as pooled
interdependence.
Sequential interdependence:
when the output of one
department become the input of another department, it is
known as sequential interdependence. Here there is one
way flow of information, output and service.
Reciprocal interdependence:
when two or more people
are mutually interdependanct in accomplishing the task, it
is known as reciprocal interdependence. They share
information and resources.
[b]

Scarcity of Resources:

Confilict on resources is very common in


organization, and if the sources are scare in nature then the
chances of conflict increase.
[c]

Specialization:

One of the major casuse of disagreement in the


organization can be high degree of specialization. Aperson with
a high degree of specialization will not give importance to the
advice of other. Not only this he will not be aware of the other
area
[d]

competitive incentive and reward system:

Competitive incentive and reward system can


be one of the causes of inter-group conflict. If the reward plan is
associated with group performance and the tasks are
interdependent, then instead of cooperation increases and
people try to succeed at the expenses of other.

[e]

Incompatible Personalization:

As we all know, no two people are the same.


There are certain people who conside themselves as
perfectionists. They are achievement oriented and hard
working. Yhese people are not aware of the feelings of others.
[f]

Lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities:

A clear line of role and responsibilities is very


important for any organization. In the absence of it these is no
one to take responsibilities. Employees start passing the buck.
Q No 5: Define term; power with respect to
Organizational Behavior. What are the Sources of
power? Explain.
Definition of the term power:
In the earlier unit we have studied different
aspects of organization and individuals as well, like, personality,
emotions, conflict, organization culture, etc. in this unit we will
study about power and politics.She appeared for this
interviews, finally her luck changed for the better. She
appeared for this interview for the post of a teacher in an
upcoming school. The interview, the owner of the school, was a
charming person with a great vision for a school
Explain Of Sources Of Power:
WE have already seen that power is the ability to influence
other. This ability is derived from different sources. Ability also
various from person to person.
Legitimate Power:
This power is derived from the socio legal
rights of a manager. He holds power by virte of his
position. Power in this case therefore is positional and
personal. If a person is removed from that position he
loses all the power. Dr. Manmohan Singh has immense

legitimate power by virtue of being the prime Minister of


indial.
A>
Willingness of a manager to exercise
power;
B>
Nature of the task and;
C>
Nature of the organization.
Thus, legitimate power is very high in armed forces
because of the nature of the organization and the
criticality that its task demands. While exercising
legitimate power it is expected nowadays to have
certain traits such as politeness to justify an order,
respect for age, consideration for gender and age,
maintaining ones calm and confidence, and readiness
to justify an order to the subordinates.

Charismatic Power:
Mother Teresa, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Ghandhi
are the best example of this power. People were ready to
be influenced by them because of their goodness,
enthusiasm, personal charm and for their high leves of
morality. When Mahatma Gandhi began the Dandi march,
he started it alone, but by the time he walked 240 miles to
reach Dandi, he was accompanied by thousands of
fpllowers!
Expert power:
Expert power is a result of specific skill, knowledge
or expertise that a person has. Others accept the
recommendation of such a person because they trust his
or her expertise. In the Mahabharata,Arjun and Bhim
derived their power from their expertise as warriors. A
physician holds a lot of power during a medical emergency
or crisis.
Reward power:

An individual who controls the reward or rewarding


system also has lot of influence on others. People are
willing to follow him because they expect to be rewarded.
Rewards in organizations may include pay rise, bonuses,
promotions etc.
Information power:
A manager having access to the most important
information wields immense power. In a marketing
organization, the market research expert impacts the
decision most powerfully because he has information
about future demand.
Coercive power:
This power is derived from the ability to punish
others. Such a power is legitimate and is needed by
managers to deal with unproductive, disturbing and antisocial elements in the organization.
Q No 6. Explain the importance of Groups. Describe the
stages of Grop Development.
Explanation Of importance of group:
A group can be defined as a collection of two or more people
who have a cpmmon explicit goal and interact with each other
for achiving the goal; members are aware of each other and
interact with each other for achieving the goal; members are
aware of each other perceive themselves to be a part of the
group. According to David H. Smith, A group is a set of two or
more individuals who are jointly characterized by a network of
relevant communications, a shered disposition with associated
normative strength.
Description of Stages Of Group Developmen:
Bruce Tuckman [1965] developed a 5-stage model
of group development. He labeled the Stages Forming,
storming, Norming, performing and Adjourning. According to

Tuckman, a group or team will pass through these stages, but


these need not be followed rigidly.
Forming - The initial stage of group development is
marked as the forming stage. As the name depicts,
forming means the initial formation of the group. In this
stage, thegroup members are brought together on one
platform. They start discussing the objectives and the
strategies framed to achieve the laid goals.
Strorming- The second stage of group development is
named storming as the group undergoes a storm of
conflicts, disputes, arguments and differences in opinion.
This stage is the most crucial stage, as the group can
move on to the next stage only if the members are
successful in suppressing the conflict, and try to
understand each other. Or else, the group will be
disbanded.
Norming- The third stage of group development is
marked by harmonious relationships. A group entering the
stage of norming is able to resove all conflict and
arguments, which took place at the storming Stage.
PerformingThe fourth stage of group development is
the action stage where every members start performing
this/her assigned duties. The group interact frequently and
smoothly in case of difficulties. The member also try to
implement some problem solving techniques that they
have learnt and experienced in perivious stage.
Adjourning- Lastly, every group has to get disbanded
either on completion of the task, or if any group members
leaves. This is a very painful stage as by this time
members have developed sentiments towards each other
and are comfortable in performing activities together.