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HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT SPECIFICATION

Scaffolding, Working at Heights or Over Water, Lifting Operations and


Earthworks
DOCUMENT ID
- SP 1257
REVISION
- 1.0
DATE
- 15/07/02

HSE SPECIFICATION

Setting Clear Requirements

Authorised for Issue by the HSE IC 15/07/02


Document Authorisation
Document Authority
dapo Oguntoyinbo
Ref. Ind: CSM
Date: 15/07/02

Document Custodian
Hamad Khalfeen
Ref. Ind: CSM/11
Date: 15/07/02

Document Author
Hamad Khalfeen
Ref. Ind: CSM/11
Date: 15/07/02

The following is a brief summary of the four most recent revisions to this document. Details of all
revisions prior to these are held on file by the Document Custodian.
Version No.
Version 1.0

Date
July 2002

Author
Hamad Khalfeen
CSM/11

Scope / Remarks
Original issue. Supersedes HSE Standards
Manual - Chapter 9 Safety Standards for
Scaffolding, Working at Heights or Over Water,
Lifting Operations and Earthworks.

User Notes:
The requirements of this document are mandatory. Non-compliance shall only be authorised by CSM
through STEP-OUT approval.
A controlled copy of the current version of this document is on PDO's EDMS. Before making reference
to this document, it is the user's responsibility to ensure that any hard copy, or electronic copy, is
current. For assistance, contact the Document Custodian.
This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC. Neither the whole nor any part of
this document may be disclosed to others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in
any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic recording or otherwise) without prior
written consent of the owner.
Users are encouraged to participate in the ongoing improvement of this document by providing
constructive feedback.

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Contents
1. INTRODUCTION...............................................................................1
1.1 PURPOSE...................................................................................................... 1
1.2 CHANGES TO THE SPECIFICATION.......................................................................1
1.3 SCOPE.......................................................................................................... 1
1.4 DELIVERABLES................................................................................................ 1
1.4.1 Records............................................................................................... 1
1.4.2 Reports................................................................................................ 2
1.5 RESPONSIBILITIES............................................................................................2
1.6 PERFORMANCE MONITORING.............................................................................3
1.7 REVIEW AND IMPROVEMENT..............................................................................3
2.0

PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS....................................................4

2.1 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS.....................................................................................4


2.2 WORK ON HIGH STRUCTURES...........................................................................5
2.2.1 Personnel............................................................................................. 5
2.2.2 Means of Access..................................................................................5
2.2.3 The High Structure..............................................................................5
2.2.4 Pre-Work Checks.................................................................................5
2.2.5 Work Practices.....................................................................................6
2.3 SCAFFOLDING................................................................................................7
2.3.1 General................................................................................................ 7
2.3.2 Personnel............................................................................................. 7
TABLE 1: TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS.....................................................8
2.3.3 Means of Access..................................................................................8
2.3.4 Activity Controls..................................................................................9
TABLE 2: LOADS AND DIMENSIONS FOR SCAFFOLD TUBE AND FITTINGS..............................9
2.3.5 Pre Work Checks................................................................................10
2.3.6 General Access Scaffolds...................................................................11
2.3.7 Scaffold Material Standards...............................................................13
TABLE 3: SCAFFOLD MATERIAL STANDARDS................................................................14
2.3.8 Tower Scaffolds..................................................................................14
2.3.9 System Scaffolds...............................................................................15
2.3.10 Power Operated Mobile Work Platforms.............................................16
2.3.11 Ladders..............................................................................................17
2.3.12 Dismantling.......................................................................................17
2.4 WORK OVER WATER.....................................................................................18
2.4.1 General Requirements.......................................................................18
2.4.2 Working Outside Handrails................................................................18
2.5 LIFTING OPERATIONS.....................................................................................19
2.5.1 General.............................................................................................. 19
2.5.2 Gin Blocks.......................................................................................... 20
2.6 EARTHWORKS............................................................................................... 20
2.6.1 General.............................................................................................. 20
2.6.2 Excavation Permit..............................................................................20
2.6.3 Excavation and Trenching..................................................................21
2.6.4 Specifications and Backfilling............................................................22
2.6.5 Restoration........................................................................................22
2.6.6 Identification of Services...................................................................23
2.6.7 Roadworks.........................................................................................23
2.6.8 Rock Breaking...................................................................................23

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1. Introduction
1.1

Purpose
This Specification describes PDO's requirements for:

Working on high structures


Scaffolding
Working over water
Lifting operations
Earthworks, roadworks and excavations.

1.2

Changes to the Specification


This Specification replaces Chapter 9 of the HSE Standards Manual
Safety Standards for Scaffolding, Working at Heights or Over Water,
Lifting Operations and Earthworks.

1.3

Scope
This Specification applies to all activities involving scaffolding (onshore
and offshore), working at heights or over water, lifting operations and
earthworks, undertaken by PDO, and Contractor/Sub-Contractor personnel
authorised to work on behalf of PDO.
Although this Specification is focused on "Construction Contracts", it
applies equally to all similar activities, whether for maintenance,
production operations or any other purpose.

1.4
1.4.1

Deliverables
Records
Records shall be maintained to document the implementation of this
Specification (refer to CP 122 HSE Management System Manual, Part 2
Chapter 6).
Scaffolding Records
Scaffold Inspectors shall record and maintain records of scaffolding and
related equipment in a site scaffolding/staging inspection log book.
Inspectors shall either accept the scaffold or reject it and detail
deficiencies to be corrected in the log book.
Personnel Records for Scaffolders
Personnel records of scaffolders shall be maintained and kept up to date.
They shall show:
full name of employee
date of birth
job category
employment application or personal data sheet (resumes)
company service agreement
copy of employee papers. (with visa page, labour permits, NOCs)
authorisation for the release of personal data and record information

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records of disciplinary actions and unsatisfactory performance


records of exceptional performance and achievements
medical assessment reports
resignation notices
copy of PDO passes and driving licence.

Excavation Register
An excavation register shall be maintained on site. All inspections,
including gas testing, shall be recorded immediately following the
inspection/gas test.
1.4.2

Reports
Data shall be submitted to the CSM Department monthly (refer to CP 122
HSE Management System Manual, Part 2 Chapter 6). For PDO staff, any
non-compliance with this Specification shall be notified, investigated and
reported per the Non Compliance Report Form in CP 122 HSE
Management System Manual, Part 2 Chapter 6.
For Contractors, any non-compliances with this Specification shall be
reported to the Contract Holder.

1.5

Responsibilities
Asset Managers
Asset Managers are responsible for ensuring that the activities they
control are managed in accordance with the requirements of this
Specification.
In the event that circumstances prevent compliance with this
Specification, Asset Managers shall seek the advice and if necessary, a
step-out approval from the Document Authority. This approval requires
recording subject areas, which do not conform as a non-compliance (refer
to the Non Compliance Report Form CP 122 HSE Management System
Manual, Part 2 Chapter 6).
Corporate Functional Discipline Heads
Corporate Functional Discipline Heads are responsible for ensuring that
the requirements of this Specification are reflected in the documents for
which they are responsible.
Contract Holders
Contract Holders are responsible for communicating this Specification to
Contractors, and for ensuring that the requirements of this Specification
are adhered to within the scope of their contracts.
In the event that circumstances prevent compliance with this
Specification, Contract Holders shall seek the advice and if necessary, a
step-out approval from the Document Authority. This approval requires
recording subject areas, which do not conform as a non-compliance (refer
to the Non Compliance Report Form CP 122 HSE Management System
Manual, Part 2 Chapter 6).

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Contractors
Contractors are responsible for ensuring that activities undertaken within
the scope of their contracts are managed in accordance with the
requirements of this Specification and reported, where applicable to the
Contract Holder.
1.6

Performance Monitoring
Compliance with this Specification shall be monitored through workplace
supervision, and periodic site inspection.

1.7

Review and Improvement


Any user of this document who encounters a mistake or confusing entry is
requested to immediately notify CSM using the User Feedback Form
provided in CP 122 HSE Management System Manual, Part 2 Chapter 3.
This Specification shall be reviewed every 4 years. However changes to
the current version may be made in less than four years as the need
arises depending upon the issue of new and relevant environmental
legislation and/or major organisational changes in PDO.

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2.0Performance Requirements
2.1

Legal Requirements
Legal requirements for industrial safety in Oman are established in
Chapter 7 of Sultans Decree No. 34 1973 Oman Labour Law. Legal
requirements stipulate:

Every employer must advise workers about workplace hazards, and


the preventive measures to be employed.
Every employer must take the necessary precautions to protect
workers from injury to their health and safety by making sure that:
Adequate safety and hygienic conditions prevail in all places of work
Machinery, pieces of equipment and tackle are installed and
maintained in the safest possible way
Places of work are clean and comply with conditions of health and
comfort
A worker must:
Not carry out an action which is forbidden by workplace instructions
and is bad practice or causes damage.
Not shortcut the means provided for protection of the workers health
and safety, or the health and safety of fellow workers.
Use protective methods and undertake to regard them with care, and
carry out instructions laid down for the workers protection and the
prevention of injury.

Inspectors appointed by the Ministry have the power to examine the


worker-related records of an establishment and to enter places of work.
Inspectors also have the authority to question whoever they wish and to
publish reports on the results of their investigations. On the basis of the
reports produced by the inspectors, the Ministry will issue a written
warning to an employer who infringes the regulations, stating the nature
of the offence and the time limit set for it to be discontinued.
If there is danger to the health or safety of workers, and the employer
refrains from carrying out the instructions of the Ministry, the Ministry
may order the premises to be closed down partially or completely, or to
stop one or more pieces of equipment working.
Any employer contravening the health and safety regulations stipulated
above is liable to a fine not exceeding OR 5 for every worker employed.
The punishment will be doubled if the offence is repeated. Any employer
who refuses entry to inspectors, or provides false statements to
inspectors is liable to a fine not exceeding OR 100 or one month
imprisonment. The penalty will double if the offence is repeated.

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2.2
2.2.1

Work on High Structures


Personnel
Personnel shall be adequately trained and experienced in their work,
specifically as applied to operating above ground level. Supervisors,
adequate in number, training and experience shall be provided for the
control of work.
Personal Protective Equipment
All persons working above ground level shall be provided with and shall
use personal protective equipment, in accordance with the requirements
of SP 1234 Personal Protective Equipment.

2.2.2

Means of Access
The means of access to high structures such as scaffolding, hydraulically
lifted baskets or suspended baskets, shall be of sound construction,
suitable for the purpose and shall be approved by PDO prior to use.
Where the means of access is of a mobile or portable type, it shall not be
moved either mechanically or manually, whilst personnel are upon it,
unless it is specifically designed and approved for the carriage of persons.
Where the means of access is of a mobile or portable type, any loose
articles e.g. tools, equipment, scaffold boards, etc. shall be removed or
securely lashed down, prior to the means of access being moved.
Where personnel must transfer from the means of access the high
structure, or vice versa, the arrangements at the point of transfer shall be
such that personnel are not at risk.
The means of access shall adequately provide for safe means of egress,
for all personnel, from the high structure.

2.2.3

The High Structure


The integrity of the high structure shall be such that the required
operations can be performed safely. This includes:

2.2.4

the loading of the structure e.g. men, equipment and materials


the environmental conditions
the forces imposed upon it by any means of access which is connected
to it
the forces imposed upon it by any lifting or winching operations in
which the high structure serves as an anchor point, counterweight or
tie point.

Pre-Work Checks
Before work commences, the supervisor in charge of the work shall
ensure:

SP 1257

that all necessary permits have been obtained.


that any necessary electrical, mechanical and process isolations have
been positively carried out.
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2.2.5

that all static, moving, lifting and anchoring equipment integral to the
means of access and high structure, including those associated with
the work task, are correctly fitted in a sound condition and fit for the
intended purpose.
that all personnel have been provided with the required personal
protection.
that all personnel have been briefed in, and understand, the safety
aspects of the job.
Communications drills between members of the work team have been
adequately rehearsed and all communications equipment is
functioning.
that suitable emergency transport is permanently available for use on
site.

Work Practices
In order to minimise exposure to risk, the minimum practical number of
personnel shall be assigned to the job.
All operations above ground level (including scaffold erection and
dismantling) shall be carried out in such a way that non-involved
personnel in the vicinity of the work are not at risk.
Personnel shall not be permitted to climb whilst carrying tools or heavy
loads, the only exception being tools carried in a waist belt designed
specifically for the purpose. Where necessary, tools shall be hauled up
and lowered in a suitable container.
Electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic tools shall not be hauled up or
lowered by their power lines.
Where practical, personnel shall not be assigned to work directly below
the overhead work positions or other persons. Where this is unavoidable,
suitable precautions shall be taken. Safety nets shall be installed.
All personnel shall be attached to the structure using a suitable harness
when not moving about the structure (ref SP 1234 Personal Protective
Equipment).
Tools, equipment etc. shall be kept in such a location that they do not
represent a tripping hazard and cannot fall or be knocked from the
structure.
Where no catchment means are located below the workplace, safety lines
shall be attached to tools and similar equipment.
During the possibility of a thunderstorm, no work shall be executed at a
height where a person can be exposed to lightning.
All overhead work shall cease when wind speed reaches 40 km/h. The
only exception being such work which is intended to render the high
structure or its means of access safe.
Any overhead work which must be carried out during the hours of
darkness, shall be subject to written authorisation from the Company Site
Representative. Such authorisation shall include the required standard of

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illumination. Erection and / or dismantling of scaffolding during the hours


of darkness is only permitted in cases of extreme urgency and when no
other practicable alternative can be identified.
When overhead work is required on wet structures or their means of
access, those facilities shall be inspected by the job supervisor and
Company Site Representative prior to starting the work.
Where such facilities become wet during the operation, work may
continue only in order to make the structures safe. Work shall then cease
until inspection by the job supervisor and Company Site Representative
confirms that it is safe to continue.
Upon completion of the day's work, all ropes and tackles shall be securely
tied back to a permanent structure. The means of access shall be blocked
off and any crane jibs shall be tied down to their resting brackets.
Where there is a risk to third parties, high visibility warning tape, notice
boards and warning lights shall be sited.
2.3
2.3.1

Scaffolding
General
Adequate scaffolding and ladders shall be erected to provide safe access
to all parts of any works situated 1.5 metres or more above ground level.
Personnel, other than the Scaffold Inspectors, Scaffolders and Labourers
involved, shall only be permitted upon scaffolding and staging that has
been inspected and clearly labelled "ready for use" (refer section 2.3.4 of
this Specification).
No part of any operational line or pressurised piping shall be used as a
support, or tie point for scaffolds or staging.
All scaffolding and staging equipment shall be of a proprietary
manufacture and shall meet the requirements of this Specification.
The mixing of scaffold or staging types in any one structure (e.g.,
steel/aluminium couplers, wooden boards/metal grid boards) shall not be
permitted.
Access or general purpose scaffolding, or any part thereof, shall not be
used as a support for any part of process plant.

2.3.2

Personnel
In addition to the general requirements for working at heights, the
following requirements apply to scaffolding work.
Training and Experience
All personnel employed for the purpose of erecting, modifying or
dismantling scaffolding will meet the requirements of Table 1.
The erection of proprietary system scaffold by unqualified personnel shall
be an exception to the above requirement.

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All personnel who supervise activities that include the use of scaffolding
and access platforms, including all HSE Advisers, shall complete LXE 044
Scaffolding Appreciation training course.
Personnel who meet the requirements of a Scaffold Inspector in Table 1
(below) do not need to complete this course. Successful completion of
this course does not, however, qualify personnel as Scaffold Inspectors for
erection or dismantling.

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Table 1: Training and Experience Requirements


Job
Categor
y

Qualifications

Experience

Scaffold
Inspector

After qualification, 3 years


working as an Advanced
Scaffolder, the third year of
which must be spent working
with an inspector. Must hold
certificate of demonstrated
competence in scaffold
inspection, as specified by
current employer.
Minimum 12 months on-site
experience as a Basic
Scaffolder

Advanced
Scaffolde
r

Basic
Scaffolde
r

Trainee
Scaffolde
r

CITB Advanced
Scaffolder, or
NVQ level 3 "Accessing"

CITB Advance Scaffolder,


or
NVQ Level 3 "Accessing"

CITB Basic Scaffolder Part Minimum 12 months planned


on-site experience as a
2, or
Trainee Scaffolder.
NVQ level 2 "Accessing"
CITB Basic Scaffolder Part
1, or
NVQ level 1 "Accessing,
continuing towards CITB
Basic Scaffolder part 2, or
NVQ Level 2 Accessing
Undertaken with an
approved accredited
training institute.

Minimum 6 months
continuous experience on
site working alongside Basic
Scaffolder.

Notes:
All scaffolding personnel in Table 1 shall complete a PDO HSE
Induction Course.
Scaffolding personnel not holding (CITB) Construction Industry Training
Board or (NVQ) National Vocational Qualification Levels 1, 2, or 3, may
provide evidence of work experience, accompanied by theory based
qualifications such as diplomas, degrees, trade certificates, etc. and
seek PDOs approval for compliance with Table 1.
Personal Protective Equipment
All persons involved in the erection and dismantling of scaffolding and
staging shall be provided with and shall use personal protective
equipment, in accordance with the requirements of SP 1234 Personal
Protective Equipment.
2.3.3

Means of Access
The means of access to, and means of egress from, all scaffolding and
staging shall be via ladder/s or staircases. Ascending and descending any
tower by using the horizontal members shall not be permitted.

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2.3.4

Activity Controls
Design and Approval
The access and working scaffolds listed in Table 2 (below), with their
construction criteria, shall be designed accordance with BS 1139 Metal
Scaffolding. In all cases wind force, soil preparation and slope conditions
are design criteria and subject to specific design types.
Table 2: Loads and Dimensions for Scaffold Tube and Fittings
Type of
Scaffold

Use of

Scaffold
loading
per m2

Maximum
number of
working
platforms

Maximum
spacing
between
Standards

Typical
load
examples
per bay

Very light
duty
independen
t
Light duty
independen
t

Inspection
access and
painting

75 kg

1 working
platform

2.7 m

1 man and
tools. No
materials

Power
cleaning,
painting,
light
engineering

150 kg

2 working
platforms

2.4 m

2 men and
tools. No
materials

General
purpose
independen
t

Light
engineerin
g, e.g.
welding or
electrical

200 kg

2 working
platforms
and 1 at
very light
duty

2.1 m

2 men and
175 kg of
materials

Heavy
engineering
, e.g. large
pipework or
structural
Special purpose

250 kg

2 working
2.0 m
2 men and
platforms
250 kg of
and 1 at
materials
very light
duty
To be stated on design drawings

Scaffold

Heavy duty
independen
t

All scaffolds outside the format of Table 2, shall be designed to BS 5973


Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds and Special Scaffold
Structures in Steel by a competent engineer. The engineer shall prove
the design by applying engineering principles. In addition to the design
sketch and calculations, the engineer shall provide a written
erection/dismantling procedure.
In all cases, the following scaffold types are subject to specific design:

SP 1257

access scaffolds above 50m in height


hanging or slung scaffolds
external free standing scaffolds
scaffolds required to withstand anticipated wind force to safeguard
personnel and equipment
false work and support scaffolds dependant on soil / slope conditions
extra heavy duty scaffolds in excess of the heavy duty specification in
Table 2
loading platform for loads exceeding 2.5 kN/m2
lifting access scaffolds

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public access scaffolds


temporary roofs
offshore overside scaffolds.

Note: Hanging or slung scaffolds for onshore application do not normally


provide the facility of conducting a lightning strike to earth and during the
design of such scaffolds, consideration shall be given to suitable earthing
arrangements (reference BS 6651).
Various scaffolding systems are commercially available. However only
PDO approved systems, equipment and material is to be utilised. No
combination of different systems can be made unless approved in writing
by PDO.
Erection
Prior to erection, any necessary work permits shall be obtained (ref PR
1172 Permit To Work System Procedure Manual). The operational and
geographical parameters specified in the permit shall be fully complied
with.
2.3.5

Pre Work Checks


Prior to installation
Prior to installation commencing a Scaffold Inspector shall inspect:

the ground area upon which the scaffold is to be positioned.


all equipment which shall form any part of the scaffold staging, means
of access, work platform and lifting facilities.

If the inspection proves satisfactory, approval shall be given for


scaffolding installation. Such approval shall be recorded in the site
scaffold/staging inspection log book (refer to Section 1.4 of this
Specification).
Prior to work each day
For scaffolds outside the format of Table 2, after erection, and before work
commences upon the scaffold, the engineer shall inspect and approve the
scaffold and shall record this inspection in the site scaffold/staging
inspection log book (refer to Section 1.4 of this Specification).
Prior to work each day, a Scaffold Inspector shall inspect all scaffolding,
staging and peripheral equipment.
Where any scaffold or staging is altered or adjusted in any way, it shall be
inspected by the Scaffold Inspector prior to work upon it re-commencing.
Subsequent to rain or heavy wind, a Scaffolding Inspector shall inspect all
scaffolding and staging prior to work re-commencing.
Labelling
A weather-proof plasticised or equivalent label (e.g., SCAFFTAG) shall be
placed at each access point and at the boundary of each scaffold section
to clearly indicate if the scaffold is ready for use or not to be used.
The label shall state:
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Date erected, with name and initials of Scaffolder


Date inspected, with name and initials of Scaffold Inspector
Date modified, with name and initials of Scaffolder
Date re-inspected, with name and initials of Scaffold Inspector
(maximum 7 day intervals)
Expiry date of label
Dismantling date
Other Signage
Other signs to be placed at all access points to the scaffold indicate:
Incomplete Scaffold Do Not Use with a cross marked in the
centre. The letters shall be white on a red background and the sign
shall be 400mm long by 300mm wide. Where access in by ladder,
the lower section of the ladder shall be either removed or barricaded
in such a way that the ladder cannot be ascended.

Scaffold OK to Use with a tick marked in the centre. The letters


shall be white on a green background and the sign shall be 400mm
long by 300mm wide

Modifications
Where any scaffold or staging is altered or adjusted in any way it shall be
inspected and approved by the Scaffold Inspector prior to work upon it recommencing.
If unauthorised modifications are observed, they shall be reported to the
supervisor and a NOT TO BE USED warning shall be displayed.
2.3.6

General Access Scaffolds


Base
Bases shall be adequate for the load imposed at each standard and for
the weight of the whole scaffold. On hard surfaces, such as steel or good
concrete, standards may be placed directly on the surface. On other
surfaces (including soft surfaces and gratings) the load shall be spread by
placing the standards on sole plates and base plates. The earth beneath
shall be firm and level. Sole plates should preferably support at least two
standards.
Standards
Standards shall be vertical or slightly inclined towards the host structure
and shall be spaced to provide adequate support.
Type of Scaffold
Heavy duty scaffold
General purpose
Light duty/access

Spacing
1.8 m
2.1 m
2.4 m

Maximum Load
3.0 kN/m2
2.0 kN/m2
1.5 kN/m2

The joints of standards shall be staggered, so that all vertical joints do not
occur in the same bay.

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Ledgers
Ledgers shall be fixed horizontally inside of the standards. They shall be
fixed with load bearing right-angled couplers. The joints of ledgers shall
be staggered so that they do not occur in the same bay.
Transoms
Transoms shall be fixed to ledgers or standards with right-angled couplers
or putlog clips. The maximum spacing for transoms shall be related to
board thickness as follows:
Board Thickness
32 mm
40 mm
51 mm
63 mm

Transom Spacing
0.9m
1.5m
2.5m
3.2m

Ledger Bracing
Ledger bracing shall be provided between alternate pairs of standards.
These shall start at base level and continue through the full height of the
scaffold. They shall be coupled to the ledgers, close to the node point,
using 90 degree couplers.
Facade Bracing
Facade bracing shall be provided to preserve longitudinal stability, unless
such stability is provided by another means. Facade bracing shall start at
base plate level and continue to the top lift, it may zig-zag from bottom to
top, or can be a continuous sloping tube. It shall be tied at every lift to
extend transoms, with right-angled couplers or to the standards with
swivel couplers.
Guard rails
Guard rails shall be provided where the working platform is above 1.5m.
They shall also be provided, at any height, where the scaffold is over
water or where the person may fall onto dangerous surfaces, a fragile
roof, machinery, etc.
Guard rails shall be:
between 1.0 and 1.2 m above the platform level
rigid other than on tank/vessel staging, where they may be steel rope.
Persons not moving around the staging shall be attached to the structure
using a suitable harness (ref SP 1234 Personal Protective Equipment).
Work Platforms
Platforms shall be at least 600mm wide and may be made from various
materials such as platform boards, scaffold boards or staging. Full details
for various types of use are listed in the table below.

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Function

Minimum Width

Working platform only (no deposit


of material)
Passage of materials

600mm

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HSE SPECIFICATION

Setting Clear Requirements

Deposit of materials (a
passageway of 430 mm must be
maintained)

800mm

Note: Notwithstanding the above, the platforms shall be fully boarded


between hand railings.
Toe Boards
Toe boards shall be provided around all open sides of work platforms,
gangways or runs. They shall normally be placed inside the standards,
securely fixed and shall extend at least 150 mm above the platform. The
gap between the toe board and the guard rail shall not exceed 750 mm.
On certain small tank/vessel stagings, toe boards may be impractical. In
this case, written authorisation for exclusion may be requested from the
PDO Company Representative.
Ties
Every scaffold, with the exception of tower scaffolds below 10 metres,
shall be provided with ties fixing the scaffolding to fixed structures. These
shall be fitted at a minimum ratio of one tie for every 40 m sq. of scaffold
area and shall be evenly distributed throughout the scaffold.
Ties shall comply with the requirements of BS 5973 Code of Practice for
Access and Working Scaffolds and Special Scaffold Structures in Steel
and types may be mixed where this enhances the integrity of the scaffold.
Fans, Catchment Platforms
Where it may be necessary to protect passing personnel or
plant/equipment located below a scaffold, fans or catchment platforms, of
adequate strength and dimension, shall be provided at optimum positions.
Tube End Caps
Tube end caps are mandatory for all tubes on erected scaffolds where
personnel may come into contact with tube ends and risk injury.
Boards
Boards shall be securely fastened and supported to meet the
requirements listed in the table listed below.
Loose laid plywood sheets are not permitted for use as scaffold boards,
staging, or platform boards.

SP 1257

Nominal
Thickness of
Board (mm)

Maximum
Span
Between
Supports (m)

Minimum
Overhang

Maximum
Overhang

38
50
63

1.5
2.6
3.25

50
50
50

150
200
250

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2.3.7

Scaffold Material Standards


In all cases access equipment, whether tube and fittings, proprietary
systems or special equipment shall be suitable in all respects for its
intended application. For the majority of applications this will entail the
use of steel tube, fittings and boards in accordance with Table 3 (over).
However, the use of proprietary systems manufactured from steel or
aluminium or the use of special equipment shall be acceptable where the
access is required for a short period only, or is required to be easily
moveable and there is a firm footing.
Aluminium alloy shall not be used in the construction of any type of
scaffold in Zone 0 or Zone 1 hazardous areas.
Table 3: Scaffold Material Standards

2.3.8

Material

Standard

Additional Requirements

Steel tube

BS 1139
Parts 1 and 2

Fittings

BS 1139
Parts 1 and 2

Boards

BS 2482

Only galvanised tube to be used.


Tubes to be regularly inspected and
cleaned. All tubes to be checked
before use for corrosion and
general condition. Defective tubes
to be discarded. Butt welded tubes
may be used on condition that the
welding has been carried out to an
approved procedure
All fittings to be examined before
use for damage and wear.
Damaged or worn fittings to be
discarded. No heat to be applied to
fittings. Moving parts to be
lubricated.
Where any hot work is to be carried
out, boards shall be protected with
a non-combustible covering which
shall be laid and tied in such a way
that it shall not constitute a tripping
hazard.

Tower Scaffolds
Where tower scaffolds are used, in addition to all preceding requirements,
the following shall be provided:

The work platform shall be within the base dimension.


The minimum base to height ratio shall be:
- 1:4 (internal)
- 1:3.5 (external)
Where ballast is required, it shall be properly positioned and securely
lashed.

Simple tower scaffolds of the prefabricated or system type may be


erected, and altered by persons not qualified as Scaffolders. However,
any tower structure more extensive than a simple 4-legged layout, or a

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tower constructed from tube and fittings shall only be erected by qualified
Scaffolders and shall be subject to the requirements below.
Prefabricated and system towers shall be assembled to manufacturers
specifications and the manufacturer's maximum permitted loads shall be
taken into account when selecting the type to be used. For towers
constructed from tube and fittings, the maximum loading shall be
75kg/m2.
The tower foundation shall be capable of sustaining the total load at all
times so that a stable condition is maintained. Towers shall not be
erected directly on recently made up ground or on lightweight manhole
covers and timber spanning excavations. The legs of static towers shall
always rest on metal base plates or castors and the load spread by timber
soleplates at least 225mm wide by 40mm deep and long enough to
ensure no undue ground settlement.
All towers, regardless of the type of component used, shall be adequately
braced.
Mobile Tower Scaffolds
Mobile scaffolds shall only be used on solid, level surfaces. All necessary
precautions shall be taken when moving the scaffold. No person shall ride
on any part of the scaffold.
Castors/wheels shall be of 125 to 175 mm diameter and shall have
effective locking devices. Wheels shall be locked facing outwards when
the scaffold is not being moved. Foot ties shall be as near to the
castor/wheels as is practical.
The access ladder shall be clear of the ground and shall be an integral
part of the scaffold or shall be of proprietary manufacture, and hooked to
the scaffold in such away that it can not move during usage.
The minimum base to height ratio shall be:
1:3.5 (internal)
1:3 (external)
2.3.9

System Scaffolds
System scaffolds are proprietary systems fabricated from steel or
aluminium alloy and comprise a complete set of unique components
capable of assembly into a scaffold structure without the use of any other
equipment.
Using such systems, structures under 2.0 m in height and not exceeding
18m3 in volume may be erected by unqualified personnel, under the
guidance of qualified Scaffolders.
In the case of wireline operations access, structures may be erected and
inspected by Advanced Scaffolders with at least one year experience in
that category.
Personnel erecting system scaffold shall be able to read and fully
understand the manufacturers instructions and shall follow these

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instructions at all times. If instructions are not available, work shall not
proceed unless under the supervision of a qualified person.
When using system scaffold, instructions shall be obtained from the
system manufacturer when:

deviations outside the normal system parameters are required


sheeting or fans are added
other changes are made which will affect the structural loading on the
system.

When manufacturers instructions are not available, deviations shall be


the subject of specific designs.
2.3.10 Power Operated Mobile Work Platforms
Personnel
Training of WP operators shall be carried out at an approved Training
Institute and followed by a R.O.P Heavy Equipment test.
Design
All power operated mobile work platforms (WPs) shall be approved by
PDO.
The following information shall be conspicuously displayed on the
platform of a WP:

the safe working load and the maximum number of persons allowed
on the platform.
the maximum gradient on which the WP may operate.

Inclinometers, spirit levels or other suitable devices with scales, bands or


other markings shall be provided so that the operator can easily see the
tilt of the machine and whether it is within specified limits.
The floor of the platform shall be slip-resistant and designed to prevent
the accumulation of water.
Safety devices shall be fitted to prevent the unwarranted movement of
any part of the WP.
A safe means of access and egress to the platform when at ground level
shall be provided.
Use
Special precautions shall be taken when WPs are used in the vicinity of
live electrical conductors (refer to SP 1242 Activities in the Vicinity of
Overhead Power Lines).
Maintenance, Inspection and Testing
Before being put into service for the first time or following any major
repair or alteration, a WP shall be tested over its range of duties with a
proof load at least 1.5 times the safe working load by a specialist
servicing company under the auspices of PDO. A certificate of test and

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thorough examination giving details of the results of the safe working load
and range of duties of the WP shall be issued.
Only qualified and authorised persons shall carry out adjustments and
repairs to WPs.
At the beginning of each work period, the operator shall check:

pneumatic tyres are inflated to the correct pressure and tyres are free
from cuts and damage
the operation of the brakes
the operation of any lights, which include safety warning
lights/audibles
lubricant, coolant and fuel levels
the integrity of the supporting structure
for leaks in hydraulic/pneumatic systems
correct functioning of powered mechanisms, e.g. raising, slewing, etc.
correct functioning of communications systems between platform and
ground.
At weekly intervals (or every 50 operational hours/manufacturers
recommended intervals) an authorised maintenance person shall carry
out:

all checks made at the beginning of each work period and a full
operational check of the appliance
a check of the condition of the chassis, support structure, platform and
powered mechanisms.

At six monthly intervals (or 1000 operational hours/manufacturers


recommended interval) a thorough examination shall be carried out by an
authorised person. This type of examination shall also be carried out after
an accident, major repair or modification. A certificate shall be issued by
the authorised person stating that the WP is in safe condition.
2.3.11 Ladders
Ladders shall be of proprietary manufacture and shall be constructed from
timber or aluminium. Timber ladders shall not be painted.
Ladders shall be positioned at 15 degrees off vertical and shall be
adequately secured, with a minimum vertical protrusion of 1 metre at the
upper step-off point.
Where a height greater than 9 metres has to be climbed, a series of
ladders with intermediate platforms properly protected with guard rails
and toe boards, shall be provided.
Aluminium ladders shall not be used in Zone 0 or Zone 1 hazardous areas.
2.3.12 Dismantling
No persons other than trained, experienced scaffolders (refer to Table 1 of
this Specification) shall be involved in dismantling scaffolding and staging.

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No items shall be thrown to the ground. It is preferable to lower all items


by line, but lowering by hand is permissible if sufficient scaffolders are
available.
Relative to the reducing height of the scaffold/staging, boards shall be
transferred down lift by lift to form adequate work platforms for the
scaffolders involved in dismantling.

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2.4
2.4.1

Work Over Water


General Requirements
Structures and walkways over water shall be of suitable construction for
their intended use and, where applicable, shall follow the requirements of
this Specification.
Vehicle access shall be controlled and the weight limit clearly displayed at
the entrance to all such structures.
Handrails shall be fitted and life buoys, with a minimum 27m of buoyant
rope, shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 5m wherever people are
regularly required to work over water.
Effective means of communication (radio or telephone) shall be readily
available.

2.4.2

Working Outside Handrails


For construction and maintenance operations which have to be done
outside handrails, or if handrails have to be removed, additional
precautions shall be taken including the most practical of the following:

a 'buddy' system shall be operated and each person required to wear


a life jacket
safety nets fitted, such that persons cannot fall more than 2 m
Safety belts and line worn and attached such that personnel cannot
fall into the water.
a rescue boat, with a minimum crew of 2 men, stationed in the
immediate work area and carrying rescue hooks or hoops.

The action to be taken if a person falls in the water shall be agreed before
the work starts and all personnel are to be made familiar with it.
At least one person in the working group shall be trained in resuscitation.

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2.5

Lifting Operations

2.5.1

General
Lifting operations shall comply with the requirements of:

PR 1508 Procedure for Lifting Operations

SP 1239 Specification for Lifting Equipment and Lifting Operations

SP 1251 Training Requirements for Lifting Operations Personnel.

The Contractor's HSE Plan shall contain a method statement for critical
lifting operations with drawings showing reach load and crane capacity.
The following shall be considered in determining whether a lifting
operation is critical:

Weight of load (Load exceeding 50% of capacity of crane at the


required reach shall be considered critical).
Size of load
Load bearing capacity of ground
Facilities within the reach of the crane boom

Lifting equipment such as cranes, winches, chain blocks, hoists and


forklifts shall comply with SP 1239 Specification for Lifting Equipment and
Lifting Operations and PDOs SP 2000 Road Transport Manual.
The lifting operator shall be responsible for following approved lifting
plans, and shall discontinue the operation if any parameter deviates from
the lifting plan conditions.
All operators of lifting plant shall:

complete a PDO Vehicle Mounted Crane Operators course (ref SP


1157 Specification for HSE Training), or
hold a Level 2 NVQ in Lifting Plant Operations (Construction) awarded
by the Association of Industrial Truck Trainers (AITT) or the
Construction Industry Training Board (CITB), or
have equivalent training and experience approved by PDO.

Operators of other types of lifting equipment shall be trained to the


satisfaction of PDO.
All cranes shall be correctly supported and all outriggers and other lifting
aids shall be deployed before lifting commences. Cranes and other side
booms shall be positioned so that they lift vertically and are not used to
pull loads sideways.
Mobile lifting equipment shall not be operated when the top of the jib or
fly-jib can reach within 3m of live overhead power cables. Other special
precautions shall be taken when mobile lifting equipment is used in the
vicinity of live electrical conductors (refer to SP 1242 Activities in the
Vicinity of Overhead Power Lines).

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All lifting operations shall be controlled by a trained banks man.


During lifting operations, no person shall be positioned beneath the load,
hoist or jib. Similarly, loads shall not be slewed over the heads of
personnel.
2.5.2

Gin Blocks
Gin blocks shall be used to lift materials only when the load to be lifted
does not exceed 50kg. Gin blocks shall never be used for personnel
transfer.
A gin block shall be mounted on a cantilever tube projecting outwards
from the scaffold at a distance not exceeding 750mm. This supporting
tube shall be attached to two standards.

2.6

Earthworks

2.6.1

General
Earthworks shall comply with the requirements of:
SP 1143 Specifications for Earthmoving and Construction Equipment
ERD-17 01 "Civil and Building Construction Specifications" Section (C)
"Excavation and Earthworks"
BS 6031 " Code of Practice for Earthworks'
In addition, the following requirements shall apply when performing
earthworks:

Position warning signs informing that earthworks are in progress. Such


signs shall be:
- in Arabic/English
- pictorial
- positioned to the satisfaction of the Company
Representative.
Ensure that all operators of plant are aware of hazards such as pits
and slopes which may cause the plant to overturn and that these
hazards are adequately marked with drums, stakes and/or bunting.
Ensure that all plant is operated in a safe manner by suitably qualified
and experienced supervisors. The suitability of operators and
supervisors shall be demonstrated to the to the satisfaction of PDO.
Under no circumstances shall any person drive any plant or equipment
unless they have in their immediate possession a current Royal Oman
Police licence for driving plant.

Environmental requirements associated with earthworks are defined in SP


1012 Land Management.
2.6.2

SP 1257

Excavation Permit
An excavation permit shall be obtained prior to the commencement of any
excavation on, or in close proximity to, any camp, industrial area,
residential area, designated road, or access road, temporary or otherwise,
serving any facility previously mentioned. Specific requirements
regarding excavation permits are described in the following documents:

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PR 1002 "Operations Excavation Procedure for excavation where


existing lines or services may be encountered.
PR 1172 Permit to Work System Procedure Manual for excavation in
the proximity of any oil, gas or other facilities
SP 1104 Electrical Safety Rules for excavation at, or in the proximity
of, any electrical facility (including gathering, transformer, feeder or
testing facilities), sub-surface or overhead electrical transmission
systems (including overhead line rights of way).
Before any excavation or ground levelling is commenced, the Company
Representative shall be consulted as to whether an excavation permit is
required.
2.6.3

Excavation and Trenching


Prior to Excavation Commencing
Prior to any excavation commencing, the supervisor in charge of the work
shall ensure that all required equipment is on site before authorising the
work to begin. The excavation shall be carried out in strict accordance
with the conditions stated on the permit. If any marker, pipe, cable or
foundation not identified on the excavation permit is uncovered, work
shall stop immediately and a report shall be made to the person issuing
the permit.
Inspections
All excavations shall be inspected daily, before work starts, by a person
suitably qualified and approved by PDO. Such inspections shall include all
parts of the excavation, including of shoring, supports and access.
Where the permit requires the excavation to be gas tested before work
starts, the above mentioned inspection shall not be carried out until the
excavation is proven to be gas free.
All excavations shall be inspected subsequent to any rain, and subsequent
to the ingress of water from other sources. Where the water entering the
excavation appears to be ground water, work shall cease immediately
until the excavation has again been cleared as being gas free.
Work Practices
When hand digging is specified, personnel shall be informed that picks
and shovels can damage cables and GRE and steel pipelines.
Work requiring the digging of trenches shall be programmed so that
trenches are left open for no longer than is essential.
All trenches, slopes or pits, in excess of 1.2m in depth, into which
personnel may be required to enter, shall be suitably shored to prevent
cave-ins or sliding materials. The use of a trench cage or trench box may
also be permitted. In all cases the protection shall be designed by an
engineer qualified for such work and endorsed by the responsible
supervisor for the work.
As an alternative, all sides of the excavation, trench or pit in excess of
1.2m in depth may be sloped back to a safe angle of repose to prevent

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earth slides. This can vary in dry conditions from vertical in rock, to 1:1
for sand. In such cases, the angle of repose shall be determined by an
engineer qualified for such work and endorsed by the supervisor for the
work
In the event that an Excavation Permit is required, the design of the cavein protection shall be attached to the permit.
Excavated earth shall not be stored close to the trench edges. Where
practical, a one metre wide strip on both sides of the trench shall be
levelled and cleared of loose items/materials. This strip may be used to
store materials required in the excavation for a short period, provided
such materials are stored in a safe manner. If there is a possibility that
materials may fall into the excavation or may initiate an earth slide, then
they shall not be placed on this strip.
Personnel shall not work or move close to the edges of excavations.
Temporary crossings for personnel shall be provided over any trench.
Such crossings shall be at least 600 mm wide, of adequate strength and
shall have a handrail on at least one side.
All pits, trenches and excavations (excepting main oil/gas pipelines during
construction stage) shall be roped off and suitable warning notices shall
be provided. Where any excavation is to remain open during the hours of
darkness, warning lights, in sufficient numbers, shall be strategically
positioned. All pits, trenches, and excavations associated with the
construction of main underground pipelines shall conform to the
requirements of PCS01"Pipeline Construction Specification ".
Where any plant (i.e. power shovel, digger, rock breaker, etc.) is working
around, or in an excavation, no person shall be permitted to work in the
excavations within 5m of the machine, or within 3m of the maximum
reach of the machine. Where personnel are required to hand trim
excavations within 5m of the machine, it shall be stopped from operating
until the hand trimming is complete.
All equipment exhaust gases shall be directed away from the excavation
to avoid accumulation of toxic gases in the excavation. For excavations or
pits where natural oxygen supply might be hampered, tests shall be made
to check oxygen levels and air supply blowers may have to be installed.
2.6.4

Specifications and Backfilling


The following backfilling specifications shall be precisely followed:

Particulate size and depth of bed, overburden and compaction density.


The backfilling of an excavation can affect the integrity of the service
lines/cable within the excavation or trench.
Cable tiles and markers
Separation in common service trenches, whether physical separating
or separation by distance

Where tipper trucks are used to dump fill in or close to trenches, a banks
man shall be available to stop reversing vehicles from getting too close to
the excavation.

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2.6.5

Restoration
Excess spoil, not backfilled into the excavation, shall be removed from
site, unless a windrow is specified.
The supervisor in charge of the work shall ensure that the backfilled and
compacted excavation matches the level of the surrounding earth, and
shall sign to this effect in the Excavation Register (refer to Section 1.4.1 of
this Specification).

2.6.6

Identification of Services
Mark existing drawings to show where new services have been laid in an
area, or where redundant services have been removed from an area.

2.6.7

Roadworks
Work carried out on, across, or within 2.5 m of a road shall comply with
the requirements ERD-17-08 Guide to Safe Road Works. In addition, the
following shall apply:
Inform the Company Representative and the Royal Oman Police Force of
the location and estimated duration of the work, at least 72 hours
before the work starts.
If practicable ,construct a by-pass road away from the works as agreed
with the Company Representative.
Provide warning signs as detailed in the Ministry of Communications
Highway Design Standards, or where necessary, other signs as
requested by the Company Representative.
Provide flag-men to warn and control traffic. Flag-men shall be
competent persons aware of their responsibilities.
Provide fluorescent type vests for all personnel involved in the work
and ensure that they are worn at all times.
During hours of darkness, provide operational flashing lamps, amber
in colour, situated in such a manner as to clearly indicate the hazard
to road users.
Ensure the cleanliness of the road immediately adjacent to the area of
work and that no hazard to road users exists.
Where graders are in use, drivers shall maintain a gap of at least 50m
between machines. The leading machine on the team shall drive on the
right hand side of the road.
Where Contractors operations cause damage to the roads on, or leading
to, a worksite which is in excess of the regular wear and tear covered by
PDOs normal road maintenance programme, the Contractor shall repair
the damage. On completion of the work, road(s) shall be left in a safe and
satisfactory condition.
Measures shall be taken to prevent debris from falling onto the roads and
to continuously remove any such debris that does fall onto the road
during the work.
Environmental requirements associated with roadworks are defined in SP
1012 Land Management.

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2.6.8

Rock Breaking
Hydraulically operated hammers are recommended for all rock-breaking
activities. The alternative of blasting using explosives shall only be
applied in those cases where a clear financial advantage is present (e.g.,
long buried pipelines) and subject to prior approval from PDO. In such a
case the following shall apply :
Royal Oman Police "General Rules for Blasting"
All personnel involved in the blasting site activities shall be approved by
PDO
The Contractor shall submit a safety plan including but not limited to the
following topics:
- receipt of explosives and detonators,
- transport and storage
- site preparation
- demarcation of safe areas
- protective equipment
- warning signs
- detonation
- misfiring procedures
- emergency contingency procedures.
The Contractor shall have the Safety Plan for blasting verified and signed
by an independent consultant specialised in blasting operations.

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