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Prof. dr Đurđica Takači 1, Prof.dr Dragoslav Herceg, 1, Radivoje Stojković2 department of Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad 2 High school „Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj“, Novi Sad

INTRODUCTION In our schools, in Serbia, in the final year of high school (the fourth grade) the students learn derivatives and its applications on examining the graphs of functions. The students have problems to overcome the difficulties with the trigonometry, especially in applying trigonometric identities and therefore the examining composite function (with trigonometric functions), as the application of derivative, are almost absent in the student's exercises. It is known that in these days the computer plays an important role in mathematical education, and its role is enlarging each day. A lot of papers and authors consider computers in the classroom. In this paper we investigate the use of computers in mathematical learning, in particular in examining the trigonometric functions. This year, the authors, i. e., the teachers, had classes in the computer laboratory, and they succeeded to analyze a few trigonometric functions with use of the computer, besides the rational functions. The teacher had a computer and video beam and the students had computer, as well. Let us mention that the students were familiar with three programme packages: Mathemat-lca, Scientific Workplace, and Geogebra. During the lecture the teacher used Scientific Workplace number 3, as well as the students, because these programme packages are quite suitable for teaching and learning. Working and handling in this programm on computer is very easy to accept, it looks like writing on the blackboard and therefore the main students' and teachers' concentration is on the given example. The teacher together with the students examined the graphs of the following functions: f (x) = cos x +

1.

1 1 cos 2x, f (x) = sin x + sin 2x, 2 2

f (x) = cos3 x-sin3 x, f (x) = sin x sin 3x. First, the analytical expression of the functions was written, then its graph was drawn, and after that the functions were examined. The classical procedure, (each point as domain, zeroes, the sign, the extremes, the monotonicity, the properties involved by the second derivative) was helped by the computer and all advantages of such examining were marked and discussed. The students were satisfied with help of computer and they claimed that this lecture helped them in better understanding the whole procedure. But during such analysis we were faced with new difficulties caused by programme which we used and we were pointed out and removed it. At end of the lesson the students were given a few similar functions to do at home. They could use computer, but they could also apply the classical procedure. The idea for mentioned considerations came from papers [5], and [6]. In papers [2], and [3], the programme package Scientific Workplace was used as a help for teaching continuity and limits, respectively. In [4], the results of the test on continuity was analyzed. The aim of the test in [4], was to check the students knowledge of continuity after the visual presentation exposed [3] THE QUESTIONNAIRE In the paper [7] it was presented the help of programme package Scientific Workplace for drawing the graphs of the trigonometric functions. In this paper we analyze the students' separate work on computer. The students were in the computer laboratory, and only one student could use one computer at a time. We had 22 students and they had to examine and draw two trigonometric functions 1. f (x) = cos x + 1.

1 sin 2x; 2

2. f (x) = sin4x-4sinx. These two functions can be found in some calculus books (see [1]), but without computer it is very difficult to examine and to draw them, especially the second one. The students were told that they can use computer. After obtaining their tasks five students backed out with the following explanations:

• The first reason was trigonometry, in particular the identities. They claimed that they did not like trigonometry, and therefore they had forgotten trigonometry identities. • The second reason was computer. Even they are talented mathematical students they do not like to work with computer. The rest of the students, seventeen of them, were very satisfied with the fact that they can deal with such problems difficult for them. So, we had seventeen students, who worked on these problems with computer. They used programme package Scientific Workplace 3, but they were also familiar with the Mathematica, and even eleven of them used both programme packages to check some results. In this paper we used the programme package Scientific Workplace 5.5, (the students could not use it) but the obtained student's results are shown. 2. THE FUNCTION F (X) = COS X +

1 SIN 2X 2 1 sin 2x 2

1. All students first drew the graph of the function f (x) = cos x +

Figure 1.

Figure 2. The graph on Figure 1, was drawn by default. In order to examine the period five students (29%) drew the graph on the interval [-7, 7], 'as on Figure 2. One student considered the interval [-10, 10] and two students [-20, 20].

It is interesting that only ten students (59%) wrote that the main period is 2 π . Five of those students gave the proper classical explanation: The function f1{x) = cosx has the main period 2 π , which is bigger the π , the period for the function f2 (x) = sin2x. 2. It is interesting to mention that one student, Milan, consider the function f as the sum of the functions f1 (x) = cos x, and f3 (x) =

1 sin 2x. 2

3. Using the computer they obtain the following: f (x) = 0, Solution is: {x =

1 1 π } , {x = − π } 2 2

Three students (17%) rewrote as the computer did, fourteen (82 %) took care of the period and wrote that the zeroes were x=

π

2

+ kπ , or x1 =

π

2

+ 2kπ , x2 = -

π

2

+ 2kπ ,

Five students made the following transformation f (x) = cosx +

1 sin2x = cos x+ cos x sin x = cos x (l + sin x), 2

and gave the classical explanation for obtained zeroes. 4. The function was not even or odd. Only two students checked it in a classical way explaining that the function/was a sum of odd and even function, but the others, twelve of them, made conclusion from the graph. 5. The first derivative, obtained by computer is f’ (x) =-sin x + 2 cos2 x- 1. Using the computer all students got the following f'{x) = 0, Solution is: {x = −

1 1 5 π } , {x = π } , {x = π } 2 6 6

Only three students (18%) considered classically the following transformation f (x) = -sin x +cos2x =-sinx + cos2x -sin2x = -2sin2x – sin x + l, and solving equation 2 sin2 x + sin x-1 = 0 (taking t = sins), they check the results obtained by computer, taking care about the period. The same three students (as in determining zeroes) plus one did not consider the period. Five students use the programme package to determine the possible extremes: cosx +

1 sin 2x Candidate (s) for extrem: 2

3 ⎧ 3 3, 3 ⎨− 4 ⎩ 4

} at

{

1 1 5 {x = − π } , {x = π } , {x = π } 2 6 6

}

π 5π

6 , 6

], and increases on the

Ten students (59%) had the discussion about monotonicity looking at the graph. They wrote that the function f decreases on the interval [ interval [

5π 9π ] and nobody took care about the period. The computer could not solve the equation: , 6 6

f' (x) > 0, No solution found. Only two of those ten students draw the graph of the first derivative f' (with solid line), together with the graph of f, (with the dashes), as on Figure 3. Let us mentioned that the students were shown by the teacher

Figure 3.

Figure 4. One of those two students even draw the figure 4, the function signum (f/ (x)) is drawn with the solid line. 6. All students determined the second derivative by computer f“ (x) =-cos x-2 sin 2x, and its zeroes: f“ (x) = 0, Solution is: {x = {x = arctan

1 1 π }, { x =-arctan 15 15 2

},

1 15 15

}- π }

1 1 π ,-arctan 15 and 15 2

Five students (29%) determines numerically arctan

1 15 - π , and they got 15

**1 π = 1.5708, 2 1 -arctan 15 = -. 252 68, 15 1 arctan 15 - π = -2.8889. 15
**

Two of those students wrote also: -. 252 68 + π = 2.8889, arctan 1 15 =. 25268.

15

Looking at the graph of f, all students remarked that the function f has a saddle point for x =

**3 π , but the computer did missed this point. Seven students (41%) considered equation 2
**

-cosx-2sin2x = 0, Solution is: ⎧ x = 1 π } , ⎧ x = − 1 π }, ⎨ ⎨ 2 2 ⎩ ⎩ {x =-arctan 1 15 }, {x = arctan 1 15 - π }, 15 15 wherefrom they got the proper answer. Only six students (35%) determined the extremes from the second derivatives as follows: f“ (

π

6

)=-

3 3 5π 3π )= ) =0 3 , and f“ ( 3 , f“ ( 2 2 6 6

and they made the exact conclusion that function/has maximum for x =

π

6

, and minimum for

x = 5π , taking care about the periods. The rest (65%) determined the extremes from the graph and the 6 zeroes of the first derivatives. Three students (18%) wrote that the function f, with its first and second derivatives are equal zero for x = -

**1 π +2 kπ , k e Z, and one student checked 2
**

2

f“’ ( 3π ) =3 Two students draw Figures 5, and 6, the same as Figures 3, and 4. The function is drawn with the dashes and the second derivative with the solid line on Figure 5, but on the Figure 6 the function signum (f“ (x)) is drawn with the solid line.

Figure 5.

Figure 6. 3. THE FUNCTION G (X) = SIN 4X-4 SIN X All students first drew the graph of the function g (x) = sin 4x-4 sin x 1. The students were satisfied with graph, all seventeen of them wrote that this was odd function. The same two students as in the first exercise checked it classically

Figure 7. 2. The main period is 2n. In this case only four students (24%) drew the graph on the interval [-7, 7]. The graph on Figure 7 was obtained by default. The other intervals were not considered. 3. The zeroes of the function g can not be determined classically without previous transformations. All students, by using computer, obtained: g (x) = 0 Solution is: {x = 0}, {x = π },

**1 2 1 {x = arctan (2 1 {x = arctan ( 2 1 {x = arctan (2
**

{x = arctan (

(4 + 2i , - 1 + 1 i ) }

2 2 (4 + 2i , - 1 + 1 i ) } 2 2 (4 − 2i , - 1 - 1 i ) } 2 2 (4 − 2i , - 1 - 1 i ) } 2 2

Ten students (59%) concluded that the function g had only zeroes for x = kπ . The rest of students just rewrote {x = 0}, {x =

π }, without period.

Let us remark that in this case students did not take other values into consideration, even though they appeared as the solution of equation g (x) = 0. They saw from the graph that the function had only two zeroes on the interval [0, 2 π ], and they recognized that all other computer's expressions had t, and represented complex numbers. Four students made the following transformations by using computer g (x) = 8 sin x cos3 x-4 sin x cos x-4 sin x = 4 (sinx) (cosx- 1) (2cos2x + 2cosx + 1), and explained that the last factor in the previous expressions had no real zeroes. 4. The first derivative, obtained by computer, can be written as g' (x) = 32cos4x-32cos2x + 4-4cosx (1) = 4 (cos x-1) (2 cos x + 1) (4 cos2 x + 2 cos x-1) All students wrote the first line in the previous expression, but four students (the same did it for zeroes) wrote the second line and gave the explanation as in previous case. Further on, by using the computer all students got g' (x) = 0, Solution is: {x = 0}, {x =

2 2 π }, {x = π } 3 5

{x = arccos (-

1 1 − 5 ) }. 4 4

Five students (the same as in the first case) use the programme package to determine the possible extremes: g (x) Candidate (s) for extreme: {0, -

5 2 5 + 5 ) }, at {{x = 0}, 4 1 1 2 2 {x =| π }, {x = π }, {x = arccos (- − 5 ) }}. 4 4 3 5

(

After these results fourteen students (82%) recognized the problem. Three students did not give any explanation, they just rewrote as the computer did, and they finished their job quickly. The computer gave four zeros of the first derivative and four possibilities of extremes. From the graph the students recognized that: • the function g does not have extreme at x = 0; • the function g has three minimums and three maximums on the interval [0, 2 π ]. Nine students spent a lot of time (about half an hour) trying to obtain the rest of zeroes by using both Mathematica and Scientific Workplace, and at the end they did not give explanation. Five students returned to the classical procedure and finished the job correctly. Namely they considered the formula (1) and determined the solutions of equation 4 cos2 x + 2 cos x - l = 0: ±arccos ⎛ 1 5 − 1 ⎜ 4 ⎝4

) = ± π , ±arccos ⎛ − 1 ⎜

2 5

⎝ 4

5−

1 4

4 ) =± π 5

(2)

but the Scientific Workplace 3, expressed only one value

2 . The programme package π 5

Mathematica also has the similar problems. They apply that the cosine function is even, and therefore they got the next three zeros of the first derivative

x=

4π , 3

5 5

x = 2π − 2 π = 8 π , x=2 π − arccos⎛ − 1 − 1 5 ) = 6 π ⎜ 5 ⎝ 4 4 Only four students (23%) took the period into consideration. Two students (the same as in first case) draw the first and the second derivative on the same Figures, but only one even draw the points to show the problems as on Figure 8, the graph of the first derivative of g is given by solid line and the graph of g is given by dashes. On the Figure 9, the graph of signum (g’ (x)) is given by solid line and the graph of g is given by dashes. Nobody told anything about monotonicity.

Figure 8.

Figure 9. In this case the computers are of great help, but the students have to be very careful with its use, especially in determining the zeroes of the first derivatives. 5. All students determined the second derivative by computer: g“ (x) =-128 sin x cos3 x + 64 sin x cos x + 4 sin x =-4 (sin x) (32 cos3 x-16 cos x-1) Seven students considered

g (0) = 0, g“ ( g“ (

2π ) = -6 3

3,

2π 4π ) =10.392, g“ ( 3 ) =19.021, 3

**2π ) = -19.021, g“ ( 4π ) =11.756, 5 5 4π ) = -11.756 g“ (2 π − 5
**

g“ (2 π −

and concluded that the function g had maximums for x = x = 2π −

2π 3

2π = 5.0265, x=2 π − 4π =3.7699 5 5

and minimums for x=

2π 5

3 5

x= 4π =4.1888 and x = 4π , on the interval [0, 2 π ]. The zeroes of the second derivative can be obtained from g“ (x) = -4 (sin x) (32 cos3 x-16 cos x-1), but the computer had difficulties to determine them, and therefore the students did not have to consider the saddle points. Five students even try to solve the equation 32x3-16x-1 = 0, but the also had problems. Three students drew the graph of the second derivative of g, but two of them drew on the same figure the graph of the function with different lines. On Figure 10, the graph of the second derivative of g is drawn with the solid line and the graph of g is given by dash.

Figure 10. Only three students pointed out that the x = k π were not extremes, but that they were saddle points.

THE CONCLUSION The obtained student's (17 students) results show that the students did excellent job. They got 90 minutes to finish their tasks and they almost did it. The most important conclusions are the following. All students examined both functions almost correctly. They connected the numerical results (obtained by computer) with the graphs, i. e., they used the numerical results to check the points on the graph and they used the graphs to check some numerical results. They improve the application of the first and second derivatives to the monotonicity, extremes, concavity, and saddle points. After the students had finished their tasks they made an interview about their opinion with this new method of examining functions. They were very satisfied and very proud because they made a good job. Milan said: „Really, I worked all the time and I shall get an excellent mark“. He was right. Mladen said: „I could not believe that it is so interesting“ Milana said: „After this test (which I made alone, using the computer for the first time) I understood everything about the functions and the graphs.“ We, the teachers were also very satisfied with their ability to use the computer, as the help for examining the function. 4.

5. REFERENCES 1. Schmeelk, J., Takaci, Dj., Takaci, A., Elementary Analysis through Examples and Exercises, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1995. 2. Takaci, Dj., Peslc, D., The Continuity of Functions in Mathematical Education- Visualization method, in Serbian, Nastava matematike (Teaching mathematics), 49, 3-4, Belgrade, 2004. 3. Takaci, Dj., Pesic, D., Tatar, J., An introduction to the Continuity of functions using Scientific Workplace, The Teaching of Mathematics, Vol. VI, 2, Belgrade, pp. 105-112, 2003. 4. Takaci, Dj., Pesic, D., Tatar, J., On the continuity of functions, accepted for International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. 5. Tall, D., The Transition to Advanced Mathematical Thinking: Functions, Limits, Infinity, and Proof, in Grouws D. A., Handbook of Reseach on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, Macmillan, New York, 495-511, 1991. 6. Tall, D., Resent Developements in the Use of Computer to Visualize and Symbolize Calculus Concepts, The Laboratory Approach to Teaching Calculus, M. A. A. Notes Vol. 20, 15-25, 1991. 7. Takaci, Dj., Herceg, D., Stojkovic, R“ Possibilities and limitations of Scientific Workplace in studying trigonometric functions Teaching of Mathematics, Vol. VI, 2, Belgrade, pp. 105-112, 2006.

Rad je objavljen u Zborniku radova 4. nedjunarodnog nau;nog skupa pod nazivom Tehnologija, Infornatika, Obrazovanje - Za društvo učenja i znanja, održanom 2007. godine
Rad je objavljen u Zborniku ...

Rad je objavljen u Zborniku radova 4. nedjunarodnog nau;nog skupa pod nazivom Tehnologija, Infornatika, Obrazovanje - Za društvo učenja i znanja, održanom 2007. godine

Rad je objavljen u Zborniku radova 4. Međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog 2007. godine pod nazivom Tehnologija, Informatika, Obrazovanje - Za društvo učenja i znanja

Rad je objavljen u Zborniku radova 4. Međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog 2007. godine pod nazivom Tehnologija, Informatika, Obrazovanje - Za društvo učenja i znanja

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