WEB QUEST I UČENJE PREKO REŠAVANJE PROBLEMA, ILI O JEDNOM SPOJU SAVREMENOG I TRADICIONALNOG Snežana Mirasčieva Pedagogical faculty
„Goce Delčev” Štip, The Republic of Macedonia INTRODUCTION OR SOMETHING ABOUT THE NEED FOR MERGING THE CONTEMPORARY AND THE TRADITIONAL The progressive and intensive development of the information and telecommunication technologies, as well as of the production technology is reflected in all the spheres of social life. At the same time, such development creates conditions for qualitative changes in the area of education. Thus the application of modern technical means in teaching redesigns and popularizes the process of teaching and learning. Hence we think that information and communication technology (ICT) will essentially contribute to raising the level and quality of the educational work. However, success in teaching, as a complex process, is determined by a number of factors such as: knowing the student (his/her abilities, capabilities and interests); teacher’s preparation; teaching aims; contents and organization of the teaching process, as well as teaching and learning strategies. In further text we will keep our attention especially on teaching and learning strategies. In order to understand our intention thoroughly, we will here give a short explanation of what we understand by the term teaching strategies. We determine teaching strategies as a unity of methods, means and procedures for teaching and learning which, combined in a different way, model the teaching process. But, at a particular moment of social development teaching as a complex activity found itself between two forces. On one hand, expansive scientific development led to rapid increase of scientific knowledge stock and need for its involvement in teaching. On the other hand, the strong influence of technical-technological development on teaching imposes the problem of innovation in the teaching process as a whole and with this, in teaching strategies as well. In such a situation, teaching questions mass activity of students, more qualitative learning and complete development in order to respond to the needs of the society aiming at greater efficacy. In this direction, teaching makes teaching forms more dynamic introducing new teaching methods and didactic means. However, it would be wrong to conclude that traditional teaching (meaning teaching without the application of ICT) makes the students passive through particular didactic models, that learning is less qualitative and that it does not provide the students’ development as a whole. For example, the problem model of teaching represents learning by means of solving problems. The structure of problem modeled teaching contains the following components: student’s preparation, i. e. creation of a problem situation, formulation of the problem and hypothesizing, process of problem solution, conclusion and evaluation. During the phase of problem solving, the student uses different sources of knowledge, makes experiments, observes, and explores what directed towards the problem solution. Independent solving of problems by students develops in them a creative attitude to learning, mobilizes their intellectual abilities, initiates flexibility and fluency in thinking, self-confidence, accuracy, consistency, cooperativeness, interest, activity, etc.  But the development of technique, technology and production imposes new technologies in education and teaching the implementation of which modernizes teaching. WHAT IS ICT AND WHY THE WEB QUEST STRATEGY Different approaches be found when trying to determine the concept of ICT. We have accepted the approach according to which ICT represents a unity of means, procedures and methods for information flow and exchange. This approach clearly contains the intentions to apply progressive techniques and procedures for independent acquisition of new knowledge, greater quality and persistence of gained knowledge. In this context WEB QUEST represents a teaching and learning strategy with the application of ICT. The structure of this strategy contains the following components: introduction, task process, resources and evaluation.  The introductory part plays an important role as it introduces students into the topic through questions and problems. It has a dual aim: motivating and cognitive. The introduction is useful if it orients students towards the task in an appropriate manner, and if it arouses their interest. The second component is the task. In this phase it is necessary to determine which task should be done by students and what is expected from them, i. e. to determine the cognitive level of the task. In the second phase marked as a process we determine and establish each step that must be taken in order to fulfill the task, i. e. the process is a step-by-step description of how students will accomplish the task. During this we need to establish the clarity and the phases, and we need to enrich the process activities, which is the basic characteristic of this phase. The component recourses are related to the relevant sources of knowledge-books and other off-line resources that can be and need to be used for task solving. Here we 2. 1.
should not exclude the importance of the quality and quantity of sources. Evaluation is realized based on clearly determined criteria. These criteria comprise qualitative and quantitative descriptors. Knowledge and skills for task solving are clearly measured with the instrument for evaluation. As it can be seen, WEB QUEST (WQ) learning strategy initiates independence, persistence, accuracy, critical thinking and creativeness in children. That is why this strategy is interesting and appealing. A MODEL-A MERGE OF THE CONTEMPORARY AND THE TRADITIONAL A problem modeling of teaching and WQ as a teaching strategy are an example of merging between the contemporary and the traditional. Namely, these two teaching strategies treat the student as an active subject in teaching; they develop independence, activate thinking, arouse cognitive abilities, and increase the quality of learning and knowledge. They contribute to the personality development of students directing them to persistence, consistence, accuracy, self-confidence, endurance; they develop interests and motivation for learning and creativity. Thus, teachings modeled as learning through problem solving and WQ strategy in teaching approach each other and are close in relation to some didactic aspects because they prefer independent, critical and creative thinking activity, and are an effective exercise for students’ logical thinking. Beside the aspects of didactic values, these two strategies also approach each other in relation to their structures. The components of their structures are close in their function and sequence. So, the students’ success in problem solving depends on students’ preparation (in problem teaching), i. e. appeal, interest and relevance of the introduction (in WQ strategy). Both the introduction and the preparation have a motivating and cognitive aim. There is also a close connection among other components of these two strategies. To confirm this, we will illustrate the last mentioned components. Practical checking of the results of the problem solving process is being done in the phase of concluding and evaluating. In the same manner in the WQ strategy, the evaluation of the acquired knowledge and skills is being done in the evaluation phase based on clearly established evaluation criteria that contain quantitative and qualitative descriptors. The connection between the problem model teaching and the WQ teaching strategy can also be studied from the aspect of incorporating respective elements of one strategy into the structure of the other one. For example, problem solving learning can be realized through WQ strategy. During the designing of the task, the task itself will be established in the form of the problem, beside the determination of the cognitive level of the task and its connecting to standards. The problem character of the task puts the students into the role of an explorer. Searching through the abundant treasury of eresources, the student explorer gathers knowledge and experience relevant to the particular taskproblem that lead to its solution. In the other hand, the process of problem solving, the gained solutions and conclusions can be presented with the help of ICT. This means that during problem solving the student can use a variety of sources of knowledge, and he/she can realize the whole procedure of solving by applying ICT. From all the above said, we can conclude that these are two congruent strategies. Connecting problem solving and WQ strategy in fact means interconnecting the traditional with the modern. These two models can be combined in different ways in order to create one model which will be dominated by the characteristics of the problem solving teaching, or another model dominated by the characteristics and procedures of the WQ strategy. But, whichever model is applied, it is essential to emphasize the fact that both strategies respectively are focused on student’s activity, perceptive and cognitive, and they lead to a more effective teaching, more qualitative learning and more permanent knowledge. WHAT CAN WE CONCLUDE? Teaching as a complex activity cannot stay consistent in the realization of its fundamental aimefficacy unless it provides a rapid flow and exchange of information. This will be realized by means of ICT application in the organization of the process of teaching and learning. ICT application in teaching should not be understood as the only way of modernization and the unique condition for qualitative learning. It does not mean a complete desertion of the traditional models of teaching and their replacement with ICT strategies for teaching and learning. Hence the duality of the traditional and the modern should not be understood in the spirit of the antagonism and rivalry, but in finding the connection between the two. The link connecting the traditional with the modern should comprise the fundamental aim of teaching-effective learning, qualitative knowledge, and student’s thorough development in the direction of creating a personality who will be able to cope with the challenges and needs of life and work in the XXI century. 4. 3.
5. REFERENCES 1. Ničković, R. (1979) Učenje putem rešavanja problema, Beograd: Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika, str: 80-96 2. www.webquest.org 3. www.reflectineducation.net/index.php/reflecting/article