iVlASTER

NYCW570 Ct>ei)

UNITED

STATES

ATOMIC

ENERGY

COMMISSION

NYO-1576(DEL.)

RADIOACTIVE DEBRIS FROM OPERATIONS BUSTER AND JANGLE O b s e r v a t i o n s Beyond 200 M i l e s from t h e T e s t S i t e

P r e s e n t e d by The S t a f f , Health and Safety D i v i s i o n M e r r i l Eisenbud, D i r e c t o r

J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1952

New Y»rk O p e r a t i o n s O f f i c e , AEC

Technical Information Service Extension, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

LEGAL

NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of Government sponsored work. Neither the United States, nor the Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission. A. Makes any warranty or representation, expressed or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in this report, or that the use of any Information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed In this report may not infringe privately owned rights; or B. Assumes any liabilities with respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report. As used in the above, "person acting on behalf of the Commission" Includes any employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of such contractor, to the extent that such employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of such contractor prepares, disseminates, or provides access to, any Information pursuant to his employment or contract with the Commission, or his employment with such contractor.

M

DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

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SUMMARY 6 INTRODUCTION 7 GENERAL DESIGN OF THE MONITORING PROGRAM 8 ORGANIZATION 10 METHODS OF FIELD OPERATION 12 Phase A - The Weather Bureau Network 12 Aenal Observations Along the 85th Meridian 16 Phase B - Mobile Monitoring 19 Operations on the 9^th Meridian 19 Aerial Observations on the 95th Meridian 20 Mobile h o rtonng for Operation JANGLE 20 METHODS OF LABORATORY STUDY 24 Sample Processing S>4 Counting Procedures 24 Calculations and Reports 2% Extrapolating 2S FINDINGS 31 Natural Radioactive Background «?' Fallout During the Pre-test Period 31 Observations from the Weather Bureau Network During Operations BUSTER and JANGLE 33 Mobile Monitoring for Operation BUSTER 4o Aerial Observation* Along the 95th Meridian (low level) 40 Aerial Observations Along the 85th Meridial (nigh level) 40 Mobile Monitoring During Operation JANGLE 4? -vtial JANGLE Det mation 4J Second JANGLF Detonation 47 Relationship of Findings to Criteria of Jangle Feasibility Committee 47 THE PROPERTIES OF FALLOUT SAMPLES h4 Particle Size 54 Radioactive Decay '4 Absorption Measurements 84 Radioautographs of Settled Dust %6 NOTES ON FIELD TECHNIQUES 89 Comparison of Tray and Gummed Paper Techniques 69 Variation between Duplicate Trays 69 Comparison of High Altitude Measurements /? Appendices A.* Daily maps giving data from the Weather Bureau network for the period October 7 through December IS, 1951 (Bound Separately) B„* Daily maps summarizing data obtained during high and low level aerial reconnaissance, and during mobile monitoring of Operation BUSTER (Bound Separately) C„ Equipment Provided for Weather Bureau Network (Phase A) 85 D„ Equipment Provided for Mobile Monitoring Teams (Phase B) 86 E„ Procedure for Collection of Precipitation and Dust Samples for Radioactive Fallout Studies 89 F„ Data and Summary Sheets used by Sampling Stations and Counting Laboratories 92 G. Air Samples from 95th Meridian Mobile Monitoring 94 H. Duplicate Tray Data 113 * Appendices A and B were given a limited distribution by the New York Operations Office, and is not included at this copy of NYO-1576 ^ A C * 5 ? ^ <* »•*j?/jf-»"3^fe^

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SUMMARY

A program for the monitoring of radioactive debris from Operations BUSTER and JANGLE has been cund\icted i n the area beyond 200 miles from the Test S i t e , A network of 50 s t a t i o n s located at Weather Bureau i n s t a l l a t i o n s collected daily samples of s e t t l e d and air-borne d u s t . This network was augmented by mobile teams operating immediately beneath the t r a j e c t o r i e s of t h e radioactive clouds and a e r i a l collections made along the 85th and 95th meridians. The program went into operation during the f i r s t week in October in order to permit the collection of background data for some weeks p r i o r to the i n i t i a l t e s t of the BUSTER s e r i e s . However<> two atomic explosions in a foreign country had occurred j u s t \ n o r to the s t a r t of t h i s program and background informst i o n was thus not obtained. Data collected by the Weather Buieau s t a t i o n s were reported d a i l y and cumulat i v e l y . For the c< mbmed BUSTER and JANGLE t e s t s , the highest a c t i v i t i e s o c curred along the East Coast, As was the case during RANGER and GREENHOUSEs the community in which the highest f a l l o u t occurred was Rochester, New York*, where the t o t a l fallout extrapolated to February 1, 1952 was approximately 12,000 d/m/'ft^ (equivalent to ICO m i l l i c u r i e s per square m i l e ) . The next highest communityj, Norfolk, Va,j, reported about 1/5 the Rochester value. The highest a c t i v i t i e s reported on a single day were those from the collections beginning on November 1 when Rochester reported 360,000 d/m/ft„2 from i t s open t r a y . On t h i s day, air samples collected by the fixed monitoring s t a t i o n s along the 85th meridian reported up to 570 d/m/M3, Mobile ground l e v e l and limited a e r i a l observations were conducted along the 95th meridian duriir Operator Buster, During Operation JANGLE, the mobile monitoring teams were deployed at approximately 0 = 16° in the annulus of 200-500 miles from the Test Site,, For both JANGLE detonationsj, t h e highest radioactive dust concentrations were reported from Elko, Nevada, The 2U hour average concentration a t Elko was 1A1*,G0Q d/m/d^ following the i n i t i a l detonation and 38,000 d/m/M-3following the second detonation,, The maximum values were 360,000 d/m/M^ and 180,000 d/m/hP0 The external radiation l e v e l s associated with the passage of the debris over Elko did not exceed 2 mr/hour„ Although these values are r e l a t i v e l y high in companion with other data from these and previous t e s t s , the average concentrations are very much lower than the permissible exposures established by the JANGLE F e a s i b i l i t y Committee,, P a r t i c l e size determinations by two independent methods revealed that subs t a n t i a l l y a l l the a c t i v i t y was contained within t h e range of r e s p i r a b l e p a r t i c l e sizes,,

INTRODUCTION

The planning of Operations BUSTER and JANGLE was accompanied by increased interest in the deposition of radioactive bomb debris at localities remote from the test site0 To some extent this was due to the experience of the photographic manufacturers during Operations RANGER and GREENHOUSE when it was observed that radioactive fallout was occurring in sufficient amounts to be significant to their highly radio-sensitive processes» Abandonment of plans for Operation WINDSTORM and the decision to conduct Operation JANGLE at the continental test site was likewise an important factor in stimulating interest in the matter of radioactive fallout. The New York Operations Office was requested' 'by the Division of Biology and Medicine* U,S„ Atomic Energy Commission, lftashingtonsD„C„ to coordinate a program of monitoring for radioactive fallout over the entire United States beyond 200 miles from the test site,, The monitoring program,, as described in this report, was designed for the following purposes? 1, To permit prompt and accurate replies to requests for information that might originate from public sources, (The Public Information Service, NYOO, was designated to represent the Commission in responding to queries from the public beyond 200 miles from the test site,) 2, To provide the National Association of Photographic Manufacturers with information requested by them for purposes of process control.

3, To provide a monitoring program appropriate to the special requirements of Operation JANGLE and to evaluate the data obtained in relationship to the criteria established by the Jangle Feasibility Committee. U„ To provide basic information concerning the manner in which the deposition of bomb debris is related to meteorologic variables, type of burst and properties of the radioactive cloud.

(1)

Memorandum October 8, 195l s J . C. Bugher to W. E, Kelley

04

GENERAL DESIGN OF THE MONITORING PROGRAM Less extensive studies conducted by the Health and Safety Division during R A N G E R C 2 ) and GREEMIOUSEU) made apparent the difficulties that would be involved m sampling over so vast a geographical area and in counting and evaluating the large number of samples that would be collected. Based on experiences obtained from the earlier studies, the monitoring program was designed in two components. Phase A was a network of rx>re than 50 collection stations located at Weather Bureau installations and operrted for 2 i hours each day i by Bureau personnel. This network provided daily information concerning the presence of radioactive dust in the comi.tunities where the stations v/ere located, M-^I S giving the consolidated data from these stations were prepared daily. In order to achieve a better understanding of the basic factors involved in the deposition of bomb debris, the ground level network of Phase A was coordinated with aerial reconnaissance of radioactive clouds crossing the 85th meridian. High level traverses of the cloud were made by specially equipped B-29s operated by the Air Weather Service out of Warner-Robins Air Force Base. For purposes of eventual correlation with the serial observations, ten Weather Bureau stations along the 85th meridian were equipped for ground level measurements. Analysis of the ground level data in its relationship" to the aerial observations will be undertaken by the Weather Bureau ?nd it is to be hoped that out of their analysis will come useful knowledge concerning the manner in which meteorological variables influence the rate at which bomb debris is deposited. Phase B was a pio^ram of data collection by mobile sampling teams operating as nearly as one could best judge beneath the trajectory of the radioactive cloud. During Operation BUSTERS the teams were deployed along the 95th meridian, but for Operation JANGLE Phase B monitor ing was confined to the anmilus from 200-500 miles from the test site. Whereas Phase A was designed to measure the general levels of actxvity that were deposited in various parts of the country. Phase B was intended to provide information about maximum deposition immediately beneath the cloud trajectory in communities -much, Deccuee of numerical limitations in the extent of the Phase A network, might not oe provided with fixed monitoring stations. Again, for purposes of a better understanding of the mechanics of failout, the ground level observations were coupled with aerial rt-'dies, (2) v '"Survey of Fallout of Radioactive iwrterial Following The Las Vegas, Nevada Test Explosions" issued by the Hetlth & Safety Division, NYOO, AEC, February ??, 1951. (3) ' " D u s t and P r e c i p i t a t i o n Saiaj l i n g Piogram, A p r i l t h r u June 1>51" Issued by Health & Safety D i v i s i o n , NYOO, AEC, u n d a t e d .

but only during Operation BUSTERS AT-U7 which had been made available by the Air Materiel Command primarily for the purpose of transporting the mobile ground observers to various s t a t i o n s along the 95th meridian, was u t i l i z e d for observations a l o f t . In " t h i s portion of the study, the t r a v e r s e s were made at r e l a t i v e l y low a l t i t u d e s (2000-5000 f t . ) over the portion of the 95th meridian straddled by the ground observers. The d e t a i l e d methods by which the monitoring operations were conducted w i l l be described in a subsequent portion of t h i s r e p o r t .

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ORGANIZATION OF THE MONITORING PROGRAM Needless to say, a study of this magnitude could not have been ac= complished without the close cooperation of several governmental agencies and AEC Laboratories which undertook responsibilities as follows s 1. Health and Safety Division, New York Operations Office a. Developed operating procedures for the overall monitoring program. b„ Developed and fabricated special equipment as required„ c. Procured and shipped equipment as listed in Appendices C and D„ d„ Provide.1 direction and staff for mobile monitoring operations.

e. Processed Rnd counted all air samples, settled dust samples from a portion of the Phase A network and all sariples collected in Phase B. f. Extrapolated and collated all data.

Uo S. Weather Bureau a, "Made availabJe facilities for the collection of -samples,

b.

Agreed to -mdcrtak*. rreteorolofic analysis of the data obtained.

Civil Aeronautics Administration
Cooperated in scheduling flights and in easing the use of certain CAA airports. Facilitated direction of the flights and communication with the aircraft in flight. Provided certain facilities over and above the call of courtesy, such as space and transportation. - in ~

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5.

Santa Fe Operations Office a. Permitted access to the facilities of the Test Site.

6. Division of Radiation Safety (RADSAF) of the Test director a. Facilitated coiirtesies within the Test Site, such as payment for automotive fuel and telephone service. 7. Cooperating Counting Laboratories a. The sample counting was undertaken by the following laboratories, in addition to the Health and Safety Divisions Hanford Works Argonne National Laboratory Brookhaven National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory University of Rochester, AEC Project University of California, AEC Project

11

METHODS OF FIELD OPERATION Phase A - The Weather Bureau Network Fifty Weather Bureau stations as listed in Table 1 were equipped in time to begin continuous sampling by the first week in October and remained in operation until December 15 when the program was terminated. Ten additional stations, also listed in Table 1,were activated for Operation JANGLE and likewise operated continuously until December 15. The equips raent used at the various stations in the Weather Bureau network is listed in Appendix C„ The principal items of equipment are illustrated in Figure 1 and are described below% 1. A fallout tray with an area of about 8.75 square feet, fabricated from sheet metal and supported on 12" legs. This tray was originally designed with a slope of about U" across a diagonal to permit precipitation to drain readily into a two quart Mason jar, A ln rim was turned around the k edges so that there would be a minimum of loss„ The only break in this rim was at the low corner where a small cutout permitted drainage. After the equipment had been fabricated, it was decided that the trays should be maintained wet in order to prevent settled material from being blown off. For this purpose, the legs supporting the tray were recut to permit the use of the tray in a level position. A small plug and modeling clay were included in the tray kit so that the cutout and seams could be adequately sealed0 It was thereby possible to place the tray on a level and maintain a small amount of water on the tray surface at all times„ At the end of the collecting period the block was removed from this corner and the tray surface squeegeed in the direction of the drain to obtain as much of the debris as possible. Trays were exposed for 2k hour periods. The water layer was then collected in a jar, the surface of the tray cleaned with additional water and the combined liquids filtered through a 3 W #1*0 Whatman disc. Where precipitation occurred, the collected water was processed in a similar manner. 2. A gummed paper with an area of about 1.1 ftr was set in a frame to collect settled dust. The papers were of KuraKleem label stock, grade 2, made by the Avery Adhesive 'Co, These were placed on a horizontal surface in the open for 2k hour periods. The papers were used both to produce radioautographs and for radiometric analyses,

3. Two Hi-Volume samplers,which are a standard filtering device employed by the Health & Safety Div. for sampling airborne particulates. The units are capable of filtering air at the rate of 20 cfm thru a kn #Ul Whatman disc. They were operated continuously with papers being changed every 2k hours. Instructions (Appendix E) for setting up the apparatus, changing samples and filtering the water from the fallout trays were sent to each station, - 12 -

Table 1 WEATHER BUREAU STATIONS DESIGNATED AS COLLECTION POINTS S t a t i o n No, Place Equipment Samples Counted a t s
HW HW UCLA
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n ii

1 2 3

k 5
6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 lt i 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

2k

3k 35

Seattle, Wash. Medford, Oregon Sacramento, Cal. Santa Maria, Cal. San Diego, Cal. Pendleton, Ore. Great Falls, Mont. Po catello, Idaho Salt Lake City, Utah Emery Park,(Tucson) Arizona Bismarck, N. Dak. Rapid City, S„ Dak. Colorado Springs,Colo. Norfolk, Neb. Topeka, Kans. Oklahoma City, Okla. Abilene, Texas Corpus Christi International Falls, Minn. St, Cloud, Minn. La Crosse, Wise. Peoria, 111. Memphis, Tenn. Texarkana, Ark. Del Rio, Tex. Sault Ste, Marie,Mich, Grand Rapids, Mich, Fort Wayne, Ind. Cincinnati, Ohio Lexington, Ky. Nashville, Tenn. Chattanooga, Tenn. Atlanta, Ga. Montgomery, Ala. New Orleans, La.

A C B C A B C A C B C B C C

H W H W H W H W UCLA H W H W UCLA H W H W ORNL UCLA UCLA ANL ANL ANL ANL ORNL ORNL UCLA ANL ANL UR UR UR ORNL ORNL ORNL ORNL ORNL

c c
A

c c
A B A C C A D D D D D D D D D C

Code A B C D 13 1 2 1 1 Tray Trays Tray and Gummed Paper Tray & Hi-Volume Sampler

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(Table 1 - c o n t ' d ) S t a t i o n No. Place Equipment* A B C D B B C C B A C A B C A A A A A A A A A A Samples Coun UR UR BNL BNL ORNL ORNL UR UR UR BNL BNL BNL BNL BNL BNL NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO NYOO

36 37 38 39 Uo

1*1

k2 k3 kk 15 * k6 17 * 18 * 1*9 50 51 52** 53** 51*** 55** 56** 57** 58** 59**
60** 61**

Cleveland, Ohio R o c h e s t e r , N.Y. E l k i n s , W. Va, Columbia, S„ Car. Tallahassee, Fla. Tampa, F l a . Caribou s Me, B u r l i n g t o n , Vt. Binghamton, N„Y. Hartford < Conn. , New Cumberland,Pa. Atlantic City, N.J. A n a c o s t i a , D.C. Norfolk, Va. R a l e i g h , N. Car. New York. N.Y.(NYU,AEC) B o i s e , Idaho Winneiroicca, Nev. Reno„ Nev. Milford, Utah Grand J u n c t i o n , Colo. Alamos a, Co l o 0 Wmslow, £ri'z. Albejuerque, N.iAex. IhoenLit, A r i c . Yuma j A r i ' . ,

c

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A B C D

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Tra> Trays Tra> ? n i Guirjnud Paper Tray and hi-Volume Sampler

For JANGLE enl}

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AEROTEC SAMPLER & HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER FALL-OUT TRAY

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FALL-OUT COLLECTION EQUIPMENT USED • IN GROUND SAMPLING OPERATIONS.

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The equipment was located at positions convenient to the Weather stations. Trays were placed on the ground outside the buildings or on flat roofs. Hi-Volume samplers were placed on pedestals on the ground with protective enclosures around them or in open windows in balloon sheds or otherwise infrequently used buildings. In most cases, samples were changed just after midnight when the duties of the man on this shift were fairly light. At this time, Hi-Volume filters were changed and the tray samples were collected and filtered. The entire operation could be completed in from ten minutes to a half hour, depending on the types of equipment at hand. Samples were mailed each day to the various AEC laboratories as indicated in Table 1. Aerial Observations Along the 85th Meridian The six members of the N.Y.O. observation group arrived at WarnerRobins Air Force Bass on October 26. The first survey flight following their arrival was dispatched on October 30. In the intervening period, their equipment which had been shipped in advance was arranged in several kits, convenient for carrying aboard the aircraft. Crew technicians modified certain electrical circuits and fabricated brackets on the aircraft to accommodate the apparatus.

f The orders specified the altitudes to be flown and the routes to be followed. Moat flighta ware directed north and south on the 81*th meridian. In generals one alti-* tuda was flown on the outgoing log of the round trip and another altitude differing by about 10,000' wa3 flown on the return. The B-2?s were provided by the Air Weather Service and were of a modified type, equipped with radioactive monitoring equipment. Thess are normally in continual use by the Air Weather Service. The equipment consisted ofs 1. Duplicate high capacity dust filters mounted above the fusilage aft of the wing. Each unit consisted of a one square foot filter paper mounted in a metal housing thru which air was forced by the forward motion of the aircraft. The rate of flow has been estimated to be 1000 c.f.m. The frame within the metal housing in which the paper was fastened was replaceable in flight thru an air lock. The filters were changed alternately at 15 minute intervals by a crew member stationed in the aft compartment. A data sheet was made out for each filter paper. Aircraft coordinates at beginning a < end of each sampling period, altitude, rd true air speed and temperature were entered on each sheet. This information was procured from the navigator. The paper was measured in flight by a special instrument described below. - 16 -

After each flight, the filters and data sheets were submitted to the Air Force radiological specialists. Filters were counted for one minute after a minimum waiting period of five hours from collection. 'One paper was returned to NYO for more detailed radiometric analysis, 2. An air conductivity instrument consisting of a vibrating reed electrometer measuring the current passing between two concentric metal cylinders thru which passed air drawn by a scoop on the outside of the aircraft. This instrument measures the concentration of ions in the air and thus is an indicator of radioactivity. It is sensitive, however, to changes in altitude, humidity and atmospheric dust, and therefore, requires careful interpretation. A Brown recorder was incorporated in the circuit so that a continuous record of instrument readings throughout the flight was available. The navigator operated this equipment, adjusting a scale switch when necessary and entering aircraft coordinates and pertinent weather data on the Brown chart periodically. A representative of the Health and Safety Division was located in the forward compartment next to the navigator. His duties consisted of maintaining a log of instrument readings and of operating the following apparatus a 1. A Cascade Impactcr mounted in the bomb bay and operated remotely by an electrical switch in the forward compartment. Since this device was inaccessible at altitudes above 8000', where the compartments were pressurised, one sample was collected on each flight. The impactor was operated briefly below 8000" to adjust the air flow and then turned off until tha cruising altitude was reached. The unit was then operated continuously until the altitude was to be altered. Air flow was set at 17.5 liters/minute as indicated on a Brooks Mite Rotameter. These Cascade Impactors were modified by adding a fifth stage consisting of a 1-1/8" diameter #1*1 Whatman disc in a brass and aluminum holder. Air was drawn thru the impactor by a motor driven, positive displacement, rotary pump. A. C. power was available from the aircraft generators. Slides and papers were removed from the impactors after landing and then packaged for mailing to New York. 2. An RCL GM Tube connected to a modified 2610A battery operated rate meter(Figure 2). This enabled the observer to make direct, approximate measurements of the filters as they were collected by the crew member. The GM Tube was mounted in a brass cylinder which protected - 17 -

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FIG. 2 RCL GM TUBE FiTtEO WITH SPECIALLY MODIFIED BATTERY OPERATED RATE METER.

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the tube and allowed fairly uniform measurements of successive filter papers, rolled up and slipped in between the tube and cylinder. These instruments were not calibrated for this type of service, but the relative activity collected on the filter papers could be immediately measured and relayed to Washington with a minimum of delay. These data proved an aid in vectoring the survey flights to follow. 3. A Halross Scintillometer, a portable battery operated instrument for the direct measurement of gamma activity. Readings were recorded every fifteen minutes corresponding to the collection of filter paper samples. The instrument was set near the observer's position but as far as possible from navigational instruments, whose radium dials created a high gamma background. The log maintained by the observer consisted of the following information entered at fifteen minute intervals throughout the flight; a) time, b) relative filter paper activity, c) conductivity, d) scintillometer reading, e) altitude, f) aircraft position, g) air speed and h) outside temperature. Phase B - Mobile Monitoring Operations on the 95th Meridian The mobile teams, consisting of two representatives from New York Operations and ten airmen, with sampling equipment, arrived at Tinker Air Force Base m a C-4*7 from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base on October 23. There, the airmen were instructed by the Health and Safety -personnel in the operation of equipment and the establishment of ground stations. From Tinker, the team was deployed to airfields approximately on the 95th meridian to conduct ground level sampling activities. In each case an effort was made to begin sampling in advance of the cloud arrival. Airfields were chosen as sampling sites because of speed in getting sampling under way after arrival m the C-4*7 and because Weather Bureau and Civil Aeronautics Administration personnel at civil fields and military personnel at military fields had been alerted to the program and in most cases were cooperative in providing facilities. The placement of equipment required a relatively flat, clear space for trays, gummed paper and air samplers, a nearby source of lOOv. A,C. and running water. The two Health and Safety members supervised the setting up of ground stations operated by the airmen, set up and operated their own stations, and operated sampling equipment in the C-l*7 during survey flights. The - 19 «;

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equipment was similar to thst provided the Weather Bureau stations, but in addition, instruments for particle size differentiation were made available. A course separation of airborne particulates into two fractions above and below approximately 5 microns.in diameterwas achieved by mounting an Aerotec in front of the Hi~Volume sampler. This unit is essentially a small Cyclone dust collector which at its rate of capacity of 1 5 c.f.m. is efficient in collecting of particles * larger than approximately 5 microns. The large diameter fraction separated by the Aerotec was analyzed separately from the small diameter fraction which was collected on the filter paper of the HiVolume air sampler. In addition to the Aerotec, Cascade Impactors were available and semi-quantitative estimates of filter paper activities could be made on the spot using a portable Berkeley Scaler made available for this purpose. Aerial Observations on the 95th Meridian When time permitted, the C-li7 was utilized for the collection of radioactive dust at altitudes of 2000-5000 feet. Hi-Volume air samplers were mounted in the cabin of the C—1*7 in such a manner as to sample the heating air emitted at the air duct vents. This air is drawn into the system through scoops mounted on the wings. Cascade Impactors and a Halross Scintillometer were also available. In general, the plane would traverse the 95th meridian between airfields at which the mobile ground observers were based. Mobile Monitoring for Operation JANGLE • • For each of the two JANGLE tests, temporary ground observation stations were established in the annulus from 200-500 miles from ground zero. A C-l*? was used for the transportation of personnel and equipment but aerial survey flights were discontinued. Seven members of the Health and Safety Division and five airman, operating in teams of two, set up six ground stations for the first test. For several days prior to the test, this group was based at Indian Springs Air Force Base, Nevada, awaiting orders to sampling locations. Immediately after the detonation, wind data were evaluated and sampling locations were selected by an Air Force meteorologist and a Health and Safety representative at the test site. Within an hour, the teams were airborne, with instructions to establish stations at Delta, Salt Lake City and Wendover, Utah, Elko, Nevada and Burley and Idaho Falls, Idaho. Equipment was set up and sampling started at each site iranediately upon arrival. Sampling continued for about 2l* hours. For the second JANGLE test, stations were each manned by one Health and Safety Division member. Since it was expected that south to southwest winds would prevail, perspnnel.were based at Ogden Air Force Base, Utah, prior to the test. A H&S representative at the Test Site telephoned instructions to the team at Ogden when the estimated trajectory' became available shortly after the detonation. The C~i*7 was - 20 -

.. 4

dispatched, leaving teams j t Ogden, Prove (Utah), Delta, Rock Springs » (Wyoming), Wendover (Utah) and Elko (Nevada). The locations of sampling stations are given in Figure 3. Sampling for the second JANGLE test continued for approximately 36 hours. Each ground observation station was equipped with the following apparatus? 1. 2. 3. I*. 5. 6. 7. One Hi-Volume sampler One Hi-Volume sampler w i t h an Aerotec d u s t s e p a r a t o r Two Cascade Impactors One f a l l o u t t r a y Two gummed p a p e r frames One beta-gamma survey meter (Nuclear I n s t r u m e n t s 2610A) One 2610A w i t h a s p e c i a l l y designed probe f o r measuring Hi-Volume a i r samples. 8. One Zeuto survey meter.

The first five items were utilized as previously described. Tray and gummed paper samples were collected for 21* hour periods. Cascade Impactors were operated simultaneously for 8 hour periods. The 2610A and Zeuto were used for the direct measurement of ground activity. The two instruments provided a wide range of sensitivity. The areas -iround the stations were scanned at frequent intervals with the meters held about 3" above the ground. Spots of high activity were measured by the less sensitive Zeuto. A special probe (Figure 1 ) was developed for the 2610A to measure * activity on filter papers. This device enabled the use of a method of sampling which reduced the total number of Hi-Volume samples collected by cutting down the frequency of collection during periods of low activity. This eased the task of the team membersyand more important saved laboratory time later on. Repeated readings were made of the sample on a single Hi-Volume filter paper collected over several hours until an increase in airborne activity was detected. At that time, a 20 minute sampling period would be established. Measurements were then made each 20 minutes as the samples were changed until the activity decreased to its original value. Continuous sampling on one filter was than resumed. When activity on filters exceeded the high range on the 261OA^, the Zeuto was used. An extrapolation determined in the field permitted reliable transition from one instrument to the other.

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FIG. 3 DISTRIBUTION OF MOBILE GROUMO STATIONS FOR JANGLE SERIES OF TESTS

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O

SPECIAL BETA GM PROBE FOR SCREENING OF FILi'ER PAPER SAMPLES IM FIELD-

METHODS OF LABORATORY STUDY In order to correlate the data from the cooperating laboratories, a fixed procedure for handling and counting of samples was used. This procedure was designed to be readily reproducible rather than to be the optimum procedure. The following description covers the methods actually used in the laboratories involved. Sample Processing All samples were ashed before counting. Whatman filter paper samples were ashed with the cellophane bag, while the gummed paper and air-dust filtir samples were ashed without the bag. The Whatman and air-dust filters were used as received. The gummed papers were sampled by cutting out l/U square foot from the center of the paper. The samples were transferred to a platinum dish, charred at a low temperature and ignited for one-half hour at 700°C in muffle furnace or over a burner. After cooling, the ash was brushed out into a plastic dish for counting. Counting Procedures A. Sample Dish; The containers supplied were 1^H diameter thin plastic dishes with 3/l6n retaining walls. It held the ash from all of the fallout samples normally encountered. Geiger Tubes A thin window (3.5 mg/cm^) halogen-filled GM tube, the Amperex 100N, was furnished by NYO. These tubes are very stable, and in an arrangement as described show a background of 10-12 counts per minute. Countings The tube was mounted on a standard lucite holder (such as AEC #AK-3A) in a vertical lead castle (such as AEC #AL-lUA). The dish was placed on a 3 mm thick aluminum shelf, spaced so that the top of the shelf was about 1.2 cm from the tube face. Scalers A standard scaler having a scale of 6k was used. No modification was necessary, other than the insertion of a 10 megohm resistor in series with the high voltage lead to the GM tube. To eliminate the need for plateau runs, a corona discharge regulator was inserted in the high voltage supply. A circuit diagram for this modification as well as the corona voltage regulator was supplied by NYO.

B.

^*

2U

,?j

E.

Standardizations The efficiency factor for converting net counts per minute into d/m was obtained by measuring the counting rate of an NBS standard of RaD and RaE plated on a palladium coated silver disc. The disc diameter is 308 cm and the active area has a diameter of 2 si; cm. A standard having a disintegration rate of 5000 to 50,000 was supplied to each laboratory. The factor of c/d was obtained by running the standard for 6it,000 total counts. The usual factor was about 0.08 c/d. Counter Backgrounds The background counting rate was measured before and after a day's ran of samples. With the arrangement described, more frequent tests were unnecessary, unless a spill occurred. Sample Countings In order to maintain a constant precision of counting over most of the range to be covered, the following procedure was used to set the minimum counting time. The maximum counting time for any sample was 30 minutes, as a practical limit, and this was scaled down to 1 minute according to the values in the table below. The data is given for counters having background counting rates of 10, 15 and 20 c/m. These values were calculated to give an error of £ 20 at the 90% confidence level.

F.

G.

Gross Counting Rate Required for Various Counting Times Minimum Counting Time 30 min. 10 c/m 15 or less Background 15 c/m 21 or less 23 30 35 60 95 or more 20 c/m 27 or less 30

20 10

5
2 1

17 22 30 50
85 or more

35 U5 65
100 or more

These values were meant to act as guides to minimum counting times, and not as rigid rules for counting. For the purposes of this works no sample was counted less than I 8 hours after the end of the collecting period. This 4 allowed time for at least partial decay of thoron daughter products. Before any atomic tests occurred, each laboratory was to have several days" samples to determine the background activity level at the collecting sites. The level of significant activity was arbitrarily set at five times this background level. (The background and sample activity levels are compared after subtraction of counter background). Of course

- 25 -

v

the fallout from other tests effectively nullified this system, and arbitrary levels had to be taken to judge significance. ^•' General; It was realized that the procedure described was crude, but refinement was impossible if a large number of srmjles -were to be handled economically. Therefore, it was important that the techniques were standardized. The factors of self-absorption by the ash and the variation in beta energies were ignored. All results, however, were corrected st NYO for radioactive decay cf the fission products. Analysis of decay curves showed that the effect of thoron daughters was negligible if the time between sampling rnd counting was greater than i 8 hours. i

Calculations and Reports The preliminary calculations followed the form recorded on the data sheets. Precipitation and settled dust samples were reported as d/m/ft' per 2U hours. Airborne dust samples were reported as d/m per cubic meter, using the average of the initial and final sampling rates. Summary sheets were provided for tabulating the data from each site. One sheet was used for each type of sample at a single site counted during a week. Samples of the data sheets and summary sheets used are included ss Appendix F. Extrapolating The individual values obtained at each collecting station for each day of the survey period were all extrapolated to the day of sampling This extrapolation allowed for the radioactive decay between sampling end counting and brought all samples to a common basis. The preferable method would be to measure the decay rate of eacn sample and extrapolate on the basis of the individual curve. This would be extremely laborious, and it was decided to accept an approximation for the rate of decay of mixed fission products and apply it to all samples. In addition, the calculation was simplified by tabulating the extrapolation factors for the possible combinations of days from burst to sampling and burst to counting. The rounding off to the nearest day does not introduce an error greater than the experimental counting error. The extrapolation factors aro given in Table 2.

26 -

• I

EXTRAPOLATION FACTOR

FROM COUNTING DATG TO SAMPLING DATE
Days-Bus t to Count
Days

- Burst to Sampling

The burst date corresponding to fallout at a given sampling station on a given day was selected by consideration of the unextrapolated results for the tray samples collected at each station. These results were tabulated by day and by station on daily maps. Significant increases in activity were marked on the map, and by consideration of results in different areas, the course of the fallout for a given burst was charted. Gummed paper and air-dust samples were used only for confirmation. The decay curves on samples were of little value in burst selection. They were used only to consider an unexpected rise of activity about the 11th and 12th of November. The extrapolated values were recorded on daily maps and the assumed burst noted for each sample. A second extrapolation was performed to determine the total activity that should exist at any sampling station on February 1, 1952. This calculation was simplified by working from the maps of the first extrapolated values. Thus, for any day, one factor would be needed for each burst represented on the map. The extrapolations to February 1 were tabulated by station and day and the total calculated activity plotted on a map for ease in visualizing the complete picture. The factors for this second extrapolation are recorded in Table 3. If it is d esired to determine the activity of a given station at any date after February 1, 1952, the totalized value for the station may be used, as the difference in blast date is negligible. The factors for such an extrapolation are given in Table J+.

- 28
',ri

TABLE

3
Z ~ l t

FACTORS FOR EXTRAPOLATION FROBII SAMPLING DATE TO FEBRUARY

D a y s -Burst Burst 10/88
0004
o

B u r s t li3/%!8 B u r s t 10/30

B u r s t 11/1
0
0

Burst

19 #

B u r s t 11/29

008

,004
0010

oooh
.010

004
010

003.4 s 026

.oa6
0022
0

,016
0022

026 0032 n 038 9045 0052 e858
0

029

00%

.O30 o 036
0

om6 .023 .o3a
e
0 0

Q006 00x3
0 0

.007 .016
* 026

021

050 059 070
089
a0 n1

oohro

0043 .o50
0

,044
0852

038

045 05.3

0049
0
0

0

% o , 048 .058 070
0

,085
o 320

. a
073 0082

0 %

e6 o6
0

059

006%

e080
Q

0

0073
e 080
0

088

ewe
ow9
el07 .1 f4
e
i~

.o&
0

G75

0092 * 30 12

.
0

e 078

.
9

0095 nop 134 *&'7 * 3.65 175
engo.

0

086 ow5
105

0122

0096

%W

on.g
3.22 01 % 0.40

el& 0 113 e l f8

0118
0

.a& 0135
enWc
0

&26 132
m

*$a
135 .a5
0

.123 136 147 03.59 174
0

8

e

182

o
0

, $62
0

15%

03.55 159 ,165 0175
e

170
178

.165 g73
0

150 .16o e 171 -el79
o

* 195

a208
*222

207 e23.7 0233
-248

e
e

e
0

182

188
f *

8233
6245

P265 ,278
0292

185

e

a*

199 e200
0212

0208
SZO

185

0208

0254 0269
014 23

03sbc ,520
Q340

Table U
FACTORS TOR EXTRAPOLATION OF DATA BEYOND " FEBRUARY 1 , 1952

Extrapolation Date March 1, 1952 April 1, 1952 1, 1952 June 1, 1952 July 1, 1952 Aug. 1, 1952

Factor* 0.70 0.53 0.1+1+ 0.36 0.31 0.21

To multiply t o t a l a c t i v i t y on February 1, 1952

30 -

FINDINGS Natural Radioactive Background It was hoped that the Weather Bureau stations could be activated sufficiently in advance of the first explosion to permit background measurements. The first complete sets of samples were collected by the end of the first week in October. Unfortunately, two atomic explosions in a foreign country had occurred just prior to the start of this program. Our intention to secure background information prior to the start of Operation BUSTER was thus defeated by the circumstances. It is, however, quite in order to point oi:t that consideration of the occurrence of naturally radioactive isotopes in airborne particulate material leads one to the conclusion that except for the possibility of absorbed radon and thoron daughter products, the radioactivity which could settle to a surface in a day would, by the counting procedure described previously, be reported as nil (less than one disintegration per minute per square foot per day). If due precautions are taken to prevent the counting of short-lived radon and thoron daughters, one may conclude that for the counting procedure used in this program, all positive indications of activities are artificial in origin. It is of some interest to inquire into the existence of residual radioactivity from previous tests at the start of Operation BUSTER. The only data available to the NYO Health and Safety Division are those collected as part of our study of Operation GREENHOUSE, at which time daily observations of fallout were made at ten locations in the eastern half of the United States. The cumulative residual at the conclusion of Operation GREENHOUSE were reported earlier by NY0V3)Q These data have now been extrapolated to February 1, 1952 and the data are listed in Table 5» Although the activities are relatively low in magnitude, it will be noted that they are a finite contribution of intermediate half life activity to the pre-existing radiation background. Later in this report it will be noted that the cumulative data from Operations BUSTER and JANGLE have s;Ltnilarly been extrapolated to February 1 for comparison with the fallout from earlier tests.

Fallout During the Pre-test Period Daily observations obtained from the Weather Bureau network are given in Appendix A. As noted earlier, it was to have been a period during which background measurements would be recorded, but the occurrence of atomic explosions in a foreign country conspired to vitiate this portion of the study. Positive indications of activity were reported from the very first of our collections. Beginning on October 7 and continuing until October 21 we find positive but low level indications of radioactivity. The values are low in comparison with the data to be reported when Operations BUSTER and JANGLE were in progress.

31

Table 5

CUMULATIVE RADIOACTIVITY OF DUST COLLECTED ON TRAYS DURING OPERATION GREENHOUSE

Location New York Washington Binghamton, N.Y. St. Louis,, Mo. Parlins N.J. Cleveland., Ohio Rochester, N.Y. (U.of Rochester) Rochester, N.Y. (Eastman) Boston^ Mass. Upton, N.Y.

'min/ft , extrapolated to Feb. 1, 1952

9.6
16

4.1
52
0.57

28 22 89 29 15

32

»» (

One sample of dust collected from the high volume sampler at Fort Wayne, Indiana, on October 11-12 was studied for decay characteristics. If the decay is assumed to be the usual fission product form, with a slope of -1.2, then the estimated date of the burst from which this sample originated would be September 2l+. The relatively low values continued throughout this period until October 21. The cumulative fallout from the observations during this period, extrapolated for purposes of subsequent comparison to February 1, 1952, are given in Figure 5» Observations from the Weather Bureau Network During Operations BUSTER-JANGLE The BUSTER-ABLE detonation occurred on October 22. During the 24 hour period ending on the 22nd there was a marked increase in radioactivity collected from the fallout tray at the Seattle Weather Bureau Station. On this day, with the second highest observed value being 200 d/m/ft2/24 hours, the Seattle Station reported 26,000. This was the first of a great many observations made during the several days subsequent to October 22 which gave indications of the second foreign explosion announced during this period. Tvrenty-three of these samples were studied for decay characteristics and, again assuming the usual expression for fission product decay, the estimated date of burst is October 18. These data are discussed more fully in a subsequent section of this report. The occurrence of radioactive debris from other than the Nevada Test site served to confuse our monitoring program from the start. It proved to be an additional complication in a study which from the outset was beset by innumerable difficulties. The daily maps giving all data reported from the Phase A Weather Bureau network are given in Appendix A. In coordinating the collection and counting of samples and in putting the data into useful form, the purpose for which this survey was undertaken has been largely served. There remains a requirement for extensive meteorological analysis of the information. It is to be hoped that when this is accomplished cooperatively by the U. S. Weather Bureau and the U. S„ Air Force, there will accrue a better understanding of the fundamental phenomena involved in fallout. However, of immediate interest, for the purpose of this report, are the highlights of these data which may be summarized as follows? 1. Figure 6 gives the cumulative fallout expressed in disintegrations per minute per square foot for the period October 22 through December 15; all data being extrapolated to February 1, 1952. It will be observed that the highest activities are along the east coast, and the highest report in the country is from Rochester where the contribution to Rochester from the test program will be 12,000 d/m/ft^ on February 1. Expressed in other units, this is approximately 100 millicuries per square mile at a time (February 1, 1952) when the activity

- 33 -

CUMULATIVE FALL-OUT ATTRIBUTABLE TO SECOND OF 1951 FOREIGN EXPLOSIONS EXTRAPOLATED TO FEB. I , 1952. 0 *
FALL-OUT MONITORING HEALTH AND SAFETY DIVISION HEW YORK OPERATIONS OFFICE U. S . ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

TRAY GUMMED MR PAPER

FILTER

'o I no\

IZOQ

ZOO

E>« ,

90\
,//QO

no
^2°
«o

&20

[Tool
\29$
So

e -~jf

^

920

'Jfl
1/70 \ ©/•*

»j?/r

eo

/-eo
\27

//OO o

JH
j/'fad'
580
3&*

t

,ESc « o AW

JO

I 90\

380.
/4-0

L7
'50 /3®

340'

»ZT

V&&,

oao
730
\S90\

fso Jo
0 \ I O/fi Z9C

ft 32$
4901
-»20 _o-8f

39°

| ZGO\s

\eeo
34°

=334oo

>o<2>\zZd\\
'7o.
lS»

o40
#

yfi

lHH]
Fig. 6 CUMULATIVE FALL-OUT FROM ALL BUSTER AND JANGLE TESTS EXTRAPOLATED TO FEBRUARY I , 1952. d/m/ftz/<£uj
FALL-OUT M M I TOD I He HEALTH ANO SAFETY DIVISION NED YORK OPERATIONS OFFICE U . S . ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

/SO/

170

TRAY 0 GUMMED AIR PAPER

at/m/meter3

*

FILTER

85°

/os°\

J

95"

will have a half life of "approximately three months. The community which is next highest is Norfolk, Virginia with 2200 d/m/ft2$ about one-fifth of the Rochester value. A large number of communities along the east coast report cumulative values of 1000 d/m/ft2. 2. The total activities, both from the Nevada test and from fallout of foreign origin, are given in Figure 7» In the area of maximum deposition, the eastern half of the United States, the foreign contribution is only slightly significant, but it will be observed that in northwestern U. S. the foreign contribution to the total is more prominent. The highest activities reported on a single day were those from the collections beginning on November 1. Rochester, N.Y.S reported 360,000 d/m/ft 2 /^ hrs. from its open tray. Washington, D. C. reported 260,000 d/m/ft2/2li hrs. from the gummed paper collector and Raleigh, N.C. 100,000 from its open tray. Of some interest are the relatively high air samples reported along the 85th meridian on the same day. Cincinnati reported 570 d/m/cubic meter and Lexington, Ky. 220 d/m/cubic meter. Because of their bulk Appendices A and B will not be distributed to all readers of this report. A copy of the map for November 1 is therefore included in the body of this report (Figure 8). lu Referring again to Figure 6, there is a band of higher fallout which is almost on a direct line from Los Angeles, Calif., through tho Great Lakes area up to the northwest corner of the United States. In this area, the lowest normal sample appears to be about 300 d/m/ft2. Except for a single sample of 750 d/m/ft2 obtained at Los Angeles during an unusual condition of wind, the samples obtained west of the Rockies are below 200 d/m/ft2„ Two samples, one at Topeka, Kansas and the other at Oklahoma City showed 720 d/m/ft2 and 1+50 d/m/ft2 , being the only other samples west of the 85th meridian to show more than liOO d/m/ft2. As the east coast is closer approached, however, the magnitude of the samples rises and several samples above 500 d/m/ft2 appear. In the area between Tallahassee, Fla. and Cleveland, Ohio, there are a number of points all showing relatively high radiation, with Cleveland being the maximum at 1380 d/m/ft2„ As we approach the coastal area, maximum readings have been obtained. Almost without exception, the samples which were obtained on the coastal plain ^rom Columbus, So. Car. north to Caribou, Maine, are 1000 d/m/ft2 or higher with the single maximum value at Rochester, N.Y. at 12,000 d/m/ft2.

3.

5.

Of considerable interest in visualizing the day to day variation in the mean radioactive yield of the fallout trays in the Weather Bureau network is Figure 9«

3<5

TRAY GUMMED PAPER AIR FILTER
*.N

Fig. 7

TOTAL FALL-OUT Oct. 7 TO Dec. 15, 1951 EXTRAPOLATED TO Feb. I , 1952
FALL-OUT MMITMIM

dlmlft'ld^ at/m/meter3

HEALTH AHD SAFETY D I V I S I O N DE» YOIK OPERATIONS OFFICE U . S. ATOMIC ENEROY COMMISSI OK

TRAY 0 GUMMED PAPER # AIR FILTER

10s
Fl gure 9 Average of all Tray Results Extrapolated to Midpoint of Samp!ing Day (Except prior to Blast "X")

10"

I0J

10'

10
Vertical Lines Indicate Dates of Successive Blasts Numbered Sequentially.

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

39

jr.

Mobile Monitoring for Operation BUSTER The locations at which mobile monitoring operations were undertaken during Operation BUSTER are shown on the maps of Appendix B„ The tray collections are reported on these maps for each 12 hour period as are the mean of the two hour serial air samples for the period. The tabulated compilation of two hour air samples each of the mobile stations is given in Appendix G in which all data have been extrapolated to the date of collection. Appendix G also gives the estimated percentage of the radioactive particulates that were less than 5 microns in diameter. It will be noted that although the data are erratic, the high and low values tend to group together. It will be recalled that the mobile ground operations along the 95th meridian were designed to obtain data during and after the clouds transit. These data were collected for two purposes, to provide information about radioactive deposition immediately beneath the cloud trajectory and to provide by means of two hour serial samples a picture of the manner in which the ground level fallout is related to cloud trajectory. It appears clear from examination of Appendices B and G and comparison of these data with Appendix A, that the data collected along the 95th meridian were lower in magnitude than would be expected, considering the levels of activity reported by the fixed stations. A complete understanding of these data must await meteorological analyses by the U. S. Weather Bureau. Aerial Observations Along the 95th ifcridian (low level) Table 6 gives the data collected aloft by the C-i+7 traversing the 95th meridian between coraiaunities at which mobile stations were located. As in the case of the ground level samples, the values are surprisingly low considering that these traverses were presumably made beneath the main cloud body. On the other hand, as noted elsewhere in this report, the data are suspect because of difficulties in obtaining representative air samples on the C—1+7 flights. The dust samples collected on these flights consisted almost entirely of material smaller than 5 microns. Aerial Observations Along the 85th Meridian (High level)

The data collected from B-29"s operating out of Warner-Robins Air Force Base are compiled on the maps of Appendix B. These data w i l l be analyzed by the U. S. Weather Bureau

- U O

TABLE 6 RADIOACTIVE DUST COLLECTED AT 2500 TO 5000 FEET ALTITUDE (95TH MERIDIAN) Beta Gamma A c t i v i t y i n d/mln/sP ( E x t r a p o l a t e d to Date of C o l l e c t i o n ) Mean Sampling Sampling High Volume Date Time Samplers 10-29 10-29 1900 1900 8„0

Flight Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma to Watertown B South Dakc t a

Cyclone Samples lass than 5 Micros® 100

15

16

9<>i

97

Watertown, South Dakota t o Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma to D a l l a s , Texas D a l l a s j, Texas t o Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma te Houston, Texas Omaha, Nebraska t o Oklahoma Ci1y, Oklahoma Houston, Texas to Omaha, Nebraska Corpus C h r i s t ! , Texas to Oklahoma. C i t y , Oklahoma Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma t o Corpm C h r i s t i , Texas Corpus C h r i s t i , Texas to Oklahoma. C i t y , Oklahoma San A n t o n i o , Texas to Brownsville, Texas

10-30

1600

11

0»6

50

10-31 10-31 10-31 10-31 10-31 10-31 11-1 ll-l ll-l ll~l

1100 1100 1300 1300 1300 1300 1000 1800 1800 2230

6-3
i+<»6 180 90

6,1

6,,1

100 100

160
0 0

91

99
100

id i+8 28 23
181

29 97
100

6o3

3o0

37 11-2

2l+Q

1900 1900 ii+00 11+00 1300 1100

6«3 13

8J+

9«1

62 72 200 90 99

11-2 11-2 11-3

12 8oi+ 7*0 16 i+50 52

8J+

11«4+

n+
k°3

28

11-8

0900

5*2

0o5

100

la

Mobile Monitoring During O p e r a t i o n JANGLE During O p e r a t i o n JANGLE t h e N O mobile monitoring teams were deployed Y a t approximately 0° t o U5° i n t h e annulus 200-500 m i l e s from t h e T e s t Site. Initial JANGLE Detonation The findings of the mobile teams for JANGLE-ABLE are given in Table 7. Of interest are the relatively high activities at Elko, Nevada and Burley, Idaho in contrast to the other sampling locations. The area west of Elko should have been included in the survey,as shown by the sharp increase in activity between Wendover and Elko. Our data do not define the most western extent of fallout zone. The best available estimate of the trajectory indicated that in the positions shown our teams would be astride the fallout zone on the line from Salt Lake City to Elko. That this was not the case is clear from the data. The records of the atmospheric dust concentrations during the entire period of sampling are given in Figures 10 through 12 which give data for Elko, Burley and Idaho Falls. Observations from Wendover, Delta and Salt Lake City are not plotted because the data were essentially negative. The maximum dust concentration had probably passed by the time Elko collections were started. The first sample collected for 20 Jiinut.es beginning at 1630 M3T was the highest value reported, j60,000 d/ra/M^. Thereafter, the airborne activity rapidly declined to well under 100 d/m/M^ at 0200 the following morning. For the 2 + hour period the average l concentration was 1+1+,000 d/uiin/M?taking the means of all samples wimh the result of each sample extrapolated to the midpoint of its individual time of collection. The mean age of this dust may be taken as approximately 10 hours. Burley, Idaho, about 135 miles northeast of Elko shows a peak at 2300 at which time the dust was Ik hours old. The maximum recorded ccncentratim was "1,000 d/min/M' and -&he 2k hour mean was 215C d/min/i^. Idaho Falls shows markedly less activity with a sustained rise to 3000 d/m±n/M) occurring for about 2\ hours starting 2?l+5. Radioactive dust occurred in Wendover, there being a sustained rise to 3000 d/min/l3 starting at 2000 and continuing until 0600 on 20 November. As will be noted from Table 7> the bulk of the activity was contained in particles less than 5 microns in diameter. The one exception was the Aerotec sample at Burley where the bulk of the activity was included in particles larger than 5 microns in diameter. This is in 'contrast, not only to the data from other stations, but to the results of Cascade Impactor samples of Burley air collected at the same time as the Aerotec sample. - 12 *

TABLE 7 FINDINGS OF MOBILE TEAM - TEST OF 19 NOVEMBER 1951 AIRBORNE DUST Monitoring Period Ave. Highest Sample Cone** Time Cone* (d/m/M3) (d/m/M3) 19 Nov. 16U0 to 1700 380,000 kk,000 SETTLED DUST Type Collector Cascade Aerotec Impactor 90 82 Total Fallout d/m/ft.' Tray 110,000 Gummed Paper 59*000

Place

Elko, Nev.

19 Nov. 1630 - 20 Nov. 1100

Salt Lake 19 Nov. Ik35 - 20 Nov.0905 City, Utah 1 Wendover, 1 9 Nov. 1630 - 20 Nov.1100 ,*: Utah -=
1

k
19-20 Nov. 2000 to 0600 3,000 1,000

95

Tray Gummed Paper

180 3,200

eo

Tray 220,000 Gummed Paper 105,000

Delta, Utah Burley, Idaho Idaho Falls, Idaho

19 Nov. Ikl5 - 19 Nov.2230 19 Nov. 1920 - 20 Nov.08l0 19 Nov. 2250 to 2315 19 Nov. 20U5 - 20 Nov.0800 20 Nov. 0000 to 0100 11,000

52
2,150

97

Tray

5U0
0

99+

9.7

Tray 22,000 Gummed Paper 110,000

3,000

koo

Tray Gummed Paper

k,100 120,00

* Extrapolated to time of collection ** Ave. of individual samples extrapolated to time of collection

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Place

Monitoring Period

AIRBORNE DUST Ave. Highest Sample Cone** Time Cone* (d/m/k5) (d/ny4l3) 30 Nov. 0600 190,000 38.000

SETTLED DUST

Cascade Impactor >95

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Type Collector

Total Fallout d/m/ft2

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Elko, Nev. Ogden, Utah

29 Nov, 1720 - JO Nov. 2230

Tray Gummed P a p e r 81+ Tray Gummed Paper Tray Gummed P a p e r Tray Gummed P a p e r

Lost 210,000 1,300 9.700 60,000 7,000 81+0 30,000

29 Nov, 1900 - 30 Nov. 1900 30 Nov. 0100 1 Dec, 001+5 1 Dec. 00l+5

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550

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85 190

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Tray Gummed Paper Tray Gummed Paper

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Provo, Utah

29 Nov, 1915 - 30 Nov. 2020

5,1+00

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in* )0

1? It 1

X t . 44"'" 1.60 l34! t _
1

.,

1 1 ~ i ,2(K&

±

. 2JIJ0

29

NOVEMBER

(HOURS - M S T ) 3 0 NOVEMBER

- 53 40

THE PROPERTIES OF FALLOUT SAMPLES Limited studies were made of the physical properties of bomb debris collected in the air samplers and fallout trays. Particle Size Measurements of particle size were undertaken because of its relationship to the pulmonary retention and distribution of an aerosol. The methods by which the samples were fractionated into various portions of the particle size spectrum have been described in an earlier section of this report* and in Tables 7 and 8 are given data pertinent to the evaluation of the JANGLE monitoring observations o The satisfactory agreement between replicate and consecutive samples collected by Cascade Impactor at Elko (19 November and 29 November) and Wendover (29 November) are given in Figures 18 and 19. In Figure 18, are plotted 5 samples collected following the two explosions from Operation JANGLE. The mass median of these various samples ranges from 1„1+ to 2.2 p. The mean of the 5 estimates of > the mass median is 1.8 p. In Figure 19 are shown the six samples collected at Wendover, Utah, following the second of the JANGLE bursts. The estimates of the mass medians vary from 1.9 p. to 3.5 Ji with a mean of 2.5 j u t c As noted earlier* both the Aerotec Collector and Cascade Impactor indicate that the bulk of the radioactive dust was smaller than 5 microns in diameter0 Radioactive Decay The beta decay of mixed fission products is complex, but may be represented approximately by a linear plot on log-log paper. Way and W i g n e r ^ estimated the beta activity and summarized the avail= able data in the form of the equations
A

2 = AX ( ^

)

where A£ and A j are the activities at times t2 and t]_ after fission. -_

^ K . Way and E. P. Wigner

Phys. Rev. 73, 1318 (19U8)
-ft _

-I

FIG. 18
Explosion Key
5

\

November 29, 1951

4 November 19, 1951

99
Cascade Impactor Samples Elko, Nevada _ 95

_ 90

75 E

50

— 25

S

_

10

nr

I
I PARTICLE DIAMETER (MICRONS) 0.5 0.1

- 55
M I1

• i ,<

I PARTICLE DIAMETER

0.5 (MICRONS)

56

Hunter and Bailout)have calculated the individual and total beta activities produced in a U235 atomic explosion. In the time range of 1 to 100 days, the Way and i i i n r expression is shown to be valid lfge as far as decay rate is concerned. The experimental data taken during this series of tests included about lf>0 decay curves run for periods of 10 to S>0 days. Because none of the runs were begun less than three days after sampling, there was no interference from thoron or radon decay products. The results of the determinations are given in Table 9o The values given for the slope were obtained by visually fitting a line to the data plotted as log d/m against log time in days since burst. It must be remembered that not all samples contain debris that is predominantly from one burst or another. In Table 9 where there was doubt as to the burst from which a sample originated, more than one slope may be indicated. Figure 20 shows how a decay following the -1.2 exponent would behave if the burst were misjudged by two days in either direction. If the burst was assumed to be two days earlier than the true time., a straight line through the later points would have a slope of XL„37s> while the opposite error would give a slope of -1.06. If the sample is counted within three or four days after the burst and the decay follows the -1.2 exponent, it should be a simple process to place the burst time to the nearest day. However;, it is apparent from Table 9 that the decay rates vary widely. The general use of decay rate for selection of burst date is subject to great error, particularly if the normal counting error is taken into consideration. While the overall variation in decay rates is large, there is excellent agreement within the groups assigned to a specific burst, as shown by the standard deviations in Table 10. Some of the samples whose decay rates were measured had been subjected to particle size separation with a Cascade Impactor or Aerotec unit. The results on these samples are tabulated in Table 11„ All indications from these scattered results are that the larger particles decay at a greater rate than the smaller particles. This factor may be slightly complicated by the presence of induced activities, but this effect should not be large after a few days, unless the fraction of induced activity in the sample is very large.

Ho F„ Hunter and N„ E. Ballou

Nucleonics 9* C-2 (19^1)

= 57 _

TatiTeT" T a b u l a t i o n of Observed Decay ]Elates Time of Collection 10/11 10/2U 10/2U 10/2U 10/2h 10/21 10/25 10/26 10/26 10/26 10/27 10/27 10/27 10/28 10/? s 10/28 10/29 10/30 10/21 10/21. 10/22 10/22 10/22 10/23 10/30 10/31 10/31 1 0 / 3 1 - 11/1 1 0 / 3 1 - 11/1 11/1 11/1 11/1 11/1 11/1 11/2 11/2 11/3 11/3 11/3 11/1* = 10/12 1930 1230 - 10/25 - 10/25 - 10/25 - 10/26 - 10/27 - 10/27 - 10/27 - 10/28 - 10/28 - 10/28 - 10/29 - 10/29 - 10/29 - 10/30 - 10/31 - 10/22 - 10/22 - 10/23 - lo/?3 - 10/23 - 10/21* 2100 Burst Date 9/2U 10/18 n Decay Slope 1.20 1.20 1.86 1.20 1.25 1.21 1.27 1.21 1.20 1.18 1.20 1.28 1.?!*
j.. © J_X J.. 0 -i- J

Location F o r t Wayne, I n d i a n a B-29 B-29 New York
II

Type Sample Airborne Dust
ti

tt tt

tt

Tray
ti

ti

Montgomery, Alabama Bismarck, N. Dakota Oklahoma C i t y Atlanta Grand Rapids Nashville L e x i n g t o n , Ky. New York Cincinnati L e x i n g t o n , Ky. Tallahassee n Cincinnati P e n d l e t o n , Oregon Seattle Great F a l l s , Montana Medford, Oregon Seattle P o c a t e l l o , Idaho Forbes AFB B-29 Topeka, Kansas F o r t Wayne New York
M tl » tl

Airborne Dust Tray Tray Airbo m e Dust
ti 11 11 »?

tt
it

5'

r
I! M

Tray Airborne Dust 11 «
it 11 ti ti 11 ti

'.'
II II 1!

Tray
ti H II II

151*5

Cincinnati Oklahoma City Houston, Texas
tt

-

11/2 11/2 11/2 11/2 11/2

Tuscon, Arizona Cincinnati Atlanta Chattanooga New Hark

- 11/3 - 11/3 - 11/h
-

- 11A
-11/1* = 11/5

" 10/18 10/28 10/28 10/30 10/28 10/30 10/30 10/28 10/30 10/28 10/28 10/30 10/30 10/30 11/1 11/1 11/1 10/28 10/30 10/30 10/18 10/30 10/30 11/1

tt

1.23 l.?l| 1.2U . 1.20 1.62 lo05 1.20 1.17 1.22
J. o-^'O

Tray Airborne Dust Tray ___ Airborne Dust Tray _— Tray Tray Airbo m e Dust Tray Tray _—, Tray
tt
ti
__«™

1.87, 1.82' 1.1? 1.0U' 1.22 1.35 x i„29j 1.22 1.31*
-04^-i

Airborne
tt
™ ™

1.26 1.1*9 v 1.28' 1.26 1.29 1.12» 1.05' 1.02
~X„L\\x v

Tray

0.78; 1.30. 1.2P '

-58

Table 9 (Cont'd.)

Location Corpus C h r i s t i

Time of Collection

Burst Date 10/30 11/1 10/30 ll/l 11/1

Type Sample Airborne Dust
™ » _

Decay Slope 1.63^ 1.1*3^ 1.1*3} l.2i* 1.32. 0.98' 1.12 l.!6j .97. 08O lo22' 1 0.91* 1.00 1.80 1.1*7 I06S 1.60 1.67 I0L3 I.63 1.1*8 1.56 1.52 1.26 1.82
^
•f
0S

n/5 n/5
11/6 - 11/7

New York B-29 L e x i n g t o n , Kentucky Cincinnati Tallahassee Medford, Oregon Pendleton, M Wendover B-29 B-29 B-29 B-29 B o i s e , Idaho
w
tt

1 1 / 9 - oil*5 11/10 - 11/11 11/10 -

ii/5 ii/5

A i r b o r n e Dust _=_==, Gummed Paper =__ Airborne Dust
tt

n/ii

11/1 10/30 10/30 10/30 10/18

w

11/12 - 1 1 / 1 3 ll/ll* 11/19 11/19 11/21 11/21 11/22 11/21 11/19 11/20 11/21 11/22 11/19 11/20 11/18 11/19 11/19 11/19 11/30 11/30
w
ft tt tt

n/5

Airborne Dust .== Airborne Dust Tray Tray Tray Airborne Dust n n tt «
ti 11

.75 }

M

B u r l e y , Idaho » P o c a t e l l o , Idaho ELko Wendover
11 ti ti

- 11/15 ii/5 - 11/20 ii/5 - 11/20 11A9 w 0500 « 2230 n 0330 n 2035 ti - 11/20 11 - 11/21 ti - 11/22 ti - 11/23 n 11/20 - 0255=0810 " ti - 11/19 tt - 11/20 351*0=1700 «' - 1700=1720 « - 0000 11/29 »t 0810

Tray
ti it

> » Aiitoorne Tray Tray A i r b o r n e Dust. Airborne Dust Tray Airborne Dust
it tt

^

i.6i Qoj?2
1.20 1.22 1.2? 1.20 1.12 1.08 1.1*3 1.00 2.20) ) 1.10

ii*!*o i51*c

M
M

»
tt ti tt ti tt tt

« «!
It tl tt 91

Pbcatello KLko

161*0 171*0 It 181*0 tl 201*0 tt 1930 t! 2300 11/29 2330 2330 11/3C) 11/30 0200 » OBOO

ti

»! * >
H
tt tt ti tt

H
tt t! tt 11 tt

tt
tt It

Tray) ) Airbo m e Dust M «

.81*

$9 S!>*

Table 9 (Cont'd.)

Location Elko
tt it M tt tt «t tt tt tt tt

Time of Collection
11/30
ti

Burst Date 11/29
f! tl tt tl tl tl tt tt

Type Sample Airborne Dust
ti
ti tt tt ti ti tt

Decay Slope ,91 .99 .99 .95 .96 i.ol 1.05 1.01 1.02 1.01 0.96 0.98
o95
J

01*00 01*00

it
t! tl tl tl II tl tl II tt tr ti ti tt tt tl tt ti tt tt ti tt tt ti »l tt ti tt tt tt

0500 0500 0530 0530
0600

n
tt

n n
i» tt

0600 0630 0630 0700 0700 0730 0730
0800 0800

n
M tl tt 11
VI

n
11 11 ti ti ti ti ti ti ti tt tt

.01*

It II tt tt tl tl t! tt tt

0.92

«
»t ti ti

u
tt tt it ti ti it tt 91

Rock Springs

tt ll
II

tl

0830 0830 0900 0900 1130 1130 1300 1300 1500 1500 1700 1700 1900 1900 2100 2100 11*30 1500 1520 i51*o

»
tt tt tt tl It


H tl tt tl tt II tl tt II tt tl tl

It
tl tl 11 tl ft ft
II.

n
ti tt tt tt tt tt

tt 11 It 91 tt II tl

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0.97 0.89 0.90 O.83 0.91* 0.91 1.00 1.12 0.65 0.88 o.£y 1.01 0.96 0.90 0.97 1.03 0.89 1,0\ l.U 1.08

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61
4" V.1

.?o

Table 10

AVERAGE DECAY RATES BY BURSTS Burst 10/18 10/28 - 11/5* 11/19 ll/29(Elko) ll/29(others) TOTAL # Samples 21* 21* 15 3k 15 112 Average Slope 1.25 1.22 1.59 0.96 1.25 1.20 Standard Deviation 0.16 0.15 O.lli 0.07 0.32 0.26

Burst date selected to give slope closest to -1.2

- 62 -

Table 11 DECAY SLOPES OF AIR SAMPLES ^FRACTIONATED BY AESDTEC

Location KLko Wendover Bock Springs

Date of Sample 11/19 - 11/20 11/19-11/20 11/30 11/30

Burst Bate 11/19 11/19 11/29 11/29 Aerotec-large Aerotec-small Aerotec-large Aerotec-small Aerotec-large Aerotec-small

Decay Slope 1.59 1,32 1.88 1.03 1.09 0.97

-63 -

Absorption Measurements Like the radioactive decay of mixed fission products, their absorption characteristics should be complex, as many energies are represented. However, analysis of absorption curves for several fallout samples showed that all of them could be broken down into four major components, one gamma and three beta0 The latter were characterized by energies of about 0.3, 1.0 and 1.6 mev„ respectively. Five active fallout samples were studied to determine whether the characteristic breakdown varied with time and with the particular burst represented by the sample. For this purpose, the fraction of the saiqple activity due to each component was determined from each absorption curve. From this data, the decay of each component could be followed. The general conclusions for the absorption measurements ares 1. Four components are obtained consistently. 2. The gamma component remains constant at about 1$ of the activity as counted, We do not know the gamma efficiency of our counters.

'3o The 0.3 mev component is complex, decaying at a more rapid rate than the total activity.
i

ko

The 1.0 mev component maintains a relatively constant fraction of the total activity for about 30 days and is the major component during this period. The 1,6 mev component is complex, decaying at a slower rate than the total activity and becoming the major component after about 30 days. The apparent range and decay rate of the 0.3 mev component are very constant, regardless of the source of the sampleo

5.

6.

7. The sample from the burst of November 29 shows a second component of higher apparent range than the other samples. The results on the decay rates of the components are given in Table 12, Absorption data on other samples were obtained but decays were not run. All showed similar components. Absorption curves are of value in characterizing fallout samples, but their preparation and analysis are tedious and time consuming. No conclusions as to elemental components, particularly as to induced activities could be drawn.

6k -

^J

Table 12

SLOPES OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS Sample Source 10/18 10/30 11/19 11/19 11/29 Total 1.82 1.52 1.72 1.72 0.95 I 2.1*5 2.22 2.39 2.51 2.52

11
2.12 2.12 1.79 1.39 0.60

III
1.11 0.61* 1.00 0.88 1.39

237 222

3
162 567

65 -

Radioautographs of Settled Dust Duplicate gummed papers were exposed on the roof of NYO during the swvey period. One of these samples was processed and counted, while the other was radioautographed to determine the distribution of radioactive particles. The gummed paper was covered with a film of rubber hydrochloride and exposed to Eastman Type M X-ray film for about seven days. Ordinarily two films were used together to prevent chemical staining or alpha radiation being mistaken for fallout particles. A sample radioautograph exposed from 1500 on 10/31 to 1500 on ll/l is reproduced full size in Figure 21. The numbered spots were cut out of the gummed paper and counted individually. The results extrapolated to the sampling date are given in Table 13.

- 66 -

67

'4

/

Table 15 ACTIVITY AND DIAMETER OF SPOTS 01 FIGURE 21 Spot Activit 1000 d/m 2500 Spot Diameter (ma.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9
10 11 12 13 14
lw

2.6 4.0 2.8 6.7 4.0 4.0 6.0 3.0 6.0 5.0 2.8 2.9 2.0 4.0 2.7 3.5

870
5800

640
2500 3000

540
6900 2200

520 470 570
2000

870 660

16

68

NOTES ON FIELD TECHNIQUES Comparison of Tray And Gummed Paper Techniques The two methods were tested in parallel at 20 Weather stations. Definitely higher results (significantly so at the 99$ confidence level) were obtained with the gummed paper than with the trays. The unextrapolated data for days when no precipitation was reported are plotted in Figure 22. A regression line of the form log y s a f b log x, where x and y are the tray and gummed paper data respectively, was fitted. (Only pairs counted on the same day, and not including zeros, were plotted.) The regression 99$ confidence from trays can paper and vice coefficient, b, is highly significant (at the level) showing that the results to be expected be estimated on the basis of tests with gummed versa.

A similar comparison was made of data for days when more than a trace of rain was reported. Figure 23 is the logarithmic plot. In this case, also, the gummed paper collected the more activity and the regression coefficient was highly significant. The relationship between tray and gummed paper data is essentially the same in rain and fair weather. That is5 the differences between corresponding coefficients in the equations are not significant statistically. The precisions of the two methods have not been compared. Such a comparison would entail replication of both at the same locations. Both methods may be subject to inaccuracies which the data cannot reveal. It appears possible, for instance, that the gmnmed paper may overestimate the fallout by collecting dust blown from nearby surfaces. This source of inaccuracy might be investigated by comparing gummed papers located at different heights. Variation Between Duplicate Trays The trays were duplicated at 10 stations. In 26 pairs out of 36 having activity greater than 100 d/m/ft2 the difference between duplicate results was greater than 20$ and in each of 11 pairs the difference exceeded the lower of the two values. Since the procedure was controlled to keep the counting error below 20$, it is clear that the variation between duplicates is large. More replication is indicated to bring the precision closer to that of the counting. At levels below 100 d/m/ft.2 a larger part of the variation can be ascribed to counting error. The paired data are listed in Appendix H 0 - 69 -

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Comparison of High Altitude Measurements Dust filtered out of air at high altitudes was tested with an ItCL GM tube as described previously. These measurements were made on the plane but after its return to the base the activity of filter paper was determined with a laboratory beta counter,) The results by the two methods are plotted on logarithmic Scales in Figures 2k and 25o The points of Figure 2k $ representing activities below 1000 counts per minute, give the impression of random scatter rather than correlation. Above 1000 counts per minute the results of the two measurement methods are clearly correlated,, These data and the regression line are plotted in Figure 2f>. (The regression coefficient is highly significant.) For the comparison it was necessary to reject zeros, negative values and activities above the maximum of the instrument used on the plane, introducing uncertainty into the statistical analysis. However., it is obvious that the two methods of measurement agree well at high activities. In the case of low values error in measurement of background must have a relatively large effect on the result. The relation between the filter paper activity and the readings of a scintillometer and a conductivity meter was investigated. An inspection of the time graphs (Figures 26 - 33) indicates that there is a rough correlation among the three sets of data. There are peaks in the curves which appear to correspond, but they do not coincide in time. Rather, there are irregular lags which prevent the pairing of the data and make the use of statistical methods of comparison difficult. Some of the peaks in the instrument readings are accompanied, usually with a time differencesby rises in filter paper activity, but there are other conductivity and scintillometer peaks with no corresponding change in the filter paper.

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APPENDIX A* (Bound Separately)

*Appendix A was given a limited d i s t r i b u t i o n by the New Tork Operations Office, and i s not included in t h i s copy of NIO-I5760

83

APPENDIX B*

(Bound Separately)

•Appendix B was given a limited distribution by the New Tork Operations Office, and is not included in this copy of NYO-I576,,

-8k

APPENDIX C Equipment Provided for Weather Bureau Hetvrork (Phase A) GROUP A - 10 Stations (1 sample per day) 1 1 1 70 1 70 Tray Squeegee Kit of equipment for filter samples Data Sheets Set of Instructions Addressed franked envelopes (addressed to the local analytical lab) 70 Plastic sample envelopes

GROUP B - 10 Stations (2 samples per day) 2 1 2 140 1 70 140 Trays Squeegee Kits Data Sheets Set of Instructions Addressed franked envelopes Plastic sample envelopes

GROUP C = 20 Stations (2 samples per day) 1 1 1 140 1 70 140 1 70 Tray Squeegee Kit Data Sheets Set of Instructions Addressed franked envelopes Plastie sample envelopes Frame for gunmed papers Sheets of gummed paper

GROUP D - 10 Stations (2 samples per day) 1 1 1 140 1 70 140 1 70 70 Tray Sqtteegee Kit Data Sheets Set of Instructions Addressed franked envelopes Plastic sample envelopes Hi Volume Sampler 4 W diameter dust filters Addressed envelopes (addressed to NYOO)

Groups A, B and C are evenly distributed geographieally and intermixed but not on the 85th meridian. Group D stations are along the 85th meridian.

- 85-

APPENDIX D Equipment Prffivided For Mobile Monitoring Teams (Phase B)

Schedule I - Airborne Team Nop of Items 2 3 1 2 1 8 H K M N P Q Designation Cascade Impactor Kit Scintillometer Survey Instruments 6 Volt Air Sampler Dosimeter Kit Film Badges

Schedule II - Ground Teams (2) Noo of Items per Team Team 1 - 5 ) E - Hi Volume Sampler Kit G » Fall out tray with Kit H - Cascade Impactor Kit I - Berkley Portable Scaler with End Window Tube (5^ mg/cm2) F - Aerotec Unit K - Scintillometer L - Sleeping Gear 0 - Gummed Paper Kit Q - Film Badges

"

2-20
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86

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APPENDIX D

(Con't)

E - Hi Voluire Sampling K i t 1 1 1 2 2 300 1 1 300 25 2 k h 1 Carrying Case E x t e n s i o n Cord 50" Cube Tap Boxes hn Whatman #L|1 F i l t e r Paper Boxes Comfo A l l Dust F i l t e r s (100) Cellophane Sample Envelopes P a i r Forceps Glass Marking P e n c i l Data Sheets L a r g e , Addressed, Franked Manila Envelopes Hi Volume Samplers Hi Volume Sampler Heads 3-Wire F i l t e r Supports S t a p l i n g Machine

F - Aerotec Units (5) G - Fall out Tray with Kit 1 1 1 50 1 50 Tray Squeegee Kit Data Sheets Set of I n s t r u c t i o n s P l a s t i c Sample Envelopes

H - Cascade Impactor Kit 1 1 50 1 15 15 1 1 Carrying Case Cascade Impactor Coated Aluminum S l i d e s i n F i l e Box Box 1-1/8" Whatman # j l F i l t e r papers Glassene Sample Envelopes Data Sheets Hudson Pump with Rotameter Tripod

87 -

APPENDIX D

(Con't)

I - Berkley Portable Scaler - Model 8 with End Window Tube (3i mg/cm2) K - Scintillometer

L = Sleeping Gear 2 Cots, Folding 6 Blankets

M " Survey Instruments 2 2G10A Survey Meter with AFOAT Probe 1 2G10A Survey Meter

N - 6 Volt Air Sampler

0 - Gummed Paper Kit 1 3 3 1 150 Pkgo lkn * 17w X-ray Film Frames PkgSo Gummed Paper (50 sheets each) X~ray Exposure Holder Data Sheets

P - Dosimeter Kit 1 Direct Reading Dosimeters + 2 Battery Chargers

Q - Film Badges - NYO Design

- 88 -

APPENDIX E PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF PRECIPITATION AND DUST SAMPLES FOR RADIOACTIVE FALL-OUT STUDIES

The radioactivity associated with the fall-out being studied decays very rapidly so that speed in the handling of samples is essentialo For all shipments, air mail is recommended where one day's transit t i . will be saved0 i4e In order to correlate the radioactivity measurements with the fallout, the date and hour of sampling and of measurement must be known for each sampleo For uniformity, the use of the 2 + hour time scale, 1 rather than AoMo and P0Mo notations is recommendedo The time zone must be included for both collecting stations and laboratorieso The data sheets, of which a sample is attached, should be filled out completely with the pertinent information, using a separate sheet for each sampleo Collecting stations will record the data on the upper half of the sheet, while the laboratories will fill in the counting datao This will aid in the collation of data from the larg number of samples to be handledo Four types of samples are to be used in the study of radioactive fall=»out in this program, but not every station will collect each type0 lo Precipitation samples taken by collecting the rain or snow fall during 2k hours on the specific area of a collecting tray0 The insoluble particulate matter is filtered off for measurement.) Settled dust samples taken by washing down the surfaoe of the collecting tray used for precipitation samples when no rain or snow fall occurso The insoluble particulate matter is filtered off from the washings for measuremento Settled dust samples collected on gummed paper mounted on a metal frame0 The paper is destroyed by ashing and the ash used for measuremento Airborne dust samples collected by drawing known volumes of air through a filter with a high volume air sampler,, The filter is destroyed by ashing and the ash used for measuremento

2o

Jo

ka

The procedure for taking and handling each of these samples will be given in detail so that comparable results may be obtained at all collecting stations and laboratorieso

- 89 -

&

Precipitation Samples
A

°

Collections The sampling trays furnished by NYO have an area of 9 square feet and are mounted on legs for ease in setting up. The tray should be erected and a two quart Mason jar placed under the outlet. In case of heavy rain,, the jar should be replaced when full, and all jars treated as one sample» Light snowfalls may be transferred to the jar with the rubber squeegee furnished. After allowing it to melt, it is treated the same way.as collected rain. It is not possible to furnish large containers, so for heavier snowfalls, two jars may be filled with snow from a smaller area than the whole tray, and the area cleared noted on the data sheet.

B.

Filtrationg The filtration kit furnished by NYO contains a filter funnel, rubber tubing, a water aspirator to supply suction and two couplings for fitting the aspirator to various types of faucets. The filter funnel may be connected directly to the aspirator with the rubber tubing, the filtered water being pulled into the aspirator. To filter a sample, a filter paper is placed on the perforated plate of the funnel and, with the suction on, a little water is poured over the paper to moisten it and hold it in placeo The sample is then poured through the filter. Any residual solid matter in the jar should be washed onto the paper with water. After all the water has been sucked through the paper, some drying may be obtained by allowing the aspirator to pull air through the paper for one or two minutes. The rubber tubing should then be disconnected at the filter funnel before turning off the aspirator. The filter paper should be placed in a cellophane bag and the bag stapled to a data form containing the pertinent information. Collecting stations should send the filter, bag and data sheet to the specified laboratory (in envelopes furnished) by mail, and if an appreciable saving in time would result, by air mail.

Settled Dust on Trays ^° Collectiong If no precipitation occurs in a 2k hour period or if ilhe tray has dried out-a'fter a rain, the dust settling on the tray in that period is collected. This is done by wetting down the tray with water and washing the dust into the Mason jar with the rubber squeegee furnished and more water. This may be readily accomplished with less than two quarts of water. (If it has rained, the tray washings are filtered with the collected rain as one sample). - 90 t

Bo

Filtration8 ples s

This is done exactly as for precipitation sam-

IIIo Settled Dust on Gutmied Paper
A •- Collections Sheets of MKunt-Kleenn ° with a meial frame which will hold hesiveo This frame is placed on a next to the collecting tray and at with the gummed side upn

gxunaed paper are supple si the paper by its ovra &%box or suitable support about the same height

The papers are changed every 2i+ hours whether precipitation. occurs or no to The gummed face of the paper is liien folded together and refolded to fit into a cellophane bago The bag should be stapled to a data form containing the pertinent information0 Collecting stations should send the paper, bag and data sheet to the specified laboratory, by mail, and if an appreeiabls saving of time would result, by air mailo IVo Airborne Dust Samples Ao Collections Airborne dust samples are collected by drawing known volumes of air through a paper filter<, The pump fur= nished consists of a head for holding -the filter, an AC-DC 115 volt motor-blower, and a gage for determining the &lr flow in cubic feet per minuteo The pump should be protected from rain,and may be set up at an open window, or undesr a suitable sheltero The paper filter is mounted in the head with the rough0 dark side out toward the entering air« The flow rate and date and hour of starting should be noted on the data sheets Since the flow rate may decrease as dust collects, the sams data must be noted at the end of the runQ The filter should b® changed after every 2 + hours9 After l removal, the filter is placed in a cellophane bag and the bag stapled to a data form containing the pertinent informs." tion0 Collecting stations should send the filter, bag and data sheet to the specified laboratory, by mail, and if an appreciable saving of time would result, by air mailo

- 91

N.Y. FORM 107 (9-10-511

DATA SHEET

STATION. CITY TAKEN BY. JSTATE

Start Sample - Date. End Sample - Date.

_Hour. Hour. .Velocity.

.Time Zone . Time Zone.

Wind Direction Weather Conditions.

Precipitation Estimated Volume Collected. Estimated Rainfall. Duration, from C Z ) Settled Dust on Tray i I ' Settled Dust on Oummed Paper I Airborne Dust Sampling Rate, start General Remarks .finish

Dints .Inches

to.

.ft3/mln.

Counting Data: Time of Counting - Date. Total Count Gross Rate Background Net Rate Results _c/m . c/m .c/m Efficiency Factor.
_c/d

Hour .Counting Period

Time Zone. _mln.

_d/m/sample _d/m (unit)

Final Extrapolated Value. Extrapolated to - Date

.d/m/_ (unit) .Hour. (Use separate sheet for each sample) .Time Zone.

4«\

NY-98 COLLECTING S T A T I C I , . . . . . > ( . . . . i o > i < » i . > . i » t i «<»<o C i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S t a t e . . . . . . . . . . . . T i m e Zone,.t.

SUJMARY SHEET

Dust on Tr^y

!~J

L a b o r a t o r y , , . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . = . = .«t.<>.<>.»...°o.o.o»« City, «...o•....State..........Time Zone. < , . . . .

Guinned Paper 4 7
Airborne Dust Starting Fxnal Rate(cfrn) Rate(cfm)

Sanple Number

Start Sample D-ite Hour

End Sample Rainfall rj_ Date Hour Jnoirf all J—f From To

Rain- Wind DiWind fall rection Velocity (inches)

First Count at Date Hour d/m

Second Count at ExtrapDate Hour d/mj olated Value

Remarks

Remarks
i

Remarks

Remarks
1

Remarks

Remarks

Remarks

'
Remarks

Remarks

Remarks

Remarks

Remarks

APPENDIX G A i r Samples from 95th Meridian Mobile Monitoring High Volume Samplers ( E x t r a p o l a t e d t o Date of C o l l e c t i o n )

October 28

Station Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma

Sampling Time 2iiOO-0200 2h00-0200 0200-OhOO

Beta Gamma A c t i v i t y i n d/min/nP

Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5 microns

l.U
1.1 0.7 2.7

3.U 21
0,9
0.5 0.7 1.1 1.2 0.6 1.1 0.8 1.7 1.3

21

35

100 100 100

ohoo-iooo
OiiOO-0600 0600-0800 0800-1000 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11400 lhOO-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

0.?
0.9 0.7 9.8 3.1 3.2 2.2 0.1 3.8

83
0.1
91 100

8 3.3
6.I1
38

U.i
2.9

92

Omaha, Nebraska

1200-lliOO U00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

0.6 1.1

1.5

93

5.9 3.9

k.h

- 9k

91

October 29

Station Oklahoma C i t y , Oklahoma

Sampling Time 2lt00= 0200 21*00- 0200 0200- 0l*00 01*00- 0600 01+00- 0800 0600- 0800 0800- 1000 10C0- 1200 1200- 1)400 IhOO- 1600 1600- 1800 1800= 2000 2000= 2200 p.10 120

Beta G annua A c t i v i t y in t d/min /m ll.l 1.9 IN5 3.0

Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5 microns 120 89 100 63 98 90 90 100 97 98

3.8 3
ii.2

3.U 7.5 110 9k 10 k 7.5 5.3 5.6 12 110 75 26 111 35 100 86 38 lltO 98 88 130 71 2.6 0 . 0 ILO HO 83 75

^a6

su

Omaha, Nebraska

1000-1200 I2OO-U4OO 11*00-1600 1600-180C 1800-2000 2OO0-22O0

0.0 0.1

0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1

8.3 2.3 3.6 3.9

/]

Watertown, South Dakota

0200-01*00 0U00-0600 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-ihoo 1000-1200 11*00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2200-21*00

0.0 11

8.1*

11 7.1* 5*9 3.2 0.6 1,6 0.7 1.1 1.5 2.1 1.2 2.5 1.3 0.7 0.9

u.u

100 1.0

o.U

1.1

1.9

90 100

- 95 ay

October 30

Station Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Sampling Time 21*00-•01*00 0800- •1000 1000- •1200 1200- •11*00

Beta Gamma Actii amma Activity int d/min/ar

Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns 11 98 96 100 82 100

il*oo-1600 i6oo- 1800
1800- 2000 2000- 2200

0.8 53 65 81 18 * 30
1*„6 l.l*

1.8 19 * 57 57 51 22 51 2.6

17 50 67 63 22

Omaha, Nebraska

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0]*Q0«0600 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200«1)*00 11*00-1600

1.9 3.0 0 0 0
0.1*

1.5 0

2.1

1.2 0.8

1600-1800 1800-2000 1800-2200 2000-21*00

3.5
1.8
1*.7

7.7 0,1 3.2 0 3.1
2.1*

U8
1.? 7.5

3.5

Topeka, Kansas

21*00-0200 2000-2200

5.0 6,6

6.3 8.6

2.0 3.6

75 58

Vatertown. South Dakota

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 01*00-0600 01*00-0800 1000-1200 1600-1800 96

1.9
it .6 0.1*

1.5 3.9 0.8 1.0

0.6

83 100 60

22 26 3.5

October 31

Station Oklahoma C i t y s Oklahoma

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0200-01*00 01*00-0600 0600=0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 11*00-1600 11*00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

Beta Gamma Activity

in d/mln/m>

Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5 microns 100

2.2 1.8

1.9 1*.3 1.9 1.6 1.6 5.0 • 1.2 0.1* 1*.5 k.9 7.0 8c0 13 3.0 1.9 5.0 U.5 3.0 16 1*.9 51 l. *l 8.6 2.1 1.9
3.1i

100

26

6.0 16

111 12 100

56 .
3.0

76

Omahao Nebraska

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0600-0800 0800-1000
21*00-•0200 0200= •01*00 01*00-•0800 0600- •0800 0800- •1000 0600- •1200 1200- •1600 1200- •1600 1600- 1800 1800= •2000 2000- •2200 2200- •21*00

UoU 180 89 8.0 7.1 23 .
1.8 160 16

7.2

O.i

100

Topeka, Kansas

78 32 5.2
8.0 l*.l*

3.5
7.1 6.2 1+.5 l*.i 290

5 79 86 67 1*1
100

7.5
7.1 33 230 930

2.1

3.7
27 31

3.7

3.7 63
220 91

7 9 1 *
.

o/

November 1

Station Dallas 9 Texas

Sampling Time

Beta Gamma A c t i v i t y In d/min/n^

Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5 microns

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 01*00-0600 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 ll*CKKL600 1800-2000 1800-2200 2000=21*00 21*00-0200 l600~l800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

2 0.2 7* 1 31 0„8 1.5 108 2*2 5.2 5.7 7.8 5.2 1.3 7.0 3.5 8.7 9.6 9.6 2,2 52 10 * 60 16 * 6.9 22
32 9 18

Houston, Texas

U*
18

Oklahoma City, 21*00-0200 Oklahoma 21*00-0200

7.8
13.5

7.1* 2.2 22

8.7
11

15
71*

01*00-0800 0800-1200 0800-1200 1000-11*00 11*00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-21*00 2000-21*00

39 100 23 16
li.B

2* 1 52
11

52

31

61*

8
3.5 35 21* 100 37

190 270 530

1 . 13 *8 2.6 18 770 5.71 alt

6 a 37

98

November 1 (ConTinTiecI)

Station Omaha, Nebraska

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0l*00-060Q 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 11*00-1800 1800-2200 2000-2200 21*00-0200 21*00-0600 0200-0600 060O0800 0800-1000 1000-1J*00 21*00-1600 l600»l80Q 1800-2000 2O0CU2200 2200-21*00 L600

Beta Gamma Activity
in d/min/w

Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns 88 100 100 ICO 0 62

5.7 2»5 h»9 5.7 8 7 6 5.1 . U.6 93 7.0 2.6 6.1* 6.8 7 2 6.8 . 5.7 9 8 . U.6 3.7

2.7

3.0

3.7

Topeka, Kansas

3.0

U.* *l

ha

6.9

2.1*

lo5 7.8

5.1 3.6
2.!* 3o3

6.6
PoX

h

7.7 2.7 6.9 ka 9.0 9.6
2A5_

3.9 98 92 .
11

5y 33
Cr-

1*.8 3.0 5.U 9.0 2700 ^*h

2L 37 16 100

- 99

November 2

Sfa.tion Corpus C h r i s t i , Texas

Sampling Time 180*3-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00 0200-01*00 01*00-0600 0600-0800 0600»1000 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 ll.00.l600 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

Beta Samma A c t i v i t y i n d/EiixL'nr'

Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5 microns 80 62

8.6 12

7.5
15" 3.2 lioii 3.0
1*»7

i*.8 6.9 8.6 7.6 3»9

8.6 6»9

Dallas, Texas

U.7 15 13
8.1*

11

10 10 16 17 15

7.1*

6 08

Sot

Houston,
X ©3C3.S

2220-0020 8.6 0200-oUno 17 0l*0G*0600 790 1*.6 0600-0800 26 0800-1000 100C-1200 ll* 3o2 1200-11*00 2.3 11*00-1600 130 1600-1800 26 1800-2000 2000-2200

9t

I

t

- 100

November 2 (Continued)

Station

Sampler _Time_

Beta Gamms1 Activity in d/min/n^

Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5_roicrons 12 * 111 87 100 77

Oklahoma City, 21*00-0200 Oklahoma 0200-01*00

2*6 1 0*1* 5*2

0]400-0600 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-11*00 11*00-1800 1800-2200 2200-21*00
Omaha, Nebraska 0800-1000 2200-0800 2200-0800

16 6«1 10 15 32 2* 1 22 25

6o5
9.6

9a

22 1* *9

73 . 3.0 3.0 9.1

0.7 72 . 5*8
h*9

2o7

Topeka, Kansas

0200-01*00 01*00^0600
0600-0800 0800-1000

11

7.8

7*7 17
23 27 13 16 12 7.7

1000-1200 1200-11*00 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

9a

81 .* 11 7»0

ha

89 67

$.6
58 69 78
64 100 83

l* l
20 2* 1 32 11
1*3

81 .* 25
Ik

98 . 8J*

ha

101 -

November 3

Station Corp-is Chris ti.

Sampling Time 21*00- 0200 0200- •ol+oo Ql*00-•0600 060Q- •0800 0800- •1000 1000- •1200 1200- •11*00 11*00-.1600 1600- •1800 1800- •2000 2000- -2200 2200- •2l*0Q

Beta Gamma Activity i n d/mln/m? 18 2.3 U.5 2.6 3.U 1*.2 7o2 7»6 9.0 7.8 7»5 10
80O

Cyclone Sampler % less than

16

81

1.5

ha

U.9 3.0
3«1+

100 6.1 12 6.9 6.8

3«U
l*o9

97
82 100

3.9 8.1 1.9 5.3

Dallas s Texas

21*00-•0200 0200- •0800 0800^ •1000 1000- •1200 11*00-•l600 160Q" •1800 1800- •2000 2000- •2200 2200- •2I4.OO

601 J+08 i+ol* 108

i*o8

6.0 5.3
1+.1+

2.5

ka

2.7 5.6 3.7

3.5 6.3 3.0
l+o?

3«3

Houston, Texas

2i*00- •0200 0200-0l*00 01*00- 0600 0600- 0800 0800- 1000 1000- 1 2 0 0 1200- •11*00 lliOO- l 6 0 0 1600- 1800 1800- •2000 2000- •2200

9o0
lol 1.1 5 06

3»U

17 10 11 12 H+ 9*5 1 15 , «1 102

q«j

November 3 (Continue^') Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns

Station Omaha, le braska i

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 11*00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000

Beta Gamma Activity in d/min/m3

1,6 6.2 7.6 5.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.2

1.6 6.0 7.6 5.6 2.0 3o8
1+.6

3.5

Topeka, Kansas

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 11+00-1600 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

9.3 19 10 16 9o0 9.3 16 5.1 9.5 1.9

12 1+ 1
8.1*

2.6
1+.2

100

26 19 1+ 1 1+ 1
5-1+

5.3 6.8 7.2
20 11 11

81+

1*2 52 56

1.8
1+.8

103

November 1 * Cyclone Sampler 2 l e s s than 5 miorons 86 100

Station CorDus Christi, Taxas

Sampling Time 0200-0600 0200-01*00 0l*00-0600 01+00-0800 0800-1200 1200-11+00 11*00-1600 l6Q0«l800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

Beta Gamma A c t i v i t y 1+06 601+ l*o2

5.0

39

11
5 06

35
l*ol*

8.2 10 70 120 330

5»8

1+.2 3100

72 8.6 65 82 200

9.6 9.6

6a

1+8 91+

7.7 9»5

83 77 99

Dallas a Texas

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 OI+OO-060O 0600-0800
Q8Q0-NX0QG

3.2 1.3 1.1 2^+

2.2 3o3 2.5 boh
8.1+

1000-1200 1200-11*00 ll+0G-l600 160Q-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21400

5*7 5.5
3.0

13 50

6.3 6.3 5.3

5o5 9*3 8.9 11 22

66

Houston, Texas

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0l+0C-0600 0600-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 11*00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

5-7 9.6 5.3 5.0 8.7 11+ ll* 23 36 70 30

53

- lol* -

November 1+ (Continued) Cyclone Sampler % less than 5~ microns

Station Omaha, Nabraska

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0600-1000 0800-1200 1200-1600 11*00-1800 1600-2000 1800-2200

Beta Gamma Activity

2.8
lol*

1.6 5.1 3.6 3.8
2.1+

3«2 1.2 2.3 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.2

&

Topeka, Kansas

21*00-0200 0200-01+00 0l*00-0660 0600-0800 1000-1200 1200-11+00 ll|00-l600 1600-1800

hM
5.1 3.5
1+.1+

l+.o
7.2 3.3 lo9 2.8 2.8 2.8 5*3 2.5 1.9 1.1* 1.7 1J+ 3.6 16
81* 79 86 2i+ 100 31 1

2.5 3.8
1+.7

2.7

-105 -

November

Station Corpus Christi, Texas

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0l*00-0600 O6OO-O8OO 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 ll*00-l600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

Beta Gamma A kctivity i n d/miaBtAr m

Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns 100 99 100 99 100 91
91+

370 130 230 200 360

300-

l+oo
380
21*0

110 200 130 360 260
21*0

3l+o l*oo
360

160 190 280
21+0

300 130 180 260 560 550 380 290 520
1*20

97 99

Dallas, Texas

21*00-0200 0200-0J400
OUOO-O6OO 0800-1000 0800-1200 1000-1600 1200-3800 1600-2000 1800-2200

17 18 * 27 51 100 87

31

7 3.1+ 93
180

5.1+

110 51 31 1.1 1.6 0.8 0.7

Houston, Texas

21*00-0200 0200-d+oo 01+00-0600 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11*00 ll+QQ-l600 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

5.1 100 280

82 180 300

5k
182 106 88

37

1,
- 106 -

11 1 1* 2

November 5

Station Topeka, Kansas

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0200-01*00 0l+00-0600 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11+00 ll+00-l600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

Beta Gamma A c t i v i t y i n d/Wn/m? 3.2

Cyclone Sampler t> less than 5 microns 100 50 16 100

1*.7
1+.0 7.2 170 hoh l+.o 5»2

3.5 3.5

2.2 1.2 2.6

1+.9 1+.7
4oi^

3.7 3.7

1.8 5.8 0.9

5.1+

3.3
1.9

3.7
2.9

25 57 73

107

' Jt

November 6 Cyclone Sampler % l e s s than 5 microns 99

Station Brownsville, ''xs .ea

Sampling Time 21*00-0200

Beta Gamma .Activity in L d / m i n / w U*8 3.0 1+9

Corpus Christi, Texas

21*00-0600 0200-0600 01*00-1000 1000-11*00 11*00-1800 1800-2200

10 6.6 1+.5 2.0 3.0 11

5.1 5.1+ 1,2 1.1+ 1.1+

1.8

Dallas, Texas

21*00-0200 0200-01*00 OI+OO-060O 060O-O8OO 0800-1000 1200-11*00 ll*00-l600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21+00

2.0 1.1+ 2.1 2.1 3.0 2.0 2,1 1.5 270 6.0 3.2 1.1+

1.5 1+.2 1*01 5.0 2.1

1.5

1.2

5>*h
0„2 0.6 2.7 1.5 1.2 0.9

Houston, Texas

21*00-0200 21+00-01*00 O6OO-IOOO 0800-1200 1000-11*00 1200-1600 11+00-1800 1800-2000 1800-2200 2000-21*00

1.8 2.1 1J+ 3.0 lj+ 1.2 1.6 1.8 3*1+ 1.6 108 -

2.0

November 6 (Continued) Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns

Station Topeka, Kansas

Sampling Time 21+00-01*00 ol+oo-iooo 0800-11+00

Beta Gamma Activity in d/min/m?

Waco, Texas

21*00-0200 2000-21+00

109 -

. 'M ";

November 7 Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns

Station Corpus Christi, Te.tas

Sampling Time 21*00-0200 0600-1000 1000-11+00 11*00-1800 1800-2200

Beta Gamma Activity in d/min/m? 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.8 2.0 2.8 1,6
1.1+

1,8 1.0

Brownsville , Texas

21+00-0800 0200-01+00 0l+0O-0600 0600-0800 0800-1200 1000-1200 1000-11+00 11*00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

9.0

10 7.0 2.6

5»i+
1.3 0.9 2.1 2.1 1.6 0.8

55 5.7
3,0 0 +0 1.6 3.0 1.9 0.6

3.9

100 100 100 0 100 100

1.6 2,8

3.7
1.6 1.1

65
100

1.1+

3 ok

Dallas, Texas

0200-0800 01*00-0600 060O-O8OO 0800-1000 1000-H+OO ll+QQ-1600 11*00-1800

2.3 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6

1.0 0.6 1.3 1.3 0.7 1.7

Houston, Texas

21*00-0200 0200-Oi+OO 0600-0800 1000-1200 1200-11+00 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-21*00

2.0 0.3 3.2 1.6
1.1* 1.1*

2.3 1.6 1.9

110

.0<

November 7 (Continued)

Station Waco, Texas

Sampling Time 2l+00-0i*00 0600-0800 0800-1200 1000-11+00 li+00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2000 2000-2200

Beta Grcumoft A c t i v i t y i n d/min/m? 1.1+ 0.6 0.8 0.1+ 1.7 1.1+ 0,1+ 3.1
0.1+
<t

Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns

0.7 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.1 2.0

0.7

2.0

i.i+

- Ill

* '\v

November 8 Cyclone Sampler % less than 5 microns 100 89

Station Brownsville, Texas

Sampling Time O60O-IOOO 1000-1200 Ik 00-2200

Beta Gamma Activity in "<&/min/ay

l+*8 6.6 5.7

1+.8 5«5 8.5

2.7 3.8

Corpus C h r i s t i , Texas

0200-0600 O60O-IOOO 1000-11*00 11+00-1800 1800-2200

3,1 2.1+ 2.5 3.5

1.5 0.9 2.3

ia

6oh

Dallas, Texas

0200-0800 0800-1800 0200-1000 1000-1800

2.3
1.1 2.8 2.1

.

Houston, Texas

21+00-01+00 0200-0600 0l+00-0800 0800-1000 1000-ll+OQ 1200-1600 ll+00-1800 1600-2000

0.8 2o0 3.5 1.6 1.7 1.3 2.9 2.9

2.3 2.8

Waoo, Texas
>

21+00-0200 0200-Qi+00 Ql+00-0800 0800-1000 1000-1200 1200-11+00 11+00-1600 1600-1800 1800-2200 2200-21+00

2.1+ 3.7 2,9 5.5 3.6 2.3 3.3 3.1 9.5 2 «-3
- 112^ -

2.3 1.9 1.7 2.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.9 2 J* 2.1

1.6

0.6

./::>

APPENDIX H DUPLICATE TRAY DATA d/min./ft.2 (Not Extrapolated) Station #9 Pendleton, Ore. A 6.0 2.9 2.6 32.3 21*. 2 U.6 1.3 2.8 0.8 2.1* 1+17.3 125.U U5.6 2.3 U.2 1.2 1.6 1U9.9 50.7 B 6.6 5.7 1.9 25 .U 28.U 2.3 l.U 5.2 0.8 2.1 6U6.0 133.8 7.7 2.9 6.1 0.2 2.1 83.8 UU.9 A 16.78 10.92 3.51 2.8U U.60 3.7U 3.2U 0.00 U.13 1.06 1.58 0.98 2.72 U.51 10 .U5 l.UU 1-30 5.2 110 3000 270 96 9.6 71 21 25 13 ^.9 70 16 3.3 Station #10 Tucson, Ariz. B 22.51 12.62 12.8U 2.75 U.76 2.86 7.83 3.18 2.30 3.13 0.00 0.82 2.2U 5.95 7.U2 1.33 0.66 3.33 5.2 120 1200 620 3600 61.6 150 25 26 7.8

o.Uo n

U.5

5.8
8U
28 12

- 113 -

y

APPENDIX H

Station #12 Rapid City, S. Dakota

Station #37 Rochester, New York

A 1+.9 0.1

B 8.9 0.8 1.9 28.2 3.0 0.6 2.U 0.0 1.3 1.0 1.8 23.1 1.3 0.8 1.1 3.3 0.0 2.2 0.0 2.2 0.0 3.9 1.1 0.6 3.7 0.5 0.3 1.5 U.3

A 2U.5 9.2 2.7 3.9

B 13.1 9.3 1.7 2.2 3.3 1*6 13 0.0 2.5

o.U
23.1 1.6 0.2 1.2 0.8 3.0

3.5 o.U

3.U U.o
0.0 2.9 2.1

l+.o

3 1 .U

1.8 1.2 0.3 2.0 1.2 1.5 1.2 2.U
1.1*

5.8 0.7 0.5 0.07 0.0 0.8 1.9 3.5

0.6 0.7 0.3 232.0 70.3 U2.05 58.0 71.9 9.2 8.2 21.9 87562.0 51*777.0 31*558.9 5368.5 2085.1 U30.U

u.u

0.0 3.U 85U.0 33.5 35.2 11.2 36.9

5.9

Ul.U 65.5

73U9U.O 63330.8 36951ol 3530.7 2U32.5 1110.7

h$S

-11U -

APPENDIX H (Cont'd.)

Station #U2 Caribou, Maine

S t a t i o n #21 LaCrosse, Wisconsin

A

B

A

B 72 2U 176 156 88 96 176 1U0 16U 1176 6U 20 16 20 80 20 2U 8 32 52 100 20 16 52 20 36 68 2U 2U 8 12 12 16 8 16 28

31.8 3-3 22.3 O.U

u.u

3.9 3.3 U.2 3.U 1.7 2.6 0 0 2.6 0 U.6 186.8 0.8 262.8 82.8 21.7 63 .U 3959 2502.9 1353.8 78.8 218.6 185.7 105.2 3.7 80.5

16 3.8 16.9 5.3 1.0 0.3 5.3 3.6 U.8 0.6 0.9 0 0 2.1 3.5 3.8 U50.7 5.6 157.2 52.1

hh
2U 236 88 16U 100 116 188 188 988 U8 20 12 32 6U 16 12 12 68 36 56 16 16 52 12 2U 2U 80 2U 16 12 12 8 12 2U 128

UU.l 3$.9
27201 31*85.8 863.7 161.1 156.2 57.5 11.3 9.5 38 .U

- 115 -

<

APPENDIX H (Cont'd.)

Station #U6 Mew Cumberland, Pennsylvania

A 22.6 2U.3 23.2 19.5 U.9 3.7 0.0 103.0 223.U U85.8 220.U

B 3U.8 28.9 5.6 3.3 18.2 3.7 U.3 86.3 158.1 107.9 288.2

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