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You are on page 1of 36

Outline

2.Viscosity of Fluids

3.Fluid Flow

Molecular Transport

Each molecule of a system has a certain

quantity of mass, thermal energy, and

momentum associated with it. Foust

concentration of these properties occur from

one region to another?

2. How is transport different in a solid, gas, and

a liquid?

Molecular Transport

We need a simple physical model to describe

molecular transport - one that does not take

into account the structural differences of the

three states.

driving force

rate of transport =

resistance

Molecular Transport

driving force

rate of transport =

resistance

resistance in order to transport a

property.

Recall: Ohms Law from Physics

Molecular Transport

Flux

Define: FLUX

: amount of property being transferred per

unit time through a cross-sectional area

Mathematically,

d

Z flux

dz

Is the equation

dimensionally consistent?

What are the units of:

z?

?

?

Flux

d

Z

dz

Flux in the z-direction: amount of property

transferred per unit time per cross-sectional area

perpendicular to the z-direction of flow

Flux

d

Z

dz

If the transport process is at steady state, what

happens to the flux?

If the transport

process is at

steady state,

what happens to

the flux?

rate of

rate of

property

in

property

out

0

0

of property

of property

d

Z

dz

z2

z1

Z dz d

Z z2 z1 2 1

Z

1 2

z2 z1

At steady-state:

1 2

z2 z1

Flux

d

Z

dz

What happens when you have an unsteadystate transport process?

Assume:

1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.

2. Volume element has a

unit cross-sectional area.

3. R = rate of generation of

property (concentration

per unit time)

rate of

rate of

property

in

property

out

of property

of property

Assume:

1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.

2. Volume element has a

unit cross-sectional area.

3. R = rate of generation of

property (amount per unit

time per unit volume)

rate of property out z|z z (area)

WHY?

Assume:

1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.

2. Volume element has a

unit cross-sectional area.

3. R = rate of generation of

property (amount per unit

time per unit volume)

WHY?

Assume:

1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.

2. Volume element has a

unit cross-sectional area.

3. R = rate of generation of

property (amount per unit

time per unit volume)

d

z

dt

WHY?

rate of

rate of

property

in

property

out

of

property

of

property

d

z|z z|zz R z dt z

Dividing by z :

z|z z|z z

z

d

R

dt

z|z z|z z

z

d

R

dt

d z

d

R

dz

dt

d

But: z

dz

d

d

2 R

dz

dt

2

energy, and mass conservation

(molecular transport mechanism

only)

Momentum Transport

Imagine two parallel

plates, with area A,

separated by a

distance Y, with a

fluid in between.

Imagine the fluid

made up of many

layers like a stack

of cards.

Momentum Transport

Driving Force change

in velocity

d

Z

dz

Momentum Transport

d

Z

dz

Newtons law of

viscosity

d(v x )

yx

dy

Flux of x-directed

momentum in the

y-direction

Momentum Transport

d(v x )

yx

dy

but since:

dv x

yx

dy

yx : viscous flux of x-momentum in the

positive ydirection.

Heat Transport

Imagine two

parallel plates,

with area A,

separated by a

distance Y, with a

slab of solid in

between.

What will happen

if it was a fluid

instead of a solid

slab?

Heat Transport

Driving Force

change in

temperature

d

Z

dz

Heat Transport

d

Z

dz

qy

A

d( c p T)

y-direction

dy

Heat Transport

qy

A

d( cp T)

dy

but since: k cp

qy

dT

k

A

dy

Mass Transport

Imagine a slab of

fused silica, with

thickness Y and

area A.

Imagine the slab

is covered with

pure air on both

surfaces.

Mass Transport

Driving Force

change in

concentration

d

Z

dz

Mass Transport

d

Z

dz

dcA

J DAB

dy

*

Ay

y-direction

Analogy

Fouriers law

Newtons law

d(v x )

yx

dy

MOMENTUM

qy

A

Ficks law

d( c p T)

HEAT

dy

dcA

J DAB

dy

*

Ay

MASS

Assignment

Compute the steady-state momentum flux yx

in lbf/ft2 when the lower plate velocity V is 1 ft/s

in the positive x- direction, the plate separation

Y is 0.001 ft, and the fluid viscosity is 0.7 cp.

Assignment

Compute the steady-state momentum flux yx

in lbf/ft2 when the lower plate velocity V is 1 ft/s

in the positive x- direction, the plate separation

Y is 0.001 ft, and the fluid viscosity is 0.7 cp.

ANS: 1.46 x 10-2 lbf/ft2

Assignment

A plastic panel of area A = 1 ft2 and thickness

Y = 0.252 in. was found to conduct heat at a

rate of 3.0 W at steady state with

temperatures To = 24.00C and T1 = 26.00C

imposed on the two main surfaces. What is

the thermal conductivity of the plastic in

cal/cm-s-K at 25C?

Assignment

A plastic panel of area A = 1 ft2 and thickness

Y = 0.252 in. was found to conduct heat at a

rate of 3.0 W at steady state with

temperatures To = 24.00C and T1 = 26.00C

imposed on the two main surfaces. What is

the thermal conductivity of the plastic in

cal/cm-s-K at 25C?

ANS: 2.47 x 10-4 cal/cm-s-K

Assignment

Calculate the steady-state mass flux jAy of

helium for the system at 500C. The partial

pressure of helium is 1 atm at y = 0 and zero at

the upper surface of the plate. The thickness Y

of the Pyrex plate is 10-2 mm, and its density

(B) is 2.6 g/cm3. The solubility and diffusivity

of helium in pyrex are reported as 0.0084

volumes of gaseous helium per volume of

glass, and DAB = 0.2 10-7 cm2/s, respectively.

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