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Molecular Transport Equations

Outline

1.Molecular Transport Equations

2.Viscosity of Fluids
3.Fluid Flow

Molecular Transport
Each molecule of a system has a certain
quantity of mass, thermal energy, and
momentum associated with it. Foust

1. What happens when a difference in the


concentration of these properties occur from
one region to another?
2. How is transport different in a solid, gas, and
a liquid?

Molecular Transport
We need a simple physical model to describe
molecular transport - one that does not take
into account the structural differences of the
three states.

driving force
rate of transport =
resistance

Molecular Transport
driving force
rate of transport =
resistance

A driving force is needed to overcome


resistance in order to transport a
property.
Recall: Ohms Law from Physics

Molecular Transport

Flux
Define: FLUX
: amount of property being transferred per
unit time through a cross-sectional area

Mathematically,

d
Z flux
dz

Is the equation
dimensionally consistent?
What are the units of:
z?
?
?

Flux

d
Z
dz
Flux in the z-direction: amount of property
transferred per unit time per cross-sectional area
perpendicular to the z-direction of flow

: diffusivity, proportionality constant

Flux

d
Z
dz
If the transport process is at steady state, what
happens to the flux?

General Property Balance


If the transport
process is at
steady state,
what happens to
the flux?
rate of
rate of

property
in
property
out
0
0

rate of generation rate of accumulation

of property
of property

Flux at Steady State

d
Z
dz
z2

z1

Z dz d
Z z2 z1 2 1
Z

1 2
z2 z1

At steady-state:

1 2
z2 z1

Flux

d
Z
dz
What happens when you have an unsteadystate transport process?

General Property Balance


Assume:
1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.
2. Volume element has a
unit cross-sectional area.
3. R = rate of generation of
property (concentration
per unit time)

rate of
rate of

property
in
property
out

rate of generation rate of accumulation

of property
of property

General Property Balance


Assume:
1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.
2. Volume element has a
unit cross-sectional area.
3. R = rate of generation of
property (amount per unit
time per unit volume)

rate of property in z|z (area)


rate of property out z|z z (area)

WHY?

General Property Balance


Assume:
1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.
2. Volume element has a
unit cross-sectional area.
3. R = rate of generation of
property (amount per unit
time per unit volume)

rate of generation of property R z

WHY?

General Property Balance


Assume:
1. Transport occurs in the zdirection only.
2. Volume element has a
unit cross-sectional area.
3. R = rate of generation of
property (amount per unit
time per unit volume)

rate of accumulation of property


d

z
dt

WHY?

General Property Balance


rate of
rate of

property
in
property
out

rate of generation rate of accumulation

of
property
of
property

d
z|z z|zz R z dt z
Dividing by z :

z|z z|z z
z

d
R
dt

General Property Balance


z|z z|z z
z

d
R
dt

Taking the limit as z 0 :

d z
d

R
dz
dt

d
But: z
dz

d
d
2 R
dz
dt
2

General equation for momentum,


energy, and mass conservation
(molecular transport mechanism
only)

Momentum Transport
Imagine two parallel
plates, with area A,
separated by a
distance Y, with a
fluid in between.
Imagine the fluid
made up of many
layers like a stack
of cards.

Momentum Transport
Driving Force change
in velocity

d
Z
dz

Momentum Transport

d
Z
dz
Newtons law of
viscosity

d(v x )
yx
dy
Flux of x-directed
momentum in the
y-direction

Momentum Transport

d(v x )
yx
dy
but since:

dv x
yx
dy
yx : viscous flux of x-momentum in the
positive ydirection.

Heat Transport
Imagine two
parallel plates,
with area A,
separated by a
distance Y, with a
slab of solid in
between.
What will happen
if it was a fluid
instead of a solid
slab?

Heat Transport
Driving Force
change in
temperature

d
Z
dz

Heat Transport

d
Z
dz
qy
A

d( c p T)

Heat flux in the


y-direction

dy

Heat Transport
qy
A

d( cp T)
dy

but since: k cp

qy

dT
k
A
dy

Mass Transport
Imagine a slab of
fused silica, with
thickness Y and
area A.
Imagine the slab
is covered with
pure air on both
surfaces.

Mass Transport
Driving Force
change in
concentration

d
Z
dz

Mass Transport

d
Z
dz
dcA
J DAB
dy
*
Ay

Mass flux in the


y-direction

Analogy
Fouriers law

Newtons law

d(v x )
yx
dy
MOMENTUM

qy
A

Ficks law

d( c p T)

HEAT

dy

dcA
J DAB
dy
*
Ay

MASS

Assignment
Compute the steady-state momentum flux yx
in lbf/ft2 when the lower plate velocity V is 1 ft/s
in the positive x- direction, the plate separation
Y is 0.001 ft, and the fluid viscosity is 0.7 cp.

Assignment
Compute the steady-state momentum flux yx
in lbf/ft2 when the lower plate velocity V is 1 ft/s
in the positive x- direction, the plate separation
Y is 0.001 ft, and the fluid viscosity is 0.7 cp.
ANS: 1.46 x 10-2 lbf/ft2

Assignment
A plastic panel of area A = 1 ft2 and thickness
Y = 0.252 in. was found to conduct heat at a
rate of 3.0 W at steady state with
temperatures To = 24.00C and T1 = 26.00C
imposed on the two main surfaces. What is
the thermal conductivity of the plastic in
cal/cm-s-K at 25C?

Assignment
A plastic panel of area A = 1 ft2 and thickness
Y = 0.252 in. was found to conduct heat at a
rate of 3.0 W at steady state with
temperatures To = 24.00C and T1 = 26.00C
imposed on the two main surfaces. What is
the thermal conductivity of the plastic in
cal/cm-s-K at 25C?
ANS: 2.47 x 10-4 cal/cm-s-K

Assignment
Calculate the steady-state mass flux jAy of
helium for the system at 500C. The partial
pressure of helium is 1 atm at y = 0 and zero at
the upper surface of the plate. The thickness Y
of the Pyrex plate is 10-2 mm, and its density
(B) is 2.6 g/cm3. The solubility and diffusivity
of helium in pyrex are reported as 0.0084
volumes of gaseous helium per volume of
glass, and DAB = 0.2 10-7 cm2/s, respectively.

Assignment

ANS: 1.05 x 10-11 g/cm2-s