(a)
(b)
(c)
R in = 1.5 M
R out = 60
A = 8x104
Therefore A dB = 20 log 8x104 = 98.06 dB
Chapter 5, Solution 2.
v 0 = Av d = A(v 2  v 1 )
= 105 (2010) x 106 = 1V
Chapter 5, Solution 3.
v 0 = Av d = A(v 2  v 1 )
= 2 x 105 (30 + 20) x 106 = 10V
Chapter 5, Solution 4.
v 0 = Av d = A(v 2  v 1 )
v
4
2V
v2  v1 = 0
A 2 x10 6
v 2  v 1 = 2 V = 0.002 mV
1 mV  v 1 = 0.002 mV
v 1 = 1.002 mV
Chapter 5, Solution 5.
I
R0
R in
vd
+
vi
Av d
+
v0
v i + Av d + (R i + R 0 ) I = 0
But
+

(1)
v d = R i I,
v i + (R i + R 0 + R i A) I = 0
I=
vi
R 0 (1 A)R i
(2)
Av d  R 0 I + v 0 = 0
v 0 = Av d + R 0 I = (R 0 + R i A)I =
(R 0 R i A) v i
R 0 (1 A)R i
v0
R 0 RiA
100 10 4 x10 5
10 4
v i R 0 (1 A)R i 100 (1 10 5 )
10 9
100,000
10 4
0.9999990
5
100,001
1 10
Chapter 5, Solution 6.
vi
+ 
R0
I
R in
vd
+

Av d
+
vo
(R 0 + R i )R + v i + Av d = 0
But
v d = R i I,
v i + (R 0 + R i + R i A)I = 0
I=
vi
R 0 (1 A)R i
(1)
Av d  R 0 I + v o = 0
v o = Av d + R 0 I = (R 0 + R i A)I
Substituting for I in (1),
R 0 R iA
v i
v 0 =
R 0 (1 A)R i
50 2x10 6 x 2 x10 5 10 3
=
50 1 2x10 5 x 2 x10 6
200,000 x 2 x10
mV
200,001x 2 x10 6
6
v 0 = 0.999995 mV
Chapter 5, Solution 7.
100 k
10 k
VS
R out = 100
+
Vd
R in
AV d
At node 1,
+
V out
At node 2,
Chapter 5, Solution 8.
(a)
If v a and v b are the voltages at the inverting and noninverting terminals of the op amp.
va = vb = 0
1mA =
0 v0
2k
v 0 = 2 V
(b)
10 k
2V
ia
va
2V
vb
1V
+
vo
+2 k
10 k
+
va
+
ia
vo
(b)
(a)
Since v a = v b = 1V and i a = 0, no current flows through the 10 k resistor. From Fig. (b),
v a + 2 + v 0 = 0
v 0 = v a 2 = 1 2 = 1V
Chapter 5, Solution 9.
(a)
Let v a and v b be respectively the voltages at the inverting and noninverting terminals of
the op amp
v a = v b = 4V
At the inverting terminal,
1mA =
4 v0
2k
v 0 = 2V
1V
(b)
+
vb
vo
Since v a = v b = 3V,
v b + 1 + v o = 0
v o = v b 1 = 2V
10 v o
vs = vo
10 10 2
vo
=2
vs
5.11 Using Fig. 5.50, design a problem to help other students to better understand how ideal op
amps work.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem
Find v o and i o in the circuit in Fig. 5.50.
Solution
8 k
2 k
3V
vb =
5 k
a
b
+
10 k
+
4 k
vo
10
(3) 2V
10 5
At node a,
3 va va vo
2
8
io
12 = 5v a v o
But v a = v b = 2V,
12 = 10 v o
i o =
v o = 2V
va vo 0 vo 2 2 2
1mA
8
4
8
4
i o = 1mA
VS
a
b
+
10 k
Step 2.
+
Vo
10 k
a
b
1V
io
100 k i 2
10 k
90 k
50 k
By voltage division,
va =
90
(1) 0.9V
100
vb =
v
50
vo o
150
3
But v a = v b
io = i1 + i2 =
v0
0.9
3
i1
v o = 2.7V
vo
v
o 0.27mA + 0.018mA = 288 A
10k 150k
+
vo
5
20
10
10 k
vo
10 k
5 k
20 k
v1
10V
v2
+
vo
But v 2 = 0. Hence 40 4v 1 = v 1 + 2v 1 2v o
At node 2,
v1 v 2 v 2 v o
,
20
10
v 2 0 or v 1 = 2v o
v o = 2.5V
40 = 7v 1 2v o
(1)
(2)
Chapter 5, Solution 15
(a) Let v 1 be the voltage at the node where the three resistors meet. Applying
KCL at this node gives
1
v1 v1 vo
1 vo
v1
R2
R3
R2 R3 R3
At the inverting terminal,
is
0 v1
v1 i s R1
R1
Combining (1) and (2) leads to
v
R
R
i s 1 1 1 o
R2 R3
R3
(1)
is
(2)
vo
RR
R1 R3 1 3
is
R2
20 40
k  92 k
is
25
= 92 k
Chapter 5, Solution 16
Using Fig. 5.55, design a problem to help students better understand inverting op amps.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem
Obtain i x and i y in the op amp circuit in Fig. 5.55.
Figure 5.55
Solution
10k
5k
ix
va
vb
+
0.5V

iy
+
2k
8k
vo
1 3v a vo
5
10
(1)
But
8
10
vo
vo v a
(2)
82
8
Substituting (2) into (1) gives
10
8
1 3v a v a
v a
8
14
Thus,
0.5 v a
ix
1 / 70 mA 14.28 A
5
v vb vo va
10
0.6 8
iy o
0.6(v o v a ) 0.6( v a v a )
x mA
2
10
8
4 14
v a vb
= 85.71 A
G=
R
vo
12
f 2.4
vi
Ri
5
vo
80
= 16
vi
5
vo
2000
400
vi
5
a
b
7.5 V
A
2.5
B
Figure 5.57
For Prob. 5.18.
24
(4/3) k
4 k
4
3
10 k
0V
(1.5/3)V
vo
2 k
10k 1.5
937.5 mV.
4 3
4 k
3
v
v 0
562.5 A.
io o o
2k 10k
vo
2 k
4 k
9V
4 k
vs
+
vo
At node a,
9 va va vo va vb
4
8
4
18 = 5v a v o 2v b
(1)
At node b,
va vb vb vo
4
2
v a = 3v b 2v o
v o = 44/(11) = 4 V.
(2)
3v a va vo
4k
10k
31 1 vo
4
10
v o = 4 V.
Chapter 5, Solution 23
At the inverting terminal, v=0 so that KCL gives
vs 0
0 0 vo
R1
R2
Rf
vo
vs
Rf
R1
Chapter 5, Solution 24
v1
Rf
R1
R2
 vs +
+
+
R4
R3
vo

v2
v1 (v1 v s ) v1 vo
0
R1
R2
Rf
1 1 v1 v s vo
R R
R2 R f
R f
2
1
v1
vs
R3
R4
R3 R4
Substituting (2) into (1) yields
R
R
R R3 1
v s
vo R f 3 3 4
R1 R f R2 R3 R4 R2
i.e.
R
R
R R3 1
k R f 3 3 4
R1 R f R2 R3 R4 R2
(2)
(1)
Chapter 5, Solution 26
Using Fig. 5.64, design a problem to help other students better understand noninverting op amps.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem
Determine i o in the circuit of Fig. 5.64.
Figure 5.64
Solution
+
vb
+
0.4V

io
+
2k
8k
vo

vb 0.4
8
vo 0.8vo
82
Hence,
io
vo
0.5
0.1 mA
5k 5k
5k
v1
va
10 k
At node 1,
10 V
0 v1 v1 v o
10k
50k
But v 1 = 10V,
5v 1 = v 1 v o , leads to
v o = 6v 1 = 60V
vo
20 k
Chapter 5, Solution 29
R1
va
vb
+
vi

+

R2
R2
vo
R1

va
R2
vi ,
R1 R2
But v a vb
vb
R1
vo
R1 R2
R2
R1
vi
vo
R1 R2
R1 R2
Or
v o R2
vi
R1
vx
12
(1.2) 0.2V
12 60
ix
vx
20
0.2
10A
20k 20k 2 x10 6
v 2x 0.04
2W.
p
R
20k
6 k v
o
v1
12 V
vo
6 k
At node 1,
12 v1 v1 v o v1 v o
3
6
12
48 = 7v 1  3v o
(1)
At node 2,
v1 v o v o 0
ix
6
6
48
11
v
i x o 727.2A
6k
vo
v 1 = 2v o
(2)
50
v x 1 (4 mV) = 24 mV
10
60 30 20k
By voltage division,
v
20
v x x 12mV
20 20
2
vx
24mV
600 A
ix =
20 20k 40k
vo =
p=
v o2 144x10 6
204 W.
R
60x10 3
4 k
vi
va
4V
2 k
vo
3 k
3
1
v o 1 v i v i
2
2
Since the current entering the op amp is 0, the source resistor has a 0 V potential drop.
Hence v i = 4V.
vo
3
(4) 6V
2
12mW
R 3k
ix
12mW, 2mA
va vo 4 6
2mA.
R
1k
Chapter 5, Solution 34
v1 vin v1 vin
0
R1
R2
(1)
R3
vo
R3 R 4
(2)
but
va
R1
R
v 2 1 va 0
R2
R2
R
R
v a 1 1 v1 1 v 2
R2
R2
R 3v o
R
R
1 1 v1 1 v 2
R3 R 4 R 2
R2
vo
R3 R 4
R
v1 1 v 2
R2
R
R 3 1 1
R2
vO =
R3 R4
(v1 R2 v2 )
R3 ( R1 R2 )
Av
vo
R
1 f 7.5
vi
Ri
R f = 6.5R i
If R i = 60 k, R f = 390 k.
Chapter 5, Solution 36
VTh Vab
But
R1
Vab . Thus,
R1 R2
R
R R2
1
v s (1 2 )v s
R1
R1
vs
VTh Vab
+

a
+
R2
vo
io
R1
b
Since the noninverting terminal is connected to ground, v 1 = v 2 =0, i.e. no current passes
through R 1 and consequently R 2 . Thus, v o =0 and
RTh
vo
0
io
R
R
v o f v1 f v 2 f v 3
R2
R3
R1
30
30
30
v o = 1.5 V.
Calculate the output voltage due to the summing amplifier shown in Fig. 5.75.
Figure 5.75
Solution
R
R
R
R
v o f v1 f v 2 f v 3 f v 4
R2
R3
R4
R1
50
50
50
50
= 120mV
Chapter 5, Solution 39
vo
v1
v2
v3 (2) v 2 (1) 9 2.5v 2
R2
R3
20
50
10
R1
Thus,
v o 16.5 9 2.5v 2
v2 3 V
Chapter 5, Solution 40
Determine V o in terms of V 1 and V 2 .
200 k
100 k
100 k
V1
Va
V2
Vc
10
+
40
Vb
Vo
Step 1.
Label the reference and node voltages in the circuit, see above.
Note we now can consider nodes a and b, we cannot write a node equation at c
without introducing another unknown. The node equation at a is [(V a V 1 )/105] +
[(V a V 2 )/105] + 0 + [(V a V c )/2x105] = 0. At b it is clear that V b = 0. Since we
have two equations and three unknowns, we need another equation. We do get
that from the constraint equation, V a = V b . After we find V c in terms of V 1 and
V 2 , we then can determine V o which is equal to [(V c 0)/50] times 40.
Step 2.
Taking V c to the other side of the equation and multiplying everything by 2x105,
we get,
V c = 2V 1 2V 2
Now we can find V o which is equal to (40/50)V c = 0.8[2V 1 2V 2 ]
V o = 1.6V 1 1.6V 2 .
R i = 4R f = 40k
10 k
v1
R 2 = 40 k
v2
R 3 = 40 k
v3
R 4 = 40 k
v4
vo
Chapter 5, Solution 42
Since the average of three numbers is the sum of those numbers divided by three, the
value of the feedback resistor needs to be equal to onethird of the input resistors or,
1
R f R 1 25 k.
3
R
R
R
R
v o f v1 f v 2 f v 3 f v 4
R2
R3
R4
R1
to become
1
v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4
4
Rf 1
R 80k
Rf i
20 k.
Ri 4
4
4
vo
R2
vo
v2
At node b,
v b v1 v b v 2
0
R1
R2
At node a,
0 va va vo
R3
R4
v1 v 2
R1 R 2
vb
1
1
R1 R 2
(1)
vo
1 R4 / R3
(2)
va
or
vo =
R3 R4
R2 v 1 R1 v 2
R3 R1 R2
R
v1 R v 2
v o
R/2
R / 3
R
R
f v1 f v 2
R2
R1
R
R
R
v1
R/3
v 1
R/2
v2
vo
30 k
10 k
v1
10 k
v2
10 k
30 k
v 2
20 k
v3
vo
vo
30(1 2 / 30)
30
32
v2
V1
(2) 15(1) 14.09 V
2(1 2 / 20)
2
2.2
= 14.09 V.
+10 mV
Thus,
which leads to the current flowing through this part of the circuit,
i = 10 m/77.5k = 129.03x109 A
The voltage across the 60k and equivalent 100k is equal to,
v = ix37.5k = 4.839 mV
We can now calculate the voltage across the 80kohm resistor.
v 80 = 0.8x4.839 m = 3.87 mV
which is also the voltage at both inputs of the op amp and the voltage between the
20kohm and 80kohm resistors in the upper circuit. Let v 1 be the voltage to the
left of the 20kohm resistor of the upper circuit and we can write a node equation
at that node.
6v 1 60m + 2v 1 + 3v 1 11.61m = 0
or
R 2 = 4R 1 = 80k = R 4
vo
Verify:
R 2 1 R1 / R 2
R
v 2 2 v1
R1 1 R 3 / R 4
R1
(1 0.25)
v 2 4v1 4v 2 v1
1 0.25
Thus, R 1 = R 3 = 20 k, R 2 = R 4 = 80 k.
R2
v1
+
R1
vo
R2
v2
vo
R2
v 2 v1 2.5v 2 v1 , i.e. R 2 /R 1 = 2.5
R1
If R 1 = 100 k then R 2 = 250k
R
v1 R v 2
R/2
R / 2
R
R
f v1 f v 2
R2
R1
i.e. R f = R, R 1 = R/2.5 = R 2
We need an inverter to invert v 1 and a summer, as shown below. We may let R =
100 k.
R
R
R
v1
R/2.5
v 1
R/2.5
v2
vo
R
R
R
v1
R
va
R
v2
Verify:
But
v o = v a  v 2
v a = v 1 . Hence
vo = v1  v2.
vo
Chapter 5, Solution 52
Design an op amp circuit such that
v o = 4v 1 + 6v 2 3v 3 5v 4
Let all the resistors be in the range of 20 to 200 k.
Solution
A summing amplifier shown below will achieve the objective. An inverter is
inserted to invert v 2 . Since the smallest resistance must be at least 20 k, then let
R/6 = 20k therefore let R = 120 k.
R/4
v1
R/6
v2
R/3
v3
R/5
v4
R2
v1
va
vb
R1
vo
R2
v2
At node a,
At node b,
v1 v a v a v o
R1
R2
R2
vb
v2
R1 R 2
va
R 2 v1 R 1 v o
R1 R 2
(1)
(2)
vi
R1
(b)
v1
vi
+ v2
R 1 /2 v
A
R 1 /2
R2
va
Rg
R 1 /2
R 1 /2
vB
vb
R2
+
vo
At node A,
v1 v A v B v A v A v a
R1 / 2
Rg
R1 / 2
or
v1 v A
At node B,
v2 vB vB vA vB vb
R1 / 2
R1 / 2
Rg
or
v2 vB
R1
v B v A v A v a
2R g
R1
(v B v A ) v B v b
2R g
(1)
(2)
2R 1
v B v A v B v A v b v a
2R g
R
v 2 v1
1 1
2R
2
g
v B v A v i
Since, v a = v b ,
or
vB vA
vi
1
R
1 1
2R g
(3)
or
R1
v
vo i
2R 2
2
vo R 2
vi
R1
(4)
1
R
1 1
2R g
1
R
1 1
2R g
(c)
At node a,
At node b,
v1 v a v a v A
R1
R2 /2
2R 1
2R 1
v1 v a
va
vA
R2
R2
2R 1
2R 1
v2 vb
vb
vB
R2
R2
(1)
(2)
or
(3)
At node A,
va vA vB vA vA vo
R2 /2
Rg
R/2
va vA
At node B,
R2
v B v A v A v o
2R g
(4)
vb vB vB vA vB 0
R/2
Rg
R/2
vb vB
R2
v B v A v B
2R g
(5)
R2
v B v A v A v B v o
Rg
R
2v B v A 1 2 v o
2R
g
v o R2
R
1 2
vi
R1
2 R g
(6)
R
R
v1 v s v o = v s v o
R
R
The second stage is a noninverting amplifier
v o = (1 + R/R)v 1 = 2v 1 = 2(v s v o ) or 3v o = 2v s
v o /v s = 0.6667.
40 k
1 k
20 k
+
vi
Figure 5.83
Solution
100
)v2 3v2 6vs1 6vs2
50
35
1 3 5
Thus,
v o = 10((0.3913/5)+(0.3913/2)) = 2.739 V.
io
0 vo
684.8 A.
4k
v1 2vi 2.5vo
5
4
By voltage division,
10
5
v1
vo vo
10 2
6
Combining (1) and (2),
5
10
vo 2v1 2.5v0
v0 2vi
6
3
v1
vo
6 /10 0.6
vi
(1)
(2)
R2
R
vi 2 vo
R1
Rf
(1)
R4
v1
R3 R4
v1
R3 R4
vo
R4
(2)
R1
R4 Rf
R2 R4 R f
vo
R
1
2
R
R
R1 R2 R4 R3 R f R4 R f
vi
R1
1 3 2
R4 Rf
v1
R2
R
vi 2 vo
R1
R3
(1)
R4
R
v1 4 v i
R5
R6
(2)
R5 R3
R6
R1
R R R R
R
v o 1 2 4 2 4 4 v i
R 3 R 5 R 1R 5 R 6
vo
R4
R5
R2 R4 R4
v o R1 R5 R6
R R
vi
1 2 4
R3 R5
Chapter 5, Solution 64
G4
G
G3
G1
1
+
0V
G
+
2
0V +
G2
vs

(1)
At node 2,
G2 v s G3 v o Gv
From (1) and (2),
G1v s G4 v o G2 v s G3 vo
or
+
vo
(2)
vo G1 G2
v s G3 G4
Chapter 5, Solution 65
The output of the first op amp (to the left) is 6 mV. The second op amp is an inverter so
that its output is
30
(6mV) 18 mV
10
The third op amp is a noninverter so that
vo '
vo '
40
vo
40 8
vo
48
v o ' 21.6 mV
40
vo
40 100
100
100
(6)
(2)
(4)
25
20 20
10
24 40 20 4V
80 80
80
(0.3) (0.7)
20
40 20
4.8 2.8 2 V.
vo =
Va
15
(15) 45 mV
5
6
v o 1 v a (1 3)(45) 180mV.
2
va
15
15
(15) v o 45 1.5v o
5
10
6
v o 1 v a 4v a 4 45 1.5v o
2
180
7 v o 180 v o
25.71 mV.
7
vA
30
30
(1) (2) 9
10
10
vB
20
20
(3) (4) 14
10
10
40 k
20 k
vA
a
60 k
vB
b
vo
10 k
vb
10
(14) 2V
60 10
At node a,
vA va va vo
20
40
v o = 12V
Chapter 5, Solution 71
20k
5k
100k
40k
+
+
1.5 V
v2
10k
80k
+
20k
+
vo

10k
v1
+
2.25V
v1 2.25,
+

30k
v2
v3
50k
20
50
(1.5) 6,
v 3 (1 ) v1 6
5
30
100
100
v o
v2
v 3 (15 7.5) 7.5 V.
80
40
v2
250
v 01
100
2.5(1.8) 4.5 V.
100
(0.9) 9V
10
32
v2
(0.6) 12V
1.6
9 12
v v2
io 1
150 A.
20k
20k
v1
0.750V
375mV
750 mV
936.8mV
2 k
11.25V
6.510mV
3.872mV
6.686mV
3.872mV
0.0100V
4.838mV
v o = 4.992 V
R3
R4
R5
20k
10k
40k
V5
V3
20Vdc
1Vdc
1.000V
1
OS1
6
2.000V OUT
5
OS2
7
V
1.000V
U1
+
OS2
OUT
2
uA741
R1
R2
20k
10k
0
0
20.00V
0V
V+
0V
OS1
V
20.00V
V4
20Vdc
1.666V
V6
5Vdc
V+
V2
20Vdc
U2
uA741
0V
2
R6
100k
5
6
1
20.00V
V1
20Vdc
4.992V
1.666V
5.000V
(7.75/31) = 250 mV
(b)
(c)
(a)
The easiest way to solve this problem is to use superposition and to solve for each
term letting all of the corresponding voltages be equal to zero. Also, starting with
each current contribution (i k ) equal to one amp and working backwards is easiest.
2R
v1
2R
2R
2R
ik
v2
v3
v4
2R
v 1 = 2R volts or i 1 = v 1 /(2R).
2R
2R
2R
2R
i2
v2
Simplifying, we get,
2R
2R
R
1A
2R
v2
Therefore,
v 2 = 1xR + (3/2)(2R) = 4R volts or i 2 = v 2 /(4R) or i 2 =
0.25v 2 /R. Clearly this is equal to the desired 1/4th.
Now for the third case, let v 1 = v 2 = v 4 = 0, and i 3 = 1A.
2R
5R/3
1.5
2R
v3
The voltage across the 5R/3ohm resistor is 5R/2 volts. The current through the
2R resistor at the top is equal to (5/4) A and the current through the 2Rohm
resistor in series with the source is (3/2) + (5/4) = (11/4) A. Thus,
R
1A
2R
2R
v4
5R/3
1.5A
2R
2R
2R
2R
v4
2R
21R/11
11/4A
2R
v4
2R
Since the current through the equivalent 21R/11ohm resistor is (11/4) amps, the
voltage across the 2Rohm resistor on the right is (21/4)R volts. This means the
current going through the 2Rohm resistor is (21/8) A. Finally, the current going
through the 2R resistor in series with the source is ((11/4)+(21/8)) = (43/8) A.
Now, v 4 = (21/4)R + (86/8)R = (128/8)R = 16R volts or i 4 = v 4 /(16R) or
0.0625v 4 /R. This is just what we wanted.
(b)
[v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 ] = [1 0 11],
v o  = 0.6[1 + 0.25 + 0.125] = 825 mV
For
[v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 ] = [0 1 0 1],
v o  = 0.6[0.5 + 0.125] = 375 mV
R = 160 k.
a
5k
v s (t)
Also,
v a = (1 + (R 2 /R 1 ))v 1
(1)
v o = (R 4 /R 3 )v a + (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))v 2
(2)
v o = (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))v 2 (R 4 /R 3 + (R 2 R 4 /R 1 R 3 ))v 1
R 4 = R 1 and R 3 = R 2 , then,
v o = (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))(v 2 v 1 )
20 k
20 k
vi
vi
30 k
+
40 k
80 k
40 k
80 k
(a)
(b)
v a = (3/5)v i , v b = (2/3)v i
V Th = v b v a (1/15)v i
(v o /v i ) = A v = 220/15 = 14.667
Figure 5.107
For Prob. 5.90.
Solution
Transforming the current source to a voltage source produces the circuit below,
v b = (2/(2 + 4))v o = v o /3
At node b,
20 k
5 k a
5i s
+
4 k
io
2 k
+
vo
At node a,
But v a = v b = v o /3.
vo
R2
R1
is
i2
i1
But
io
io = i1 + i2
(1)
i1 = is
(2)
(3)
Chapter 5, Solution 92
The top op amp circuit is a noninverter, while the lower one is an inverter. The output
at the top op amp is
v 1 = (1 + 60/30)v i = 3v i
while the output of the lower op amp is
v 2 = (50/20)v i = 2.5v i
Hence,
v o = v 1 v 2 = 3v i + 2.5v i = 5.5v i
v o /v i = 5.5
R1 v
a
vb
io
R4
vi
R2
iL
vL
RL
+
vo
At node a,
(v i v a )/R 1 = (v a v o )/R 3
v i v a = (R 1 /R 2 )(v a v o )
v i + (R 1 /R 3 )v o = (1 + R 1 /R 3 )v a
(1)
(2)
(3)
But,
vL = iLRL
(4)
Thus,
A =
R RL
R
1 1 R L R 1 2
R3
R 2R 3
R 2RL
R 4
R2 RL
Please note that A has the units of mhos. An easy check is to let every resistor equal 1ohm and v i equal to one amp. Going through the circuit produces i L = 1A. Plugging into
the above equation produces the same answer so the answer does check.