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Chapter 5, Solution 1.

(a)
(b)
(c)

R in = 1.5 M
R out = 60
A = 8x104
Therefore A dB = 20 log 8x104 = 98.06 dB

Chapter 5, Solution 2.
v 0 = Av d = A(v 2 - v 1 )
= 105 (20-10) x 10-6 = 1V

Chapter 5, Solution 3.
v 0 = Av d = A(v 2 - v 1 )
= 2 x 105 (30 + 20) x 10-6 = 10V

Chapter 5, Solution 4.
v 0 = Av d = A(v 2 - v 1 )
v
4
2V
v2 - v1 = 0
A 2 x10 6
v 2 - v 1 = -2 V = 0.002 mV
1 mV - v 1 = -0.002 mV
v 1 = 1.002 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 5.

I
R0
R in

vd
+
vi

Av d

+
v0

-v i + Av d + (R i + R 0 ) I = 0
But

+
-

(1)

v d = R i I,
-v i + (R i + R 0 + R i A) I = 0
I=

vi
R 0 (1 A)R i

(2)

-Av d - R 0 I + v 0 = 0
v 0 = Av d + R 0 I = (R 0 + R i A)I =

(R 0 R i A) v i
R 0 (1 A)R i

v0
R 0 RiA
100 10 4 x10 5

10 4
v i R 0 (1 A)R i 100 (1 10 5 )

10 9
100,000
10 4
0.9999990
5
100,001
1 10

Chapter 5, Solution 6.
vi
+ -

R0
I

R in

vd

+
-

Av d

+
vo

(R 0 + R i )R + v i + Av d = 0
But

v d = R i I,
v i + (R 0 + R i + R i A)I = 0
I=

vi
R 0 (1 A)R i

(1)

-Av d - R 0 I + v o = 0
v o = Av d + R 0 I = (R 0 + R i A)I
Substituting for I in (1),
R 0 R iA
v i
v 0 =
R 0 (1 A)R i
50 2x10 6 x 2 x10 5 10 3
=
50 1 2x10 5 x 2 x10 6

200,000 x 2 x10
mV
200,001x 2 x10 6
6

v 0 = -0.999995 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 7.
100 k

10 k

VS

R out = 100

+
Vd

R in

AV d

At node 1,

+
V out

(V S V 1 )/10 k = [V 1 /100 k] + [(V 1 V 0 )/100 k]


10 V S 10 V 1 = V 1 + V 1 V 0
which leads to V 1 = (10V S + V 0 )/12

At node 2,

(V 1 V 0 )/100 k = (V 0 (AV d ))/100

But V d = V 1 and A = 100,000,


V 1 V 0 = 1000 (V 0 + 100,000V 1 )
0= 1001V 0 + 99,999,999[(10V S + V 0 )/12]
0 = 83,333,332.5 V S + 8,334,334.25 V 0
which gives us (V 0 / V S ) = 10 (for all practical purposes)
If V S = 1 mV, then V 0 = 10 mV
Since V 0 = A V d = 100,000 V d , then V d = (V 0 /105) V = 100 nV

Chapter 5, Solution 8.
(a)

If v a and v b are the voltages at the inverting and noninverting terminals of the op amp.
va = vb = 0
1mA =

0 v0
2k

v 0 = 2 V

(b)
10 k

2V

ia

va

2V

vb
1V

+
vo

+2 k

10 k

+
va

+
ia

vo

(b)

(a)

Since v a = v b = 1V and i a = 0, no current flows through the 10 k resistor. From Fig. (b),
-v a + 2 + v 0 = 0

v 0 = v a 2 = 1 2 = 1V

Chapter 5, Solution 9.
(a)
Let v a and v b be respectively the voltages at the inverting and noninverting terminals of
the op amp
v a = v b = 4V
At the inverting terminal,
1mA =

4 v0
2k

v 0 = 2V

1V

(b)

+-

vb

vo

Since v a = v b = 3V,
-v b + 1 + v o = 0

v o = v b 1 = 2V

Chapter 5, Solution 10.


Since no current enters the op amp, the voltage at the input of the op amp is v s . Hence

10 v o
vs = vo

10 10 2

vo
=2
vs

5.11 Using Fig. 5.50, design a problem to help other students to better understand how ideal op
amps work.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem
Find v o and i o in the circuit in Fig. 5.50.

Figure 5.50 for Prob. 5.11

Solution
8 k
2 k

3V

vb =

5 k

a
b

+
10 k

+
4 k

vo

10
(3) 2V
10 5

At node a,
3 va va vo

2
8

io

12 = 5v a v o

But v a = v b = 2V,
12 = 10 v o
i o =

v o = 2V

va vo 0 vo 2 2 2

1mA
8
4
8
4

i o = 1mA

Chapter 5, Solution 12.


Step 1.
Label the unknown nodes in the op amp circuit. Next we write the node
equations and then apply the constraint, V a = V b . Finally, solve for V o in terms of V s .
25 k
5 k

VS

a
b

+
10 k

Step 2.

+
Vo

[(V a -V s )/5k] + [(V a -V o )/25k] + 0 = 0 and


[(V b -0)/10k] + 0 = 0 or V b = 0 = V a ! Thus,
[(-V s )/5k] + [(-V o )/25k] = 0 or,
V o = ( 25/5)V s or V o /V s = 5.

Chapter 5, Solution 13.

10 k
a
b
1V

io
100 k i 2

10 k

90 k
50 k

By voltage division,
va =

90
(1) 0.9V
100

vb =

v
50
vo o
150
3

But v a = v b

io = i1 + i2 =

v0
0.9
3

i1

v o = 2.7V

vo
v
o 0.27mA + 0.018mA = 288 A
10k 150k

+
vo

Chapter 5, Solution 14.


Transform the current source as shown below. At node 1,
10 v1 v1 v 2 v1 v o

5
20
10

10 k

vo
10 k

5 k

20 k
v1

10V

v2

+
vo

But v 2 = 0. Hence 40 4v 1 = v 1 + 2v 1 2v o
At node 2,

v1 v 2 v 2 v o

,
20
10

v 2 0 or v 1 = 2v o

From (1) and (2), 40 = 14v o - 2v o

v o = 2.5V

40 = 7v 1 2v o

(1)
(2)

Chapter 5, Solution 15
(a) Let v 1 be the voltage at the node where the three resistors meet. Applying
KCL at this node gives
1
v1 v1 vo
1 vo

v1

R2
R3
R2 R3 R3
At the inverting terminal,
is

0 v1

v1 i s R1
R1
Combining (1) and (2) leads to

v
R
R
i s 1 1 1 o

R2 R3
R3

(1)

is

(2)

vo
RR
R1 R3 1 3
is
R2

(b) For this case,


vo
20 x 40

20 40
k - 92 k
is
25

= 92 k

Chapter 5, Solution 16
Using Fig. 5.55, design a problem to help students better understand inverting op amps.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem
Obtain i x and i y in the op amp circuit in Fig. 5.55.

Figure 5.55
Solution

10k

5k

ix
va
vb

+
0.5V
-

iy
+
2k

8k

vo

Let currents be in mA and resistances be in k . At node a,


0.5 v a v a v o

1 3v a vo
5
10

(1)

But

8
10
vo

vo v a
(2)
82
8
Substituting (2) into (1) gives
10
8
1 3v a v a

v a
8
14
Thus,
0.5 v a
ix
1 / 70 mA 14.28 A
5
v vb vo va
10
0.6 8
iy o

0.6(v o v a ) 0.6( v a v a )
x mA
2
10
8
4 14
v a vb

= 85.71 A

Chapter 5, Solution 17.


(a)
(b)
(c)

G=

R
vo
12
f 2.4
vi
Ri
5

vo
80

= 16
vi
5
vo
2000

400
vi
5

(a) 2.4, (b) 16, (c) 400

Chapter 5, Solution 18.


For the circuit, shown in Fig. 5.57, solve for the Thevenin equivalent circuit
looking into terminals A and B.
10 k
10 k

a
b

7.5 V

A
2.5
B

Figure 5.57
For Prob. 5.18.

Write a node equation at a. Since node b is tied to ground, v b = 0. We cannot write a


node equation at c, we need to use the constraint equation, v a = v b . Once, we know v c ,
we then proceed to solve for V open circuit and I short circuit . This will lead to V Thev (t) = V open
circuit and R equivalent = V open circuit /I short circuit .
[(v a 7.5)/10k] + [(v a v c )/10k] + 0 = 0
Our constraint equation leads to,
v a = v b = 0 or v c = 7.5 volts
This is also the open circuit voltage (note, the op-amp keeps the output voltage at 5 volts
in spite of any connection between A and B. Since this means that even a short from A to
B would theoretically then produce an infinite current, R equivalent = 0. In real life, the
short circuit current will be limited to whatever the op-amp can put out into a short
circuited output.
V Thev = 7.5 volts; R equivalent = 0-ohms.

Chapter 5, Solution 19.


We convert the current source and back to a voltage source.

24

(4/3) k

4 k

4
3
10 k

0V

(1.5/3)V

vo
2 k

10k 1.5
937.5 mV.
4 3

4 k
3

v
v 0
562.5 A.
io o o
2k 10k
vo

Chapter 5, Solution 20.


8 k

2 k
4 k

9V

4 k

vs

+
vo

At node a,
9 va va vo va vb

4
8
4

18 = 5v a v o 2v b

(1)

At node b,
va vb vb vo

4
2

v a = 3v b 2v o

But v b = v s = 2 V; (2) becomes v a = 6 2v o and (1) becomes


18 = 3010v o v o 4

v o = 44/(11) = 4 V.

(2)

Chapter 5, Solution 21.


Let the voltage at the input of the op amp be v a .
va 1 V,

3-v a va vo

4k
10k

3-1 1 vo

4
10

v o = 4 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 22.


A v = -R f /R i = -15.
If R i = 10k, then R f = 150 k.

Chapter 5, Solution 23
At the inverting terminal, v=0 so that KCL gives
vs 0
0 0 vo

R1
R2
Rf

vo
vs

Rf
R1

Chapter 5, Solution 24
v1

Rf

R1

R2
- vs +

+
+
R4

R3

vo
-

v2

We notice that v 1 = v 2 . Applying KCL at node 1 gives

v1 (v1 v s ) v1 vo

0
R1
R2
Rf

1 1 v1 v s vo
R R
R2 R f
R f
2
1

Applying KCL at node 2 gives


R3
v1 v1 v s

v1
vs
R3
R4
R3 R4
Substituting (2) into (1) yields

R
R
R R3 1
v s
vo R f 3 3 4
R1 R f R2 R3 R4 R2
i.e.
R
R
R R3 1

k R f 3 3 4
R1 R f R2 R3 R4 R2

(2)

(1)

Chapter 5, Solution 25.


This is a voltage follower. If v 1 is the output of the op amp,
v 1 = 3.7 V
v o = [20k/(20k+12k)]v 1 = [20/32]3.7 = 2.312 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 26
Using Fig. 5.64, design a problem to help other students better understand noninverting op amps.

Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem
Determine i o in the circuit of Fig. 5.64.

Figure 5.64
Solution
+
vb
+
0.4V
-

io
+
2k

8k

vo
-

vb 0.4

8
vo 0.8vo
82

vo 0.4 / 0.8 0.5 V

Hence,
io

vo
0.5

0.1 mA
5k 5k

5k

Chapter 5, Solution 27.


This is a voltage follower.
v 1 = [24/(24+16)]7.5 = 4.5 V; v 2 = v 1 = 4.5 V; and
v o = [12/(12+8)]4.5 = 2.7 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 28.


50 k

v1

va
10 k

At node 1,

10 V

0 v1 v1 v o

10k
50k

But v 1 = 10V,
5v 1 = v 1 v o , leads to

v o = 6v 1 = 60V

Alternatively, viewed as a noninverting amplifier,


v o = (1 + (50/10)) (10V) = 60V
i o = v o /(20k) = 60/(20k) = 3 mA.

vo

20 k

Chapter 5, Solution 29
R1

va
vb

+
vi
-

+
-

R2

R2

vo

R1
-

va

R2
vi ,
R1 R2

But v a vb

vb

R1
vo
R1 R2
R2
R1
vi
vo
R1 R2
R1 R2

Or

v o R2

vi
R1

Chapter 5, Solution 30.


The output of the voltage becomes
v o = v i = 1.2 V
(30k 20k ) 12k
By voltage division,

vx

12
(1.2) 0.2V
12 60
ix

vx
20
0.2

10A
20k 20k 2 x10 6
v 2x 0.04

2W.
p
R
20k

Chapter 5, Solution 31.


After converting the current source to a voltage source, the circuit is as shown below:
12 k
3 k

6 k v
o

v1

12 V

vo

6 k

At node 1,
12 v1 v1 v o v1 v o

3
6
12

48 = 7v 1 - 3v o

(1)

At node 2,
v1 v o v o 0

ix
6
6

From (1) and (2),

48
11
v
i x o 727.2A
6k
vo

v 1 = 2v o

(2)

Chapter 5, Solution 32.


Let v x = the voltage at the output of the op amp. The given circuit is a non-inverting
amplifier.

50
v x 1 (4 mV) = 24 mV
10
60 30 20k
By voltage division,
v
20
v x x 12mV
20 20
2
vx
24mV

600 A
ix =
20 20k 40k

vo =

p=

v o2 144x10 6

204 W.
R
60x10 3

Chapter 5, Solution 33.


After transforming the current source, the current is as shown below:
1 k

4 k

vi

va
4V

2 k

vo
3 k

This is a noninverting amplifier.

3
1
v o 1 v i v i
2
2
Since the current entering the op amp is 0, the source resistor has a 0 V potential drop.
Hence v i = 4V.

vo

3
(4) 6V
2

Power dissipated by the 3k resistor is


v o2 36

12mW
R 3k
ix

12mW, 2mA

va vo 4 6

2mA.
R
1k

Chapter 5, Solution 34

v1 vin v1 vin

0
R1
R2

(1)

R3
vo
R3 R 4

(2)

but

va

Combining (1) and (2),


v1 va

R1
R
v 2 1 va 0
R2
R2

R
R
v a 1 1 v1 1 v 2
R2
R2
R 3v o
R
R
1 1 v1 1 v 2
R3 R 4 R 2
R2

vo

R3 R 4
R
v1 1 v 2
R2

R
R 3 1 1
R2

vO =

R3 R4
(v1 R2 v2 )
R3 ( R1 R2 )

Chapter 5, Solution 35.

Av

vo
R
1 f 7.5
vi
Ri

R f = 6.5R i

If R i = 60 k, R f = 390 k.

Chapter 5, Solution 36
VTh Vab
But

R1
Vab . Thus,
R1 R2
R
R R2
1
v s (1 2 )v s
R1
R1

vs

VTh Vab

To get R Th , apply a current source I o at terminals a-b as shown below.


v1
v2

+
-

a
+
R2
vo

io

R1
b
Since the noninverting terminal is connected to ground, v 1 = v 2 =0, i.e. no current passes
through R 1 and consequently R 2 . Thus, v o =0 and
RTh

vo
0
io

Chapter 5, Solution 37.


R

R
R
v o f v1 f v 2 f v 3
R2
R3
R1

30
30
30

(2) (2) (4.5)


20
30
10

v o = 1.5 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 38.


Using Fig. 5.75, design a problem to help other students better understand summing amplifiers.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the same kind
of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem

Calculate the output voltage due to the summing amplifier shown in Fig. 5.75.

Figure 5.75

Solution
R

R
R
R
v o f v1 f v 2 f v 3 f v 4
R2
R3
R4
R1
50
50
50
50

(10) (20) (50) (100)


20
10
50
25

= -120mV

Chapter 5, Solution 39

This is a summing amplifier.


Rf
Rf
Rf
50
50
50

vo
v1
v2
v3 (2) v 2 (1) 9 2.5v 2
R2
R3
20
50
10

R1
Thus,
v o 16.5 9 2.5v 2

v2 3 V

Chapter 5, Solution 40
Determine V o in terms of V 1 and V 2 .
200 k

100 k

100 k

V1

Va

V2

Vc

10

+
40

Vb

Vo

Step 1.
Label the reference and node voltages in the circuit, see above.
Note we now can consider nodes a and b, we cannot write a node equation at c
without introducing another unknown. The node equation at a is [(V a V 1 )/105] +
[(V a V 2 )/105] + 0 + [(V a V c )/2x105] = 0. At b it is clear that V b = 0. Since we
have two equations and three unknowns, we need another equation. We do get
that from the constraint equation, V a = V b . After we find V c in terms of V 1 and
V 2 , we then can determine V o which is equal to [(V c 0)/50] times 40.
Step 2.

Letting V a = V b = 0, the first equation can be simplified to,


[V 1 /105] + [V 2 /105] + [V c /2x105] = 0

Taking V c to the other side of the equation and multiplying everything by 2x105,
we get,
V c = 2V 1 2V 2
Now we can find V o which is equal to (40/50)V c = 0.8[2V 1 2V 2 ]
V o = 1.6V 1 1.6V 2 .

Chapter 5, Solution 41.


R f /R i = 1/(4)

R i = 4R f = 40k

The averaging amplifier is as shown below:


R 1 = 40 k

10 k

v1
R 2 = 40 k
v2
R 3 = 40 k
v3
R 4 = 40 k
v4

vo

Chapter 5, Solution 42
Since the average of three numbers is the sum of those numbers divided by three, the
value of the feedback resistor needs to be equal to one-third of the input resistors or,

1
R f R 1 25 k.
3

Chapter 5, Solution 43.


In order for

R
R
R
R
v o f v1 f v 2 f v 3 f v 4
R2
R3
R4
R1

to become

1
v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4
4
Rf 1
R 80k

Rf i
20 k.
Ri 4
4
4

vo

Chapter 5, Solution 44.


R4
R3
a
R1
v1

R2

vo

v2

At node b,

v b v1 v b v 2

0
R1
R2

At node a,

0 va va vo

R3
R4

v1 v 2

R1 R 2
vb
1
1

R1 R 2

(1)

vo
1 R4 / R3

(2)

va

But v a = v b . We set (1) and (2) equal.


vo
R v R 1v 2
2 1
1 R4 / R3
R1 R 2

or
vo =

R3 R4
R2 v 1 R1 v 2
R3 R1 R2

Chapter 5, Solution 45.


This can be achieved as follows:

R
v1 R v 2
v o
R/2
R / 3
R

R
f v1 f v 2
R2
R1

i.e. R f = R, R 1 = R/3, and R 2 = R/2


Thus we need an inverter to invert v 1 , and a summer, as shown below (R<100k).

R
R

R
v1

R/3
-v 1
R/2
v2

vo

Chapter 5, Solution 46.


v1 1
R
R
R
1
( v 2 ) v 3 f v1 x ( v 2 ) f v 3
3 3
2
R1
R2
R3
i.e. R 3 = 2R f , R 1 = R 2 = 3R f . To get -v 2 , we need an inverter with R f = R i . If R f =
10k, a solution is given below.
vo

30 k

10 k

v1

10 k
v2

10 k
30 k

-v 2
20 k
v3

vo

Chapter 5, Solution 47.


Using eq. (5.18), R1 2k, R2 30k, R3 2k, R4 20k

vo

30(1 2 / 30)
30
32
v2
V1
(2) 15(1) 14.09 V
2(1 2 / 20)
2
2.2
= 14.09 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 48.


We can break this problem up into parts. The 5 mV source separates the lower
circuit from the upper. In addition, there is no current flowing into the input of
the op amp which means we now have the 40-kohm resistor in series with a
parallel combination of the 60-kohm resistor and the equivalent 100-kohm
resistor.

+10 mV

Thus,

40k + (60x100k)/(160) = 77.5k

which leads to the current flowing through this part of the circuit,
i = 10 m/77.5k = 129.03x109 A
The voltage across the 60k and equivalent 100k is equal to,
v = ix37.5k = 4.839 mV
We can now calculate the voltage across the 80-kohm resistor.
v 80 = 0.8x4.839 m = 3.87 mV
which is also the voltage at both inputs of the op amp and the voltage between the
20-kohm and 80-kohm resistors in the upper circuit. Let v 1 be the voltage to the
left of the 20-kohm resistor of the upper circuit and we can write a node equation
at that node.

(v 1 10m)/(10k) + v 1 /30k + (v 1 3.87m)/20k = 0


or

6v 1 60m + 2v 1 + 3v 1 11.61m = 0

or

v 1 = 71.61/11 = 6.51 mV.

The current through the 20k-ohm resistor, left to right, is,


i 20 = (6.51m3.87m)/20k = 132 x109 A
thus,

v o = 3.87m 132 x109x80k = 6.69 mV.

Chapter 5, Solution 49.


R 1 = R 3 = 20k, R 2 /(R 1 ) = 4
i.e.

R 2 = 4R 1 = 80k = R 4
vo

Verify:

R 2 1 R1 / R 2
R
v 2 2 v1
R1 1 R 3 / R 4
R1

(1 0.25)
v 2 4v1 4v 2 v1
1 0.25

Thus, R 1 = R 3 = 20 k, R 2 = R 4 = 80 k.

Chapter 5, Solution 50.


(a) We use a difference amplifier, as shown below:
R1

R2

v1

+
R1

vo

R2

v2

vo

R2
v 2 v1 2.5v 2 v1 , i.e. R 2 /R 1 = 2.5
R1
If R 1 = 100 k then R 2 = 250k

(b) We may apply the idea in Prob. 5.35.


v 0 2.5v1 2.5v 2

R
v1 R v 2

R/2
R / 2
R

R
f v1 f v 2
R2
R1
i.e. R f = R, R 1 = R/2.5 = R 2
We need an inverter to invert v 1 and a summer, as shown below. We may let R =
100 k.
R
R

R
v1

R/2.5
-v 1
R/2.5
v2

vo

Chapter 5, Solution 51.


We achieve this by cascading an inverting amplifier and two-input inverting summer as
shown below:

R
R

R
v1

R
va
R
v2

Verify:

But

v o = -v a - v 2
v a = -v 1 . Hence
vo = v1 - v2.

vo

Chapter 5, Solution 52
Design an op amp circuit such that
v o = 4v 1 + 6v 2 3v 3 5v 4
Let all the resistors be in the range of 20 to 200 k.
Solution
A summing amplifier shown below will achieve the objective. An inverter is
inserted to invert v 2 . Since the smallest resistance must be at least 20 k, then let
R/6 = 20k therefore let R = 120 k.
R/4

v1
R/6
v2

R/3
v3
R/5
v4

Chapter 5, Solution 53.


(a)
R1

R2

v1
va
vb

R1

vo

R2

v2

At node a,

At node b,

v1 v a v a v o

R1
R2
R2
vb
v2
R1 R 2

va

R 2 v1 R 1 v o
R1 R 2

(1)
(2)

But v a = v b . Setting (1) and (2) equal gives


R v R 1v o
R2
v2 2 1
R1 R 2
R1 R 2
R
v 2 v1 1 v o v i
R2
vo R 2

vi
R1
(b)

v1

vi
+ v2

R 1 /2 v
A

R 1 /2

R2
va

Rg
R 1 /2

R 1 /2
vB

vb

R2

+
vo

At node A,

v1 v A v B v A v A v a

R1 / 2
Rg
R1 / 2

or

v1 v A

At node B,

v2 vB vB vA vB vb

R1 / 2
R1 / 2
Rg

or

v2 vB

R1
v B v A v A v a
2R g

R1
(v B v A ) v B v b
2R g

(1)

(2)

Subtracting (1) from (2),


v 2 v1 v B v A

2R 1
v B v A v B v A v b v a
2R g

R
v 2 v1
1 1
2R
2
g

v B v A v i

Since, v a = v b ,

or

vB vA

vi

1
R
1 1
2R g

(3)

But for the difference amplifier,


R2
v B v A
R1 / 2
R
vB vA 1 vo
2R 2
vo

or

Equating (3) and (4),

R1
v
vo i
2R 2
2
vo R 2

vi
R1

(4)

1
R
1 1
2R g

1
R
1 1
2R g

(c)

At node a,

At node b,

v1 v a v a v A

R1
R2 /2
2R 1
2R 1
v1 v a
va
vA
R2
R2
2R 1
2R 1
v2 vb
vb
vB
R2
R2

(1)
(2)

Since v a = v b , we subtract (1) from (2),


v
2R 1
(v B v A ) i
R2
2
R2
vB vA
vi
2R 1
v 2 v1

or

(3)

At node A,
va vA vB vA vA vo

R2 /2
Rg
R/2
va vA

At node B,

R2
v B v A v A v o
2R g

(4)

vb vB vB vA vB 0

R/2
Rg
R/2
vb vB

R2
v B v A v B
2R g

(5)

Subtracting (5) from (4),


v B v A

R2
v B v A v A v B v o
Rg

R
2v B v A 1 2 v o
2R
g

Combining (3) and (6),


R 2
R
v i 1 2 v o
2R
R1
g

v o R2
R
1 2

vi
R1
2 R g

(6)

Chapter 5, Solution 54.


The first stage is a summer (please note that we let the output of the first stage be v 1 ).

R
R
v1 v s v o = v s v o
R
R
The second stage is a noninverting amplifier
v o = (1 + R/R)v 1 = 2v 1 = 2(v s v o ) or 3v o = 2v s
v o /v s = 0.6667.

Chapter 5, Solution 55.


Let A 1 = k, A 2 = k, and A 3 = k/(4)
A = A 1 A 2 A 3 = k3/(4)
20Log10 A 42
Log10 A 2.1
A = 102 1 = 125.89
k3 = 4A = 503.57
k = 3 503.57 7.956
Thus
A 1 = A 2 = 7.956, A 3 = 1.989

Chapter 5, Solution 56.


Using Fig. 5.83, design a problem to help other students better understand cascaded op
amps.
Although there are many ways to work this problem, this is an example based on the
same kind of problem asked in the third edition.
Problem

Calculate the gain of the op amp circuit shown in Fig. 5.83.


10 k

40 k

1 k
20 k

+
vi

Figure 5.83

For Prob. 5.56.

Solution

Each stage is an inverting amplifier. Hence,


vo
10
40
( )( ) 20
vs
1
20

Chapter 5, Solution 57.


Let v 1 be the output of the first op amp and v 2 be the output of the second op amp.
The first stage is an inverting amplifier.
50
v1
vs1 2vs1
25
The second state is a summer.
v 2 = (100/50)v s2 (100/100)v 1 = 2v s2 + 2v s1
The third state is a noninverting amplifier
vo (1

100
)v2 3v2 6vs1 6vs2
50

Chapter 5, Solution 58.


Looking at the circuit, the voltage at the right side of the 5-k resistor must be at 0V if
the op amps are working correctly. Thus the 1-k is in series with the parallel
combination of the 3-k and the 5-k. By voltage division, the input to the voltage
follower is:
v1

35
1 3 5

(0.6) 0.3913V = to the output of the first op amp.

Thus,
v o = 10((0.3913/5)+(0.3913/2)) = 2.739 V.

io

0 vo
684.8 A.
4k

Chapter 5, Solution 59.


The first stage is a noninverting amplifier. If v 1 is the output of the first op amp,
v 1 = (1 + 2R/R)v s = 3v s
The second stage is an inverting amplifier
v o = (4R/R)v 1 = 4v 1 = 4(3v s ) = 12v s
v o /v s = 12.

Chapter 5, Solution 60.


The first stage is a summer. Let V 1 be the output of the first stage.
10
10
vi vo

v1 2vi 2.5vo
5
4
By voltage division,
10
5
v1
vo vo
10 2
6
Combining (1) and (2),
5
10
vo 2v1 2.5v0

v0 2vi
6
3
v1

vo
6 /10 0.6
vi

(1)

(2)

Chapter 5, Solution 61.


The first op amp is an inverter. If v 1 is the output of the first op amp,
V 1 = (200/100)(0.4) = 0.8 V
The second op amp is a summer
V o = (40/10)(0.2) (40/20)(0.8) = 0.8 + 1.6
= 2.4 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 62.


Let v 1 = output of the first op amp
v 2 = output of the second op amp
The first stage is a summer
v1

R2
R
vi 2 vo
R1
Rf

(1)

The second stage is a follower. By voltage division


vo v2

R4
v1
R3 R4

v1

R3 R4
vo
R4

(2)

From (1) and (2),


R3
R
R
v o 2 v i 2 v o
1
Rf
R1
R4
R3 R2
R
v o 2 v i
1

R1
R4 Rf
R2 R4 R f
vo
R
1
2

R
R
R1 R2 R4 R3 R f R4 R f
vi
R1
1 3 2
R4 Rf

Chapter 5, Solution 63.


The two op amps are summers. Let v 1 be the output of the first op amp. For the first
stage,

v1

R2
R
vi 2 vo
R1
R3

(1)

For the second stage,


vo

R4
R
v1 4 v i
R5
R6

(2)

Combining (1) and (2),


R2
R R
R
v i 4 2 v o 4 v i

R5 R3
R6
R1
R R R R
R
v o 1 2 4 2 4 4 v i
R 3 R 5 R 1R 5 R 6
vo

R4
R5

R2 R4 R4

v o R1 R5 R6

R R
vi
1 2 4
R3 R5

Chapter 5, Solution 64

G4
G

G3

G1
1
+

0V

G
+

2
0V +

G2

vs
-

At node 1, v 1 =0 so that KCL gives


G1v s G4 vo Gv

(1)

At node 2,
G2 v s G3 v o Gv
From (1) and (2),
G1v s G4 v o G2 v s G3 vo
or

+
vo

(2)

(G1 G2 )v s (G3 G4 )vo

vo G1 G2

v s G3 G4

Chapter 5, Solution 65

The output of the first op amp (to the left) is 6 mV. The second op amp is an inverter so
that its output is

30
(6mV) -18 mV
10
The third op amp is a noninverter so that
vo '

vo '

40
vo
40 8

vo

48
v o ' 21.6 mV
40

Chapter 5, Solution 66.


We can start by looking at the contributions to v o from each of the sources and the fact
that each of them go through inverting amplifiers.
The 6 V source contributes [100k/25k]6; the 4 V source contributes
[40k/20k][(100k/20k)]4; and the 2 V source contributes [100k/10k]2 or

vo

40 100
100
100
(6)
(2)
(4)
25
20 20
10
24 40 20 4V

Chapter 5, Solution 67.

80 80
80
(0.3) (0.7)
20
40 20
4.8 2.8 2 V.

vo =

Chapter 5, Solution 68.


If R q = , the first stage is an inverter.

Va

15
(15) 45 mV
5

when V a is the output of the first op amp.


The second stage is a noninverting amplifier.

6
v o 1 v a (1 3)(45) 180mV.
2

Chapter 5, Solution 69.


In this case, the first stage is a summer

va

15
15
(15) v o 45 1.5v o
5
10

For the second stage,

6
v o 1 v a 4v a 4 45 1.5v o
2
180
7 v o 180 v o
25.71 mV.
7

Chapter 5, Solution 70.


The output of amplifier A is

vA

30
30
(1) (2) 9
10
10

The output of amplifier B is

vB

20
20
(3) (4) 14
10
10

40 k
20 k
vA
a

60 k

vB
b

vo

10 k

vb

10
(14) 2V
60 10

At node a,

vA va va vo

20
40

But v a = v b = -2V, 2(-9+2) = -2-v o


Therefore,

v o = 12V

Chapter 5, Solution 71
20k

5k

100k
40k

+
+
1.5 V

v2
10k

80k

+
20k

+
vo
-

10k
v1

+
2.25V

v1 2.25,

+
-

30k

v2

v3

50k

20
50
(1.5) 6,
v 3 (1 ) v1 6
5
30
100
100
v o
v2
v 3 (15 7.5) 7.5 V.
80
40

Chapter 5, Solution 72.


Since no current flows into the input terminals of ideal op amp, there is no voltage
drop across the 20 k resistor. As a voltage summer, the output of the first op
amp is
v 01 = 1.8 V
The second stage is an inverter

v2

250
v 01
100

2.5(1.8) 4.5 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 73.


The first stage is a noninverting amplifier. The output is
50
vo1 (1.8) 1.8 10.8V
10

The second stage is another noninverting amplifier whose output is


vL v01 10.8V

Chapter 5, Solution 74.


Let v 1 = output of the first op amp
v 2 = input of the second op amp.
The two sub-circuits are inverting amplifiers

100
(0.9) 9V
10
32
v2
(0.6) 12V
1.6
9 12
v v2

io 1
150 A.
20k
20k
v1

Chapter 5, Solution 75.


The schematic is shown below. Pseudo-components VIEWPOINT and IPROBE are involved as
shown to measure v o and i respectively. Once the circuit is saved, we click Analysis | Simulate.
The values of v and i are displayed on the pseudo-components as:
i = 200 A
(v o /v s ) = -4/2 = 2
The results are slightly different than those obtained in Example 5.11.

Chapter 5, Solution 76.


The schematic is shown below. IPROBE is inserted to measure i o . Upon simulation, the value
of i o is displayed on IPROBE as
i o = 562.5 A
11.25V
19.358uV

0.750V
375mV

750 mV

936.8mV

2 k

11.25V

Chapter 5, Solution 77.


The schematic for the PSpice solution is shown below.
Note that the output voltage, 6.686 mV, agrees with the answer to problem, 5.48.

6.510mV

3.872mV

6.686mV
3.872mV
0.0100V

4.838mV

Chapter 5, Solution 78.


The circuit is constructed as shown below. We insert a VIEWPOINT to display v o . Upon
simulating the circuit, we obtain,
v o = 667.75 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 79.


The schematic is shown below.

v o = 4.992 V
R3

R4

R5

20k

10k

40k

V5

V3
20Vdc

1Vdc

1.000V
1

OS1
6
2.000V OUT
5
OS2
7

V-

1.000V

U1
+

OS2

OUT
2
uA741
R1

R2

20k

10k

0
0

20.00V

0V

V+

0V

OS1
V-

-20.00V

V4
20Vdc

1.666V

V6
5Vdc

V+

V2
20Vdc

U2
uA741
0V
2

R6
100k

5
6
1
20.00V

V1
20Vdc

-4.992V

1.666V
5.000V

Checking using nodal analysis we get,


For the first op-amp we get v a1 = [5/(20+10)]10 = 1.6667 V = v b1 .
For the second op-amp, [(v b1 1)/20] + [(v b1 v c2 )/10] = 0 or v c2 = 10[1.66671)/20] +
1.6667 = 2 V;
[(v a2 v c2 )/40] + [(v a2 v c1 )/100] = 0; and v b2 = 0 = v a2 . This leads to v c1 = 2.5v c2 .
Thus,
= 5 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 80.

The schematic is as shown below. After it is saved and simulated, we obtain


v o = 2.4 V.

Chapter 5, Solution 81.


The schematic is shown below. We insert one VIEWPOINT and one IPROBE to measure v o
and i o respectively. Upon saving and simulating the circuit, we obtain,
v o = 343.4 mV
i o = 24.51 A

Chapter 5, Solution 82.


The maximum voltage level corresponds to
11111 = 25 1 = 31
Hence, each bit is worth

(7.75/31) = 250 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 83.


The result depends on your design. Hence, let R G = 10 k ohms, R 1 = 10 k ohms, R 2 = 20 k
ohms, R 3 = 40 k ohms, R 4 = 80 k ohms, R 5 = 160 k ohms, R 6 = 320 k ohms, then,
-v o = (R f /R 1 )v 1 + --------- + (R f /R 6 )v 6
= v 1 + 0.5v 2 + 0.25v 3 + 0.125v 4 + 0.0625v 5 + 0.03125v 6
(a)

|v o | = 1.1875 = 1 + 0.125 + 0.0625 = 1 + (1/8) + (1/16) which implies,


[v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 v 5 v 6 ] = [100110]

(b)

|v o | = 0 + (1/2) + (1/4) + 0 + (1/16) + (1/32) = (27/32) = 843.75 mV

(c)

This corresponds to [1 1 1 1 1 1].


|v o | = 1 + (1/2) + (1/4) + (1/8) + (1/16) + (1/32) = 63/32 = 1.96875 V

Chapter 5, Solution 84.

(a)

The easiest way to solve this problem is to use superposition and to solve for each
term letting all of the corresponding voltages be equal to zero. Also, starting with
each current contribution (i k ) equal to one amp and working backwards is easiest.

2R

v1

2R

2R

2R

ik
v2

v3

v4

2R

For the first case, let v 2 = v 3 = v 4 = 0, and i 1 = 1A.


Therefore,

v 1 = 2R volts or i 1 = v 1 /(2R).

Second case, let v 1 = v 3 = v 4 = 0, and i 2 = 1A.

2R

2R

2R

2R

i2
v2

Simplifying, we get,

2R

2R
R
1A
2R

v2

Therefore,
v 2 = 1xR + (3/2)(2R) = 4R volts or i 2 = v 2 /(4R) or i 2 =
0.25v 2 /R. Clearly this is equal to the desired 1/4th.
Now for the third case, let v 1 = v 2 = v 4 = 0, and i 3 = 1A.

2R
5R/3
1.5
2R

v3

The voltage across the 5R/3-ohm resistor is 5R/2 volts. The current through the
2R resistor at the top is equal to (5/4) A and the current through the 2R-ohm
resistor in series with the source is (3/2) + (5/4) = (11/4) A. Thus,

v 3 = (11/2)R + (5/2)R = (16/2)R = 8R volts or i 3 = v 3 /(8R) or 0.125v 3 /R. Again,


we have the desired result.
For the last case, v 1 = v 2 = v 3 and i 4 = 1A. Simplifying the circuit we get,

R
1A

2R

2R

v4

5R/3
1.5A

2R
2R

2R

2R

v4

2R

21R/11
11/4A

2R

v4

2R

Since the current through the equivalent 21R/11-ohm resistor is (11/4) amps, the
voltage across the 2R-ohm resistor on the right is (21/4)R volts. This means the
current going through the 2R-ohm resistor is (21/8) A. Finally, the current going
through the 2R resistor in series with the source is ((11/4)+(21/8)) = (43/8) A.
Now, v 4 = (21/4)R + (86/8)R = (128/8)R = 16R volts or i 4 = v 4 /(16R) or
0.0625v 4 /R. This is just what we wanted.

(b)

If R f = 12 k ohms and R = 10 k ohms,


-v o = (12/20)[v 1 + (v 2 /2) + (v 3 /4) + (v 4 /8)]
= 0.6[v 1 + 0.5v 2 + 0.25v 3 + 0.125v 4 ]
For

[v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 ] = [1 0 11],
|v o | = 0.6[1 + 0.25 + 0.125] = 825 mV

For

[v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 ] = [0 1 0 1],
|v o | = 0.6[0.5 + 0.125] = 375 mV

Chapter 5, Solution 85.


This is a noninverting amplifier.
v o = (1 + R/40k)v s = (1 + R/40k)2
The power being delivered to the 10-k give us
P = 10 mW = (v o )2/10k or v o = 10 2 x10 4 = 10V

Returning to our first equation we get


10 = (1 + R/40k)2 or R/40k = 5 1 = 4
Thus,

R = 160 k.

Chapter 5, Solution 86.


Design a voltage controlled ideal current source (within the operating limits of the op
amp) where the output current is equal to 200v s (t) A.
The easiest way to solve this problem is to understand that the op amp creates an output
voltage so that the current through the feedback resistor remains equal to the input
current.
In the following circuit, the op amp wants to keep the voltage at a equal to zero. So, the
input current is v s /R = 200v s (t) A = v s (t)/5k.
Thus, this circuit acts like an ideal voltage controlled current source no matter what
(within the operational parameters of the op amp) is connected between a and b. Note,
you can change the direction of the current between a and b by sending v s (t) through an
inverting op amp circuit.
b

a
5k
v s (t)

Chapter 5, Solution 87.


The output, v a , of the first op amp is,

Also,

v a = (1 + (R 2 /R 1 ))v 1

(1)

v o = (-R 4 /R 3 )v a + (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))v 2

(2)

Substituting (1) into (2),


v o = (-R 4 /R 3 ) (1 + (R 2 /R 1 ))v 1 + (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))v 2
Or,
If

v o = (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))v 2 (R 4 /R 3 + (R 2 R 4 /R 1 R 3 ))v 1
R 4 = R 1 and R 3 = R 2 , then,
v o = (1 + (R 4 /R 3 ))(v 2 v 1 )

which is a subtractor with a gain of (1 + (R 4 /R 3 )).

Chapter 5, Solution 88.


We need to find V Th at terminals a b, from this,
v o = (R 2 /R 1 )(1 + 2(R 3 /R 4 ))V Th = (500/25)(1 + 2(10/2))V Th
= 220V Th
Now we use Fig. (b) to find V Th in terms of v i .
a
a
30 k

20 k

20 k
vi

vi

30 k

+
40 k

80 k

40 k

80 k

(a)

(b)
v a = (3/5)v i , v b = (2/3)v i
V Th = v b v a (1/15)v i
(v o /v i ) = A v = -220/15 = -14.667

Chapter 5, Solution 89.


A summer with v o = v 1 (5/3)v 2 where v 2 = 6-V battery and an inverting amplifier
with v 1 = 12v s .

Chapter 5, Solution 90.


The op amp circuit in Fig. 5.107 is a current amplifier. Find the current gain i o /i s of the
amplifier.

Figure 5.107
For Prob. 5.90.
Solution
Transforming the current source to a voltage source produces the circuit below,
v b = (2/(2 + 4))v o = v o /3

At node b,

20 k
5 k a

5i s

+
4 k
io
2 k

+
vo

At node a,

(5i s v a )/5 = (v a v o )/20

But v a = v b = v o /3.

20i s (4/3)v o = (1/3)v o v o , or i s = v o /30


i o = [(2/(2 + 4))/2]v o = v o /6
i o /i s = (v o /6)/(v o /30) = 5

Chapter 5, Solution 91.

vo
R2

R1

is

i2
i1

But

io

io = i1 + i2

(1)

i1 = is

(2)

R 1 and R 2 have the same voltage, v o , across them.


R 1 i 1 = R 2 i 2 , which leads to i 2 = (R 1 /R 2 )i 1
Substituting (2) and (3) into (1) gives,
i o = i s (1 + R 1 /R 2 )
i o /i s = 1 + (R 1 /R 2 ) = 1 + 8/1 = 9

(3)

Chapter 5, Solution 92
The top op amp circuit is a non-inverter, while the lower one is an inverter. The output
at the top op amp is
v 1 = (1 + 60/30)v i = 3v i
while the output of the lower op amp is
v 2 = -(50/20)v i = -2.5v i
Hence,

v o = v 1 v 2 = 3v i + 2.5v i = 5.5v i
v o /v i = 5.5

Chapter 5, Solution 93.


R3

R1 v
a
vb

io

R4

vi

R2

iL

vL

RL

+
vo

At node a,

(v i v a )/R 1 = (v a v o )/R 3
v i v a = (R 1 /R 2 )(v a v o )
v i + (R 1 /R 3 )v o = (1 + R 1 /R 3 )v a

(1)

But v a = v b = v L . Hence, (1) becomes


v i = (1 + R 1 /R 3 )v L (R 1 /R 3 )v o

(2)

i o = v o /(R 4 + R 2 ||R L ), i L = (R 2 /(R 2 + R L ))i o = (R 2 /(R 2 + R L ))(v o /( R 4 + R 2 ||R L ))


Or,

v o = i L [(R 2 + R L )( R 4 + R 2 ||R L )/R 2

(3)

But,

vL = iLRL

(4)

Substituting (3) and (4) into (2),


v i = (1 + R 1 /R 3 ) i L R L R 1 [(R 2 + R L )/(R 2 R 3 )]( R 4 + R 2 ||R L )i L

= [((R 3 + R 1 )/R 3 )R L R 1 ((R 2 + R L )/(R 2 R 3 )(R 4 + (R 2 R L /(R 2 + R L ))]i L


= (1/A)i L

Thus,
A =

R RL
R
1 1 R L R 1 2
R3

R 2R 3

R 2RL
R 4
R2 RL

Please note that A has the units of mhos. An easy check is to let every resistor equal 1ohm and v i equal to one amp. Going through the circuit produces i L = 1A. Plugging into
the above equation produces the same answer so the answer does check.