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V.

Aimradha (1999) Feed Formulation for Fish and Poultry using Hideflesh lrom Tanneries

FEED FORMULATION FOR


FISH AND POULTRY
3.1 INTRODUCTION

Fish and poultry are the major animal protein sources

for human

consumption and their feed conversion efficiencies are higher than those of other
organisms. However the success of rearing fish and poultry depends upon the
feed given. The feed should be prepared based on the precise knowledge of their
nutritional requirements so that the optimum growth can be achieved in a given
time. The balanced diet to be given to these organisms should contain nutrients
such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, vitamins and minerals to meet basal energy
requirements and also to ensure healthy growth.

Of all the components of the

formulated feed, protein plays an important role in the feed. It is also a costly
component. The percentage of protein in the feed should be neither more nor
less than the optimum required for the organisms. A number of experiments
have been carried out by various researchers to optimize the percentage of protein
required for

fish (Mohanty et ai, 1990 and Ogino and Saito, 1970) and for

poultry (Jackson et ai, 1982 and Baghel and Pradhan, 1989a).

The quality of any protein

depends upon its aminoacid configuration.

Plant protein sources, though comparatively less expensive than animal protein
sources, may not provide all the aminoacids required by the fish and the poultry.
When supplemented by animal protein sources, they can provide the required
amount of essential aminoacids and other growth promoting substances.

In the feed of fish and poultry the main source of animal protein is
fishmeal, which not only supplies the appropriate aminoacids but also acts as feed
attractant besides being highly palatable.

Since the demand for fishmeal is high.

its cost is steadily increasing. There is also general a scarcity of good quality
fishmeal due to its being used in other animal husbandly activities. To meet the
heavy demand, many non-conventional sources have been exploited by many
workers. Some such products are blood powder meal (Luzier et al., 1995), animal
wastes (Belal et al., 1995), industrial wastes (Kumar et al., 1977 and Samanta el
al., 1991)

animal by-products (Lee and Yang, 1975) slaughter house wastes

(Nandeesha et al., 1986) soldier fly larvae (Bondari and Sheppard, 1987) and rat
meal (Aquino, 1987)

In the present study hidefleshings (free from hair) from the tanneries have
been processed and used as animal protein source in the feed of fish and poultry
substituting the fishmeal at various percentages.

Besides protein, the animals also require other nutrients like carbohydrates
and lipids. It is well known that supplements of carbohydrates or lipids have a
sparing effect on dietary protein being used as energy source in higher animals.
Proper balance between dietaiy protein and non-protein energy is important for the
efficient utilisation of the protem. Hence, in the diet offish and poultry, besides

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oil cakes and fishmeal (protein source), grains like wheat, corn, bajra and sorgham
have been incorporated as source of energy.

In the present study feed was prepared in the form of pellets for the fish
and

in the form of mash for the broilers.

The feed was compounded by

incorporating the different raw materials in required quantity taking care of the
nutritional need of the experimental animals.

3.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The success of the performance of the rearing organisms depends upon the
type of feed given to them.

The feed should contain not only all the nutrients

required for normal growth in the right proportion but also the required quantity of
aminoacids and fatty acids. Excess of protein in the diet will be excreted along
with other nitrogenous matters or stored as abdominal fats.

Murai el al. (1985) observed that, in carp, the requirement of energy was
much lower than that in rainbow trout and that enhancement of digestible energy
with supplemental lipids showed no improvement in the growth, feed conversion
and protein utilisation in carp.

They recommended

percent

lipid

supplementation in feed as the dietary protein level was mainly responsible for the
performance of carp at a level less than 33 percent.

Evaluation of different grains as basic ingredient in 25 percent protein feed


for carp and tilapia (Viola and Arieli, 1982) showed an average daily gain of 2.55g
and 2.53 g respectively.

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Local feeds like leftover rice, barley, wheat, fish offal and blood meal were
mixed by Asgah and Bedawi (1984) to get three feeds containing 53, 43, and 33
percent protein and on feeding carp with them, they obtained the highest
biological value in 43 percent protein feed, with increased protein (73.5 percent)
and aminoacid contents in the flesh.

Low cost ingredients like soybean meal, copra cake, corn, rice bran, napier
and carpet grass meals were tested for their digestibility in grass carp (Law, 1986).
The experiment showed that copra cake and rice bran

were poorly digested

whereas corn meal, soybean meal, napier and carpet grass meal showed better
digestion coefficients.

Jayaram and Sherty (1980) studied the effect of three pelleted feeds
incoiporating peanut oil cake, silk worm pupae and fishmeal as sources of protein
on rohu, catla and carp. Silk worm pupae and fishmeal diets showed conversion
ratios of 2.5 and 2.6 for carp.

The digestibility and aminoacid availability of soybean, poultry meat meal


blend based diets for Oreochromis niloticus(L) fingerlings was tested by Sadiku
and Jauncey (1995). The fingerlings were fed with 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 percent
of soyflour and poultry meat meal.

The best lipid digestibility and aminoacid

availability values were obtained in the 75:25 soyflour and poultry meat meal
blend and the best protein digestibility was observed with 25:75 percent soyflour
and poultry meat meal blend.

They concluded that protein and lipid of diets

containing more soyflour seemed to be more digestible than those of poultry meat
meal while the reverse was the case of ash.

Papoustsoglou and Papoustsoglou (1978) compared the body composition


of tiouts in three different types of diets. They prepared two types of dry pellets
and one mixed diet. After a feeding trial of 25 weeks, when the fish carcass was
analysed for body composition, the ash content remained constant in all the
experimental fish.

They also observed that with the increase of age and body

weight the percentage of protein and water decreased but the fat content increased.

The apparent digestibility of protein, fat, carbohydrate and energy in three


feed ingredients namely wheat, barley and corn for Cyprimis carpio using chromic
oxide as a dietary marker was studied by Degani el ah (1997). Each experimental
diet consisted of a mixture of the test ingredient and 50 percent of basal diet.
They observed that die apparent digestibility of wheat meal is significantly higher
than that of barley and corn meal.

The effects of particle size and frequency of feeding on survival and growth
of juvenile gilthead seabream were investigated by Goldan et al..(!997). The
effect of dry food particle size and frequency of feeding were investigated with all
treatments being supplemented equally with artemia.
particle size but not by the frequency of feeding.

Growth was affected by


Frequency of feeding had

significant effect on growth rate when artemia as a sole source of food was tested.
Continuous feeding resulted in a seven fold higher mean weight than in the case of
periodic feeding.

Hassan and Macintosh (1992) investigated under laboratory conditions the


optimum feed particle size of an inert diet for common carp fiy ranging from 15 to
466mg body weight and 13 to 31mm total length.

Speed of consumption of

standard quantity of feed was used as a measurement of feeding preference for

different particle size ranges. It was observed by them that carp of this size range
preferred feed particle size suitable for their mouth size, on the basis of ingestion
time and feeding behaviour. Particle size in the ranges of 125-300, 300-500, 300790 and 500-1000um diameter were found to be most appropriate for carp fry
weighing 15-23mg, 46-97mg, 105-209mg and 210-466mg respectively.

Smith et al. (1995) used pellets of different shapes and sizes for salmon.
Both diameter and length of pellets affected the feeding time, because salmons
take longer time to capture small pellets.

Though longer pellets were initially

captured by them, finally they were rejected and only the smaller pellets were
ingested.

The growth and feed intake responses of broilers to diets of two different
protein contents were analysed by Shariatmadari and Forbes (1993). The protein
concentrations were 65, 115, 172, 225 and 280g protein/kg. In one group of birds
the choice of two protein levels of 65 and 280g protein/kg was given. The results
showed that there was a linear increase in protein deposition with dietary protein
content upto 280g protein/kg.

When choice of diets was offered the birds

preferred an intake closer to their requirements.

Baghel and Pradhan (1988a) observed the effect of the dietary protein and
energy level on weight gain, processing loss and meat yield of broilers. They used
energy levels of 2800, 3000 and 3200 kcal/kg with different protein levels i.e. 20.
22, 23 and 25 percent for starters (0-4 weeks) and 10, 18, 19 and 21 percent for
finishers (5-8 weeks). Observation showed that diets with 25-24-21 percent of
proteins and metabolisable energy of 2800 kcal/kg are suitable for the starters,
growers and finishers.

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The

protein

levels in broiler rations was studied for 12 weeks

(Krishnappa et al., 1978). The percentage of protein levels were 16, 18, 20, 22
and 24. They observed that higher protein levels gave higher weight gains upto
the fifth week whereas, from 6-12 weeks, weight gains were not different between
different ration groups and they have recommended 24 and 21 percent protein in
the rations of starters and finishers respectively.

The effect of dietary energy and protein on the carcass composition of


broilers in different phases of growth was observed by Baghel and Pradhan
(1989b).

They used 20, 22, 23 and 25 percent of protein for the starter (0-3

weeks), 18, 20, 22 and 24 percent of protein for the grower (4-5 weeks) and, 16,
18,19 and 21 percent of protein for the finisher (6-8 weeks) feeds and the energy
levels were 2800, 3000 and 3200kcal/kg respectively.

The results showed that

birds fed with lower energy diet contained higher proportion of moisture and
protein and lower proportion of fat and energy in their carcass flesh, whereas the
levels of energy reduced the carcass moisture in the finisher stage.

Chawla et al. (1978) studied the influence of climatic conditions on energy


requirements of poultry.

When pullets were fed on feed with metabolisable

energy level of 2000, 2400, 2700 and 3000 kcal/kg, they did not show variation in
growth both during winter and summer seasons. They also observed that the daily
requirement of energy was 175 and 215 kcal/kg in summer and winter respectively
and they have recommended 2900-3000- kcal/kg of energy for pullets for both the
seasons.

Moran et al. (1992) reduced the dietary protein level from 23 percent to 20
percent in the starter (0 to 3 weeks) and from 20 percent to 17 percent in the

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finisher feeds (3 to 6 weeks) of broilers while satisfying the

ammoacid

requirement. In a trial of eight weeks they observed that the live body weight was
not affected though the feed conversion increased from the third week to sixth
week. However, processing of the birds showed fat in the abdominal cavity when
low crude protein was fed. The weight of the breast muscle also decreased and the
results showed that reduced, level of protein in the feed produced adverse effects
on the live performance.

Growth performance of broilers fed at different levels of energy in the


ration i.e. 2800, 3000 and 3200 kcal/kg fortified with crystalline ammoacid of
methionine and lysine was observed by Baghel and Pradhan (1988b).
level showed a significant influence on dressed weight of flesh.

Energy

The broilers

which received 3000 kcal/kg energy showed significant increase in dressed weight
than those that received the feeds of the other two energy levels. However higher
energy level in the feed resulted in fat deposition on the visceral organs.

Adekunmisi and Robbins (1987) conducted experiments on broilers to


study the effect of dietary electrolyte balance, dietaiy crude protein level and
photoperiod on growth performance.

Increasing the electrolyte balance (Na+K

and CI) from 200meg/kg to 350meg/kg improved the weight gain and feed
consumption of chicks fed on high protein (28 percent) diets but depressed weight
gain and feed consumption of chicks fed on low protein (14 percent) diets. The
results showed that electrolyte balance, that provides for optimum growth,
depended upon dietary crude protein and neither photoperiod nor sex affected the
protein- electrolyte balance interaction.

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The sulphur aminoacid requirement for cross breed broiler chicks was
studied by Prasad et a/.(1978). Broilers were fed on ration containing two levels
of protein (20 and 23 percent) and two levels of energy (2800 and 3100 kcal/kg).
Deficiency in methionine in the calculated value of aminoacid was supplemented
from 0.86 to 1 percent. At 3100 kcal/kg energy level six percent tallow was added
to the ration. Supplementation of methionine to fat containing diets improved the
nitrogen retention at both levels of protein. The authors observed that the dietaryenergy level and total sulphur aminoacid levels appreciably influenced the
nitrogen retention in the birds.

Tyagi and Singh (1996) studied the effect of dietery crude fibre levels ( 4.8.
6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 percent) in broiler. Dieteiy crude fibre has no significant influence
on the feed conversion, percentage eviscerated carcass yield, gizzard weight and
plasma and meat cholesterol level but had significant effect (P<.05) on bodyweight and feed intake. In winter the feed intake and body weight were
significantly affected by crude fibre level in the ration.

3.3 METERIALS AND METHODS


Preparation of feed for fish

Many researchers (Nakamura and Kasahara, 1956 and Tabachek, 1988)


have observed that pelleted form of feed is more suitable for fish as it helps the
fish to get all the essential nutrients and as it is convenient to store. Since the
moisture content in dry pellet is low the chance for the formation of moulds is
minimized and insect pests also can be prevented" easily.

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Research shows that long and thin pellets are much preferred by fish to
other shapes like round or flat. Hence, in the present study the fish feed was
prepared in the form of long and thin pellets.

The different raw materials used for the preparation of fish feed are wheat,
rice bran, peanut oil cake, soybean meal and fishmeal. To prepare the fishmeal.
diy fish were purchased from the local market, washed and dried in hot air oven at
60C to constant weight and then powdered.

All the other feed components were cleaned, powdered and passed through
425 urn sieve separately and analysed for protein (micro kjeldhal), fat (soxhlet),
ash (muffle furnace), carbohydrate (differential method) and calorific value
(Bomb calorimeter), as described in the previous chapter.

One control and two types of isoproteinaceous experimental feeds (40


percent protein) were compounded.

In the first type

of experimental

feeds.

fishmeal was replaced by hideflesh powder on weight basis at 20, 40, 60, 80 and
100 percent levels. In the second type of experimental feeds, the fishmeal was
replaced by hideflesh on protein basis at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent levels.
Thus eleven feeds were prepared (viz. one

control feed (feed-1) and 10

experimental feeds (feeds 2-11)).

The feed components were thoroughly mixed and made into hard dough
with sufficient quantity of water. This dough was pressure cooked at 15 Ib/sq.inch
for 15 minutes. Commercially available Supplevite M (mixture of vitamins and
minerals) was added to the dough and extruded in the form of noodles using an
extruder having 1mm dia perforations.

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The pellets

were dried at room

temperature and then in hot air oven at 60C for 6h and were stored in air tight
containers till use (Raj, 1978).

Physicochemica! analysis of the fish feed pellets

The feed pellets were, measured for its diameter using a screw gauge. The
zero error and the least count of the gauge were measured. The pellet was held
vertically between the studs using the ratchet. The reading of the pitch scale and
the head scale were noted and the diameter was calculated using die formula:
Reading of the pitch scale + reading of the head scale X least count + zero
correction.

Pellet stability was tested by keeping one gram of pellet in a wire gauze and
immersing it in water for one hour. The wet material with gauze was removed
without much disturbance and dried to a constant weight. All the 11 feed pellets
(one control and ten experimental) were separately pulverised, passed through 425
Micron sieve and analysed for protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate and energy values.

Preparation of feed for broiler

In India the feed for poultry is generally presentead in the form of mash.
Hence in the present study the feed was prepared in the form of mash for the
broilers.

As indicated earlier two types of feeds were compounded for two types of
feeding experiments.

In one type of feed fishmeal was replaced by hidefiesh

powder on weight basis and in another type of feed fishmeal was replaced by

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hideflesh on protein basis. For each type of feed a starter (for 0-4 weeks) and a
finisher (for 5-7 weeks) set of feeds with a protein level of 24 and 21 percent
respectively were prepared.

For the first type of experiment a control feed (feed 12) and five
experimental starter feeds (feeds 13 to 17) were compounded by replacing
fishmeal with hideflesh powder at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent on weight basis.
In the same way 21 percent isoproteinaceous finisher feed were prepared with a
control feed (feed 18) and five experimental feeds (feeds 19 to 23).

In the second type of feeds five 24 percent isoproteinaceous starter feeds


were compounded (feeds 24 to 28) replacing fishmeal protein by hideflesh protein
and five 21 percent isoproteinaceous finisher feeds were compounded for finisher
birds (feeds 29 to 33). Feeds 12 and 18 seived as control for this experiment also.

The other components used for compounding the feed were com (Zea
mays), bajra (Eleulsive coracana), sorgham (Sorgham vulgarae), peanut oil cake
{Arachis hypogea), sesame (Sesamum orientate) oil cake,

fishmeal and

commercially available vitamin mix and mineral mix. The grains and oil cakes
were analysed for their proximal composition, i.e protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate,
moisture and energy values. The raw materials were cleaned,sun dried and stored
separately in airtight containers till use.

Each week the feed was prepared afresh.

The required quantities of the

ingredients were separately broken into coarse particles and used for the
preparation of the feed mash. First the coarse particles of grains were mixed well
and then the particles of the oil cakes were added followed by the fishmeal or

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hideflesh powder. All the ingredients were thoroughly mixed and then the vitamin
mix and mineral mix were added. It is now mixed thoroughly and then stored in
containers.

All the feeds were separately

analysed for their proximal

composition.

3.4 RESULTS

All the components used in the preparation of feeds for fish were analysed
for the proximate composition (Table 12). Fishmeal is the usual source of animal
protein in fish feeds. Wheat flour and rice bran act as energy source. Wheat
flour, in addition, serves as a binder also. The energy values of the various feed
ingredients ranged from 3583 to 4401 cal/g.

Table 12 Proximate composition of the various ingredients used in the formulation


of feed for Cyprinus carpio var. communis fingeriings

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Broiler feed components

All the components used in the feeds for broilers (starter feeds and finisher
feeds) were analysed for their proximate composition and the results are given in
Table 13. The grains contained high level of carbohydrates.

The mineral level

was high in fishmeai. High percentage of fat was observed in sesame oil cake.

Table 13

Proximate composition of various components used in the feed

mash of broilers

Proximate composition offish feeds

The fish feeds (control and experimental) were prepared in the form of
isoproteinacious pellets containing 40 percent of protein. The components used in
the control and experimental feeds are given in Table 14 and proximate

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composition of the control and five experimental feeds (feeds 1 to 6) are given in
figure 15 and 16. In the first set of experimental feeds the fishmeal was replaced
by hideflesh on weight basis at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent levels.

Table 14

Percentage composition of control and five experimental feeds for

C.carpio var.communis (0.3610.03g) incorporated with hideflesh powder replacing


fishmeal on weight basis at different percentages.

Figure 16 Proximate composition of the five experimental feeds (feeds 2 to 6) for


CCarpio var.communis (0.361Q.03g) incorporated with hidefJesh powder replacing
fish meal on weight basis at different percentages

Feed 2

Feed 3

Proton
40.9%

Proten
403%

Moisture
4.5%

Moisture
34%

/3%

6.8%

Carbohydrate
40.3%

Carbohydrate

3973 cl/g

3877 cal/g

Feed 4
Protein
403%

Moisture

Carbohydrate
43.0%

3913 cal/g

Feed 5

Feed 6

Moisture
5.1%

Moisture
5.0%

Carbohydrate
443%

Carbohydrate
43.6%

3966 cal/g

3915cal/K

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The components of the second type of experimental feeds (feeds 7 to 11) in


which fishmeal was replaced by hideflesh powder on protein basis at 20, 40, 60.
80 and 100 percent levels is given in Table 15 and the proximate composition of
the feed pellets is given in figure 17.

Table 15

Percentage composition of five experimental feeds for Cyprinus carpio

var. communis (0.3610.03g) incorporated with hideflesh


fishmeal on protein basis at different percentages

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powder replacing the

Figure 17

Proximate composition of five experimental feeds for Cyprinus

varpio var. communis (Q.36103g) incorporated with hidefiesh powder


replacing the fish meal on protein basis at different percentages

The pellet stability and the diameter of the pellets of feeds 1 to 6 and feeds
7 to 11 are given in Table 16 and 17 respectively. The stability of the pellets
ranged from 90 to 95 percent and the size of the feed pellets did not vary much.

Proximate composition of the broiler starter feeds

The percentage composition of the control

feed (feed 12) and five

experimental feeds (feeds 13 to 17) used for stater broiler are given in Table 18
and the proximal composition of the same is given in figure 18 and 19. In the
experimental feeds, fishmeal was replaced by hideflesh on weight basis at 20, 40.
60, 80 and 100 percent levels. As the broilers require energy -rich feed, care was
taken to incorporate grains like corn, bajra and jowar at a high percentage.

Table 18

Percentage composition of control (feed 12) and five experimental feeds

(feeds 13 to 17) used for starter broilers (35.50.03g) incorporating


powder replacing fishmeal on weight basis at different percentages

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hideflesh

Figure 18 Proximate composition of control feed (Feed 12) used for starter broilers
(35.50.03g)

Figure 19

Proximate composition of five experimental feeds used for starter

broilers (35.50.03 g) incorporating hideflesh powder replacing the fishmeal


weight basis at different percentages

on

The mineral mix used in the feed contains the following minerals. The
composition of the Supplevite M has already been given.
Mineral Mix (250 g) contain copper - 312 mg, iodine - 0.156 g, cobalt - 45 mg, DL methionate -1.92 g.
magnesium -2.114 mg, L. lysine-4.400 g, iron - 979 mg. calcium - 30 g. zinc-2.13 mg, pho.sphorus
-8.25g.

The percentage composition of finisher feeds i.e. control feed mash (feed
18) and five experimental feed mashes (feeds 19 to 23) incorporating hideflesh
powder on weight basis is given in Table 3.8.
same is given in figure 20 and 21.

The proximate composition of the

In the fisnisher feeds too, fishmeal was

replaced by hideflesh powder at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent levels.

All the

feeds were isoproteinaceous.

Table 19 Percentage composition of control (feed 18) and five experimental feeds
(feeds 19 to 23) used for finisher broilers incorporated with hideflesh powder
replacing fishmeal on weight basis at different percentages

Figure 20

Proximate composition of tSie control feed (feedl8) used for finisher

broilers

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figure 21 Proximate composition of the five experimental feeds (feeds 19 to 23) for
finisher broilers incorporating hideflesh powder replacing the fish meal on weight
basis at different percentages feed incorporated with hideflesh powder on
protein basis

Composition of the broiler starter feed incorporating hideflesh powder on


protein basis

The percentage composition of the five experimental broiler starter feeds


(feeds 24 to 28) is given in Table 20 and their proximate composition is given in
figure 22.

All the feed mashes were isoproteinaceous and, in the experimental

feeds, fishmeal was replaced by hideflesh powder on protein basis at 20, 40, 60.
30 and 100 percent levels.

Table 20

Percentage composition of five experimental feeds (feeds 24 to 28) used

or starter broilers (35.50.03g) incorporated with hideflesh powder replacing


fishmeal on protein basis at different percentages

Hideflesh powder

1.24

2.47

3.70

4.94

6.17

Fishmeal

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

Peanut oil cake

28.76

28.53

28.30

28.06

27.83

Corn

42.00

43.00

44.00

45.00

46.00

Bajra

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

Jowar

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

Sesame oil cake

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

Mineral mix

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

Supplied Supplevite M : at the dosage of lkg/200kg

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Figure 22

Proximate composition of five experimental feeds (feeds 24 to 28) used

for starter broilers (35.50.03g) incorporated with hideflesh powder replacing the
fishmeal on protein basis at different percentages

The percentage composition of five finisher experimental feeds are given


in Table 21 and the proximate composition of the same (feeds 29 to 33) is given
in figure 23. All the feeds are isoproteinaceous and the fishmeal is replaced by
hideflesh powder on protein basis at 20. 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent level.

Table 21

Percentage composition of five experimental feeds used for finisher

broilers incorporatied with hideflesh powder replacing fishmeal on protein basis at


different percentages

Figure 23 Proximate composition of five experimental feeds (feeds 29-33) used for
finisher broilers incorporating hidefiesh powder replacing the fishmeal on protein
basis at different percentages

3.5 DISCUSSION

The ingredients used in fish and broiler feeds are locally available and quite
inexpensive.

Peanut oil cake is commonly used in animal feed as a source of

vegetable protein and it is available throughout the year. The aminoacid profile of
peanut cake shows that it is rich in arginine and the limiting aminoacids are
tiyptophan, methionine and lysine. However, in the compounded feed, the lack of
certain aminoacids is taken care of by incorporating certain ingredients which are
rich in those limiting aminoacids.

in poultry feed formulation, the percentage

of the usual components

incorporated are as per the ISI (1992) recommendations. The inclusion of sesame
oil cake in the diet compensates the lack of limiting aminoacids in the peanut oil
cake.

Corn

is commonly used in the diet of poultry as an energy source

(Stevenson and Jackson, 1981, Ahmed et al, 1996 and Isarakul and Weewipat
1991) and, besides corn, the feeds also contain small millets which are locally
available.

In fish feed, wheat flour is used as energy source besides rice bran. Kim et
al. (1984), Belal et al. (1995) and Desilva and Gunasekera (1989) have used wheat
flour in the feed for fish not only as energy source but also as a binder. The other
binding substances like gum arabic and algin are physiologically active and hence
they are considered to have growth inhibiting effects. So wheat flour was used in
the present study as a binder and as a source of energy.

The energy need of fish is much less compared to that of warm blooded
animals.

Fish need

energy mainly to maintain position and for movement.

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Because of ammonia excretion the use of energy is highly minimized. However


insufficient or excess energy results in reduced growth rate. Fish primarily eat to
satisfy their energy needs and excess energy reduce the intake as high energy feed
satisfy the energy requirement in less quantity. Peanut oil cake is commonly used
a fish feed (Raj, 1989 and Daniel and Sahayaraj, 1990) as vegetable source of
protein and fishmeal as animal source of protein.

The dietary protein requirement of fish differs from fish to fish.

Several

experiments have been earned out by a number of scientists to optimise the


protein requirement for various species of fish. It has been observed that the
dietary protein requirement of Salmo gairdneri was 45 percent (Higuera et ah.
988), of Cyprimts carpio was 40 percent (Capper et a/., 1982 and Kim and Oh.
985), of C.mrigala was 40 percent (Swamy et al., 1988), of catla and rohu were
5 percent (Jayaram and Sherry, 1980 and Mohanty el al., 1990), of Oreochromis
nilolicus was 34 to 36 percent (Desilva and Gunasekera, 1989) . Ogino and Saito
1970) reported that the optimum utilisation of protein by carp was obtained when
fed on diets containing 35 to 40 percent of protein. For the present study the
protein level for the compounded feed for Cyprimis carpio var. communis was
fixed at 40 percent level.

Feed is given to fish in various forms like mash, capsules, grains, pellets
c. However supplying the feed for fish in the form of pellets is the common
practice. Dry pellets are easy to prepare, store, transport, handle and distribute.
ley can also be easily protected from fungi and insects. Pelleted

diet for fish

culture was used by a number of workers (Raj, 1978; Raj and Kutty, 1984; Raj.
94; and, Daniel and Sahayaraj, 1990).

In pelleted feeds desirable protein

percentage can easily be calculated (Ali, 1980). Locally available ingredients can

easily be incorporated in the feed to reduce the cost of the feed. Conventional and
non-conventional ingredients like weeds and grasses (Raj, 1984), wild leaves (Raj.
1994) wild seeds (Daniel and Raj, 1992) hideflesh powder (Raj and Kandasamy.
1 991) and Anuradha et al.(1998) are some of the ingredients normally used in the
f e e d for aquaculture.

Buoyancy of the particles and water stability depend on the density of the
particles. By grinding the particles to uniform size loss of the contents can be
avoided (Ghittino, 1972) and

all this in turn, depends upon the processing

techniques and the selection of the ingredients. Keeping this in view the raw
materials used for the pellet preparation in the present study were selected.
processed, powdered and sieved in 420 micron sieve

and then used for

compounding the feed.

To maximise the feed utilisation among the

rearing

organisms, their

feeding behaviour should be taken into account. In aquaculture operation the size
a n d the shape of the feed pellets play a role in eliciting responses from animals
w h i c h capture them. The physical attributes of the pellets namely length, texture,
density, colour, flavour etc. not only affect the ability of the fish to capture but
a l s o stimulate the fish to eat them. The size and shape of the pellets are likely to
be important at each stage of the feeding sequence by influencing their
detectability, attractiveness and ease of capture (Stradmeyer et ai., 1988). Smith et
ctl. (1995) observed in salmon that though long pellets tended to ellicit rapid
response, they were more likely to be rejected than short pellets.

Tabacheck

( 1988) observed the pellet size optimal for growth is relative to the fish size
w h i c h is determined by the length of the fish and the size of their mouth.

84

The texture and hardness of the pellets also play an important role in
motivating the fish to eat them.

Soft pellets are readily accepted by the fish

irrespective of their length (Knights, 1985 and Meatus, 1990).

In the present study the length of the pellets used for the carp ranged from
1.2 to 1.5 mm. There was no distinct difference in the diameter and stability of
the pellets.

The stability of the feed pellets depends on the

ingredient composition,

nature of the ingredients, their processing method, moisture content etc. Higher fat
content affects the gelatinization and reduces the pellet stability.

Winfree and

Stickney (1984) have reported that vegetable proteins increase the stability. In the
present study the stability of the feed pellets ranged from 95 to 97 percent. The
difference may be due to the increase in the percentage of hideflesh.

Raj and Kutty (1979) have observed a feed stability of 96.9, 93.0 and 95.8
percent in dry feed pellets of lmm diameter incorporating 60 percent (Jfiricidiu
metadata, Albizzia lebbeck and Enteralobium saman seed kernel powder
respectively. Venugopal and Kesavanath (1984) observed a feed stability of 92.8.
91.9 and 87.7 in the pellets incorporated with fishmeal, colocassia leaf and fish
silage. They also observed that increase in moisture, in turn, altered the stability
of the feed pellets.

85

Broiler feed

The nutritional requirements of broilers should be met appropriately so that


optimum growth will be achived in the least time. A number of studies have been
carried out by different scientists to optimize the protein requirement of the
broilers (Lepstein et ai, 1975; Fancher and Jensen, 1989 and Shariatmadari and
Forbes, 1993). They have recommeded 24 percent of protein for the starter birds
(0 to 4 weeks) and 21 percent for the finisher birds (5 to 7 weeks).

In broiler diets the ratio between protein and energy is an important factor.
If the dietary protein is decreased, the abdominal fat deposition may increase as
the bird increases its feed intake in an attempt to maintain its protein requirement
(Bradford and Gous, 1991).

As growth progresses the protein requirement

decreases and the requirement of energy for maintenance increases and this is
reflected in commercial poultry production by stepwise decrease in the protein
content of the diets given to the birds.

Kaufman et al. (1978) have observed a

gradual reduction in protein intake of broilers as they grow from 4 to 9 weeks.


Morris and Njuru (1990) showed that higher dietary protein content is necessary
for maximal protein deposition in the carcass.

In the present study the starter birds were fed with feeds containing 24
percent protein and the finisher birds with feeds containing 21 percent protein.

Unlike fish, broilers require lipids and carbohydrates for their energy
needs.

Birds try to consume more amount of feed to satisfy their energy

requirements.

The energy in the ration is mainly contributed by fats and

carbohydrates and the primary function of the protein in the diet is facilitating

86

tissue protein formation whereas fat and carbohydiate serve as source of energy
for maintenance, growth and production. It has been observed that efficiency of
feed utilisation improves with the increase in the dietary energy level.

The

optimum level of energy is observed where the breakdown of protein as a source


of energy is minimum without affecting growth rate.

Marked increase in the energy level

of the feed decreases the feed

consumption (Chawla et a/., 1978). In broilers, high energy level in the feed is
related to excess of fat deposition in visceral organs (Jackson et ai., 1982; Salmon
et al., 1983 and Lepstein et al., 1975).

Hence, in the feed formulation for the

broilers, the energy content of the feed have to be checked. Works carried out by
Summers et al. (1965) has recommended a metabolisable

energy level of 3500

cal/g for commercial broilers. In the present study the energy level in all the
given feed mash range from 3500 to 4100cal/g.

In the feed mash of the broilers, grains like maize, bajra and sorgham have
been incorporated as energy sources and oil cakes like peanut oil cake and sesame
oil cake are used as vegetable protein sources and fishmeal is the only animal
protein source. Attempts have been made by a number of workers to use plant
protein sources replacing the fishmeal without much success, as fishmeal
contains essential aminoacids, essential fatty acids and minerals which are
essentialfor proper growth of the birds.

Replacement of fishmeal by other animal protein sources like meat meal


(Sethi et a/., 1991), hydrolysed feathermeal (Baker et a/., 1981) and hydrolysed
leather meal (Waldroup et al., 1970) has proved that these substances could be

87

incorporated in broiler feeds only upto certain percentages and not to replace the
fishmeal completely.

Feed for broilers is prepared afiesh each week in the form of mash as the
starter birds prefer fresh feed.

In the present study processed hideflesh powder was incorporated in the


diet of fish and poultry at various percentages replacing the fishmeal on weight
basis and on protein basis so that the cost of the feed could be reduced and that the
tannery wastes could be usefully utilised.

88

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