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Practical Application in Public Relations

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Table of Content

1.0 Introduction...pg.1
2.0 Phase 1: Formative Researchpg.2
2.1 Analyzing the Situation.pg.2
2.2 Analyzing the Organization..pg.3
2.3 Analyzing the Public.pg.5
3.0 Phase 2: Strategy...pg.7
3.1 Establishing Goals and Objectivespg.8
3.2 Formulating Actions and Response Strategies.pg.8
3.3 Using Effective Communication.pg.11
4.0 Phase 3: Tactics...pg.12
4.1 Choosing Communication Tactics..pg.12
4.2 Implementing the Strategic Plan.pg.13
5.0 Phase 4: Evaluative Research.pg.14
5.1 Evaluating the Strategic Plan..pg.14
6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations.pg.15
7.0 References...pg.15

1.0 Introduction
Culture is the most important issue that needs to be taken concern by international
company. Different countries possess their own culture and lifestyle. This means that the
thinking, behavior and attitudes of people are different from places to places. Moreover,

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the dissimilar rules and legislation in different countries will definitely affect
international business like McDonalds.
McDonalds is one of the world leading restaurant chains. It operates more than 30,000
restaurants in more than 100 countries on six continents today (Advameg, Inc, 2012).
McDonalds was founded in 1940 by two brothers, Dick and Mac. Since the first
franchise open in 1953, the company continues to expand its business from US to UK,
Moscow and China (iloveindia.com, n.d.). McDonalds opened its first restaurant in
Delhi, India in 1996 and second restaurant in the financial capital of India, Mumbai. To
operate in India that possess exact different culture from US, a creative and effective
strategic public relations planning is essential for McDonalds.
According to Ronald D. Smiths strategic planning for public relations (PR), effective and
creative planning is the heart of any PR and related activities. Organization PR plan
should be developed according to four phases: Formative research, strategy, tactics and
evaluative research. Careful planning allows company to monitor, test and adjust the
strategies according to the situation, which will then increase the percentage of success
and reduce the cost. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to analyze McDonalds public
relations plan in India using Smiths The Nine Steps of Strategic Public Relations
model listed below:

Phase One: Formative Research


o Analyzing the Situation
o Analyzing the Organization
o Analyzing the Publics
Phase Two: Strategy
o Establishing Goals and Objectives
o Formulating Actions and Response Strategies
o Using Effective Communication
Phase Three: Tactics
o Choosing Communication Tactics
o Implementing the Strategic Plan
Phase Four: Evaluative Research
o Evaluating the Strategic Plan

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2.0 Phase One: Formative Research


To have an effective public relations plan, organization should first identify what are the
positive and negative circumstances, no matter is internally or externally, which will be
faced. In the first phase, organization needs analyze whether the situation is an issue
management that under control or crisis management when situation is out of control as
well as organizations opportunities and threats. Then, organization needs to do a public
relations audit, which analyzes the companys internal environment, public perception,
and external environment in order to figure out the strengths and weaknesses of the
company. The last step of the formative research is to determine who the organization
publics are and to study on their characteristics.
2.1 Analyzing the Situation
The first step of Smiths strategic planning for public relations is to analyze the situation.
The public relations plan to enter the India market is an issue management for
McDonalds. McDonalds is able to predict what are the opportunities and obstacles that
the company will face through doing research on the market. By doing so, McDonalds is
able to avoid uncontrollable crisis.
By having the world second largest population (Rosenberg, 2011), India undoubtedly is
an opportunity for McDonalds to expand their business. The open market for global
companies in India had provided a golden chance for McDonalds to enter the market as
well. However, the cow-sacred culture in India had become a threat to McDonalds, an
US company which used to serve beef as its major ingredients. Furthermore, India has the
highest vegetarians population in the world (Elizabeth, 2009). According to Hindu-CNNIBN State of the Nation Survey (2006), there is 31% of the populations are pure
vegetarians and another 9% are vegetarians who consume eggs.
Hence, as McDonalds are being the world largest user of beefs (Lin, 2012) and be known
for its beef and pork burger (Kaimal, 2009), the amount of vegetarians and Indias cowsacred culture will definitely bring a big obstacle to the organization. Another threat for
McDonalds is its competitiveness with local restaurants. People there do understand

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local culture and habits better than McDonald do. The variety of food with acceptable
price range has strengthened local restaurants competitive level too. Therefore, the
acceptance for American fast-food and to change Indians perception had become a
challenge to McDonalds.
2.2 Analyzing the Organization
The second step is to analyze the internal environment, public perception, and external
environment of the organization. McDonalds must be honest to itself in order to clarify
the strengths and weaknesses of the company. In addition, to what extent McDonalds is
known in India and how the public perceived the organization is essential for the
company. Analysis of Indias political, economic, and social and technology factors as
well as the nature of any rivalry that may exist must be done too.
2.2.1 Internal Environment
McDonalds is known for selling consistent, simple, low-priced American food with fast
service (Hassan, 2011). The franchise strategy had led the company to grow extremely
fast while the introduction of Ronald McDonalds had turn its burger into most famous
burger. With its strong background, McDonalds is able to make huge investment to
support any of its plans include necessary researches. Moreover, the company is willing
to adapt glocalization through changing their strategy according to the culture
differences. The implementation of McDonalds system also allows the company to
control at every stage from procurement to serving. This is to ensure the McDonalds
philosophy of Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value (QSCV) is being achieved.
Training is provided to all staffs and food safety is taken seriously by the organization.
2.2.2 Public Perception
The famous of Golden Arches is not working in India. During 1996, when Indians was
awakening to the global call, the Indians perceived western products and services as
higher quality and expensive. Most of the citizens who considered McDonalds as a
symbol of American culture had recognize McDonalds as another example of the
everlasting spread of Western companies into different countries or communities, which

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is creating a global system that wealth will flowed out from local economies into very
few and rich aristocracies hands (Kulkarni & Lassar, 2009).
2.2.3 External Environment
India is known to be a country that treats women as inferior to men. Female infants used
to being buried right after they were born and women are living with a very low status in
India. They dont have the rights to study like men do. Thus, the government was trying
to implement equal rights policy to all citizens regardless the gender, race, and religious.
The government wanted to provide a minimum standard of living to the citizens;
however, these promises have not been fulfilled up to date (Baxi, 1985).
Economy factors in India are growing continuously from 419.352 US dollars gross
domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita GDP in 1980 to
1236.838 US dollars in 1996 (Index Mundi, 2011). This had indicated that Indians
purchase power are increasing rapidly from year to year plus the open market for global
companies in 1996 had become an opportunity for McDonalds to enter this potential
market. Nonetheless, entrance of other global companies will become competition for
McDonalds.
India has the second highest population in the world today. Its population grows from
846.3 million in 1991 to 952, 107, 694 million in 1996, which is divided into 34% below
15years old, 62% for 15-64 years old, and 4% of 65 years old and above (CIA, 1996). 3942% of the total population is vegetarians, an alternative to fish, lamb and chicken. Cow
is taboo and cannot be served. Meanwhile, the unemployment rate in India stays in an
average of 7% since its independence (Jha R., 2000). If McDonalds is able to help the
government to overcome the negative circumstances while increase Indias economy
mentioned above, government will definitely become a huge supporter for McDonalds
The demand for fast food is increasing corresponsive to dual-income families in India.
Some of the popular snacks in India (Bhelpuri, Vada Pav, Samosas and Pani Puri) had
revealed that Indians are more concern of the food taste especially spicy taste instead of

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the nutrition due to these snacks has low nutrition. As a result, burger, which had been
perceived as snack in India, can stand a chance to grab consumers attention if the taste is
suitable for the Indians.
The information technology in India is basically based on the radio, which has the highest
rate of audience, television (which is fully under government control), and telephones
(CIA, 1996). Its an urge for the country to further develop their technologies to meet
global quality and standard. In this case, entrance of McDonalds has played a role in
bringing new technologies to India as well as increase Indians living quality and
standard.
2.3 Analyzing the Public
The third step is to identify and then analyze who McDonalds public are under the four
categories of public customers, producers, enablers, and limiters. The publics key
characteristics and their influences on the company should be come under consideration
too. Customer is the one who consume McDonalds products or services; no matter it is a
primary or secondary customer. Those who provide input to McDonalds are categorized
under producers while enablers are those who set norms or standard to the organization.
Finally, limiters are those who might reduce or undermine McDonalds success.
2.3.1 Customers
Price sensitivity is still critical in India although the purchase power in India had risen; as
a result, McDonalds need to select specific markets to target. Researches indicated that
children have the power to influence parents buying process (Mangleburg & Tech,
1990). McDonalds had noticed on this new phenomenon and decided to set children in
dual-income family as its key public. McDonalds may introduce childrens menus or
offer free toys to target on the children. If the company is able to attract the children
attention, parents will automatically be influence and then become McDonalds
customers.

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Furthermore, the influences of American culture brought to Indian youngsters had created
another target market for McDonalds. Parents who need to relax after working for a day
is one of McDonalds consumers markets. Automobile driving consumers, cinema and
shopping mall lovers, and middle-class Indians are McDonalds potential consumers.
McDonalds can offer Mc Delivery services to those tired parents and open its outlet in
shopping complex and petrol stations.
2.3.2 Producers
McDonalds employees in India itself are one of the producers who will bring benefits to
the company due to their engagement and performance will directly influence consumers
perception on the company. McDonalds should provide high class training to the
employees so that they have the appropriate qualification to perform better in operation
and in service quality.
Alternatively, the relationships with suppliers and distributors of McDonalds in India,
which include Trikaya Ariculture (supplier of Iceberg Lettuce), Vista Process Foods Pvt
Ltd (supplier of chicken and vegetable products), Dynamix Diary (supplier of cheese),
Amrit Food (supplier of long life UHT Milk and milk products for frozen desserts),
Radhakrishna Foodland (distribution center) and Lamb Weston (potato farming), will
determine whether McDonalds could achieve its philosophy of QSCV and its objective
to minimize the production costs. Through giving exclusive products supplier authorities
that bring huge profits to these suppliers and distributors might enhance their loyalty to
McDonalds.
2.3.3 Enablers
Indias government who set the rules and regulations become one of the public that need
to be taken concern by McDonalds. Any changes of the government policies can affect
McDonalds operations. Therefore, McDonalds should pay more attention on its
relationships with Indias government. In addition to that, the benefits of the joint-venture
partnership with two Indian businessmen, Amit Jatia and Vikram Bakshi need to be taken
into consideration by McDonalds in order to get win-win situation. Other partnerships

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with BPCL (Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited), HPCL (Hindustan Petroleum


Corporation Limited), railway stations and bus stations will add values to both parties
too.
Media in India, on the other hand, has the power to shape public perception and help
McDonalds to success; Hence, McDonalds need to put more effort in building
relationship with the media and create positive newsworthy for media to report. The
power of word of mouth (WOM) created by existing customers can affect other potential
consumers to visit McDonalds too. McDonalds should provide great experience to the
customers so that they will influence person around them to visit McDonalds.
Vegetarians, health and nutrition, animal welfare and environment campaigners are the
opinion leaders of their fans. They are able to influence public opinion and indirectly
affect McDonalds successfulness. McDonalds should carefully plan for campaigns
which are able to show these campaigners that McDonalds does care on their concern.
2.3.4 Limiters
Local restaurants are the main competitors of McDonalds. McDonalds needs to work
hard to gain more market share consequently due to local restaurants understand local
eating habits, taste and culture more than McDonalds do. Therefore, the joint-venture
strategy with local businessmen is a good decision for McDonalds. Food and beverages
industries in India, no matter local or international, will become competitors and
opponents of McDonalds. Media and the activists, in contrast, can ruin McDonalds
business as well when McDonalds is unable to stay in step with them.
3.0 Phase Two: Strategy
After gathering the data needed, clear and inspire goals are essential to further establish
relevant public relations tactics and strategies. Different objectives to target different
publics as well as to know what to achieve in a specific time need to be set in order to
achieve the ultimate goals. These goals and objectives determine what strategies and
tactics should be taken without increase unnecessary cost.

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3.1 Establishing Goals and Objectives


The fourth step of the strategic planning is to set challengeable goals and objectives for
the organization. However, McDonalds India is operating according to its vision and
QSCV philosophy which is different from what Smith stated. If McDonalds India did
create particular goals and objectives that need to be accomplish, it may be able to carry
out better strategies and to know to what extent the company had been.
McDonalds vision in India is to be Indias best quick service restaurant experience.
Instead of Golden Arches which seems nothing to Indians, McDonalds wanted to
position itself as a family restaurant. This vision is supported by Mcdonalds philosophy
of QSCV as well as its values which are listed as below (H.R.P.L., 2010):

Place customers experience at the core of what the organization do


Are committed to its people
Believe in McDonalds system
Operate business ethically
Give back to the communities
Grow the business profitably
Strive continually to improve

3.2 Formulating Actions and Response Strategies


In the fifth step, organization is going to determine what actions and response strategies
should be taken in order to achieve companys goals and objectives. McDonalds India is
doing quite well in formulating actions and response strategies. The company engages in
both pro-active and re-active strategies according to the changes of situation.
First, McDonalds had taken pre-emptive action strategy by predicting the using of beef
will become an important issue in India. Thus, the organization used alliances and
coalitions strategy through involving in joint-ventures partnership with two Indian
businessmen, Amit Jatia and Vikram Bakshi, one year before they open their first
McDonalds restaurant there to inform local people that McDonalds India is running by
Indians who know their culture better. These businessmen help McDonalds to operate

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McDonalds in India while in exchange; McDonalds provide management trained for


their management team in McDonalds restaurant in Indonesia and USA.
Moreover, McDonalds is willing to adapt on the different culture of India using
organizational performance strategy. McDonalds decided to change their ingredients
according to Indias culture by abandoning beef and pork at all and implement new
vegetarian menus. McDonalds introduced McAloo Tikki and McVeggies , which
are totally made by vegetarians ingredients, especially for the vegetarians. Chicken, lamb
and fish is added to the options for non-vegetarians in order to replace beef or pork in the
menus.
McDonalds separated both vegetarians and non-vegetarians cooking and serving process
with a transparent kitchen. Consumers could see its whole operations and staffs who are
working with vegetarians food will wear green aprons. These moves are to convince the
vegetarians that McDonalds do really care about their Shudh Shakahari Experience
pure vegetarians experience.
On the contrary, when animal welfare and environment campaigners critic McDonalds
for not treating the animal nicely during the slaughter process and making the
environment condition worse, McDonalds invest fortune on promoting itself as
environment friendly corporation through using recycle materials for packaging,
implementing various campaigns and sponsorships. In addition to that, half
advertisements of the radio, television, print and internet were focus on promoting gogreen, healthy products and lifestyle to counterattack the critics on McDonalds. At the
same time, McDonalds used defensive response strategy through arguing that the
treatment to the animals is comes under law, which should be the concern of the
government.
Burger is perceived as snack and unhealthy food in India. To overcome these
circumstances, McDonalds is the first fast-food company that introduces nutritional
information to the consumers. This is to set McDonalds image that it concern on

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consumers health, unlike what the activists said. McDonalds also engage in donations
and fund raising campaign to help local children and raise women status in India to build
their reputation and image.
To implement McDonalds QSCV philosophy, McDonalds in India spent few years and
money in setting up a successful supply chain by bringing McDonalds system from US.
Indians suppliers supply more than 96% products and materials to McDonalds. Then, to
maintain freshness and nutrition value of foods, cold chain had been established. Process
from cold chain system until reach the customers is under examination of McDonalds
Quality Inspection Program (QIP) to ensure that all products are in perfect condition.
McDonalds defend itself by telling the Indian public that McDonalds is different from
other western companies. McDonalds contribute their profits into local community
through the CSR and CSV programs. Employing local citizens and purchase from local
suppliers help stimulate local economy and provide opportunity for them to grow. Other
CSR programs such as raising funds for children, running campaign to raise women
status in India, and sponsor quite a large amount of money to the schools are used to
create newsworthy information.
To enter the small cities in India, McDonalds decided to decrease their selling price, this
had successfully increase 25% of customers. Later, partnership with BPCL (Bharat
Petroleum Corporation Limited) and HPCL (Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited)
targeting on automobile driving consumers and partnership with railway stations and bus
stations to target potential middle-class Indians had become a strategy used by
McDonalds to expand its business. To target cinema and shopping complex lovers,
outlets had been set up.

3.3 Using Effective Communication

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The sixth step is to analyze how the organization is able to stand out from other
organizations messages whether using information, persuasion or dialogue as
communication approach.
In choosing the communication approach, McDonalds is focus on persuasive
communication, which includes ethos, logos and pathos message appeals, using family
which has children as spokesperson. When McDonalds first enter the India market, it
positioned itself as a family restaurant with as slogan of McDonald's mein hain kuch
baat, which mean theres definitely something about McDonalds to motivate and
encourage people to visit McDonalds for the first time. McDonalds advertisements were
showed in story-lines which focus on emotions to portray itself as a place that provides
full satisfaction and excitement experience to families which have kids and youngsters.
Families had been used as spokesperson in the advertisements.
Nonverbal communications such as play areas and Happy Meals with toys are provided
to the children so that parents could relax and enjoy their eating time in McDonalds. The
children friendly environment with lower counters, rounded table (to avoid children
getting hurt) and children menus were so attractive to the children. Different flavors of
ice-cream were established to fulfill on the youngsters curiosity.
Meanwhile, birthday parties and latest pop-music hits were available to tackle Indias
new generation of jean-clad Americanized teenagers. After the public get to know what
McDonalds is, McDonalds changed it slogan to Toh aaj McDonald's ho jaye" (Let it
be McDonalds for today), which support everyday experience to continue positioning
McDonalds as a families comfort zone. McDonalds believe that advertising and WOM
will help in promoting McDonalds.

4.0 Phase Three: Tactics

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After developing the strategies, organization is now going to determine how to


communicate with its audience through different communication tactics and to set the
budget and timeline to implement the strategies effectively.
4.1 Choosing Communication Tactics
In the seventh step, organization needs to choose the efficient communication tools and
tactics that can be used by the company to spread the messages. These media
communication tactics are put into four categories by Smith which are interpersonal
communication, organizational media, news media and advertising and promotional
media.
During 1996, internet was not well-establish in India yet. McDonalds communication
tactics are mainly based on outlet design, new store opening and public relations writing
skills in emphasizing McDonalds attempts to tailor menu according to Indian taste and
culture until 2000 (Chaturvedi, 2008). When McDonalds had gained the needed
explosion and ready to advertise by 2000, news media such as television and radio had
been used as communication tools. McDonalds found out advertisements with graphics
and audio that using kids and emotional appeals to display family ties and fun at
McDonalds are easier to capture Indians psychological emotion.
On the other hand, McDonalds Happy Meals with Lego toys and promotional schemes in
schools or figures of Ronald McDonalds were used to attract the lobbyist of one family
children. McDonalds implemented interpersonal communication targeted on children to
build its reputation and brand image in India. They organized interschool arts competition
and raise funds for charity on World Childrens Day. They also supported educational
programs for girl-child and promote goodwill to improve women status in India, which is
known as Blue Dot. In November 2006, McDonalds India runs a campaign of Each
One Contribute One for the vision correction for needy children.
Apart from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), McDonalds also engage in Creating
Shared Value (CSV). The establishment of McDonalds India had provided a huge

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numbers of employment opportunities as well as long-term career to local people


especially the youngsters. Each franchise of McDonalds employ average of 50 staffs
includes managers. Besides, the McDonalds potato farming in Gujarat had brought many
benefits to the farmers while driving the development of Indias economy. McDonalds
also implement Litter Patrols where employees will clean up the garbage that market
left behind every day to ensure a cleaner neighborhood.
4.2 Implementing the Strategic Plan
To implement the communication tactics and strategies developed before, organization
should plan for the budget and timeline in this step. Organization should calculate the
breakeven point in the end of this step too.
Six years before McDonalds entered India, the company and its international suppliers
had collaborated with local companies to establish products and supply chains that could
meet McDonalds food quality demand as well as minimize the operating costs (Dash,
2005). McDonalds even imported its food processing technologies from US to India to
improve India technology ability.
McDonalds first targeted on urban cities in India. The company invested Rs 100 cocre
for the expansion in New Eastern Region of India. After gaining the acceptance of local
citizens, McDonalds decided to expand its market to small India cities. Next,
McDonalds had signed it partnership with petrol stations and shopping malls to target on
automobile drivers and young lovers.
Since its first Indian restaurant in 1996, McDonalds had invested Rs 450 crore in its
operations out of its total planned investment of Rs 850 for 11 years (MBA Knowledge
Base, 2010). Reports disclosed that McDonalds had spent Rs 10 crore in June 2000, Rs
20 crore in 2001, Rs 18 crore in 2002, and Rs 24 crore in 2003 for its advertising and
promotional campaigns (Rangnekar, 2008).
To strengthen McDelivery service in India, McDonalds had further invested Rs 3 crore
from March 2007 to March 2010 with the launching of home delivery number (Kulkarni

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& Lassar, 2009). Furthermore, to continuously increase McDonalds reputation and brand
image, the company is celebrating Childrens week every year from November 14 to 20.
McDonalds also organized interschool arts competition annually and daily fund raising
for charities.
5.0 Phase Four: Evaluative Research
The final phase of Smiths strategic planning for PR comes back to research again. A well
doing evaluative research is important to an organization in order to increase the
effectiveness of public relations and marketing communications while prestige the role of
public relations in an organization.
5.1 Evaluating the Strategic Plan
The last step of Smiths strategic planning for PR is to evaluate the performance of the
strategic plan. The purpose for this evaluation is to know whether the goals and
objectives set in the very beginning being achieved or not. It is also to know if the
company is starting on the right foot.
By lower down the selling price when McDonalds tried to enter India small cities, it has
successfully increase 25% of customers. Additionally, with the establishment of local
supply chain and local farming, McDonalds announced that its operations had come into
break even and had expanded its business to 80 outlets in December 2003 even though
McDonalds had slowed down in its worldwide expansion.
In 2006, McDonalds India has effectively expanded its business around 100 restaurants.
At the same time, India had been identified as McDonalds top 10 markets. Each
McDonalds outlet employed an average of 50 employees over a total of 5000 employees.
Nowadays, McDonalds India has the largest sales volume and highest brand recognition
among other restaurants (includes KFC) in India (Thorn, 2011).
6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

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According to Smiths strategic planning for public relations, to success in public relations
plan, organization must follow the Smiths model and each phase and steps should be
taken seriously due to they are correlated. After analyzing McDonalds PR plan in India, I
would like to conclude that McDonalds did follow the four phases and nine steps of
Smiths PR strategic planning. Each phase and step had been analyzed clearly. The
adequate strategic communication and public relations strategies implemented
McDonalds had finally lead McDonalds to become the largest and most recognizable
brand in India.
Nevertheless, McDonalds should set goals and objectives to guide them where to go
and how to go. It is believed that through setting clear and inspires goals and
objectives; McDonalds is able to go further. Furthermore, the defensive strategy in
denying the treatment to chickens is not McDonalds fault is not a good strategy for me.
Public will continue to perceive McDonalds as irresponsible to this issue. Hence,
McDonalds should

turn

this

obstacle

into

opportunity

through

transparent

communication. Increase the public understanding on how McDonalds treat those


chickens before they were killed and show the public that McDonalds concern on what
the public want. This might be achieving by inviting the media to interview McDonalds
plant and farms. This strategy may change the negative perception of the public into
positive when they know McDonalds actually do care on the rights of animals too.s
7.0 References
Advamerg, Inc. (2012). McDonalds Corporation Company Profile, Information,
Business Description, History, Background Information on McDonalds Corporation.
Retrieved
March
20,
2012,
from
http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/56/McDonald-s-Corporation.html
Baxi, Upendra (1985). Taking Suffering Seriously: Social Action Litigation in the
Supreme Court of India. Third World Legal Studies, 4(1), 107-132.
Chaturvedi Preeti (2008). Super localized me, How McDonalds evolved its marketing in
India. WARC.
CIA The World Fact Book (1996). India. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from
http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact96/121.htm

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Dash Kishore (2005). McDonalds in India. Thunderbird, The Garvin School of


International Management, 1-25.
Elizabeth (2009). 10 Best Countries for Vegetarian and Vegan Travel. Retrieved March
20, 2012, from http://gogreentravelgreen.com/green-restaurant-food/10-best-countriesfor-vegetarian-or-vegan-travel/
Hassan Tauqeer (2011). A Short History of McDonalds. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from
http://www.fastfood.com/fast-food-chains/a-short-history-of-mcdonalds/
Hindu-CNN-IBN State of the Nation Survey (2006). The food habits of a nation.
Retrieved
March
20,
2012,
from
http://hindu.com/2006/08/14/stories/2006081403771200.htm
H.R.P.L. (2010). McDonalds India Our Values. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from
http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/aboutus/our-values.html
ILoveIndia.com (n.d.). History of McDonalds. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from
http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/history-of-mcdonalds-1806.html
Index Mundi (2011). India GDP - per capita (PPP). Retrieved March 20,
2012, from http://www.indexmundi.com/india/gdp_per_capita_%28ppp
%29.html

Jha Raghbendra (2000). Reducing Poverty and Inequality in India: Has Liberalization
Helped?, WIDER Working Paper, 204, UNU/WIDER: Helsinki.

Kaimal Sreejit (2009). A study of the Marketing Strategies of McDonalds with special
reference
to
Indore.
Retrieved
March
20,
2012,
from
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