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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
MAE4700/5700
Finite Element Analysis for
Mechanical and Aerospace Design
Cornell University, Fall 2009
Nicholas Zabaras
Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory
Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
101 Rhodes Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 148533801
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Elastic solids subject to dynamic loads
• The stress equilibrium equations considered in Lecture 15
considered a body in static equilibrium.
• If a body is in motion, then at any instant of time Newton’s
law of motion implies that the sum of all forces must be
equal to the inertial force.
t
• Therefore, the governing equations lead to a dynamics or
transient problem.
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Strong form of dynamic linear elasticity
3
• Denote the mass density of the material by and the
accelerations in the coordinate directions by and .
Then the equation of motion in 2D can be written as follows:
Find the displacements on such that
ρ
2
2
x
u
u
t
∂
=
∂
``
y
u
``
u
Ω
,
x
x x
y
y y
b u
b u on
∇ + =
∇ + = Ω
 ``
 ``
σ ρ
σ ρ
S
where D u = ∇
σ
,
x x y y
t
u
with
n t n t on
u u on
σ σ = = Γ
= Γ
 
Plane stress:
Plane strain:
2
1 0
1 0
1
(1 )
0 0
2
v
E
D v
v
v
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
=
⎢ ⎥
−
−
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
1 0
1 0
(1 )(1 2 )
(1 2 )
0 0
2
v v
E
D v v
v v
v
⎡ ⎤
−
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
= −
+ − ⎢ ⎥
−
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
0
0
T
S
x y
y x
∂ ∂
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂
⎢ ⎥
∇ =
∂ ∂
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
∂ ∂
⎣ ⎦
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Weak form of dynamic linear elasticity
• Comparing with the static problem, we only have the extra
inertial terms. Thus the weak form corresponding to these
differential equations can be obtained following the same
steps as before.
• We premultiply the equilibrium equations in x and y
directions and the two natural boundary conditions by the
corresponding weight functions and integrate over the
corresponding domains as follows:
,
x y
x x y y
b u b u on ∇ + = ∇ + = Ω ⇒
  `` `` σ ρ σ ρ
( )
( )
0
0
,
.
x
x x x x x
y
y y y y y
b w d u w d w U
b w d u w d w U
Ω Ω
Ω Ω
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∇ + Ω = Ω ∀ ∈
∇ + Ω = Ω∀ ∈
 ``
 ``
σ ρ
σ ρ
,
x x y y
t
n t n t on σ σ = = Γ ⇒
 
( )
( )
0
0
0 ,
0 .
t
t
x x
x x
y y
y y
w n t d w U
w n t d w U
σ
σ
Γ
Γ
∫
∫
− Γ = ∀ ∈
− Γ = ∀ ∈


5
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Weak form of dynamic linear elasticity
• Applying Green’s theorem (integration by parts) to the first
term in each of these equations and follow the exact
procedures as in the static case, we have the matrix form of
the weak form as follows:
: u U on such that ∈ Ω
( )
2
0
2
t
T
S S
u
w d w D ud w td w bd w U
t
Ω Ω Γ Ω
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∂
Ω+ ∇ ∇ Ω = Γ + Ω ∀ ∈
∂
  
{ }
{ }
1
1
0
: : ,
: , 0
u
u
where U u u H u u on and
U w w H w on
= ∈ = Γ
= ∈ = Γ
find
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Finite Element Approximation
• Same as in static problem, we apply the finite element
approximation to the derived weak form.
• Here u
e
is the finite element approximation of the
displacement field in element e.
• The element shape function matrix N
e
in the matrix form is
where nen is the number of element nodes.
{ }
( )
{ }
int ( , )
( , ) ( , )
e e e
x and y Nodal
displacements displacements
at po x y
u x y N x y d t
⎡ ⎤
=
⎣ ⎦
. .
1 2
1 2
0 0 ... 0
0 0 ... 0
e e e
nen e
e e e
nen
N N N
N
N N N
⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤
=
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Strain displacement matrix
• We need to compute the strains in terms of the element
shape functions and the nodal displacements. Applying the
symmetric gradient operator to N
e
gives
where the straindisplacement matrix Β
e
is defined as:
{ } { }
[ ]
{ }
e
e
x
e e e e e
y S S
e
B
xy
u N d
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= = ∇ = ∇
⎣ ⎦
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
.
ε
ε ε
γ
[ ] [ ]
1 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
0 0 ... 0
0 0 ... 0
...
e e e
nen
e e e
e e
nen
S
e e e e e e
nen nen
N N N
x x x
N N N
B N
y y y
N N N N N N
y x y x y x
∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
= ∇ =
∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Semidiscrete Finite Element equations
• Following the same procedure as before, the finite element
equations become
T
e
e e e e
d
Ω
∫
= Ω K B D B
T T
e e
t
e
e
t
e e e
f
f
body
boundary
force vector
force vector
d d
Ω
Γ Ω
∫ ∫
= Γ + Ω f N t N b
.
.
( ) ( ) ( ) t t t + = Mu Ku f ``
where M
e
is known as an element mass matrix
e
e T
d
Ω
∫
= Ω M N N ρ
and all other matrices are exactly the same as those for the
static case:
9
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Equation of Motion For Beams
• For BernoulliEuler beam theory, the equation of motion is
of the form
( )
2 2
2
2 2 2
,
y y
u u
A EI q x t
t x x
ρ
⎛ ⎞
∂ ∂
∂
+ =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠
where ρ denotes the mass density per unit length, A is the
area of cross section, E is the modulus, and I is the second
moment of inertia.
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Semidiscrete Finite Element equations
• Following the same procedure as before, the finite element
equations become
( ) ( ) ( )
y y
t t t + = Mu Ku f ``
where M
e
is known as an element mass matrix
e
e T
L
M AN Ndx
∫
= ρ
and all other matrices are exactly the same as those for the
static case:
2 2
3
2 2
1
1
12 6 12 6
6 4 6 2
2
12 6 12 6
6 2 6 4
T
e e
e e e e
e e e
e e e e e
e e e
e e e e
L L
L L L L
L E I
K B E I B d
L L L
L L L L
ξ
−
⎡ ⎤ −
⎢ ⎥
−
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
− − −
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
−
⎣ ⎦
∫
1
1
1
2 1
2
1
6
( )[ ] ( )
1 2 2
6
e
e
u
e e
e e T
u
e
N
L
N
L qL
f q x N dx q x d
N
N
L
ϑ
ϑ
ξ
Ω
− Ω
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
= = =
⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
− ⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
∫ ∫
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix
e
e T
M N Nd
Ω
∫
= Ω ρ
Mass matrix
• The mass matrix term is the only new term in the element
equations for dynamic problems.
• During assembly, the element mass matrices are assembled
to form a global mass matrix in exactly the same manner as
the stiffness matrix.
• Explicit mass matrices for commonly used structural
elements are derived in the following slides.
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix for Axial deformations
• The element extends from to and has a length .
For simplicity the element is assumed to have a uniform
area of cross section
1
x
2
x
2 1
L x x = −
A
• The element is based on the following interpolation functions:
2 2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2 1
;
x x x x x x x x
N N
x x L x x L
− − − −
= = − = =
− −
• Using these interpolation
functions, the mass matrix can be
written as follows:
2
1
2
2 1
1
2 1
1 2 6
e
e e
x e T
x
x x
x x x x A L
L
M N Nd A dx
x x L L
L
Ω
∫ ∫
−
⎛ ⎞
−
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞ − −
⎛ ⎞
= Ω = − =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
−
⎝ ⎠
⎝ ⎠
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
ρ
ρ ρ
13
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix For Plane Truss Element
• For the mass matrix, we must consider displacements both
in the x and y directions, since motion along both axes
generates the inertia forces.
• Therefore, the mass matrix for a truss element is derived by
writing the linear interpolation functions for x and y
displacements
• Assuming a coordinate s along the axis of the element with
s=0 at node 1 and s = L, at node 2 the interpolation functions
are as follows:
1 2
;
s L s
N N
L L
−
= − =
1
1 2 1
1 2 2
2
0 0
0 0
u
N N v u
N N u v
v
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
= =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Nd
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix For Plane Truss Element
• Using these interpolation functions, the mass matrix can be
written as follows:
0
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0
e
L
e T
s L
L
s L s L s
L L L
M d A ds
s s L s
L L L
s
L
ρ ρ
Ω
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
−
−
− −
− −
= Ω =
−
−
∫ ∫
N N
• Carrying out matrix multiplication and integrating each term,
we obtain 2 0 1 0
0 2 0 1
1 0 2 0 6
0 1 0 2
e e
e
A L
M
ρ
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
=
15
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix For Space Truss Element
• The mass matrix for a three dimensional space truss element,
can be written using exactly the same arguments as those for
the plane truss.
• The interpolation functions for x, y, and z displacements in
terms of a coordinate s along the axis of the element with
s=0 at node 1 and s = L, at node 2 are as follows:
1 2
;
s L s
N N
L L
−
= − =
1
1
1 2
1
1 2
2
1 2
2
2
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
u
v
N N u
w
N N v
u
N N w
v
w
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Nd
16
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix For Space Truss Element
• Using these interpolation functions, the mass matrix can be
written as follows:
2 0 0 1 0 0
0 2 0 0 1 0
0 0 2 0 0 1
1 0 0 2 0 0 6
0 1 0 0 2 0
0 0 1 0 0 2
e
e e
e T
A L
M d
ρ
ρ
Ω
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
= Ω =
∫
N N
17
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix for Beam Element
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
(1 ) (2 )
4
(1 ) (1 )
8
1
(1 ) (2 )
4
(1 ) ( 1)
8
u
e
u
e
N
L
N
N
L
N
θ
θ
ξ ξ
ξ ξ
ξ ξ
ξ ξ
= − +
= − +
= + −
= + −
1
2( )
1, 1 1
e
e
x x
L
ξ ξ
−
= − − ≤ ≤
1
(1 ) , 1 1
2
e
e
L
x x ξ ξ = + + − ≤ ≤
1
1
1 1 2 2
2
2
( ) [ ] Nd
y
e
y u u
y
u
u x N N N N
u
θ θ
θ
θ
⎧ ⎫
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪
= =
⎨ ⎬
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪
⎩ ⎭
• The twonode beam element shown in the figure was
developed in Lecture 4. The interpolation functions are as
follows:
18
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix for Beam Element
• The mass matrix can be written as follows:
2
2
1
2 2 2 2
1
2
2
1
(1 ) (2 )
4
(1 ) (1 )
1 1
8
(1 ) (2 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (2 ) (1 ) ( 1)
1 4 8 4 8
(1 ) (2 )
4
(1 ) ( 1)
8
e
e
e e
e
e
e T
L
L L
d
L
M d A
ξ ξ
ξ ξ
ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ
ξ ξ
ξ ξ
ρ ρ
−
Ω
⎛ ⎞
− +
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
− +
⎜ ⎟
⎛ ⎞
− + − + + − + −
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟
+ −
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
+ −
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
= Ω =
∫ ∫
N N
• Carrying out matrix multiplication and integrating each term,
we get
2 2
2 2
156 22 54 13
22 4 13 3
420
54 13 156 22
13 3 22 4
e e
e e e e
e e
e e
e e e e
e
L L
L L L L
A L
L L
L L L L
M
ρ
⎛ ⎞
−
⎜ ⎟
−
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
−
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
− − −
⎝ ⎠
=
19
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Triangular Element for Plane Stress/Strain
• The threenode triangular element shown in figure was
developed for plane stress and plane strain problems in
Lecture 16. The interpolation functions are as follows:
1 2 3
1 2 3
0 0 0
0 0 0
e
e e e
x
e
e
e e e
y
u
N N N
d
u
N N N
⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤
= ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎣ ⎦
where:
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2
2 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3
3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
1 1
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
e
e e
e
e e
e
e e
N x y a b x c y x y x y y y x x x y
A A
N x y a b x c y x y x y y y x x x y
A A
N x y a b x c y x y x y y y x x x y
A A
= + + = − + − + −
= + + = − + − + −
= + + = − + − + −
20
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Triangular Element for Plane Stress/Strain
• With constant thickness t and using these interpolation
functions, the mass matrix can be written as follows:
e
A
e T
dA M d t ρ ρ
Ω
= Ω =
∫∫ ∫
T
N N N N
• Carrying out matrix multiplication and integrating over the
triangular as explained before, we get
2 0 1 0 1 0
0 2 0 1 0 1
1 0 2 0 1 0
0 1 0 2 0 1 12
1 0 1 0 2 0
0 1 0 1 0 2
e e
e
A t
M
ρ
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
=
C
C
O
O
R
R
N
N
E
E
L
L
L
L
U N I V E R S I T Y
21
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Matrix for Isoparametric Element
• The mass matrix for an isoparametric element may be
computed by numerical integrations as described before. For
example, for twodimensional elements the mass matrix is
given by
( ) ( )
1
, ,  
i
e
N
i i i i i
i
e T
J w M d ξ η ξ η ρ ρ
=
Ω
= Ω =
∑
∫
T
N N N N
• Now since it is the product of shape functions which are
integrated, the order of quandrature used for standard
integration will suffice to accurately compute the mass matrix.
C
C
O
O
R
R
N
N
E
E
L
L
L
L
U N I V E R S I T Y
22
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Free Dynamic Vibration Analysis
• Most structural dynamics and vibration problems typically
start with the analysis of the free vibration motion of the
system. There is no externally applied load in this situation,
and thus the global system of equations for the system is of
the following form:
0 + = Mu Ku ``
where the global mass matrix M and the global stiffness matrix
K are assembled from the corresponding element matrices
using the usual assembly procedure.
• This equation expresses the condition of natural vibration
(simple harmonic motion), where at any instant the
restoration influences in the system balance the inertia
influences.
C
C
O
O
R
R
N
N
E
E
L
L
L
L
U N I V E R S I T Y
23
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Free Dynamic Vibration Analysis
• This system of equation is satisfied by a harmonic solution of
the following form
cos t = u φ ω
where and are parameters that will be later identified as the
mode shape (eigenvectors) and the natural frequency.
φ ω
• Substituting this into the differential equation, we have
2
cos cos 0 t t − + = M K ω φ ω φ ω
2
0 − + = M K ω φ φ
C
C
O
O
R
R
N
N
E
E
L
L
L
L
U N I V E R S I T Y
24
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Free Dynamic Vibration Analysis
• Rearranging terms, we have what is known as the
generalized eigenvalue problem
= M Kφ λ φ
where is introduced for convenience.
2
= λ ω
• From the solution of this system, we get n natural frequencies
and corresponding freevibration mode shapes when
the size of the matrix and is . n n ×
i i
ω λ =
K M
i
φ
• The eigenvectors are called normal modes of the system if the
eigenvectors are normalized such that
1, 1, 2, ,
T
i i
i n = = M … φ φ
25
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Free Dynamic Vibration Analysis
• Note that we must apply the essential boundary conditions
on the mass and stiffness matrix before solving the
eigenvalue problem.
• The number of eigenvalues obtained in the finite element
method is always equal to the number of unknown nodal
values. As the mesh is refined, not only do we increase the
number of eigenvalues but we also improve the accuracy of
the preceding eigenvalues.
26
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Solution of Eigenvalue problem
• In Matlab the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors
are obtained by using the eig command as follows:
[V,Lam]=eig(K,M)
In the result, Lam is a diagonal matrix of eigenvalues and V is
a matrix whose columns are the eigenvectors (mode shapes)
which are scaled so that the norm is 1.
• If K and M are sparse matrices and you want to return the
eigenvectors, you may use eigs instead. Or you can first
convert them to full matrix, and then use eig.
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Transient Response
• For structures subjected to dynamic loads the global system
of equations for the system is of the following form:
( ) ( ) ( ) t t t + = Mu Ku f ``
where the global mass matrix M, the global stiffness matrix K
and the global load vector f are assembled from the
corresponding element matrices using the usual assembly
procedure.
• For a unique solution initial displacements and velocities at
time 0 at all degrees of freedom must also be specified.
( )
0 0
0 , (0) u v = = u u`
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Newmark Time Integration Methods
• Suppose that we are able to get estimates for the
acceleration and both at the start and end of a
general time step .
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
2
1 2 2 1
1 1 1 1
1
2
1
n n n n n
n n n n
t
t
t
+ +
+ +
Δ
= + Δ + − +
= + Δ − +
u u u u u
u u u u
` `` ``
` ` `` ``
β β
β β
( ) t u`` ( ) t t + Δ u``
• We could then use a Taylor series expansion to obtain
estimates of displacement and velocity at time
t t + Δ
t Δ
where means the “value” of the function at the kth step in
time.
n
u
u
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Newmark Time Integration Methods
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
2
1 2 2 1
1 1 1 1
1
2
1
n n n n n
n n n n
t
t
t
+ +
+ +
Δ
= + Δ + − +
= + Δ − +
u u u u u
u u u u
` `` ``
` ` `` ``
β β
β β
• Here and are two adjustable parameters that determine
the nature of the time integration scheme.
1
β
2
β
• If we set the acceleration is estimated based on its
value at time . This is known as an explicit time integration
scheme.
1 2
0 = = β β
t
• Alternatively, If we set the acceleration is estimated
from its value at time . This is known as an implicit time
integration scheme.
1 2
1 = = β β
t t + Δ
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Newmark Time Integration Methods
• The acceleration at the start and end of the time step is
computed using the finite element equation of motion.
• At time , we have t
( )
1
n n n
−
= − + u M Ku f ``
• At time , we have t t + Δ
( )
[ ]
( )
1 1 1
2
1 2 2 1 1
2
2
2 1 2 1
0
1 0
2
1
1
2 2
n n n
n n n n n n
n n n n n
t
t
t
t t
+ + +
+ + +
+ +
+ − =
⎧ ⎫
Δ
⇒ + + Δ + − + − =
⎨ ⎬
⎩ ⎭
⎡ ⎤
Δ
⎛ ⎞
⇒ + Δ = − + Δ + − +
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎣ ⎦
Mu Ku f
Mu K u u u u f
M K u K u u u f
``
`` ` `` ``
`` ` ``
β β
β β
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MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Newmark Time Integration Methods
• We can write the recurrence formula in terms of an effective
stiffness and load vector:
1 1
ˆ ˆ
n n + +
= Ku f ``
where the effective stiffness matrix is
2
2
1
ˆ
2
t = + Δ K M K β
and the effective load vector is
( )
2
1 2 1
ˆ
1
2
n n n n n
t
t
+ +
⎡ ⎤
Δ
= − + Δ + − +
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
f K u u u f ` `` β
• After this step, the values of and can be found from
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
2
1 2 2 1
1 1 1 1
1
2
1
n n n n n
n n n n
t
t
t
+ +
+ +
Δ
= + Δ + − +
= + Δ − +
u u u u u
u u u u
` `` ``
` ` `` ``
β β
β β
1 n+
u
1 n+
u`
32
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Newmark Time Integration Methods
• Note that the calculation of and requires the knowledge of
the initial conditions and . In practice, we do not
know . As an approximation, it can be calculated from
ˆ
K
ˆ
f
0 0 0
, u u`
0
u``
0
u``
( )
1
0 0 0
−
= − + u M Ku f ``
• The algorithm is
Initial Calculations
1. Form the global matrices M and K;
2. Assemble the effective stiffness matrix . Modify it for
essential boundary conditions. Factor .
3. Initialize and . Select .
ˆ
K
ˆ
K
At Each Time Step
1. Assemble the effective load vector . Modify it for
essential boundary conditions.
2. Solve for acceleration . Then solve for and .
1
ˆ
n+
f
1 n+
u``
1 n+
u
1 n+
u`
0 0 0
, u u`
0
u`` t Δ
33
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Example: 1D dynamic problem
L
t
x
2
2
( , )
u u
A EA f x t
x x
t
∂ ∂ ∂
⎛ ⎞
− =
⎜ ⎟
∂ ∂
⎝ ⎠ ∂
ρ
0, 100, 1, 100, 5, 10 f A E L t = = = = = = ρ
• As an example, we plot the variation
of the displacement at the end of the
bar (x=L) with time.
34
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Stability and Accuracy
• Accuracy of a numerical scheme is a measure of the
closeness between the approximation solution and the exact
solution whereas stability of a solution is a measure of the
boundedness of the approximation solution with time.
• Now we investigate the effects of the two adjustable
parameters in the time integration scheme.
• As we might expect, the size of the time step can influence
both accuracy and stability.
35
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Stability and Accuracy
• First, we look at the solution with (both velocity and
displacement update are fully explicit). The plots below show
the predicted displacement at the end of the bar for two
values of time step
2
0 = β
t Δ
• The result with smaller time step is good, but with a larger
time step the solution is oscillatory. This is an example of a
numerical instability, which is common problem in explicit
time stepping schemes. Eventually the solution blows up
completely, because the oscillation grows exponentially.
36
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Stability and Accuracy
• With larger values of the instability disappears. In fact one
can show that for the equation of motion considered here,
setting
β
2 1 1
1
,
2
β β β ≥ ≥
makes the time stepping scheme unconditionally stable – no
oscillations will occur even for very large time steps.
• For all schemes in which , it is conditionally stable.
The stability requirement is
2 1 1
1
,
2
β β β < ≥
( )
1/ 2
2
max 1 2
1
2
cri
t t
−
⎡ ⎤
Δ ≤ Δ = −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
ω β β
where is the maximum natural frequency of the eigenvalue
problem:
max
ω
= M Kφ λ φ
37
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Stability and Accuracy
• Stability does not necessarily mean accuracy.
• Results with a fully implicit integration scheme ( )
and a large time step are shown below:
1 2
1 = = β β
0.5 t Δ =
• This shows a different problem – energy is dissipated due to
the numerical time integration scheme.
• So a larger value of buys stability by introducing artificial
damping, at the expense of a loss of accuracy. A good
compromise is to set
β
1 2
1/ 2 = = β β
38
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Stability and Accuracy
• The following schemes are special cases:
Constantaverage acceleration method (stable)
Linear acceleration method (conditionally stable)
Central difference method (conditionally stable)
Galerkin method (stable)
Backward difference method (stable)
1 2
1 1
,
2 2
β β = =
1 2
1 1
,
2 3
β β = =
1 2
1
, 0
2
β β = =
1 2
3 8
,
2 5
β β = =
1 2
3
, 2
2
β β = =
• Note that the same mesh as that used for the transient
analysis must be used to calculate the critical time step.
39
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Lumping
• Recall from the Newmark time integration scheme,
accelerations are computed by solving a set of linear
equations:
( )
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
1
2 2
n n n n n
t
t t
+ +
⎡ ⎤
Δ
⎛ ⎞
+ Δ = − + Δ + − +
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎣ ⎦
M K u K u u u f `` ` `` β β
• The mass matrix derived from the weak formulation of the
governing equation, i.e. is called the consistent
mass matrix, and it is symmetric positivedefinite and
nondiagonal.
e
e T
M d ρ
Ω
= Ω
∫
N N
• Solution of this equation is the most timeconsuming part of
the procedure. But notice that if we set and somehow
find a way to make the mass matrix diagonal, then the
equation above becomes trivial and thus will lead to saving
computational time.
2
0 = β
40
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Lumping
• There are several ways of constructing diagonal mass
matrices, also known as lumped mass matrices. The row
sum and diagonal scaling are discussed here.
• In all of these, the essential requirement of mass
preservation is satisfied, i.e.
e
e
aa
a
d
Ω
∑
∫
= Ω M
¯
ρ
where is the diagonal component of the lumped mass
matrix .
aa
M
¯
M
¯
41
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Lumping
• RowSum Lumping:
¾The sum of the elements of each row of the consistent mass
matrix is used as the diagonal element:
, 0,
aa ab ab
b
a b ∑ = = ≠ M M M
¯ ¯
¾It can be computed as:
1
e e
n
e e e
aa a b a
b
N N d N d
Ω Ω
=
∑
∫ ∫
= Ω = Ω M
¯
ρ ρ
where the property of the interpolation functions is
used.
1
1
n
b
b
N
=
∑ =
42
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Lumping
• Diagonal scaling procedure:
¾ Here the diagonal elements of the lumped mass matrix are
computed to be proportional to the diagonal elements of the
consistent mass matrix while conserving the total mass of
the element
, 0,
aa aa ab
c a b = = ≠ M M M
¯ ¯
with the constant c to satisfy
e
e
aa
a
d
Ω
∑
∫
= Ω M
¯
ρ
¾ It can be computed as:
1
,
e e e
n
e e e e
aa a a a a
a
c N N d c d N N d
Ω Ω Ω
=
∑
∫ ∫ ∫
= Ω = Ω Ω M
¯
ρ ρ ρ
¾ For constant , this method gives the same lumped mass
matrix as those obtained in the rowsum technique for the
Lagrange linear and quadratic elements.
ρ
43
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Mass Lumping
• The use of a lumped mass matrix in transient analysis can
save computational time in two ways.
• First, for explicit scheme, lumped mass matrix results in
explicit algebraic equations not requiring matrix inversions.
• Second, the critical time step required for conditionally stable
scheme is larger, and hence less computational time is
required when lumped mass matrix is used. But this may
lead to some accuracy loss.
• Explicit time integration is cheap, easy to implement and is
therefore a very popular technique. Its disadvantages are
that it is conditionally stable and can require very small time
steps.
44
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Transient Field Problems
• A variety of transient field problems, such as heat and fluid
flow, are governed by a differential equations of the following
form:
( ) ( , , ), in
u
c k u f x y t
t
∂
−∇• ∇ = Ω
∂
with the boundary conditions
( )
ˆ ˆ
or on 0
n n
u u q q t = = Γ ≥
The initial conditions (i.e. at t=0) are of the form
( )
0
( , , 0) , in u x y u x y = Ω
45
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Semidiscrete Finite Element Model
• In selecting the approximation for , once again we assume
that the time dependence can be separated from the space
variation,
u
( )
( , , ) ( , )
e e e
x y t x y t = u N d
• Then the semidiscrete finite element model is
( ) ( ) ( ) t t t + = Mu Ku f `
where
T
e
e e e e
d
Ω
∫
= Ω K B D B
T T
e e
t
e e e
n
q d fd
Γ Ω
∫ ∫
= Γ+ Ω f N N
e
e T
m d
Ω
∫
= Ω M N N
46
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Eigenvalue Analysis
0 + = Mu Ku `
• The problem of finding such that the following
equation holds is called an eigenvalue problem
t
e
−
= u
λ
φ
• We obtain
( )
0 + − = M K φ λ
• Rearranging terms, we also have the generalized eigenvalue
problem
= M Kφ λ φ
The order of the matrix equations is , where is the
number of nodes at which the solution is not known.
N N ×
N
• Before solving the eigenvalue problem, you need to modify
the matrices to impose the essential boundary conditions.
47
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Transient Analysis
• The most commonly used scheme for transient analysis is
the θfamily of approximation in which a weighted average of
the time derivatives at two consecutive time step is
approximated by linear interpolation of the values of the
variable at the two steps:
( )
1
1
1 for 0 1
n n
n n
t
+
+
−
− + = ≤ ≤
Δ
u u
u u ` ` θ θ θ
or
( )
1
1
1
n n n
n n n
+ +
+ +
= +
= − +
u u u
u u u
`
` ` `
θ
θ
θ θ
48
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Numerical Time Integration Scheme
• Since the semidiscrete finite element mode is valid for any
t>0, we can write it for times and :
n
t t =
1 n
t t
+
=
1 1 1
n n n
n n n + + +
+ =
+ =
Mu Ku f
Mu Ku f
`
`
• Substituting and into
n
u`
1
1
1 1 1
( )
( )
n n n
n n n
−
−
+ + +
= − +
= − +
u M Ku f
u M Ku f
`
`
1 n+
u`
( )
1
1
1
n n
n n
t
+
+
−
− + =
Δ
u u
u u ` ` θ θ
we arrive at
( )( ) ( )
1 1 1
1 ( )
n n n n n n
t
+ + +
Δ − − + + − + = −
⎡ ⎤
⎣ ⎦
Ku f Ku f Μ u u θ θ
49
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Numerical Time Integration Scheme
• Solve for vector , we have
1 n+
u
1 1
ˆ ˆ
n n + +
= Ku f
where
1
ˆ
n
t
+
= + Δ K M K θ
( )
[ ] [ ]
1 1
ˆ
1 (1 )
n n n n
t t
+ +
= Δ + − + − − Δ f f f M K u θ θ θ
• After assembly and imposing boundary conditions, this
equation is solved at each time step for the nodal values
1 n+
u
50
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design
N. Zabaras (11/10/2009)
Numerical Time Integration Scheme
• For different values of θ, we obtain the following wellknown
time integration schemes:
2
0, the forward difference (or Euler) scheme (conditionally stable);order of accuracy = ( t)
1
, the CrankNicolson scheme ( unconditonally stable); ( t)
2
2
, the Galerkin method (unconditionally s
3
Ο Δ
Ο Δ
= θ
2
table); ( t)
1, the backward difference scheme (unconditionally stable); ( t)
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
Ο Δ
⎪
⎪
Ο Δ
⎩
• For all numerical schemes in which θ < ½, the θfamily of
approximations is stable only if the time step satisfies the
following stability condition
( )
2
1 2
cri
t t Δ ≤ Δ =
− θ λ
where λ is the largest eigenvalue associated with the
problem
= M Kφ λ φ
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