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Answers and Rationale

1. Answer: B. Respiratory Alkalosis

Excessive pulmonary ventilation decreases
hydrogen ion concentration and thus causes
respiratory alkalosis. It can become dangerous
when it leads to cardiac dysrhythmias caused
partly by a decrease in serum potassium
2. Answer: D. Respiratory Acidosis
An excess of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) can
cause carbon dioxide narcosis. In this
condition, carbon dioxide levels are so high
that they no longer stimulate respirations but
depress them.
3. Answer: A. Metabolic Acidosis
The body compensates by using body fat for
energy, producing abnormal amounts of
ketone bodies. In an effort to neutralize the
ketones and maintain the acid-base balance of
the body, plasma bicarbonate is exhausted.
This condition can develop in anyone who does
not eat an adequate diet and whose body fat
must be burned for energy. Symptoms include
headache and mental dullness.

Answer: C. Metabolic Alkalosis

In metabolic alkalosis, breathing becomes
depressed in an effort to conserve carbon
dioxide for combination with water in the blood
to raise the blood level of carbonic acid.
Symptoms include confusion, dizziness,
numbness or tingling of fingers or toes.

5. Answer: A. Kidneys and Lungs

The carbonic acid concentration is controlled
by the amount of carbon dioxide excreted by
the lungs. The bicarbonate concentration is
controlled by the kidneys, which selectively
retain or excrete bicarbonate in response to
the bodys needs.
6. Answer: A. True
ABGs are blood tests that are useful in
identifying the cause and extent of the acidbase disturbance and in guiding and
monitoring treatment.
7. Answer: B. False
The major effect is a depression of the central
nervous system, as evidenced by
disorientation followed by coma.
8. Answer: A. True
The muscles may go into a state of tetany and
9. Answer: A. True

The maintenance of acid-base balance, which

in one part of homeostasis, is evidenced by an
arterial plasma pH value of 7.35-7.45. Many
mechanisms in the body work together to
achieve and maintain this delicate narrow
range of pH that is essential for normal cell
10. Answer: B. False
Acids are substances having one or more
hydrogen ions that can be liberated into a
Bases are substances that can bind hydrogen
ions in a solution.
11. Answer: D. Respiratory Alkalosis, Partially
12. 12. Answer: D. Normal
13. Answer: B. Respiratory Alkalosis,
14. Answer: D. Respiratory Acidosis, Partially
15. Answer: B. Metabolic Acidosis, Partially
16. Answer: B. Respiratory Alkalosis, Partially
17. Answer: A. Metabolic Alkalosis, Fully
18. Answer: A. Metabolic Alkalosis, Partially
19. Answer: D. Respiratory Alkalosis,
20. Answer: C. Respiratory Acidosis, Fully
21. Answer: B. Respiratory Acidosis, Partially
22. The patient has respiratory acidosis (raised
carbon dioxide) resulting from an acute
exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, with partial compensation.
23. Answer: D. Metabolic Acidosis, Partially,
24. The student was diagnosed having diabetes
mellitus. The results show that he has
metabolic acidosis (low HCO3 -) with
respiratory compensation (low CO2).

25. Answer: A. Respiratory Alkalosis,

26. The primary disorder is acute respiratory
alkalosis (low CO2) due to the pain and anxiety
causing her to hyperventilate. There has not
been time for metabolic compensation.
27. Answer: C. Metabolic Alkalosis,
28. The primary disorder is uncompensated
metabolic alkalosis (high HCO3 -). As CO2 is
the strongest driver of respiration, it generally
will not allow hypoventilation as compensation
for metabolic alkalosis.
29. Answer: B. Respiratory Acidosis,
30. The results show that Mrs. Johansson has
respiratory acidosis because of decreased pH
and increased PaCO2 which mean acidic in
nature. Meanwhile, it is uncompensated
because HCO3 is within the normal range.
31. Answer: C. Metabolic Acidosis, Fully
32. Baby Angela has metabolic acidosis due to
decreased HCO3 and slightly acidic pH. Her pH
value is within the normal range which made
the result fully compensated.
33. Answer: B. Metabolic Alkalosis,

34. The postoperative clients ABG results show

that he has metabolic alkalosis because of an
increased pH and HCO3. It is uncompensated
due to the normal PaCO2 which is within 35 to
45 mmHg.
35. Answer: C. Respiratory Alkalosis,
36. The results show that client Z has respiratory
alkalosis since there is an increase in the pH
value and a decrease in PaCO2 which are both
basic. It is uncompensated due to the normal
HCO3 which is within 22-26 mEq/L.
37. Answer: B. Respiratory Acidosis, Fully
38. The patient has respiratory acidosis (raised
carbon dioxide) resulting from asthma and
respiratory distress syndrome, with
compensation having normal pH value within
7.35to 7.45, increased PaCO2 which is acidic
and increased HCO3 which is basic.
39. Answer: C. Respiratory Acidosis
40. One of the risk factors of having respiratory
acidosis is hypoventilation which may be due
to brain trauma, coma, and hypothyroidism or
myxedema. Other risk factors include COPD,
Respiratory conditions such as pneumothorax,
pneumonia and status asthmaticus. Drugs
such as Morphine and MgSO4 toxicity are also
risk factors of respiratory acidosis.