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Sprints / Hurdles / Jumps / Throws

NUTRITION FOR SPEED ATHLETES


These notes accompany the presentation given by Glenn Kearney on Nutrition for Power
Speed Athletes held in Loughborough on Saturday 21 May 2011.

BASIC NUTRITION PRINCIPLES


1. Eat frequent, small to medium sized meals
Eating in excess at one single meal combined with infrequent meals throughout the day can lead
to poor training gains and poor recovery. This feeding pattern can lead to loss of lean body mass
and an increase in fat mass.
Eating frequently and choosing healthy food choices such as high quality low fat protein,
complex fibre-rich carbohydrates, and good fats are essential for all athletes who are training to
gain lean body mass and maximal strength.
A small meal consisting of a complex carbohydrate, protein and good fats should be eaten 5-6
times per day. This usually translates into a small meal every 2-3 hours throughout the day. This
type of feeding pattern will help to keep your energy levels high and to give you the proper
nutrients for recovery between hard workouts.

2. Eat protein with all meals


Protein is a very important nutrient, especially for athletes who are trying to increase maximal
strength and lean body mass. There is strong evidence pointing to the importance of having a
little bit of protein with each meal to assist with increasing lean body mass along with .
It is critical that you choose good sources of protein. Some good examples are; milk protein
blends are yogurt, low fat cottage cheese, whey protein, and casein protein. Other good sources
of protein are: chicken, low fat beef, canned (or fresh) tuna/salmon, prawns turkey, egg whites,
all fish, lean pork cuts, and finally nuts and seeds.
Remember all your meals should contain some protein. Most experts recommend
approximately1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body mass for healthy adults who are
engaging in daily rigorous physical activity. There is evidence that high performance athletes can
achieve even better results with 2.0 to 2.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body mass. To
determine the appropriate protein intake multiply your body weight (in kgs) by 2.0. For
example, an athlete weighing 80 kg would need:
80 kg x 2.0 grams = 160 grams of protein/day
It is critical to mention that you do not need to eat excessive amounts of protein to gain muscle.
Having small frequent meals throughout the day, and a good hourly energy balance is far more
critical for gaining muscle.

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3. Eat more food after training


During exercise your bodys protein structures are broken down and carbohydrate stores are
depleted. Following exercise your body is hungry to replace these nutrients. It is critical that
out of your six meals in the day that the biggest meals are eaten following your workout.
Once again, choose healthy carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

4. Zero tolerance for sweets and fatty carbohydrates


Your body is a temple. Eating sweets and fatty carbohydrates such as potato chips, high sugar
juices, fizzy drinks, chocolate bars, ice cream, chicken wings, and most pizzas should be avoided
by athletes.
Eating sweets and fatty carbohydrates will result in increased fat mass, big blood sugar
fluctuations, and poor recovery. If you are serious about your training, you will have the self-
discipline to completely avoid these items.

5. Drink plenty of water


Throughout the day you lose body water in sweat, breath, tears and other fluids. For athletes
this is a huge concern because even a small change in hydration levels can cause decreases in
performance.
Proper hydration is crucial for all athletes. You are advised to carry a water bottle with you
throughout the day. Sip the water at frequent intervals to maintain hydration. As an alternative
to coffee, drink green tea.

PRE- AND POST-WORKOUT NUTRITION


Rationale

Evidence strongly suggests that the acquisition of muscle protein is a result of the
workout stimulus PLUS the proper nutrition during the workout and more importantly
during the 24 hours immediately after the workout.
As a result of this evidence, it is critical that you begin to either: improve, refine or
continue the use of proper nutritional recovery strategies.

General Recommendations

Mix 0.8 g/kg body mass of carbohydrates with 0.4 g/kg body mass of protein in 1 L of
water pre-workout. Drink this throughout your workout. For example Sports drink and
whey protein.
Mix 0.8 g/kg body mass of carbohydrates with 0.4 g/kg body mass of protein in 1 L of
water post-workout. Drink this after your workout. A good mix is Gatorade and whey
protein.
Have 2-3 tbsp of flax oil or a high quality fish oil throughout the day. Essential fatty acids
are very important for your health and recovery.

MAKE ABSOLUTELY SURE that you eat plenty of high quality, nutrient rich food in the 24 hours post-
workout- if you miss one meal you are IMPEDING your recovery. Every workout contributes to an
accumulation of proteins- if you eat poorly for 30% of your meals you will be missing 30% of your
results!

5/23/11

Nutrition

for developing power athletes


Maximising adaptation

Thriving not just surviving


glennkearneynz@gmail.com
Glenn Kearney

UKA Senior Nutritionist

Ditch this for Power Athletes


5/23/11

Coach role in Nutrition



Pivotal

Major player in behaviour modification &

feedback/feedforward with nutritionist if you


have access to one. Aim for the 1 - 2
combination.

Often intimate knowledge of family life,


therefore food environment

Tell me what you know about this

individual...? How do you push their buttons?


Suggested reading/resources

Bowden

The 150 Healthiest Foods on Earth - Jonny
Gourmet Nutrition - John Berardi

An Omnivores Dilemma - Michael Pollan

Nutrient Timing - Ivy & Portman

Holford

The 10 Secrets of 100 % Healthy people - Patrick
The 4-Hour Body Timothy Ferris

The Biology of Belief - Bruce Lipton

Molecules of Emotion - Candace Pert

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Physiological and Metabolic Changes During Intense


Exercise

Description

Change

Description

Change

ATP levels

Depleted

Muscle damage Increased

Muscle
glycogen

Partially
depleted

Immune system Suppressed

Cortisol levels

Increased

Inflammation

Increased

Protein
degradation

Increased

Fluid loss

Increased

Cell membranes - the local


control centre

DNA is merely the hard disk the nucleus is merely the


gonad

Real brain of the cell is the


membrane - the interface
between the exterior and
interior

Nutrients, hormones,
neurotransmitters

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Nutrient Timing

Why its important...

Each dayeat every 2 to 3
hours consider Raphs
adapation

Bfast - King, Lunch - prince,


..

Within a week?

In your seasonal phases?

Testosterone (T)

T will enhance strength, increase muscle protein synthesis



Causes additional GH release

IGF release

Contributes to neural improvements seen from strength training
Cell Mol Neurobiol 16: 357382, 1996

Increasing T naturally pre & post training/competition offers a


competitive advantage to the athlete

Ways to prevent levels dropping below normal during periods of
over-reaching will also be of benefit

Excess stress (physical, mental/life) lowers T/C ratio

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Naturally boosting Testosterone




INCREASE; zinc rich foods (essential for T metabolism)

Grass Fed Beef ! pumpkin seeds, Oysters, ginger root, lamb


chops, split peas, brazil nuts, soy lecithin, black pepper, paprika, mustard,
chilli powder, thyme, cinnamon, sardines, almonds, walnuts, rye, oats,
tuna, anchovies, and haddock

B complex foods and supplements support gene


transcription and protein synthesis - Methylation

Good fats some cholesterol necessary EGGS !!

Optimising free testo uptake


Anti-Oxidants protect lipids in membranes and lipoproteins


Curcumin (turmeric) and other spices



Vitamin C foods and supplements

Mixed Vit. E rich foods; increase organic raw nuts and
seeds, one handful of nuts per day suggested

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Receptors Docking sites


Optimise receptors increase clearance of T signals


lowering T to the brain increases endogenous T
production .

Carnitine-L-Tartrate (1.5 g) very promising


different in structure & function to L-carnitine

Kraemer, et al. 2003; Kraemer, et al. 2006; Volek, et al. 2002)

Cortisol

Cortisol is released in response to stress. Increases the


running rate of the body to cope with stress (also low blood
glucose.
Illustrates importance of stable blood glucose low GI meals
A two edged sword. In small to moderate bursts for a short
time period it gives a strong competitive edge.
If too much is released, performance declines, chronic
elevation will cause catabolism. Fat & protein catabolism and
gluconeogenesis

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Possible nutrient cortisol modulators


Glutamine: Lowers cortisol levels (Antonio, 2002)



Phosphatidlyserine: 600mg shown to reduce cortisol levels when taken
after exercise (Starks et al., 2008)

Vitamin C: 1-1.5g shown to reduce cortisol levels when taken after
endurance exercise (Bryer at al., 2006).

Antioxidants: various antioxidants such as quercetin and polyphenols
can help lower cortisol a tenuous link. However does reduce the levels of
free radicals and prevent the cell/tissue damage caused by physical stress.

Adaptogens (e.g. Rhodiola Rosea): Helps the body to reach a
homeostasis thereby reducing stress and fatigue (Olsson et al., 2008).

L-Lysine and L-Arginine: There are several studies which support the
use of these amino acids for normalizing the cortisol stress response in
those with high trait anxiety (Smriga et al., 2007).

Enzyme Rich/Anti-inflammatory
foods

Anti-inflammatory
Compounds:

Garlic

Ginger and Thai ginger

Lemon grass

Coriander

Chilli's

Berries

Tea; green, black, red etc

Grapes/wine

Olive oil

Chocolate/cocoa, coffee, walnuts,
peanuts, pomegranates, yerba mate,
and other fruits and vegetables.

Proteolytic rich foods


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Foods that moderate


the inflammatory
cascade

Ginger, Rosemary, Turmeric,

Boswellia, Oily Fish, Chili,


Carotenoids, Vitamin D, Salicylates

Some combined commercially eg


Kaprex by Metagenics

Enzymes - Proteases

Proteases (325 mg pancreatic enzymes, 75 mg trypsin, 50 mg papain,
50 mg bromelain, 10 mg amylase, 10 mg lipase, 10 mg lysozyme, 2
mg chymotrypisn). Downhill running. Placebo controlled.
demonstrated superior recovery of contractile function and
diminished effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness after
downhill running when compared with the placebo group

Oral nutritional supplementation accelerates skin


wound healing: a randomized, placebo-controlled,
double-arm, crossover study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004
Jul;114(1):237-44.

Enzymes; J Sports Sci. 2004 Apr;22(4):365-72


5/23/11

NSAIDS and Gut Health



Down regulate protein synthesis

Kill GUT FLORA (Fujimori, S., K. Gudis, et al., 2010).

...which produce vitamin K essential for bone repair

Side Effects:

Diarrhoea, Protein loss, Ileal dysfunction

Upper GI

Ulceration, perforation, Bleeding

Blood loss, Malabsorption

Traditional anti-inflammatory drugs...should, however, be evaluated
carefully with regards to gastrointestinal events and their still poorly
defined effect on tissue healing.


Randelli,

P., F. Randelli, et al. (2010) The effects of COX-2 anti-inflammatory drugs on soft tissue healing: a
review of the literature. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. Apr-Jun;24(2):107-14

Super Sardines

Packed with Omega 3 as much as Salmon



One can = 30% Daily Calcium, 150 % B12, 65 % Selenium

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Glutamine

Potential as cortisol suppressant (Hickson, R., et al 1995)

Potential as immune supportive agent (Nue, J., & Li, N 2002)

Cell volumising effect in cells (Candow, D., et al 2001)

Assists in gut integrity (Lacey, J & Wilmore 1990)

Tyrosine

chicken, turkey, fish, avos, almonds, cottage cheese


Substrate for catecholamines



Boosts brain noradrenaline levels (Gelenberg AJ, et al.,1982)

Useful therapeutically to combat stress & overtraining
(Banderet LE, 1989)

May improve contractile strength of muscle - more


likely the perception of fatigue

10

5/23/11

Vitamin C 500 mg 1500 mg



Key component of the immune system and aids the

bodys own antioxidant defences



Mops up free radicals and reduces DNA damage in
cells.

Last 3 years has seen conflicting evidence emerge on
the influence to adaptative responses

Down-regulates the production of pro-inflammatory


cytokines and participates in recycling vitamin E

A cofactor in collagen synthesis essential for


regenerating tissues. Poses a issue

Supplement essentials

Safe & effective



The better the diet gets the more supplements you can
throw away

Adherence Habitual vs booster days clean days



ZMA (caution: Copper & Selenium), Omega source, Multi Vit/
mineral (Methylation), bone support, powder protein,
Green fuel

Vit C & Proteases variable



Check Vit D

11

5/23/11

Common athlete mistakes


Inadequate & poor quality breakfast...



Large gaps between meals - greater than 3 hrs,
perception this helps control body composition

change
Too many processed carbs & inadequate protein the athlete concept of protein

Starchy carbs in wrong part of day - focus on
training window

use
Low vege & fruit intake - educate on super foods,
smoothies, salads, greens drinks

membrane
Fear of fats - re-educate on benefits, cell
function, hormonal drivers,

Thinking of supplements as first line of action

Super breakfasts

Porridge, flaxseeds, coconut, yoghurt, nuts,


berries

2-4 Eggs, Poached, fried in coconut oil, scrambled


adjust number of yolks, combine with B beans
for more balanced low GI meal

Salmon, spinach, tomato scrambled see next slide



Sardines on toast, tomato puree, avocado, OJ

Note. Can start with greens and nuts

12

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Meal examples

Protein Salads

Just one example below. Huge amount of
variations and you do need a large
serving. Maximise greens, top with
several protein sources eg cajun chicken,
tuna, eggs, beef strips. Ideal for dinner

Burgers home made



Choose grass fed beef, and combine with
good salad this can really work for a
power athlete 1 x week, or make into
meatballs with a tom sauce.

Some simple food solutions



Egg, salmon, spinach, tom

and parsley scramble

This could be a breakfast lunch or
dinner option, can add carbs by eating
with brown rice, add extra spinach
put it in a wrap.Versitile & quick

PIZZA Texas thin crust



The thin crust and minimal cheese
make this a meal of ideal
macronutrient proportions MUST
be topped with a salad eg rocket,
avocado, sundried tom.. Feta etc

13

5/23/11

Salmon &
Spinach
Frittata
2-4 meals..
Macronutrient
variable
See recipe in other
resources

27

Weekly spring Dinner Schedule

Mon
Venison stew
see MH recipe
pg 75
or
Sirloin steak
(x2)
Baked potato corn on cob.

Tue

Wed

Mackeral &
warm potato
salad ....
horseraddish,
optional with
Pasta could add
your frozen peas

Spag bolgnaise

Dress the Board Buy some


1 x Chilli seeds
horseraddish and
removed & mint
try it
finely chopped
jamie oliver style
on board,
squeeze over
juice of 1/2 lemon
and little olive oil

or
Lasagne
add steamed
vege

Shopping day
today

Thur

Fri

Sat

Sun

Prawn & Egg


Pasta style with
stirfry - with
veges and eggs
noodles or rice or
just with veges add rice or
noodles
depending on
need for Carbs

Roast Chicken
& Vege with
Salad

Chicken, Bacon
& leek rissoto
include xtra vege
eg steamed
brocolli

2 eggs whip in
bowl, dry fry in
pan, remove let
cool, add into
stirfry at the end.
Buy pre-chopped
stirfry vege and
packet prawns,

Remove all meat


put into plastic
container
Boil down
carcass with 1 x
onion, 1 carrot,
bayleaves,
handfull of
pepper corns

Use left over


chicken from
roast.

Meat/Protein to Purchase

Veges to Purchase

- 1-2 x Sirloin steak cook both at once but use one for salad or
sarnie the next day
- 500 g lean beef mine
- 2 x 500 g ? Turkey extra for freezer
- Good quality whole Chicken
- 2 tins of Tuna, Salmon, sardines
- 1 dozen freerange eggs
- lean bacon for salads and risotto

- Leek, carrots, corguettes, asparagus


- Frozen peas, brocolli, sweetcorn
- Avocado
- 6 x red Onion, 1-2 bulbs of Garlic
- Bag of spinach
- Potatoes, bag

Use chicken
stock made the
night before for
the rissoto

14

5/23/11

TREAT
FOODS

GRAINS

ROOT VEGGIES

FRUITS; BERRIES

GOOD FATS

PROTEIN

VEGETABLES

S

U

P

P

L

E

M

E

N

T

S

WATER

Thank you !

From here

- Based on feedback, deconstruct key messages
from this presentation then distill into PDFs &
resources for you.

15

Birchers Muesli
Essentially this is a Oat based Muesli with nuts and
dried fruit added to it (Swiss German in origin). It is
superb in summer or winter and is best soaked
overnight to increase the moisture content of the
meal and predigest some of the grains.
Therefore make a big batch and soak enough for
yourself overnight or alternatively pour hot water
over the individual serves in the morning, cover with
a plate for 5 - 10 mins (i.e. while you are in the
shower, then stir thru Yoghurt, fruit etc).
Ingredientsi.e. you can either extend a commercially pre-packaged Birchers, or make
it from scratch, agood way to save money and eat he perfect breakfast cereal.

In a large bowl mix the following


1 -1.5 kgrolled oats
1/2 Cup ofcoconut- either small bits or larger or a mixture
1 Cup ofMixed nuts, I use flaked almonds but you could rough chop whole ones, just
use raw, I also added in Cashews sometimes and some peanuts, brazil nuts.
1 Cup ofseeds,use mixture of pumpkin and sunflower (now optional here to give them
a little bit of a dry fry, to do this put in a fry pan with no Oil and on a light heat gently
warm them, doesn't take long and just move them around the pan... be real careful but
this adds an amazing flavour to them -careful not to burn them.
1/3 CupSeaseme seeds, do the same as above but be REAL careful they cook quick,
again flavour is AMAZING
1 Cup ofdried fruit- again I mixed this up, some raisins, sometimes I chopped up
apricots, sometime I used dates - experiment
1 heaped dessert spoon ofCinnamon- secret ingredient I reckon !!!!
When you start feeling confident with this you can add some other grains (buckwheat
etc).Just make a good simple batch to start with then experiment later on.
Transfer to aplastic container for storage.
Preparation the night before (this only takes 2 mins),

- In you cereal bowl add enough for Bfast the following morning, cover with water
(optional to add some Apple Juice even 100 mls)
- grated apple - also optional

Quinoa stir-fry with kale, chili and nuts


This makes a tasty, quick meal when hot, but its also good packed into a container and eaten
cold at lunchtime. Serves two. - Despite Quinoa being the perfect protein carb combo, this
meal could do with more protein added, eg chicken, mackeral.

Serves 4-6 people as a side dish


100g almonds or cashews
200g quinoa
5 tbsp olive oil
2 onions, peeled, halved and finely sliced
3 garlic cloves, peeled, halved and finely sliced
1 small red chilli, seeds and membrane
removed, finely sliced
2.5cm piece fresh ginger, peeled and finely
sliced
140g kale (or chard), shredded
150ml vegetable stock
Juice and zest of 1 lemon
Salt and freshly ground black pepper
Soy sauce, optional
Heat the oven to 180C/350F/gas mark 4. Place the almonds or cashews on a baking sheet and
bake until slightly golden and fragrant, stirring once, about six to eight minutes. Leave to
cool and chop very roughly.
Cook the quinoa according to the instructions on the packet. While its cooking, warm three
tablespoons of the oil in a large frying pan over amedium heat, then add the onions and fry
until softened and beginning to turn golden. Add the garlic, chilli and ginger, and saut for a
couple of minutes. Throw in the kale and stir-fry for a couple of minutes. Add the stock and
simmer until the kale is tender and most of the liquid has evaporated. Add the quinoa,
remaining oil, lemon zest and juice, and stir to combine. Finally add the nuts, season to taste
and serve hot or cold, with a splash of soy sauce, if you like.

Glenn Kearney
075 909 83166
glennkearneynz@gmail.com

Flaked Chili Salmon & Chickpea SALAD


This recipe and its many variations are amongst the best solutions to lunch (or a light dinner) I have
come across. It provides low GI carbs, very good levels of protein, is high in essential fatty acids (via the
fish). This recipe came from a book call mind, mood foods, the combination of nutrients leaves you
feeling more alert than a lunch based around bread, also with a lighter feeling in the stomach also.

Ideal lunch - excellent Protein & low GI carbs takes 5-10 mins.
Serves 1 - 2 people
Ingredients

185 gm

1 can
Handful
1
1/2
1
1-2
2 Tbsp
2 Tbsp
23

drained Tin of salmon or tuna in water (optional to use Sweet Thai


chili tuna)
Chick peas (rinsed & drained) Low GI Carbs with good protein
Greens eg, rocket, spinach and/or any other greens, add as much as
you want
Red onion - raw, finely sliced
Avocado - slice and drizzle with lemon juice
soft boil egg (4 mins in boiling water, give the rounded end a prick with
a knife)
Carrots (finely chopped)
Sweet Thai Chilli sauce - I also use a creole sauce sometimes
lemon juice (juice of one lemon)
Pinch of salt & pepper

Simply combine all ingredients together,, ensure to drizzle the lemon juice, & sweet
chilli sauce then season with salt and pepper to your taste.
Many variations possible. Just think about different protein sources eg. could use
boiled eggs, grilled chicken, tuna, turkey etc. I do a similar meal often for my lunch
here at Lee Valley, add some more flavor by lightly frying (in minimal oil) a red onion
with a finely chopped Chorizo sausage

Salmon & Spinach Frittata


Serves 2 to 4, prep time 15 mins, cooking time 15-20 mins
Requires a good skillet (non-stick works best) with metal handle
so it can go in the oven.

Ingredients & Method


500 g Potatoes (2 big handfuls)
6 eggs (can use just 3 yolks to cut fat down if necessary)
150 g Spinach (two handfuls washed)
1 red Onion
6-8 baby tomatoes
100 mls Milk
1 tin of Salmon (drained)
Lemon Juice (half a lemon should be plenty)
2 dessert spoons of Capers - not essential but adds fantastic flavour
Small amount of grated cheese variety of cheeses
Salt & Pepper to taste, pesto also an option
Clean potatoes, cover with water, add salt and boil until almost tender, drain and allow too cool
slightly.
While the potatoes are boiling drain your tin of salmon, add lemon juice and capers and stir through.
Also chop red onion and saut on low heat in a dash of oil, can also add tomatoes (whole) to pan.
Remove from pan and set aside
Slice semi-cooked potatoes and lightly brown them in a small amount of oil or existing oil in the
pan.
Add, spinach, onions, tomatoes, salmon & caper mix to the pan and reduce heat to low.
Add your 6 beaten eggs (with a dash of milk) to the pan and give the pan a jiggle so the egg mixture
is evenly distributed. Finally grate a small amount of cheese on top
Leave on heat for a couple of minutes then place in an oven set on 180 degrees for approximately 15
minutes. Remove from oven and let stand for 5 mins. You can also cover with a clean tea towel to
retain moisture.
Serve with a fresh green salad, can drizzle some pesto on top and if you love Tomato sauce then
indulge perfect eaten cold the next day also
Variations: Use finely sliced Chorizo sausage instead of Salmon, exchange Asparagus or (fresh or
canned) for Spinach. Zucchini is another good vege option. Use Tuna or chicken/turkey as the meat
option, add olives etc etc
Step by step it should look like this

Sausage & White Bean Stew


Serves 2 to 4 ~ prep time 5 mins ~ cooking time 15-20 mins
Ideal quick winter dinner ~ Good low GI carbs ~ Perfect for
reheating for lunch ~ Serve on Rice

Ingredients & Method


6 quality Sausages - very important to choose high quality
sausages, see insert below.
1 red or white Onion
2-3 clove of Garlic
1 can of white beans - cannellini beans work well
1 can of tomatoes
Salt & Pepper to taste, can also flavour with a spring of
Rosemary, for those that like it HOT, add in some finely
chopped chilli at the same time as the onion & garlic.
Brown sausages on a medium heat in a non stick pan, you may be able to get away with adding no
oil as some should leak from the Sausages.
As the sausages begin to brown move them to the side of the pan and gently fry your chopped onion
& garlic in the other part of the pan.
Once the sausages are browned drain and rinse your beans, add them to the pan (or large pot), and
add the canned tomatoes also at this stage. Season to taste with salt and cracked pepper.
Simmer for 15 to 20 mins on a low heat - you could transfer to the oven at this stage (180 degrees).
While the stew is working its magic cook enough rice for dinner and enough to reheat tomorrow.
These types of meals always taste better the next day !
Variations/additions: You can add some more winter vegetables to this meal to make it go further eg
chopped carrots, corn kernels etc.

Sausages - quality is key !


An example from M&S, and not a bad price (2 of these
packs for 4.50). If you have introduced yourself to your
local butcher then you want to ask for a high meat
content sausage, and limited processing of that meat.
Then combined with the recipe above it works out to be a
well balanced meal.
The sausages to the left are 85 % pork that has been free
range farmed. Some sausages can be as low as 60 %
meat content and even then is is either processed heavily
&/or has been intensively farmed. Avoid these.