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The Islamic University Gaza


Higher Education Deanship
Faculty of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Design and Rehabilitation of Structures

Fresh and Hardened Properties of Ultra High Performance Self


Compacting Concrete
" "

By
Mohammed Wael Abu Shaban

Supervised By
Dr. Mohammed Arafa

Dr. Mamoun Al Qedra

A Research Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of


Master of Science in Civil Engineering Design and Rehabilitation of Structures

June 2012

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research is to produce Ultra High Performance Self
Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC) in Gaza strip, using materials which are
available at the local markets. Different trial mixes were used to obtain the
acceptable fresh properties of Self compacting concrete with a compressive
strength exceeding 140 MPa. The research includes also the use of a recognized
manufacturer mineral admixture, basalt aggregate, quartz, and special type of
fine aggregate (quartz powder).
The elimination of vibration for compacting concrete during placing through the
use of Self Compacting Concrete leads to substantial advantages in terms of
better homogeneity, enhancement of working environment and improvement in
the productivity by increasing the speed of construction. The resulting concrete
is characterized in the fresh state by methods used for Self Compacted Concrete,
such as slump-flow, V-funnel and L- box tests.
The fresh and hardened mechanical properties of UHPSCC were studied, i.e.,
workability, viscosity, flowability, passing ability, self compacting, compressive
strength, split cylinder strength, and flexural strength. The effect of using
different superplasticizer and silica fume doses on these properties are obtained
within research work.
The effect of adding different amounts of basalt aggregate (150%, 160%, and
170%) by cement weight on the fresh and hardened properties of UHPSCC, i.e.,
workability, viscosity, flowability, passing ability, compressive strength, and
density is also investigated.
The results showed that the optimum mix is obtained by adding 160% basalt,
3% superplastisizer and 15.5% silica fume. The test results also revealed that it
is possible to produce UHPSCC in Gaza Strip with compressive strength in
excess of 140 MPa using (1%, 2%, and 3%) superplasticizer,10% to 16% silica
fume, and 15.5% silica fume, with water cement ratio less than 0.33.

ARABIC ABSTRACT



140 .

.


.

.

%150 %160 %170

15.5%, 3%,160% .

140 %1
%2 %3 %10 %16
%15.5 .0.33

II

DEDICATIONS
To my Father, Mother, Joan, Hamam, and Belal, to my wife Alaa.
To my friends, and to whom I belong.

III

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. Mohamed Arafa and Dr.
Mamoun Al Qedra - Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
The Islamic University of Gaza- for their help and guidance in the preparation
and

development

of

this

work.

The

constant

encouragement,

support

and

inspiration they offered were fundamental to the completion of this research.


Special thanks go to the material and soil lab of the Islamic University of Gaza,
for their logistic facilitations and their continuous support. I would like to
express my deep thanks for my friends for their assistance during the practical
work of the research. Finally I would like to thank everyone who gave advice or
assistance that contributed to complete this research.

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................................... I
ARABIC ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... II
DEDICATIONS ............................................................................................................................ III
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................................................... IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ V
LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................... VIII
LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... IX
CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 2
1.1 General Background .............................................................................................................. 2
1.2 Statement of the problem....................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Scope of work ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.4 Research objectives ............................................................................................................... 4
1.5 Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 5
1.6 Thesis Layout ........................................................................................................................ 5
CHAPTER 2- LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................ 8
2.1 Definition of Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete ....................................... 8
2.2 History of developing UHPSCC ........................................................................................... 8
2.3 Advantages of UHPSCC ....................................................................................................... 9
2.4 New structural design and construction system .................................................................. 11
2.5 UHPSCC large scale application ......................................................................................... 13
2.6 Materials of UHPSCC ......................................................................................................... 14
2.6.1 Powder .......................................................................................................................... 14
2.6.2 Portland cement ............................................................................................................ 14
2.6.3 Silica fume .................................................................................................................... 17
2.6.4 Micro fine aggregates ................................................................................................... 19
2.7 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER 3- CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM .............. 23
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 23
3.2 Characterizations of constituent Materials .......................................................................... 24
3.2.1 Cement.......................................................................................................................... 24

3.2.2 Aggregates (basalt, quartz sand, quartz powder) .......................................................... 25


3.2.3 Water ............................................................................................................................ 28
3.2.4 Admixture ..................................................................................................................... 28
3.2.5 Silica Fume ................................................................................................................... 29
3.3 Mix Design of UHPSCC ..................................................................................................... 30
3.4 UHPSCC Preparation .......................................................................................................... 31
3.5 Test Program ....................................................................................................................... 32
3.6 Equipment and testing procedure ........................................................................................ 34
3.6.1 Tests Applied On Fresh Concrete................................................................................. 34
3.6.2 Tests Applied on Hardened Concrete ........................................................................... 41
CHAPTER 4- TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................. 49
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 49
4.2 Fresh properties tests results ................................................................................................ 50
4.3 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on slump flow results ........................................ 52
4.4 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on V-Funnel test results .................................... 53
4.5 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on L-Box test results ......................................... 54
4.6 Segregation in the trial mixes .............................................................................................. 55
4.7 Hardened properties tests results ......................................................................................... 56
4.7.1 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC density................................... 56
4.7.2 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC compressive strength ............ 57
4.7.3 Compressive strength Time relationship ................................................................... 60
4.7.4 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC splitting strength ................... 64
4.7.5 Splitting tensile strength Time relationship ............................................................... 66
4.7.6 Effect of Basalt content ................................................................................................ 68
CHAPTER 5- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................ 74
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 74
5.2 Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 74
5.2.1 Generals ........................................................................................................................ 74
5.2.2 Fresh properties ............................................................................................................ 74
5.2.2 Hardened properties...................................................................................................... 76
5.3 Recommendations ............................................................................................................... 77
5.3.1 The effect of Material ................................................................................................... 77
5.3.2 Durability of UHPSCC ................................................................................................. 78

VI

5.3.3 Short term mechanical properties ................................................................................. 79


5.3.4 Using UHPSCC in the Rehabilitation Works ............................................................... 79
CHAPTER 6- REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 81
CHAPTER 7- APPENDIXES ....................................................................................................... 86

VII

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: History of developing UHPSCC .................................................................................... 9
Table 2.2: Advantages of UHPSCC .............................................................................................. 11
Table 3.1: cement characteristics according to the manufacturer sheets ....................................... 24
Table 3.2: Physical property of basalt aggregate........................................................................... 26
Table 3.3: Physical property of quartz sand .................................................................................. 26
Table 3.4: Water absorption of basalt aggregate ........................................................................... 27
Table 3.5: Water absorption of quartz sand................................................................................... 27
Table 3.6: The technical data for the "Sika ViscoCrete - 10" (source: from supplier) .................. 28
Table 3.7: The technical data for the "Sika - Fume" (source: from supplier)................................ 29
Table 3.8: Self Compacting Criteria .............................................................................................. 34
Table 3.9: Test program for compressive strength ........................................................................ 42
Table 4.1: Best mixture proportions of UHPSCC by weight of cement ....................................... 49
Table 4.2: One cubic meter components of UHPSCC mixture ..................................................... 50
Table 4.3: Changing in mixtures proportions per cement weight ................................................. 50
Table 4.4: Mixtures classification ................................................................................................. 51
Table 4.5: Mixtures mean density ................................................................................................. 56
Table 4.6: Mixtures mean compressive strength after 28 days ..................................................... 57
Table 4.7: Summary of compressive strength test results for first UHPSCC mix ........................ 60
Table 4.8: Summary of compressive strength test results for all mixes ........................................ 61
Table 4.9: Comparison of ratio of (fc)t /(fc )28 of UHPSCC with the prediction of ACI
Committee 209 of NSC ................................................................................................................. 63
Table 4.10: Summary of splitting tensile strength test results ....................................................... 65
Table 4.11: Summary of splitting strength test results for first UHPSCC mix ............................. 66
Table 4.12: Changing in mixtures proportions .............................................................................. 69
Table 4.13: Basalt different proportion mixes results ................................................................... 69

VIII

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Advantages of UHPSCC ............................................................................................. 10
Figure 2.2: New Construction system achieved by making full use of UHPSCC ........................ 12
Figure 2.3: Sandwich structure for immersed tunnel .................................................................... 12
Figure 2.4: Burj Khalifa ................................................................................................................ 13
Figure 2.5: Microstructure development in Portland cement pastes ............................................. 15
Figure 2.6: Effect of micro silica in densifying the concrete mix ................................................. 18
Figure 3.1: Aggregates used in mixture preparations .................................................................... 25
Figure 3.2: The chemical admixture (Superplasticizer) used in mixture preparation ................... 29
Figure 3.3: Sika Fume ................................................................................................................ 30
Figure 3.4: Mix design procedure ................................................................................................. 30
Figure 3.5: The drum mixer........................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3.6: Experimental program steps chart............................................................................... 33
Figure 3.7: Slump cone and base plate .......................................................................................... 35
Figure 3.8: Slump flow test ........................................................................................................... 36
Figure 3.9: The largest diameter of the flow spread ...................................................................... 36
Figure 3.10: V-funnel test.............................................................................................................. 38
Figure 3.11: General assembly of L-box ....................................................................................... 39
Figure 3.12: Dimensions and typical design of L-box .................................................................. 40
Figure 3.13: Compression test specimens (100x100x100mm) ..................................................... 41
Figure 3.14: Compressive strength test machine ........................................................................... 42
Figure 3.15: Split cylinder test setup for cylinder 150 x 300mm .................................................. 44
Figure 3.16: Crack in a split cylinder tensile specimen ................................................................. 45
Figure 3.17: Diagrammatic view for flexure test of concrete by center-point loading ................. 46
Figure 3.18: Flexural test specimens (100*100*500mm) ............................................................. 46
Figure 4.1: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC slump flow .......................... 52
Figure 4.2: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC V-Funnel time ..................... 53
Figure 4.3: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC L-Box test............................ 55
Figure 4.4: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC density ................................. 57
Figure 4.5: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC compressive strength ........... 58
Figure 4.6: Effect of silica fume dosage on compressive strength ................................................ 60
Figure 4.7: The variation of mean compressive strength with age for first UHPSCC mix ........... 61
Figure 4.8: Relation between the mean compressive strength and age for all mixes .................... 62

IX

Figure 4.9: Comparison of ratio of (fc)t /(fc )28 for UHPSCC and NSC at different ages ........... 63
Figure 4.10: Compressive strength gain as a function of time after casting.................................. 64
Figure 4.11: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC splitting strength................ 66
Figure 4.12: The variation of splitting strength with age for first UHPSCC mix.......................... 67
Figure 4.13: The ratio of fsp (t) to fsp (28days) with time for UHPSCC ...................................... 68
Figure 4.14: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Slump Flow .................................................. 70
Figure 4.15: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC V-Funnel test................................................ 70
Figure 4.16: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Compressive Strength .................................. 71
Figure 4.17: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Splitting Tensile Strength ............................ 71
Figure 4.18: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Flexural Tensile Strength ............................. 72

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION
1.1 General Background
Reinforced concrete is considered the most frequently used structural material,
not only because it has good mechanical proprieties after hardening, easy to use,
etc. but also its dominant advantage that it is considered as an economic
structural material.
Increasing the concrete strength is always one of the main desires of concrete
technology. Since more than 20 years, ultra high strength concretes with
compressive strength ranging from 50 MPa up to 130 MPa have been used
worldwide in tall buildings and bridges with long spans or buildings in
aggressive environments (Farhang and Arash,2008).
Building

elements

made

of

high

strength

concrete

are

usually

densely

reinforced. The small distance between reinforcing bars may lead to defects in
concrete. If ultra high performance concrete is a self-compacting, the production
of densely reinforced building element from ultra high performance concrete
with high homogeneity would be an easy work (Jianxin and Jorg, 2002).
More over in recent years, premature deterioration of reinforced concrete
structures has given a considerable cause for concern where large numbers of
existing structures are currently in need of either strengthening or rehabilitation
due to various reasons.
Ultra high performance self compacting concrete can solve the problem of
casting in densely confined areas, and areas which need a large thickness of the
concrete.
Self compacting concrete is a concrete that flows and compacts only under
gravity. It fills the whole mold completely without any defects. The usual selfcompacting concretes have a compressive strength in the range of 30-50 MPa
(European Guidelines,2005).

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.2 Statement of the problem


This study deals with the issue of producing the ultra high performance self
compacting concrete (UHPSCC) in Gaza strip. This product is needed to
facilitate many difficulties.

Casting concrete in tall buildings, huge foundations, bridges, and long


spans, where ultra high performance concrete is needed at the same time
the self compacting prosperities required to make pumping process easy
and possible.

Due

to

large

rehabilitation

and

numbers

of

deteriorated

strengthening,

ultra

high

structures
strength

which
concrete

need
is

recommended in such cases to provide small cross sections able to carry


existing or new loads, building elements strengthened with ultra high
strength concrete are usually densely reinforced. The small distance
between reinforcing bars and the small spaces provided by framework especially in the repair works, may lead to defects in concrete such as
honeycombing,

and

segregation,

if

high

strength

concrete

is

self-

compacting, the production of densely reinforced strengthened building


element from high strength concrete with high homogeneity would be an
easy work.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.3 Scope of work


This research produces the UHPSCC in the IUG lab, and investigates the fresh
and hardened properties of this production.
1. Characteristics of fresh (UHPSCC)
In order to obtain the characteristics of fresh UHPSCC, the following aspects are
considered:
Mix design.
Workability.
Outstanding flowability.
Homogeneity (No separation/ segregation).
2. Characteristics of hardened (UHPSCC)
The following test to be carried out to establish the mechanical properties of
UHPSCC:
Compressive strength.
Splitting tensile strength.
Flexural strength.
Hardened density.

1.4 Research objectives


The main goal of this research is to produce Ultra High Performance Self
Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC) in Gaza strip using available materials, and to
study

the

mechanical

prosperities

of

(UHPSCC),

this

will

open

new

possibilities for the production of a new material, locally. This can be achieved
through the following objectives:
I.

Identify the possible concrete mixes to produce several strengths with several
self compacting concrete (SCC) properties.

II.
III.

Obtaining the fresh properties of the UHPSCC (Slump, V-Funnel, L-Box).


Obtaining the mechanical prosperities of hardened UHPSCC including
compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, hardened density, and flexural
strength.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.5 Methodology
In general terms, the following methodology was followed to achieve the
research objectives.
1- To

conduct

comprehensive

literature

review

related

to

subject

of

UHPSCC.
2- Selection

of

suitable

ingredient

materials

required

for

producing

UHPSCC, including cement, silica fume, aggregates, water, and chemical


admixtures.
3- Determine the relative quantities of these materials in order to produce
UHPSCC mixes.
4- Performing

physical

and

mechanical

laboratory

tests

on

UHPSCC

samples and compares the results to the available standards.


5- Analyze the results and draw conclusions.

1.6 Thesis Layout


The research entails six chapters organized as follows:
Chapter 1 (Introduction)
This chapter gives a general background about ultra high performance self
compacting concrete, research problem and scope of work, objectives and
methodology used to achieve the research objectives. Also it describes the
structure of the research.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2 (Literature Review)


This chapter discusses the concept of producing ultra high performance self
compacting

concrete,

history

of

UHPSCC,

Advantages,

applications

and

materials.

Chapter 3 (Constituent Materials and Experimental Program)


This

chapter

reviews

the

materials

were

used

in

producing

ultra

high

performance self compacting concrete and their properties, mix design of


UHPSCC, testing program, and equipments used in the testing procedures.

Chapter 4 (Test Results and discussion)


This chapter illustrates the test results including the fresh and hardened results,
visual inspection splitting and flexural test results.

Chapter 5 (Conclusions and Recommendations)


This

chapter

includes

the

concluded

recommendations drawn from this research.


Chapter 6 (References)
This chapter lists the reviewed references.

remarks,

main

conclusions

and

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2- LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Definition of Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete
Ultra high Performance Self Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC) is a mix concrete which
possesses the fresh properties of the Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and the hardened
properties of the Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC).
UHPSCC is a very dense structured fine or coarse aggregate concrete with a low water
/cement ratio smaller than 0.40, high cement content chemical and mineral admixtures
which are selected to increase the bond between the aggregates and the cement paste and
to facilitate flow and penetration through congested reinforcement zones (Okamura and
Ouchi, 2003).
The optimization of granular mix of UHPSCC leads to high performance concrete that
has excellent deformability in the fresh state, high resistance to segregation, and can be
placed and compacted under its self weight without applying vibration, also this mix
leads to minimizing the number of defects such as micro cracks and pore spaces that
allow achieving a greater percentage of the potential ultimate load carrying capacity
defined by its components and providing enhanced durability properties. Because of the
high compressive strength in hardened state and the excellent deformability in fresh state
this type of concrete is named Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete
(EFNARC, 2005).

2.2 History of developing UHPSCC


Table (2.1) summarizes the process of developing the high strength concrete, self
compacting concrete and finally the ultra high performance self compacting concrete
(Richard and Cheyrezy, 1995) (Buitelaar, 2004) (EFNARC, 2005).

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Table 2.1: History of developing UHPSCC

Year
1950

1960

1980

1985

UHPC - History

Year

Concrete with a compressive


strength of (34MPa) was
considered high strength
concrete
High strength concrete were
developed in labs only(80MPa)

1988

The first time


developed in Japan

1993

The
prototype
of
selfcompacting concrete was first
completed
using
materials
already on the market
The SCC was used for the first
time in Europe in the civil works

High performance concrete were 1997


developed in Denmark -for
special applications in the
security industry and protective
defense constructions (100MPa)
First research was conduct on 2002
the applications of UHPC

More
Compressive strengths
recently approaching (120MPa) is used

SCC - History

More
recently

SCC

was

European
specification
and
guidelines were developed for
SCC
SCC is used commercially in
Japan, Europe, USA, etc.

2002-2008
Some researches takes place on matching the UHPC and SCC in one mix in order to
develop the UHPSCC, which is used recently in many special tall buildings and tunnels

2.3 Advantages of UHPSCC


In general terms, the UHPSCC holds the advantages of the UHPC and SCC, so the main
advantage that UHPSCC is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for
placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling
formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested
reinforcement. It also has over standard concrete is its high compressive strength. Other
advantages include low porosity, improved microstructure and homogeneity, high
flexibility without the addition of fibers. As a result of its superior performance,
UHPSCC has found application in the storage of nuclear waste, bridges, roofs, piers,
seismic-resistant structures and structures designed to resist impact loading. Owing to its
high compression resistance, precast structural elements can be fabricated in slender form
to enhance aesthetics. Durability issues of traditional concrete have been acknowledged

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

for many years and significant funds have been necessary to repair aging infrastructure.
UHPSCC possesses good durability properties and lower porosity and capillaries account
for its endurance. UHPSCC construction requires lower maintenance costs in its service
life than conventional concrete. UHPSCC has enhanced ductility, high temperature
performance and improved impact resistance.
Figure (2.1) and Table (2.2) shows the advantages of UHPC, SCC and UHPSCC as one
mixture respectively.
Advantages of UHPSCC

Advantages
of SCC

Advantages
of UHPC

Does not require


vibration

High compressive
strength

Flowability & Rapid


placement

Low porosity

Less sensitivity to
temp. change

Durable

Homogeneous &
Durable

Homogeneous

Figure 2.1: Advantages of UHPSCC

10

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Advantages of
UHPSCC

Table 2.2: Advantages of UHPSCC

High compressive strength


Flowability (No separation and No Segregation)
Can be easily pumped
Low noise-level in the plants and construction sites
Eliminated problems associated with vibration
Less labor involved
Faster construction
Improved quality and durability
Less sensitivity to temperature change
Low porosity

2.4 New structural design and construction system


Adding the self compacting properties to the ultra high performance concrete saves the
cost of vibrating compaction and ensures the compaction of the concrete in the structures.
However, total construction cost cannot always be reduced, except in large scale
constructions. This is because conventional construction systems are essentially designed
based on the assumption that vibrating compaction of concrete is necessary.
UHPSCC can greatly improve construction systems previously based on conventional
concrete that required vibrating compaction. This sort of compaction, which can easily
cause segregation, has been an obstacle to the rationalization of construction work. Once
this obstacle is eliminated, concrete construction can be rationalized and new
construction systems including formwork, reinforcement, support and structural design,
can be developed (Okamura and Ouchi, 2003), this can be summarized in the following
figure.

11

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Ultra High performance Self compacting Concrete


High Compressive Strength
No Vibration
Resistant to Segregation
Less Restriction to Design

Less Restriction to Practice

New Type of Structures

Rational Construction
System

Rational Combination of
Concrete & Steel
Figure 2.2: New Construction system achieved by making full use of UHPSCC

One example of this is the so-called sandwich structure Figure (2.3), where concrete is
filled into a steel shell. Such a structure has already been completed in Kobe, and could
not have been achieved without development of UHPSCC.

Figure 2.3: Sandwich structure for immersed tunnel (EFNARC, 2005)

12

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.5 UHPSCC large scale application


The Burj Khalifa Figure (2.4), the worlds tallest building,
has a laundry list of superlatives. Greatest number of
stories, highest occupied floor, longest travel distance
elevator, worlds highest swimming pool. Perhaps none of
these would have been achievable without the great
advances that have been made in concrete technology
over the past 20 to 30 years.
Most of the Burj Khalifa is a reinforced concrete structure,
except for the top, which consists of a structural steel spire
with a diagonally braced lateral system. 330,000 m3 of highperformance self compacting concrete is used throughout the
building.
The Burj Khalif a One of the major requirements for the
successful completion of this project was the ability to pump
the concrete slurry up to a height of 600 meters in a short
enough time span (around 30 minutes) to ensure the concrete
remained workable and retained its high performance
properties.
To decrease construction time, the concrete was designed to
be self-compacting (SCC), meaning a concrete mix that
leveled itself solely due to its own weight, with little or no
vibration. It spread into place, filled formwork, and packed
tightly into even the most congested reinforcement, all
without any mechanical vibration.

13

Figure 2.4: Burj Khalifa

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.6 Materials of UHPSCC


The constituent materials used for the production of UHPSCC are the same as those for
conventionally ultra high performance concrete except that UHPSCC contains lesser
aggregate and greater powder (cement and filler particles). Limestone powder, silica
fume, quartz powder, etc are used as the filler materials. To improve the strength, self
compatibility, without segregation, a high dosage of superplasticizer along with stabilizer
is added (Arafa et.al, 2010).
2.6.1 Powder

The term powder used in UHPSCC refers to a blended mix of cement and filler
particles smaller than 0.125 mm. The filler increases the paste volume required to achieve
the desirable workability of UHPSCC. The addition of filler in an appropriate quantity
enhances both workability and durability without sacrificing early strength.
2.6.2 Portland cement

Portland cement concrete is foremost among the construction materials used in civil
engineering projects around the world. The reasons for its often use are varied, but among
the more important are the economic and widespread availability of its constituents, its
versatility, and adaptability, as evidenced by the many types of construction in which it is
used, and the minimal maintenance requirements during service life.
2.6.2.1 Hydration of Portland cement

When Portland cement is mixed with water, its constituent compounds undergo a series
of chemical reactions that are responsible for the eventual hardening of concrete.
Reactions with water are designated hydration, and the new solids formed on hydration
are collectively referred to as hydration products. Figure (2.5) shows schematically the
sequence of structure formation as hydration proceeds. This involves the replacement of
water that separates individual cement grains in the fluid paste Figure (2.5.a) with solid
hydration products that form a continuous matrix and bind the residual cement grains
together over a period of time, as illustrated in Figure (2.5):(b-d).The calcium silicates
provide most of the strength developed by Portland cement. C3S provides most of the

14

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

early strength in the first three to four weeks and both C3S and C2S contribute equally to
ultimate strength (Mindess, Young and Darwin, 2002).
The hydration reactions of the two calcium silicates are very similar, differing only in the
amount of calcium hydroxide formed as seen in the following equations (Mindess, Young
and Darwin, 2002):

23
3 2 8
3
11

+
Tricalcium +
calcium hydroxide
Calcium silicate hydrate

silicate

Figure 2.5: Microstructure development in Portland


(Mindess, Young and Darwin, 2002)

22

3 2 8
9

+
Dicalcium +
calcium
hydroxide

CSH
silicate
C-S-H or C3S2H8 is called calcium silicate hydrate and is the principal hydration
product. The formula C3S2H8 is only approximate because the composition of this
hydrate is actually variable over quite a wide range. In Portland cement, the hydration of

15

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

tricalcium aluminate C3A involves reactions with sulfate ions that are supplied by the
dissolution of gypsum, which is added to temper the strong initial reaction of C3A with
water that can lead to flash set. The primary initial reaction of C3A is as follows:
2
3 2
26

Tricalcium + Gypsum +

aluminate

6 3 32
Ettringite

Where S is equivalent to SO3 and ettringite is a stable hydration product only while there
is an ample supply of sulfate available.
2.6.2.2 Cement grains Size Distribution, Packing and Dispersion

Portland cements are ground to a rather narrow range of particle sizes; varying only from
about 1 m to about 80 m. Cements are ground slightly finer, but not much. The mean
size being of the order of 9 to 10 m. In visualizing the state of the flocculated mass of
cement grains in fresh Portland cement mixes, it appears that the variation in particle size
between larger and smaller cement particles does not result a dense packing. To a
considerable extent this is due to the flocculated character particles once bumped together
are "stuck" together by forces of attraction cannot readily slide to accommodate each
other better. However, even if they could, they are far too close to being of the same
order of size to be able to form dense local mixes. Water filled pockets of roughly the
same size as the cement particles exist throughout the mass (Neville, 1993).
It is obvious that what is needed is an admixture of much finer particles to pack into the
water filled pockets between the cement grains. Silica fume (or "micro silica") provides
such particles, the mean particle size of commercial silica fume being typically less than
0.2 m. When micro silica is added to ordinary cement paste a denser packing that may
be ensued. In order to get the desired state of dense particle packing, not only must the
fine particles be present, but must be effectively deflocculated during the mixing process.
Only then can the cement particle move around to incorporate the fine micro silica
particles. The fine micro silica particles must themselves be properly dispersed so that
they can separate from each other and pack individually between and around the cement
grains. Another requirement for best packing is that the mixing used be more effective

16

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

than the relatively usual mixing done in ordinary concrete production. High shear mixers
of several kinds have been explored. Proper dispersion and incorporation of fine micro
silica particles thus can results in a dense local structure of fresh paste with little waterfilled space between the grains. When the cement hydrates, the overall structure produced
in the groundmass is denser, tighter, and stronger (Young and Menashi, 1993).
2.6.3 Silica fume

Silicon, ferrosilicon and other silicon alloys are produced by reducing quartz, with coal
and iron or other ores, at very high temperatures (2000C) in electric arc furnaces. Some
silicon gas or fume is produced in the process, which reaches the top of the furnace with
other combustion gases, where it becomes oxidized to silica in contact with the air and
then condenses as 0.1 m to 1 m spherical particles of amorphous silica. This material
is usually known as silica fume. It is also referred to as microsilica or more properly,
condensed silica fume (CSF). Silica fume is an ultra fine powder, with individual particle
sizes between 50 and 100 times finer than cement, comprising solid spherical glassy
particles of amorphous silica (85-96 percent SiO2). However, the spherical particles are
usually agglomerated so that the effective particle size is much coarser (ACI 548.6R-96).
2.6.3.1 The pozzolanic reactions

In the presence of hydrating Portland cement, silica fume will react as any finely divided
amorphous silica-rich constituent in the presence of (CH) the calcium ion combines with
the silica to form a calcium-silicate hydrate through the pozzolanic reaction. See Figure
(2.6).
(3 + 2 )
+
Portland cement

+ + ( )

The simplest form of such a reaction occurs in mixtures of amorphous silica and calcium
hydroxide solutions.
(Grutzeck and Roy, 1995) studied the reactivity of silica fume with calcium hydroxide in
water at 38 C. Silica fume to calcium hydroxide ratios (SF:CH) 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2.25 were
included. They found that a well-crystallized form of CSH was formed by 7 days of

17

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

curing. For the 2:1 mixtures, all CH was consumed by 7 days; for the 1:1 mixtures, 28
days was required to consume the CH.

Figure 2.6: Effect of micro silica in densifying the concrete mix

(Grutzeck and Roy, 1995) suggest a gel model of silica fume-cement hydration.
According to this model, silica fume contacts mixing water and forms a silica-rich gel,
absorbing most of the available water. Gel then agglomerates between the grains of
unhydrated cement, coating the grains in the process. Calcium hydroxide reacts with the
outer surface of this gel to form C-S-H. This silica-fume gel C-S-H forms in the voids of
the C-S-H produced by cement hydration, thus producing a very dense structure.
2.6.3.2 The physical effects

The strength at the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and coarse
aggregate particles is lower than that of the bulk cement paste. The transition zone
contains more voids because of the accumulation of bleed water underneath the aggregate
particles and the difficulty of packing solid particles near a surface. Relatively more
calcium hydroxide (CH) forms in this region than elsewhere. Without silica fume, the CH

18

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

crystals grow large and tend to be strongly oriented parallel to the aggregate particle
surface (Monteiro and Maso, 1985). CH is weaker than calcium silicate hydrate (C-SH), and when the crystals are large and strongly oriented parallel to the aggregate surface,
they are easily cleaved. a weak interfacial transition zone (ITZ) results from the
combination of high void content and large, strongly oriented CH crystals.
According to (Mindess, 1988), silica fume increases the strength of concrete largely
because it increases the strength of the bond between the cement paste and the aggregate
particles.
(Jiaxnin and Jorg, 2002) pointed out .The increased coherence (cohesiveness) will
benefit the hardened concrete structure in terms of reduced segregation and bleed water
pockets under reinforcing bars and coarse aggregate.
(Monteiro and Mehta,1990) stated that silica fume reduces the thickness of the
transition zone between cement paste and aggregate particles. One reason for this is the
reduction in bleeding. The presence of silica fume accelerates the hydration of cement
during the early stages.
(Buitelaar, 2004) showed that addition of silica fume could reduce water demand
because the silica-fume particles were occupying space otherwise occupied by water
between the cement grains. This reduction only applies for systems with enough
admixtures to reduce surface forces.
It is worth emphasizing here that all of these physical mechanisms depend on thorough
dispersion of the silica-fume particles in order to be effective. This requires the addition
of sufficient quantities of water-reducing admixtures to overcome the effects of surface
forces and ensure good packing of the solid particles. The proper sequence of addition of
materials to the mixer as well as thorough mixing is also essential.
2.6.4 Micro fine aggregates

Microfine aggregates defined as the materials passing sieve 75 m. In manufactured fine


aggregate these microfines are most likely smaller size fractions of the crushed aggregate,
while in natural sands the microfines can be clays, quartz powder or other deleterious
particles that harm the concrete.

19

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LITERATURE REVIEW

The micro fine aggregate is an important parameter for gaining the self compacting
properties and the rheological properties which improved with increasing the micro fine
aggregates ratio. If the aggregate content in a UHPSCC mixture exceeds a certain limit,
blockage would occur independently of the viscosity of the mortar. Superplasticizer and
water content then determined to ensure desired self compacting characteristics
(Okamura and Ozawa, 1995).
Although most materials smaller than sieve 75 m increase the water demand of the
concrete, some experimental results claim that these fine particles can act as a lubricant
and enhance workability without a significant increase in the water demand for a given
workability (Hudson, 2007). Fillers such as microfines can have a positive effect on
concretes, influencing both particle packing and physiochemical reactions in the interface
zone (Kronlof, 1994).
Some positive effects of including fine fillers in mixtures are: smaller water requirement
due to improved particle packing; increased strength due to smaller water requirement
and improved interaction between paste and aggregate; decreased porosity; and better
workability (Kronlof, 1994).
2.7 Concluding Remarks
Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC) is one of the latest
developments in concrete technology. UHPSCC refers to materials with a cement matrix
and a characteristic compressive strength in excess of 120MPa. The hardened concrete
matrix of Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC) shows
extraordinary strength and durability properties, and the fresh concrete matrix shows
extraordinary workability allow it to flow under its own weight and without the need of
vibration.
These features are the result of using very low amounts of water, high amounts of
cement, fine aggregates and micro fine powders. These materials are characterized by a
dense microstructure. The sufficient workability is obtained by using superplasticizer.
Silica fume is an essential ingredient of UHPSCC. This material comprises extremely

20

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

fine particles and not only fills up the space between the cement grains, but also reacts
with the cement which increasing the bond between cement matrix and aggregate
particles.
As a result of its superior performance, UHPSCC has found application in the storage of
nuclear waste, bridges, tall buildings, immersed constructions.

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

CHAPTER 3
CONSTITUENT MATERIALS
AND EXPERIMENTAL
PROGRAM

22

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

CHAPTER 3- CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL


PROGRAM
3.1 Introduction
This chapter comprises the experimental program and the constituent materials used to
produce UHPSCC associated with this research work.
The laboratory investigation consisted of testing both fresh and hardened concrete
properties. Fresh concrete was tested to ensure the self compacting ability of various
mixes, slump and V-funnel to ensure filling ability in the plastic state, L-box to ensure
the passing ability of UHPSCC, and V-funnel to test the segregation resistance. The tests
for hardened concrete included compression tests for strength and indirect tensile tests
(split cylinder and flexural strength tests).
The influence of the silica fumes dosage, superplasticizer, cement/ultra fine ratio and the
mixing procedures on the compressive strength concrete together with the workability
and density of UHPSCC were studied by preparing several concrete mixes.
The properties of several constituent materials used to produce UHPSCC are also
discussed such as moisture content, unit weight, specific gravity and the grain size
distribution. The test procedures, details and equipment used to assess concrete properties
are illustrated in the following sections.

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.2 Characterizations of constituent Materials


UHPSCC constituent materials used in this research include ordinary Portland cement,
grey silica fume, crushed Quartz. Quartz powder and basalt aggregate, in addition to
superplasticizer are used to ensure suitable workability. Proportions of these constituent
materials have been chosen carefully in order to optimize the packing density of the
mixture.
3.2.1 Cement

Cement paste is the binder in UHPSCC that holds the aggregate (coarse, fine, micron
fine) together and reacts with mineral materials in hardened mass. The property of
UHPSCC depends on the quantities and the quality of its constituents. Because cement is
the most active component of UHPSCC and usually has the greatest unit cost, its
selection and proper use is important in obtaining most economically the balance of
properties desired of UHPSCC mixture.
In this research ordinary Portland Cement CEM I 42.5R was used for the production of
Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC). The cement met the
requirements of ASTM C 150 specifications. The results of physical and mechanical
analyses of the cements are summarized in Table (3.1) along with the requirements of
relevant ASTM specifications for comparison purposes.
Table 3.1: cement characteristics according to the manufacturer sheets

Test type
Setting time
(Vicat test) hr min
Mortar Compressive Strength
(MPa)
Fineness (cm2/gm)
Water demand

Initial
Final
3 Days
7 Days
28
Days

Ordinary Portland Cement


Results
ASTM C 150
1 hr 30 min More than 60 min
4 hr 40 min Less than 6 hrs 15 min
25.7MPa
Min. 12MPa
36.9MPa
Min. 19MPa
53.4MPa
No limit
3006MPa
27.5 %

24

Min. 2800
No limit

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.2.2 Aggregates (basalt, quartz sand, quartz powder)

Aggregate is relatively inexpensive and strong making material for concrete. It is treated
customarily as inert filler. The primary concerns of aggregate in mix design for Ultra
High Performance Self Compacting Concrete are gradation, maximum size, and strength.
Providing that concrete is self compacting, the large particles of aggregate are
undesirable for producing Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete. For
producing UHPSCC, selection of very strong aggregate with rough texture is
significantly more important the crushed basalt (coarse aggregate). The nominal size
ranges from 2 to 5 mm, quartz sand (fine aggregate) in the range of 0.3 to 0.8 mm which
is locally available in Gaza markets as shown in Figure (3.1), and quartz powder (micro
fine aggregate) in the range of 0 to 10 m. In addition, it is important to ensure that the
aggregates are clean, since a layer of silt or clay will reduce the cement aggregate bond
strength, in addition to increasing the water demand.

Figure 3.1: Aggregates used in mixture preparations


a- Quartz powder range of 0 to 10 m.
b- Crushed basalt size ranges from 2 to 5 mm.
c- Quartz range of 0.3 to 0.8 mm.

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.2.2.1 Specific gravity and Unit weight

The density of the aggregate is required in mix proportions to establish weight volume
relationships. The density is expressed as the specific gravity which is dimensionless
relating the density of the aggregate to that of water. The determination of specific
gravity of basalt and quartz sand was done according to ASTM C127 and ASTM C128.
The specific gravity was calculated at two different conditions which are the dry
condition and the saturated surface dry condition (SSD). Table (3.2) and Table (3.3) show
the physical properties of basalt and quartz sand.
The unit weight or the bulk density of the aggregate is the weight of the aggregate per
unit volume. The unit weight is necessary to select concrete mixtures proportions in
UHPSCC .The determination of unit weight was done according to ASTM C556. Table
(3.2) and Table (3.3) illustrate the unit weight of basalt and quartz.
Table 3.2: Physical property of basalt aggregate

Aggregate
Size(mm)
5
4.75
2.3
2
Average

Specific
Gravity(dry)

Specific
Gravity(SSD)
3.06
3.08
3.11
3.15
3.1

Unit Weight
(kg/m3) (dry)
3053
3065
3085
3097
3075

Unit Weight
(kg/m3) (SSD)
3076
3092
3112
3120
3100

3.02
3.04
3.07
3.11
3.06

Specific
Gravity(SSD)
2.666
2.675
2.685
2.697
2.68

Unit Weight
(kg/m3) (dry)
1661
1662.15
1663.13
1663.95
1662.56

Unit Weight
(kg/m3) (SSD)
1671.614
1672.588
1673.416
1674.1
1672.93

Table 3.3: Physical property of quartz sand

Aggregate
Size(mm)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.3
Average

Specific
Gravity(dry)
2.65
2.658
2.668
2.68
2.67

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.2.2.2 Moisture content

The aggregate moisture is the percentage of the water present in the sample aggregate,
either inside pores or at the surface. Moisture content of the coarse and fine aggregate
was done according to ASTM C127 and ASTM C128, but the final moisture content was
zero because the coarse and fine aggregates were dried in an oven at temperature (110o
C5). Table (3.4) and Table (3.5) illustrate the absorption percentages of basalt and
quartz sand.
Table 3.4: Water absorption of basalt aggregate

Aggregate
Size(mm)
5
4.75
2.3
2
Average

Water Absorption
(%)
1.43
1.45
1.48
1.52
1.47

Table 3.5: Water absorption of quartz sand

Aggregate
Size(mm)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.3
Average

Water Absorption
(%)
0.61
0.619
0.628
0.639
0.62

From the previous results, it can be observed that the specific gravity of all aggregates
ranges from 3.02 to 3.1 for basalt, and from 2.65 to 2.68 for quartz sand. For aggregates,
the water absorption tends to increase with the size reduction. In addition, when the
aggregate size decreases, the unit weight of the aggregates increases.

27

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.2.3 Water

Tap water was used in all concrete mixtures and in the curing all of the tests specimens.
The water source was used from the soil and material laboratory at IUG which is
considered safe to drink.
3.2.4 Admixture

The chemical admixture used is superplasticizer which is manufactured to confirm to


ASTM-C-494 specification types G and F. When added to concrete mix, it shows a
strong self compacting behavior therefore suitable for the production of self compacting
concrete and improves the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. This plasticizing
effect can be used to increase the workability of fresh concrete, extremely powerful water
reduction (resulting in high density and strengths), excellent flowability (resulting in
highly reduced placing and compacting efforts, reduce energy cost for stream cured
precast elements, improve shrinkage and creep behavior, also it reduce the rate of
carbonation of the concrete and finally Improve Water Impermeability.
This type is known as "Sika ViscoCrete -10" delivered from SIKA Company (Product
data sheet 2010), shown in Figure (3.2). Some technical data for the "Sika ViscoCrete 10" are shown in Table (3.6).
Table 3.6: The technical data for the "Sika ViscoCrete - 10" (source: from supplier)

Type
Appearance
Density
PH value
Toxicity

Property
Turbid liquid
1.08 kg/It. 0.005
7.5
Non-Toxic

28

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.2: The chemical admixture (Superplasticizer) used in mixture preparation

3.2.5 Silica Fume

Silica fume is a byproduct resulting from the reduction of high-purity quartz with coal or
coke and wood chips in an electric arc furnace during the production of silicon metal or
ferrosilicon alloys. The silica fume which condenses from the gases escaping from the
furnaces has a very high content of amorphous silicon dioxide and consists of very fine
spherical particles (ACI 548.6R-96).
The silica fume was supplied by SIKA Company .It is known as "Sika -Fume". Figure
(3.3) shows the appearance of used silica fume, while Table (3.7) shows the technical
data, as supplied by the SIKA Company.
Table 3.7: The technical data for the "Sika - Fume" (source: from supplier)

Type
Appearance
Specific gravity
Chloride Content
Toxicity

Property
Grey powder
2.20
Nil
Non-Toxic

29

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.3: Sika Fume

3.3 Mix Design of UHPSCC


The design process is graphically summarized in the following figure (3.4)
Select the required performance based on related
specification
Select constituent materials
Design mix composition
Adjust performance by laboratory testing
Verify or adjust performance by trials on lab
Figure 3.4: Mix design procedure

Accordingly the mix design in this research were developed pursuant to the standard
design procedure starting with determining the amount of aggregates required using the
other parameters such as densities of fine and coarse aggregates in SSD condition,
volume ratio of fine aggregate to the total aggregate, then determination of the cement
content for a target design compressive strength.

30

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

After that the filler and water content to be determined according to the selected
water/powder ratio and assumed air content, using the total absolute volume equation.
Then determination of the superplasticizer dosage based on the calculated total powder
content.
3.4 UHPSCC Preparation
The preparation of the UHPSCC specimens was made in the Soil and Material Lab at
IUG. After the required amounts of all constituent materials are weighed properly, the
next step is mixing them. The aim of mixing is that all aggregate particles should be
surrounded by the cement paste and silica fume, and all the materials should be
distributed homogeneously in the concrete mass. A power-driven tilting revolving drum
mixer is used in the mixing process (Figure 3.5). It has an arrangement of interior fixed
blades to ensure end-to-end exchange of material during mixing. Tilting drums have the
advantage of a quick and clean discharge.
The mixing procedure for UHPSCC included the following steps (Arafa et.al, 2010):
1) Adding 40 % of superplasticizer to the mixing water.
2) Placing all dry materials (cement, silica fume, crushed quartz and aggregate) in the
mixer pan, and mixing for 2 minutes.
3) Adding water (with 40% of superplasticizer) to the dry materials, slowly for 2 minutes.
4) Waiting 1 minute then adding the remaining superplasticizer to the dry materials for 30
seconds.
5) Continuation of mixing as the UHPSCC changes from a dry powder to a thick paste.
The time for this process will vary.
After final mixing, the mixer is stopped, turned up with its end right down, and the fresh
homogeneous concrete is poured into a clean plastic pan.
The casting of all UHPSCC specimens used in this research was completed within 20
minutes after being done with mixing. All specimens were cast and covered to prevent
evaporation.

31

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.5: The drum mixer

3.5 Test Program


As stated in chapter one, the main aim of this research is to produce Ultra High
Performance Self Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC) in Gaza strip using available
materials. More specifically, and as stipulated in the first chapter, the test program to be
deployed in order to achieve the objectives of this assignment is depicted in Figure (3.6).

32

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.6: Experimental program steps chart

33

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.6 Equipment and testing procedure


The laboratory testing consists of tests for both fresh and hardened concrete. Fresh
concrete was tested to ensure the self compacting properties of UHPSCC. The tests for
hardened concrete include compressive strength, indirect tensile tests (Split cylinder test
and Flexural prism test).
3.6.1 Tests Applied On Fresh Concrete

To ensure the self compacting properties of the UHPSCC many test methods have been
developed. So far no single method or combination of methods has achieved universal
approval and most of them have their adherents. Similarly no single method has been
found which characterizes all the relevant workability aspects. Each mix design should be
tested by more than one test method for the different workability parameters.
For the initial mix design of SCC, all three workability parameters (filling ability, passing
ability and segregation) need to be assessed to ensure that all aspects are fulfilled as per
mentioned in table (3.8). A full-scale test should be used to verify the self compacting
characteristics of the chosen design for a particular application. While for site quality
control, two test methods are generally sufficient to monitor production quality. Typical
combinations are Slump-flow and V-funnel. With consistent raw material quality, a
single test method operated by a trained and experienced technician may be sufficient
(EFNARC, 2005).

Table 3.8: Self Compacting Criteria

Method

Unit

Slump flow (Abram Cone)


T500 mm Slump flow
V- funnel
L Box (h2/h1)

mm
S
S
-

34

Minimum
Range
550
2
6
0.7

Maximum
Range
850
9
12
1.0

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.6.1.1 Slump flow and T500 test

The slump-flow and T500 time is a test to assess the flowability and the flow rate of selfcompacting concrete in the absence of obstructions. It is based on the slump test to
measure two parameters the flow speed and the flow time. The result is an indication of
the filling ability of self-compacting concrete. The T500 time is also a measure of the
speed of flow and hence the viscosity of the self-compacting concrete, also the test is not
suitable when the maximum size of the aggregate exceeds 40 mm.
The fresh concrete is poured into a cone as used for the normal slump test as shown in
figure (3.7). When the cone is withdrawn upwards the time from commencing upward
movement of the cone to when the concrete has flowed to a diameter of 500 mm is
measured; this is the T500 time, figure (3.8). The largest diameter of the flow spread of
the concrete and the diameter of the spread at right angles to it are then measured and the
mean is the slump-flow, figure (3.9).

Figure 3.7: Slump cone and base plate

35

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.8: Slump flow test

Figure 3.9: The largest diameter of the flow spread

The detailed procedure of this test was as mentioned in the European guidelines for SCC,
(EFNARC, 2005). The first step is to prepare the cone and base plate then place the
cleaned base in a stable leveled position, fill the cone without any agitation or rodding,
and strike off surplus from the top of the cone. Allow the filled cone to stand for not more
than 30s; during this time remove any spilled concrete from the base plate and ensure the
base plate is damp all over but without any surplus water.
Lift the cone vertically in one movement without interfering with the flow of concrete. If
the T500 time has been requested, start the stop watch immediately the cone ceases to be
in contact with the base plate and record the time taken to the nearest 0,1 s for the
concrete to reach the 500 mm circle at any point. Without disturbing the base plate or
36

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

concrete, measure the largest diameter of the flow spread and record it as dm to the
nearest 10 mm. Then measure the diameter of the flow spread at right angles to dm to the
nearest 10 mm and record as dr to the nearest 10 mm.
Check the concrete spread for segregation. The cement paste/mortar may segregate from
the coarse aggregate to give a ring of paste/mortar extending several millimeters beyond
the coarse aggregate. Segregated coarse aggregate may also be observed in the central
area. Report that segregation has occurred and that the test was therefore unsatisfactory.
Then the slump-flow is the mean of dm and dr expressed to the nearest 10 mm, and the
T500 time is reported to the nearest 0.1 s.
3.6.1.2 V-funnel test

The V-funnel test is used to assess the viscosity and filling ability of self-compacting
concrete with a maximum size aggregate of 20mm. A V shaped funnel see Figure (3.10)
is filled with fresh concrete and the time taken for the concrete to flow out of the funnel is
measured and recorded as the V-funnel flow time.
V-funnel, made to the dimensions (tolerance 1 mm), fitted with a quick release,
watertight gate at its base and supported so that the top of the funnel is horizontal. The Vfunnel shall be made from metal; the surfaces shall be smooth, and not be readily
attacked by cement paste or be liable to rusting. However container is needed to hold the
test sample and having a volume larger than the volume of the funnel and not less than 12
L.

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CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.10: V-funnel test

Clean the funnel and bottom gate, the dampen all the inside surface including the gate.
Then close the gate and pour the sample of concrete into the funnel, without any agitation
or rodding, then strike off the top with the straight edge so that the concrete is flush with
the top of the funnel. Place the container under the funnel in order to retain the concrete
to be passed. After a delay of (10 2) s from filling the funnel, open the gate and
measure the time tv, to 0,1 s, from opening the gate to when it is possible to see vertically
through the funnel into the container below for the first time. tv is the V-funnel flow time.
3.6.1.3 L-box test

The L-box test is used to assess the passing ability of self-compacting concrete to flow
through tight openings including spaces between reinforcing bars and other obstructions
without segregation or blocking. There are two variations; the two bar test and the three
bar test. The three bar test simulates more congested reinforcement.
The main concept of this test is to allow a measured volume of fresh concrete to flow
horizontally through the gaps between vertical, smooth reinforcing bars and the height of
the concrete beyond the reinforcement is measured.
L-box, have the general arrangement as shown in Figure (3.11) and the dimensions
(tolerance 1 mm) shown in Figure (3.12). The L-box shall be of rigid construction with
surfaces that are smooth, flat and not readily attacked by cement paste or be liable to

38

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CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

rusting. The vertical hopper may be removable for ease of cleaning. With the gate closed,
the volume of the vertical hopper shall be (12,6 12,8) L when filled level with the top.
The assemblies holding the reinforcement bars shall have 2 smooth bars of 12 mm
diameter with a gap of 59 mm for the two bar test and 3 smooth bars of 12 mm diameter
with a gap of 41 mm for the three bar test. These assemblies shall be interchangeable and
locate the bars in the L -box so that they are vertical and equidistant across the width of
the box.

Figure 3.11: General assembly of L-box

39

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.12: Dimensions and typical design of L-box

Support the L-box on a level horizontal base and close the gate between the vertical and
horizontal sections. Pour the concrete from the container into the filling hopper of the Lbox and allow standing for (60 10) s. Record any segregation and then raise the gate so
that the concrete flows into the horizontal section of the box. When movement has
ceased, measure the vertical distance, at the end of the horizontal section of the L-box,
between the top of the concrete and the top of the horizontal section of the box at three
positions equally spaced across the width of the box. By difference with the height of the
horizontal section of the box, these three measurements are used to calculate the mean
depth of concrete as H2 mm. The same procedure is used to calculate the depth of
concrete immediately behind the gate as H1 mm. The passing ability PA is calculated
from the following equation.
=

2
1
40

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.6.2 Tests Applied on Hardened Concrete


3.6.2.1 Compression Test for Hardened Concrete

A significant portion of this research focused on the behaviors of UHPSCC cube


specimens under compressive loading. The compressive tests discussed in this section
were all completed nominally according to (ASTM C109, 2004) standard test method for
cubes. Numerous trial mixtures were manufactured. For each batch of UHPSCC made,
100x100x100 mm cube specimens were prepared, as shown in Figure (3.13). The cubes
were filled with fresh concrete in one layer without any compaction, after preparing the
specimens inside the cube were covered with plastic sheets for about 24 hours to prevent
moisture loss.

Figure 3.13: Compression test specimens (100x100x100mm)

Cubes stored in water until the time of the test. Before the tests, the specimens were airdried for 10 to15 minutes and any loose sand grains or incrustations from the faces that
will be in contact with the bearing plat of the testing machine are removed. The cubes are
placed in the testing machine so that the load is applied to opposite sides as cast and not
to the top and bottom as cast. Therefore, the bearing faces of the specimen are
sufficiently plane as to require no capping. If there is appreciable curvature, the face is
grinded to plane surface because, much lower results than the true strength are obtained
by loading faces of the cube specimens that are not truly plane surfaces.

41

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

The compressive strength machine in soil and material laboratory at the IUG was used for
determining the maximum compressive loads carried by concrete specimen cubes, as
shown in Figure (3.14).
The compressive strength of the specimen, comp (in MPa), is calculated by dividing the
maximum load carried by the cube specimen during the test by the cross sectional area of
the specimen.

comp =

The compressive strength was determined at different ages 7, 14, and 28 days. At least
three of these cubes were tested for each period the mean value of the specimens was
considered as the compressive strength of the experiment. The test program for
compressive strength of UHPSCC is outlined in Table (3.9):
Table 3.9: Test program for compressive strength

Number of days

Number of tested specimens

7
14
28

3
3
3

Figure 3.14: Compressive strength test machine

42

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

3.6.2.2 Splitting Cylinder Test

The splitting tensile strength of UHPSCC was measured based on ASTM C496(2004)
Standard test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.
This test often referred to as the split cylinder test, indirectly measures the tensile strength
of concrete by compressing a cylinder through a line load applied along its length.
The failure of concrete in tension is governed by micro-cracking, associated particularly
with the interfacial region between the aggregate particles and the cement, also called
interfacial transition zone (ITZ). The load applied (compressive force) on the cylindrical
concrete specimen induces tensile and shear stresses on the aggregate particles inside the
specimen, generating the bond failure between the aggregate particles and the cement
paste. Usually, splitting tensile strength test is used to evaluate the shear resistance
provided by concrete elements. However, the most important advantage is that, when
applying the splitting procedure, the tensile strengths are practically independent of either
the test specimen or of the test machine sizes, being only a function of the concrete
quality alone. Thus, much inconvenience is eliminated, particularly with respect to the
scale coefficient, which is involved in direct tensile tests. For this reason, this procedure
is considered to reproduce more exactly the real concrete tensile strength.
The tensile strength of concrete is most often is evaluated using a split cylinder test, in
which a cylindrical specimen is placed on its side and loaded in diametrical compression,
so to induce transverse tension. Practically, the load applied on the cylindrical concrete
specimen induces tensile stresses on the plane containing the load and relatively high
compressive stresses in the area immediately around it. When the cylinder is compressed
by the two plane-parallel faceplates, situated at two diametrically opposite points on the
cylinder surface then, along the diameter passing through the two points, as shown in
Figure (3.15), the major tensile stresses are developed which, at their limit, reach the
fracture strength value ASTM C496 indicates that the maximum fracture strength can be
calculated based on the following equation.
=

43

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Where: P is the fracture compression force acting along the cylinder, D is the cylinder
diameter; = 3.14, L is the cylinder length.
The load and stress distribution pattern across the cross section if it is assumed that the
load is concentrated at the tangent points then, over the cross section, only tensile stresses
would be developed. In practice, however, the load is distributed over a finite width
owing to material deformations. So, over the cross section, horizontal compressive
stresses are developed too, in the close vicinity of the contact point between the press
plates and the material. Since the compressive stresses only develop to a small depth in
the cross section, it may be assumed that the tensile stresses are distributed evenly along
the diameter where the splitting takes place, see Figure (3.16). This test can be completed
in a standard concrete compression testing machine, with only one special requirement:
the bearing plates that load the specimen. Split cylinder tests were conducted on 6 x 12
in. (150 x 300mm) cylinders, tensile stress in the cylinder and the maximum tensile stress
occur at the center of the cylinder.

Figure 3.15: Split cylinder test setup for cylinder 150 x 300mm

44

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.16: Crack in a split cylinder tensile specimen

All cylinder specimens were cast for testing at 28 days. Three of these cylinders were
tested for each period the mean values of the specimens were considered as split cylinder
strength of the experiment.
3.6.2.3 Flexural Test

The flexural strengths of concrete specimens are determined by the use of simple beam
with center point loading in accordance with (ASTM C293, 1994) as shown in figure
(3.17). The spacemen is a beam 100 x 100 x 500 mm. the mold is filled in one layer,
without any compacting or rodding, the beam casting and then immersing in water at
25C.
The cast beam specimens are tested turned on their sides with respect to their position as
molded. This should provide smooth, plane and parallel faces for loading if any loose
sand grains or incrustations are removed from the faces that will be in contact with the
bearing surfaces of the points of support and the load application. Because the flexural
strengths of the prisms are quickly affected by drying which produces skin tension, they
are tested immediately after they are removed from the curing basin as shown in Figure
(3.18).

45

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Figure 3.17: Diagrammatic view for flexure test of concrete by center-point loading

Figure 3.18: Flexural test specimens (100*100*500mm)

The pedestal on the base plate of the machine is centered directly below the center of the
upper spherical head, and the bearing plate and support edge assembly are placed on the
pedestal. The center loading device is attached to the spherical head. The test specimen is
turned on its side with respect to its position as molded and it is placed on the supports of
the testing device. This provides smooth, plane, and parallel faces for loading. The
longitudinal center line of the specimen is set directly above the midpoint of both
supports.
The center point loading device is adjusted so that its bearing edge is at exactly right
angles to the length of the beam and parallel to its top face as placed, with the center of
the bearing edge directly above the center line of the beam and at the center of the span
length. The load contacts with the surface of the specimen at the center. If full contact is
not obtained between the specimen and the load applying or the support blocks so that
there is a gap, the contact surfaces of the specimen are ground.

46

CHAPTER 3

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

The specimen is loaded continuously and without shock at until rupture occurs. Finally,
the maximum load indicated by the testing machine is recorded.
The flexural strength of the beam, Fr (in MPa), is calculated as follows:
=

3
22

Where: P = maximum applied load indicated by the testing machine, L = span length, B =
average width of specimen, at the point of fracture, D = average depth of specimen, at the
point of fracture).
The specimen beams tested after 28 days. At least three of these beams were tested for
each period and the mean values are determined.
3.6.2.4 Unit weight

In this research, the unit weight of the concrete cube specimen is the theoretical density.
The density is calculated by dividing the weight of each cube by the volume. The same
cube specimens which are used to determine the compressive strength was used to
determine the density and the tests were carried out according to ASTM C642, 2004.

47

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 4
TEST RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION

48

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 4- TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Introduction
Series of tests were carried out on the concrete cubes, cylinders, and beams to evaluate
the fresh and hardened properties of Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete
(UHPSCC). The first step in the test program comprises developing five trial mixes to
obtain the start up mix of UHPSCC. Then the second step includes developing twelve
mixes. Table (4.1) and table (4.2) show the mixture proportions and one cubic meter
components of the best mixture of UHPSCC, hereby all test average results are presented
in appendix (I).
This chapter discusses the results obtained from the testing program. The results were
observed from the slump flow test and T500 test, V-funnel, L-box, unit weight,
compression test and indirect tensile tests.

Table 4.1: Best mixture proportions of UHPSCC by weight of cement

Materials

Proportion

Cement CEM I 42.5R


Water cement ratio (w/c)
Silica fume to cement (s/c)
Quartz powder to cement (p/c)
Quartz to cement (q/c)
Basalt aggregate to cement
Super plasticizers to cement

49

1.00
0.33
0.155
0.385
0.733
1.583
0.03

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.2: One cubic meter components of UHPSCC mixture

Materials

Unit

Proportion

Kg/m
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3

Cement CEM I 42.5R


Water
Silica fume
Quartz powder
Quartz
Basalt aggregate
Super plasticizers to cement

600
200
93
231
440
950
18

All mixtures were subjected to fresh and hardened tests in order to be classified as
UHPSCC, some mixing proportions were fixed and the other were varied such as the
silica fume per cement weight percentage and superplasticizer per cement weight
percentage, Table (4.3) summarizes the change in mixing proportion.
Table 4.3: Changing in mixtures proportions per cement weight

Mixtur
e#
Mix(1)
Mix(2)
Mix(3)
Mix(4)
Mix(5)
Mix(6)
Mix(7)
Mix(8)
Mix(9)
Mix(10)
Mix(11)
Mix(12)

Silica/C
10%
15.5%
20%
30%
10%
15.5%
20%
30%
10%
15.5%
20%
30%

Superplasti
cizer/C
1%
1%
1%
1%
2%
2%
2%
2%
3%
3%
3%
3%

W/C ratio
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33

Quartz
Powder/C
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%
36.6%

Quartz /C

Basalt/C

69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%
69.84%

150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%
150.79%

4.2 Fresh properties tests results


By conducting the test methods on the fresh mixtures, Table (4.4) shows all results
obtained in the IUG lab. The results showed that six mixtures out of twelve satisfy the
fresh properties standards developed by the European Guidelines for self Compacting
Concrete, 2005. These mixtures were called UHPSCC and the other mixtures can be used
as UHPC only.

50

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.4: Mixtures classification


(1% Superplasticizer)

Slump flow(mm)
V-Funnel(Sec.)
L-Box(H2/H1)
Mixture
#
Result Classification Result Classification Result Classification
Mix(1)
Mix(2)
Mix(3)
Mix(4)

633
574
529
507

SF1
SF1
---

12.00
14.11
18.00
NA

VF2
VF2
---

0.76
0.75
0.61
0.53

PA2
PA2
---

Compressive
strength
(28)day(MPa)

Concrete
Classification

127.2
135.0
114.4
113.8

UHPSCC
UHPSCC
UHPC
UHPC

Compressive
strength
(28)day(MPa)

Concrete
Classification

119.3
138.5
115.8
114.3

UHPSCC
UHPSCC
UHPC
UHPC

Compressive
strength
(28)day(MPa)

Concrete
Classification

135.3
141.2
115.5
112.8

UHPSCC
UHPSCC
UHPC
UHPC

(2% Superplasticizer)

Slump flow(mm)
V-Funnel(Sec.)
L-Box(H2/H1)
Mixture
#
Result Classification Result Classification Result Classification
Mix(5)
Mix(6)
Mix(7)
Mix(8)

765
750
688
549

SF3
SF2
SF2
--

10.77
11.23
16.00
NA

VF2
VF2
---

0.75
0.76
0.73
0.70

PA2
PA2
PA2
PA2

(3% Superplasticizer)

Slump flow(mm)
V-Funnel(Sec.)
L-Box(H2/H1)
Mixture
#
Result Classification Result Classification Result Classification
Mix(9)
Mix(10)
Mix(11)
Mix(12)

769
758
723
590

SF3
SF2
SF2
SF1

9.82
10.36
15.2
21

VF2
VF2
---

0.77
0.79
0.72
0.71

51

PA2
PA2
PA2
PA2

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.3 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on slump flow results


Four different doses of silica fume replacing by mass (10%, 15.5%, 20%, and 30%) the
Portland cement and three doses of superplasticizer (1%, 2%, and 3%) have been used to
explore the influence on the filing ability of UHPSCC. The water/cement ratio 0.33 was
kept constant for all mixtures, the design mix shown in Table (4.1) and Table (4.2) was
the starting point.
From Figure (4.1) we can note that there is a direct trend for the effect of silica fume and
superplasticizer on the filling ability (Slump flow) of UHPSCC, using this Figure it is
clear that the optimum percentage of silica fume and superplasticizer can be selected.

800

Slump Flow (mm)

750
700
650
600

1%Superplasticizer

550

2%Superplasticizer

500

3%Superplasticizer

450
400
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Silica Fume (%)

Figure 4.1: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC slump flow

52

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.4 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on V-Funnel test results


Table (4.4) Shows the V-Funnel time results for several mixtures, and these results also
reflect the concrete viscosity ratio which is inversely proportional with the V-Funnel
time, in other words when the V-Funnel time increases the concrete loses its viscosity.
Figure (4.2) shows the effect of adding 10%, 15.5%, 20%, and 30% silica fume by mass
of cement- and 1%, 2%, and 3% superplasticizer doses on the UHPSCC V-Funnel time.
It also shows that the mixtures suffer from losing its viscosity when the silica fume
percentage equal or above 30% with superplasticizer 1% and 2%, and it does not
considered as a self compacting concrete any more. High percentage of silica fume as a
fine Pozzolanic material may fill all the spaces between cement particles and need much
more superplasticizer high range water reducer, this Leeds to a very rigid and not self
compacted concrete.
Using figure (4.2), the possible percentage of silica fume and superplasticizer for a
specific V-Funnel time can be identified..
25

V-Funnel (Sec.)

20

15
1%Superplasticizer

10

2%Superplasticizer
3%Superplasticizer

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Silica Fume (%)

Figure 4.2: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC V-Funnel time

53

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.5 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on L-Box test results


The L-Box test results listed in Table (4.4) for the twelve mixtures, reflect the concrete
passing ability and the flowability through tight openings including spaces between
reinforcing bars and other obstructions without segregation or blocking.
Figure (4.3) shows the effect of adding 10%, 15.5%, 20%, and 30% silica fume by mass
of cement- and 1%, 2%, and 3% superplasticizer doses on the UHPSCC L-Box ratio. It
also shows that the mixtures suffers from losing its passing ability when the silica fume
percent equal or above 20% with superplasticizer 1%, this means that the mix is not
considered as a self compacting concrete any more. This can be explained as when the
superplasticizer percent is low (1%), its influence as a water reducer is not effective. This
will not allow the action of the silica gel, which covers the cement particles, to take place
during the hydration process. This results in a non-flowable mixture due to the low
water/cement ratio. This explains why the mixture loses its plasticity at 1%
superplasticizer and 20% or more silica fume. The situation gets better at 1%
superplasticizer but with 10% of silica as the silica gel will be fully produced resulting in
better plasticity of concrete.

These results allow identifying the optimum percent of silica fume and superplasticizer
for a specific L- Box ratio.

54

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

0.9
0.8

L-Box Ratio

0.7
0.6
1%Superplasticizer

0.5

2%Superplasticizer

0.4

3%Superplasticizer

0.3
0.2
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Silica Fume (%)

Figure 4.3: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC L-Box test

4.6 Segregation in the trial mixes


In all trial mixtures including those for UHPSCC start up mixture, segregation is
observed in a few mixtures where W/C ratio was greater than 0.33. To avoid the
recurrence of segregation, the testing program was developed at constant W/C ratio of
0.33.
After words, there was not any noticeable segregation observed in all mixtures and there
was a homogenous concrete. Accordingly to avoid any segregation the W/C ratio has to
be equal or less than 0.33.

55

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.7 Hardened properties tests results


The results of conducting a series hardened tests on the concrete cubes, cylinders, and
beams to evaluate the hardened mechanical properties of UHPSCC is discussed in this
section. The results are the unit weight, compression test and indirect tensile tests.
4.7.1 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC density

Table (4.5) shows the effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on the UHPSCC hardened
density.
Table 4.5: Mixtures mean density

Mixtur
e#
Mix(1)
Mix(2)
Mix(3)
Mix(4)
Mixtur
e#
Mix(5)
Mix(6)
Mix(7)
Mix(8)
Mixtur
e#
Mix(9)
Mix(10)
Mix(11)
Mix(12)

Superplasticizer/C = 1%
Density
Silica/C
Kg/m3
10%
2555
15.5%
2543
20%
2542
30%
2534
Superplasticizer/C = 2%
Silica/C
Density
Kg/m3
10%
2530
15.5%
2545
20%
2539
30%
2522
Superplasticizer/C = 3%
Silica/C
Density
Kg/m3
10%
2595
15.5%
2533
20%
2521
30%
2493

56

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

2620

Superplasticizer
(1%(

2600
Density kg/m3

2580

Superplasticizer
(2%(

2560

Superplasticizer
(3%(

2540
2520
2500
2480
2460
2440
10

15.5

20

30

Silica Fume (%)

Figure 4.4: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC density

Figure (4.4) shows the effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on the UHPSCC density,
the results show that the density of concrete slightly decreases when increasing the silica
fume content, and also slightly decreases when the dosage of superplasticizer increases.
This can be justified according to the Pozzolanic reaction discussed in chapter 2 where
the rich gel of silica fume agglomerates between the grains of unhydrated cement and
produce a very dense and rigid structure.
4.7.2 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC compressive strength

Table (4.6) shows the effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on the UHPSCC
compressive strength after 28 days.

Table 4.6: Mixtures mean compressive strength after 28 days

Mixtur
e#
Mix(1)
Mix(2)
Mix(3)
Mix(4)

Superplasticizer/C = 1%
Mean Compressive
Silica/C
Strength (MPa)
10%
127.2
15.5%
135
20%
114.4
30%
113.8

57

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Mixtur
e#
Mix(5)
Mix(6)
Mix(7)
Mix(8)
Mixtur
e#
Mix(9)
Mix(10)
Mix(11)
Mix(12)

Superplasticizer/C = 2%
Mean Compressive
Silica/C
Strength (MPa)
10%
119.3
15.5%
138.5
20%
115.8
30%
114.3
Superplasticizer/C = 3%
Mean Compressive
Silica/C
Strength (MPa)
10%
135.3
15.5%
141.2
20%
115.5
30%
112.8

145
Compressive Strength (MPa)

140
135
130
125
(1%Superplasticizer (

120

(2%Superplasticizer (

115

(3%Superplasticizer (

110
105
100
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Silica Fume (%)

Figure 4.5: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC compressive strength

The results shown in Table (4.6) and Figure (4.5) demonstrate that it is possible to make
UHPSCC with different silica fume percent. For 10 %, 15.5%, 20%, 30% silica fume,
very high strength concrete with 135 MPa, 141 MPa, 116 MPa, 120 MPa respectively can
be achieved. A pronounced effect of the using silica fume was observed. The increase in
the silica fume content from 10% to 15.5% effectively increases the compressive strength
of concrete. But using silica fume from 20% to 30% decreases the compressive strength

58

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

as shown in Figure (4.5). The maximum compressive strength of the concrete specimens
was achieved using 15.5 % silica fume replacement where a compressive strength up to
141 MPa, which met the target compressive strength for the UHPSCC, and met the
results obtained by (Arafa, et.al, 2010) study.
This can be explained according to what have been mentioned in EFNARC, that the silica
fume works in two levels, the pozzolanic reaction and the physical function. The
hydration of Portland cement produces many compounds; including calcium silicate
hydrates (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). When silica fume is added to fresh
concrete, it chemically reacts with the CH to produce additional CSH which improve the
bond between the cement and the surface of the aggregate, more ever the silica fume
particle can fill the voids creates by free water in the matrix. This function is called
particle packing refines the microstructure of the concrete, thus creating a much denser
pore structure the benefit of this reacts is twofold; increasing compressive strength and
decreasing total pores volume (EFNARC, 2005).
But as mentioned in the previous figure it can be noticed that the EFNARC justification
can be applicable when the silica fume percent less than 20%, but when silica fume
percent reaches 30% the strength decreases, this can be explained that the silica fume can
react to a certain level, after that the silica fume did not participate in the hydration
reaction and remain inert in concrete as the weakest point.
Figure (4.6) shows the relationship between compressive strength of cube specimens and
dosage of silica fume, the following relation was derived.
Fc= 140.3e-0.00S
Where:
Fc = compressive strength of cube specimens in MPa.
S = percent of silica fume (10% S 30%)

59

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

180

Compressive Strength (MPa)

170
160
150
140
x0.007e-140.38

=y
0.3677= R

130
120
110
100
90
80
10

15

20
25
Silica Fume (%)

30

35

Figure 4.6: Effect of silica fume dosage on compressive strength

4.7.3 Compressive strength Time relationship

Table (4.7) and Figure (4.7) show the compressive strength results at several ages of the
concrete mix, as shown in Table (4.1) and Table (4.2).
Table 4.7: Summary of compressive strength test results for first UHPSCC mix

Age of cubes
(day)
7
14
28

No. of
specimens
3
3
3

Mean
compressive
strength (MPa)
101
126
141.2

60

Standard
deviation
3.56
2.99
4.1

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Compressive Strength (Mpa)

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

Concrete age (days)

Figure 4.7: The variation of mean compressive strength with age for first UHPSCC mix

The results in Table (4.7) and Figure (4.7) shows that this mixture can achieve a mean
compressive strength of concrete specimens near 140 MPa at an age of 28 days. Where
the curing was done at 25 C by immersion in water without any heat treatment. The
standard deviation values for all concrete specimens at different ages were less than 4.1
MPa.
The full test results of all mixes are presented in Table (4.8) and Figure (4.8). The
average values and standard deviation were calculated for compressive strengths at 7, 14,
and 28 days.
Table 4.8: Summary of compressive strength test results for all mixes

Mixtur
e#

Silica/
C

Mix(1)
Mix(2)
Mix(3)
Mix(4)
Mix(5)
Mix(6)
Mix(7)
Mix(8)
Mix(9)

10%
15.5%
20%
30%
10%
15.5%
20%
30%
10%

Superpla
sticizer/
C
1%
1%
1%
1%
2%
2%
2%
2%
3%

Mean Compressive
Strength (MPa) -7d

Mean Compressive
Strength (MPa)-14d

Mean Compressive
Strength (MPa)-28d

91.5
96.2
82.2
86.8
85.8
99.2
81.2
82.2
95.5

109.6
111.9
92.8
101
98.7
119.3
97.2
94.8
116.1

127.2
135
114.4
113.8
119.3
138.5
115.8
114.3
135.3

61

CHAPTER 4

Mix(10)
Mix(11)
Mix(12)

15.5%
20%
30%

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3%
3%
3%

101
83.7
81.5

126
95.7
97.7

141.2
115.5
112.8

160

Compressive Strength (Mpa)

140

(1Mix(
(2Mix(

120

(3Mix(
100

(4Mix(
(5Mix(

80

(6Mix(
(7Mix(

60

(8Mix(

40

(9Mix(
(10Mix(

20

(11Mix(

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

(12Mix(

Concrete age (days)

Figure 4.8: Relation between the mean compressive strength and age for all mixes

ACI Committee 209, 2033 recommends the following expressions to predict the
compressive strength (fc) of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) with strengths up 41 MPa
at any time
( ) =

+ 28

Where a = 4 (cement type I), = 0.85 (moist curing), fc28 = 28 days strength and t is the
age of concrete.

62

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The comparison of the ratios for compressive strengths at different ages of UHPSCC
concrete (fc)t (3,7,14, and 28 days) to the compressive strength of Normal Strength
Concrete (NSC), using the above mentioned equation are given in Table (4.9) and Figure
(4.9).

Ratio of fc(t) to fc(28days)

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

UHPSCC

0.2

NSC

0
3

14

28

Cubes Age (days)

Figure 4.9: Comparison of ratio of (fc)t /(fc )28 for UHPSCC and NSC at different ages

Table 4.9: Comparison of ratio of (fc)t /(fc )28 of UHPSCC with the prediction of ACI
Committee 209 of NSC
Age of cubes (day )
3
7
14
28

ratio of (fc)t /(fc )28


(Average)UHPSCC
NSC
0.4
0.46
0.72
0.7
0.88
0.88
1
1

Figure (4.9) and Table (4.9 show that the average strength of specimens for UHPSCC
lower than the NSC at three days age, but it increases at seven days age. At 14 days age,
the strength achieved is about 88% of the 28 days strength. Because of the larger amount
of type I cement plus silica fume used in the UHPSCC mixtures along with a relatively

63

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

low W/C ratio , the high percent of silica fume increases the Pozzolanic activity to form
more CSH gel of the concrete. This is similar to normal concrete strength.
A regression analysis was conducted with a 94.7 % confidence interval to fit a function to
the data presented in Figure (4.10). Approximating function is given as follow:
37.4 ()+ 5.874

(fc)t = ( )28

100

This equation accurately describes the compressive strength gain behavior of UHPSCC at
any time starting after 41 hours following the casting, (fc)t .This equation includes the
age of concrete, t, and the 28 days compressive strength fc28 in MPa.
200
Compressive Strength (MPa)

180
R = 0.947

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

Moist Curing at Different Ages (days

Figure 4.10: Compressive strength gain as a function of time after casting

4.7.4 Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC splitting strength

Table (4.10) shows the splitting tensile strength test results for the twelve mixtures.
Figure (4.11) shows the effect of adding 10%, 15.5%, 20%, and 30% silica fume by
mass of cement- and 1%, 2%, and 3% superplasticizer on the UHPSCC splitting tensile
strength. It also shows that the mixtures suffer from losing its tensile strength when the

64

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

silica fume percentage equal or above 20% with superplasticizer 1%, 2%, 3. This met
with the results obtained by (Farhang and Arash, 2008) in their study.
It can determined from Figure (4.10) the possible percentage of silica fume and
superplasticizer for a specific splitting tensile strength.

Table 4.10: Summary of splitting tensile strength test results


Superplasticizer/C=1%

Mixture #

Silica/C

Mean Splitting
Strength (MPa)

Mix(1)
Mix(2)
Mix(3)
Mix(4)

10%
15.50%
20%
30%

7.1
7.5
7.2
6.9

Superplasticizer/C=2%

Mixture #

Silica/C

Mean Splitting
Strength (MPa)

Mix(5)
Mix(6)
Mix(7)
Mix(8)

10%
15.50%
20%
30%

6.9
7.6
7.3
7.1

Superplasticizer/C=3%

Mixture #

Silica/C

Mean Splitting
Strength (MPa)

Mix(9)
Mix(10)
Mix(11)
Mix(12)

10%
15.50%
20%
30%

7.6
8.3
7.8
7.4

65

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

splitting strength (Mpa)

8.5
8
7.5
(1%Superplasticizer (
7

(2%Superplasticizer (
(3%Superplasticizer (

6.5
6
0

10

20

30

40

Silica Fume (%)

Figure 4.11: Effect of silica fume and superplasticizer on UHPSCC splitting strength
4.7.5 Splitting tensile strength Time relationship

Table (4.11) and Figure (4.12) show the splitting tensile strength results at several ages
for the initial prepared mix shown in Table (4.1) and Table (4.2). The average values,
standard deviation were calculated for splitting tensile strength at 7, 14, and 28 days.
It can be observed when using several superplasticizer contents that the optimum silica
content is between 15% to 15.5% by cement weight. This is due to the fact that the silica
content of 15% to 15.5% by cement weight is the optimum content at which an enough
amount of silica gel (calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH)) will
be produced. This amount of silica gel is enough to cover all cement particles and fill in
all porous, resulting in a higher strength. However, when silica content is less than 10%
with several superplasticier contents, the silica gel will not fill in all porous and will not
cover all reacted cement particles resulting weakness in strength. When the silica content
is higher than 20%, part of it will not react and remain as inert particles. This will weaken
the concrete compressive strength of the mixtures.

Table 4.11: Summary of splitting strength test results for first UHPSCC mix

Age of cubes

No. of

Mean

Standard

66

CHAPTER 4

(day)

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

specimens

7
14
28

3
3
3

compressive
strength (MPa)
6.6
7.2
8.3

deviation
1.02
0.56
0.75

9
Splitting strength (Mpa)

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

Concrete age (days)

Figure 4.12: The variation of splitting strength with age for first UHPSCC mix

The results in Table (4.11) and Figure (4.12) showed that this mixture can achieve a
mean splitting tensile strength of concrete specimens near 8.3 MPa at an age of 28 days.
Curing was done at 25o C by immersion in water without heat treatment. The standard
deviation values for all concrete specimens at different ages were low.
At 7 and 14 days, the splitting cylinder strength achieved about 79 % and 87 % of the 28day respectively, as shown in Figure (4.13), because the higher content of silica fume of
20% increases the bond between the cement paste and the aggregate particles and reduces
the pores in cement paste, which usually tends to increase the early strength of concrete.

67

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Ratio of fsp(t) to fsp(28days)

9
8

100%

7
87%

6
5

79%

4
3
2
1
0
7

14

28

Moist Curing Age (days)

Figure 4.13: The ratio of fsp (t) to fsp (28days) with time for UHPSCC

4.7.6 Effect of Basalt content

Another series of tests were carried out to study the effect of basalt content on the
concrete cubes, cylinders, and beams by evaluating the fresh and hardened properties of
Ultra High Performance Self Compacting Concrete (UHPSCC). Three new mixes were
developed after choosing the best mixture from the twelve UHPSCC mixtures. Table
(4.2) and table (4.3) show the mixture proportions and one cubic meter components of
UHPSCC, hereby all test results of the new three mixes are presented in appendix (A).
All mixtures were subjected to fresh and hardened tests in order to be classified as
UHPSCC, some mixing proportions were fixed such as silica fume, quartz, and
superplasticizer and the Basalt content were varied, to study the effect of basalt content
on fresh and hardened concrete. The following Table (4.12) summarizes the change in
mixing proportion.

68

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.12: Changing in mixtures proportions

Mixture #

Silica/C

Mix(10)
Mix(10-A)
Mix(10-B)

15.5%
15.5%
15.5%

Superplasticizer/
C
3%
3%
3%

Basalt content/C
160%
170%
150%

This section discusses the results obtained from the testing program. The results were
observed from the slump flow test and T500 test, V-funnel, L-box, unit weight,
compression test and indirect tensile tests. Table (4.13) shows the observed results.

Table 4.13: Effect of basalt content on fresh and hardened properties

Materials
Cement
Water
Silica fume
Silica fume per cement weight
Quartz powder(0-10)
Quartz
Basalt
Superplasticizer
Basalt per cement ratio
Superplasticizer per cement ratio

Unit

Mix
(10)

Mix (10A)

Mix (10B)

Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
%
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
Kg/m3
%
%

600
200
93
15.5
231
440
950
18
160
3

580
200
89.9
15.5
231
440
986
17.4
170
3

620
200
96.1
15.5
231
440
930
18.6
150
3

758
5.35
10.36
0.79
2533
101
126.0
141.2
8.2
12.67

730
5.9
10.6
0.8
2555
96.4
117.5
133.8
8.18
13.13

763
5
8.6
0.8
2530
97.9
119.2
136.2
7.78
12.19

Slump Flow (mm)


t(500) sec.
t(v) - V funnel sec
H2/H1 = PA
Density of hardened concrete Kg/m3
Compressive strength [MPa]
7 days
Compressive strength [MPa]
14 days
Compressive strength [MPa]
28 days
Splitting tensile strength N/mm2 [MPa]
28 days
Flexural tensile strength N/mm2 [MPa]
28 days

69

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure (4.14) shows the effect of adding 150,160 and 170% basalt aggregate by mass of
cement- on the UHPSCC fresh properties (slump flow). It shows that the mixtures suffer
from losing its flowability when the basalt percentage increases.
770
Slump Flow (mm)

760
750
740
730
720
710
150

160

170

Amount Of Basalt to Cement (%)

Figure 4.14: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Slump Flow

Figure (4.15) shows the effect of adding 150,160, and 170% basalt aggregate by mass of
cement- on the UHPSCC fresh properties (V-Funnel test). It also shows that the mixtures
suffer from losing its viscosity when the basalt percentage increases.
12

V-Funnel (Sec)

10
8
6
4
2
0
150

160

170

Amount of Basalt to Cement (%)

Figure 4.15: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC V-Funnel test

Figure (4.16) describes the effect of adding 150,160, and 170% basalt aggregate by
mass of cement- on the UHPSCC hardened properties (compressive strength). It can be

70

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

recognized that the optimum percent of basalt content is 160% which give us the highest
compression strength in the concrete different ages.

Compressive Strength (MPa)

160
140
120
100
80

Days-7

60

Days-14

40

Days-28

20
0
150

160

170

Amount of Basalt to Cement (%)

Figure 4.16: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Compressive Strength

Figure (4.17) describes the effect of adding 150,160 and 170% basalt aggregate by mass
of cement- on the UHPSCC hardened properties (splitting tensile strength). It shows that
the splitting tensile strength increases when the basalt amount increases

Splitting tensile strength MPa

8.3
8.2
8.1
8
7.9
7.8
7.7
7.6
7.5
150

160

170

Amount of Basalt to cement (%)

Figure 4.17: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Splitting Tensile Strength

71

CHAPTER 4

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Flexural tensile strength (MPa)

Figure (4.18) shows the effect of adding 150,160 and 170% basalt aggregate by mass of
cement- on the UHPSCC flexural tensile strength. The result shows that increasing the
amount of basalt aggregate added to the UHPSCC increase the flexural and splitting
tensile strength.
13.4
13.2
13
12.8
12.6
12.4
12.2
12
11.8
11.6
150

160

170

Amount of Basalt to Cement (%)

Figure 4.18: Effect of Basalt Content on UHPSCC Flexural Tensile Strength

4.7.6.1 Effect of Basalt conclusion

From the previous figures it can be noticed that the optimized basalt content to be used to
produce UHPSCC is 160% by the cement mass, with 3% superplasticizer, 15.5% silica
fume and constant W/C ratio 0.33.

72

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

73

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 5- CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Introduction
UHPSCC is a relatively new form of concrete which is used for general applications. The
main advantage that UHPSCC has over standard concrete is its high compressive strength
and self compacting properties, include high flowability, workability, and passing ability.
The objective of this research was to produce UHPSCC using available materials in Gaza
strip. The experimental phase of this research focused on determining the mechanical
behavior of UHPSCC. The laboratory tests determined the different fresh properties,
compressive and indirect tensile strength of UHPSCC. The analytical phase of this
research focused and elaborated on the results obtained from the experimental phase.
This phase included developing predictor equations and graphs for predicting some basic
fresh and hardened properties of UHPSCC.
The conclusions of this research and discussions of recommendations for future research
is presented in the following sections.

5.2 Conclusions
5.2.1 Generals

It is possible to produce UHPSCC in Gaza strip using materials which are


available at the local markets if they are carefully selected to achieve a mix
composition in specific grain size distribution that will achieve a minimum
compressive strength of 140 MPa at 28 days. Such concretes can be produced
with crushed basalt (160%), quartz; crushed quartz and silica fume (15.5%) as the
mineral admixture (3% superplasticizer).
5.2.2 Fresh properties

Increasing silica fume percent from 10% to 15.5% and then to 20% leads to a
slight decrease in the slump flow and the filling ability of the UHPSCC, but
increasing silica fume doses from 20% to 30% largely reduce the slump flow and

74

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

the filling ability of the mixtures and may affect the self compacting properties
which prevent achieving UHPSCC.
No influence was observed in the slump flow and filling ability of UHPSCC when
3% superplasticizer instead of 2% used for silica fume percent between 10% to
15.5%, so 2% of superplasticizer with 10% or 15.5% silica fume can be used to
gain the same filling ability as using 3% of superplasticizer.
Increasing silica fume percent from 10% to 30% results in increasing the Vfunnel time which results in decreasing the UHPSCC viscosity.
When silica fume percent equal or exceed 30% and superplasticizer varies from
1% to 2%, the concrete loses its self compactability, and become a normal
concrete.
Increasing silica fume percent results in decreasing the L-box ratio, and therefore
decreases the passing ability of the UHPSCC.
UHPSCC cannot be developed when using silica fume 20% and 1% of
superplasticizer.
The most UHPSCC passing ability can be developed and implemented by using
3% of superplasticizer with 15.5% silica fume, the optimum percentage.
In all mixtures there werent any noticeable segregation in the aggregate and there
was a homogenous concrete. Accordingly, in order to avoid any segregation the
W/C ratio has to be equal or less than 0.33.
Adding 150%,160%, and 170% basalt aggregate by cement mass- to the
UHPSCC, shows that the mixtures suffer from losing its flowability when the
basalt percentage increases, at 15.5% silica fume and 3%superplasticizer.
Adding 150%,160%, and 170% basalt aggregate, cement mass, to the UHPSCC
fresh properties, V-Funnel test, reflects that the mixtures suffer from losing its
viscosity when the basalt content increases, at 15.5% silica fume and 3%
superplasticizer.
When using a superplasticizing admixture with UHPSCC made with water
absorbing aggregates, such as basalt and quartz sand, adding 60 % of the
admixture to final stage of mixing consistently improves the properties of fresh

75

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

and hardened concrete compared with the traditional practice of adding the
admixture to the mixing water.
5.2.2 Hardened properties

Because of a large amount of Type I cement plus silica fume used in the UHPC
concrete mixtures with a relatively low W/C ratio, the strength of the concretes
develops more rapidly at the first 7 days than predicted by the current
recommendation of ACI Committee 209 (1993a) for normal conventional
concrete. The subsequent rate of strength growth is greatly decreased and is
comparable to that predicted by the ACI method.
The densities of concrete decreases as silica fume content increases, while 2%,
and 3% superplasticizer dosage obtained.
It is possible to make UHPSCC with several silica fume contents. For 10 %,
15.5%, 20%, 30% silica fume, very high strength concrete with 135 MPa, 141
MPa, 116 MPa, 120 MPa respectively can be achieved. A pronounced effect of
using silica fume was observed. The increase in the silica fume content from 10%
to 15.5% effectively increases the compressive strength of concrete. Otherwise
using silica fume form 20% to 30% gives us low compressive strength.
The compressive strength increases as the superplasticizer increases. Results
indicate that the compressive strength of UHPSCC ranges from 135 to 142 MPa,
when the superplasticizer contents ranges from 1% to 3% while silica fume range
from 10% to 15.5%.
The approximating function Fc= 140.3e-0.00S was suggested to predict the
compressive strength of concrete using any silica fume percentage ranging from
10% to 30%.
37.4 ()+ 5.874

The approximating function (fc)t = ( )28

100

was suggested to

predict the compressive strength at any starting age after 41 hours of casting of
concrete mixes, where (t) means the age of concrete.
As the compressive strength increases the splitting cylinder strength also increases
at certain cases of contents for the UHPSCC and as known in the normal concrete.

76

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The splitting cylinder strength increases when increasing the superplasticizer


doses.
The splitting cylinder strength increases when silica fume percentage ranges from
10% to 15.5%, and decreases when silica fume content increases from 20% to
30% while obtaining the same dosage of superplasticizer.
At seven and fourteen days, the splitting cylinder strength achieved about 79 %
and 87 % of the 28-day respectively, because the higher content of silica fume
increases the bond between the cement paste and the aggregate particles and
reduces the pores in cement paste, which usually tends to increase the early
strength of concrete.
Compressive strength increases when increasing the basalt content from 150% to
160% by mass of cement.
Compressive strength decreases when increasing the basalt content from 160% to
170% by mass of cement.
As the basalt content increases the splitting cylinder strength also increases.
As the basalt content increases the flexural cylinder strength also increases.

5.3 Recommendations
The following recommendations are proposed for further research.
5.3.1 The effect of Material

The effect of other concrete mix proportions such as ratio fine aggregate on the
mechanical properties of UHPSCC need to be studied.
The influences of cement type, aggregate shape and surface on the mechanical
property of UHPSCC need to be taken into consideration.
The effect of fibers (Steel, Carbon, propylene and Glass) and polymers (Epoxy,
SPR) addition on the mechanical properties of UHPSCC need to be taken into
consideration for further research.
The effect of using recycled aggregates on the fresh and hardened properties of
UHPSCC need to be investigated.

77

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Another superplasticizer and silica fume trade markets to be used to study the
fresh and hardened properties of UHPSCC.
5.3.2 Durability of UHPSCC

Further investigations have to be carried out on the following:


Performance under high-temperatures.
Pore structure and permeability.
Mechanism of strength development.
Chemical resistance.
Fire resistance.

78

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.3.3 Short term mechanical properties

Further testing and studies on short term mechanical properties of UHPSCC such as the
following, need to be carried out:
Drying Shrinkage and creep.
The stress strain behavior in compression.
The stress strain behavior in tension.
Static and dynamic modulus.
5.3.4 Using UHPSCC in the Rehabilitation Works

Further testing and studies needed to be carry out, to test the behavior of UHPSCC when
we use it as a repair material, and derive a proper equations when we use it to repair the
different deteriorated structural elements such as beams, columns, slabs, footings, shear
walls etc.

79

CHAPTER 6

REFERANCES

CHAPTER 6
REFERENCES

80

CHAPTER 6

REFERANCES

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Sellevold, E, 1987, The Function of Condensed Silica Fume in High Strength


Concrete, Proceedings, Symposium on Utilization of High Strength Concrete,
Stavanger, Norway,ed. I. Holand, S. Helland, B. Jakobsen, and R. Lenschow,Tapir
Publishers, Trondheim.

The European Guidelines for Self Compacting Concrete, 2005, Production and Use,
bibm, CEMBUREAU, EFCA, EFNARC, ERMCO.

Xie, Y, Liu, B, Yin, J and Zhou, S, 2002, Optimum mix parameters of high-strength
self-compacting concrete with ultrapulverized fly ash, Cement and Concrete Research.

Young, F and Menashi, J, 1993, "Teaching the Materials Science, Engineering, and
Field Aspects of Concrete Part 1.

84

CHAPTER 7

Appendixes

CHAPTER 7
APPENDIXES

85

CHAPTER 7

Appendixes

CHAPTER 7- APPENDIXES
-

APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX III

: Results
: Sika Fume
: Visco crete

86

CHAPTER 7

APPENDIX I

Appendixes

: Results

87

CHAPTER 7

Appendixes

88

CHAPTER 7

APPENDIX II

Appendixes

: Sika Fume

89

Product Data Sheet


Edition 04/2006
Identification no:
02 01 01 05 000 0 000019
Sika-Fume

Sika -Fume

Construction

Additive for Durable and High Ultimate Strength Concrete

Description

Sika-Fume is a new generation concrete additive in loosely agglomerated


particles form based on silica fume technology. It is a highly effective additive for
the production of high performance concrete.

Uses

Sika-Fume is used to increased the durability and strength of concrete, improve


abrasion resistance as well as reduce the permeability of concrete.

Characteristics /
Advantages

Sika-Fume improve the performance characteristics of concrete in the


following ways:
n Produces high ultimate strength concretes thereby allowing the
dimension reduction of structural members.
n Improves hardened properties of concrete such as density,
impermeability, resistant to abrasion and attack by aggressive
environments.
n Enhances cohesiveness and reduces bleeding of fresh concrete.
n Reduces rebound and increase build-up in shotcreting operations.
n Improve pumpability and flow of concrete, reducing wear on pump
equipment, concrete mixers, shotcrete equipment, moulds, etc.
n Increase corrosion and electrical resistance of concrete.
n Reduces effect of alkali aggregate reaction and the like hood of
efflorescence.

Storage Conditions /
Shelf life

When stored in unopened sealed bags, the products effectivity will last for
at least one (1) year.

Instruction For Use


Or Dispensing

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Add approximately 75% of mixing water, Sika-Fume, aggregate and sand.


Allow to mix for at least 1 minute.
Add cement, remaining water and required admixtures.
For optimum results in concrete, Sika-Fume is always used in conjunction
with a super plasticizer admixture.
More mixing time is necessary with silica fume compared to conventional
OPC concrete.

Technical Data
Form

Agglomerated particles

Appearance / Colour

Grey

Specific Gravity

2.20 (approximately)

Chloride Content

Nil

Dosage

5%-15% by weight of cement

Suitability

Compatible with Portland base cements including sulphate resisting cement

Packaging

20 kg/bag
n Sika-Fume may have some fine powder associated with agglomerated particles
n Wearing of dust mask may therefore be advisable when pouring the product
into the mixer.
n Under relevant health and safety codes, Sika-Fume is classified as non-toxic.

Sika Fume 1/2

The information, and, in particular, the recommendations relating to the application and end-use of Sika
products, are given in good faith based on Sikas current knowledge and experience of the products when
properly stored, handled and applied under normal conditions in accordance with Sikas recommendations.
In practice, the differences in materials, substrates and actual site conditions are such that no warranty
in respect of merchantability or of fitness for a particular purpose, nor any liability arising out of any legal
relationship whatsoever, can be inferred either from this information, or from any written recommendations,
or from any other advice offered. The user of the product must test the products suitability for the intended
application and purpose. Sika reserves the right to change the properties of its products. The proprietary
rights of third parties must be observed. All orders are accepted subject to our current terms of sale and
delivery. Users must always refer to the most recent issue of the local Product Data Sheet for the product
concerned, copies of which will be supplied on request.

Construction

Legal Notice

Sika Philippines, Inc.


Unit A & B
888 Marcos Alvarez, Ave.
Talon, Las Pias City 1747
Philippines

Tel.no.
: 800 1818
Fax. no
: 806 2378
www.sika.com.ph
Sika Fume 2/2

CHAPTER 7

APPENDIX III

Appendixes

: Visco crete

90

Product Data Sheet


Edition: 6 - 2010
Version no. 01.10

Sika ViscoCrete -10


Concrete Admixture

Product
Description

Sika ViscoCrete -10 is a fourth generation super plasticizer for concrete and
mortar. It meets the requirements for super plasticizers according to SIA 162 (1989)
prEN 934-2 and ASTM -C-494 Types G and F .

Uses

Sika ViscoCrete -10 is suitable for production of concrete.

Sika ViscoCrete -10 facilitates extreme water reduction, excellent owability at the
same time optimal cohesion and hightest self compacting behaviour.

Construction

Sika ViscoCrete -10 is mainly used for the following applications:


Pre-cast Concrete
Ready mix concretes.
Concrete with highest water reduction (Up to 30%).
High strength concrete.
Hot weather concrete.
Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)
High water reduction, excellent owability, coupled with high early strengths,
have a positive inuence on the above mentioned applications.

Characteristics /
Advantages

Sika ViscoCrete -10 acts by different mechanisms. Through surface adsorption


and sterical separation effect on the cement particles, In parallel to the hydration
process, the following properties are obtained:
Strong self compacting behaviour. Therefore suitable for the production of self
compacting concrete.
Increase high early strengths development,
Extremely powerful water reduction (resulting in high density and strengths).
Excellent owability (resulting in highly reduced placing and compacting efforts).
Reduced energy cost for stream cured precast elements.
Improved shrinkage and creep behaviour.
Reduced rate of carbonation of the concrete.
Improved Water Impermeability.

Sika ViscoCrete -10 does not contain chloride or other ingredients promoting
corrosion of steel reinforcement. It is therefore suitable to be used without any
restrictions for reinforced and prestressed concrete production.

Technical Data
Base

Aqueous solution of modied Polycarboxylates

Appearance / Colour

Turbid liquid

Density

1.08 kg/It. 0.005

Packaging

5 and 20 kg pails
200 kg drums
Bulk Tanks packing available upon request

Storage / Shelf Life

12 months from date of production if stored properly in unopened and undamaged,


original sealed packaging, in dry temperatures between +5C and +35C. Protected
from direct sunlight and frost.

Sika ViscoCrete -10 1/2

Application Details

Dosage / consumption Recommended dosage


For medium workability: 0.2 0.8% litre by weight of cement

Construction

For owing and self compaction concrete (S.C.C.) 0.3 2 % litre by weight of
cement.

Addition

Sika ViscoCrete -10 is added to the gauging water or simultaneously with it poured
into the concrete mixer. For optimum utilisation of the high water reduction we
recommend through mixing at a minimal wet mixing time of 60 seconds.
The addion of the remaining gauging water to ne tune concrete consistency
may only be started after 2/3 of wet mixing time, to avoid surplus water in the
concrete.

Concrete Placing

With the use of Sika ViscoCrete -10 concrete of highest quality is being produced.
The standard rules of good concreting practice (production as well as placing) must

also be observed with Sika ViscoCrete -10 concrete.


Fresh concrete must be cured properly.

Compatibility

Sika ViscoCrete -10 may be combined with following Sika products:

- Sika Pump

- Sika Ferrogard -901

- Sikafume

- SikaRapid

- Sika Retader

Pre-trials trials are recommended if combinations with the above products are being
made. Please consult our technical service.

Important Flowing
concrete S.C.C

Sika ViscoCrete -10 is also used to produce owing and self compacting concrete
(S.C.C) For these, special mix designs are required, contact out Tec hnical Service
devision.

Safety Instructions
Safety Precautions

In contact with skin, wash off with soap and water.


In contact with eyes or mucous membrane, rinse immediately with clean warm
water and seek medical attention without delay.

Ecology

Residues of material must be removed according to local regulations. Fully cured


material can be disposed of as household waste under agreement with the
responsible local authorities.

Transport

Non-hazardous

Toxicity

Non-Toxic under relevant health and safety codes.

Legal notes

The information, and, in particular, the recommendations relating to the application and end -use of
Sika products, are given in good faith based on Sika's current knowledge and experience of the products
when properly stored, handled and applied under normal conditions in accordance with
Sikas recommendations. In practice, the differences in materials, s ubstrates and actual site conditions are
such that no warranty in respect of merchantability or of tness for a particular purpose, nor any liability
arising out of any legal relationship whatsoever, can be inferred either from this information, or from a ny
written recommendations, or from any other advice offered. The user of the product must test the products
suitability for the intended application and purpose. Sika reserves the right to change the properties of its
products. The proprietary rights of third parties must be observed. All orders are accepted subject to our
current terms of sale and delivery. Users must always refer to the most recent issue of the local Product
Data Sheet for the product concerned, copies of which will be supplied on request.

Sika ViscoCrete -10

2/2