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Co-ordination of Overcurrent Relay for Chemical


Industrial Plant using ETAP
ARTICLE JANUARY 2014

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Vipul Rajput
Gujarat Technological University
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International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology


ISSN 2348 - 5264 (Print), ISSN 2348-4071(Online)
Vol. 1 (02) 2014

Co-ordination of Overcurrent Relay for Chemical


Industrial Plant using ETAP
Prof. Vipul N. Rajput

Prof. Tejas M. Vala

Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering


Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology
Gujarat Technological University
vipulrajput16986@gmail.com

Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering


Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology
Gujarat Technological University
valatejaser@gmail.com

Abstract: Recent past scenario various practices were invented for


relay coordination. Typical power system comprises number of
important equipments which have to be protected. In order to provide
sufficient reliable protection to ensure smooth working of power
system numbers of installation of relay and circuit breaker sets are
required. Primary protection relay must operate within its predetermined time period. In case of failure of primary protection relay
operation which may be because of any reason, back-up protection
has to take care by its operation and hence overcurrent relay
coordination is must. Here, overcurrent relay coordination of typical
chemical industrial plant is obtained with the use of Electrical
Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) software. ETAP outcomes are
compared with hand calculated overcurrent relay coordination results.
Here star view of relays which is sole quality of ETAP for
coordinating them in the proper manner is shown.
Keywords: Radial power system, Overcurrent relays, Star view of
relay curves, Relay coordination.

Simplex method proves one of the superior methods for


realistic solution. In case if solution is not optimal, this
method neighboring realistic which matches with lower or
equal value of function. In iterations we are getting optimal
solution. In radial feeder distribution system overcurrent relay
coordination is the highly constrained optimization objective.
Since the pickup currents of the relays are pre determined
from the system requirements, the optimization is said to be
linear program problem [2]. Also the coordination of distance
relays zone-2 with overcurrent protection is carried out using
linear programming method like simplex and duplex.
For an
interconnected network, by using a directional incident matrix
relating transmission lines to bus bars, the network loops are
identified. Considering two main relays for any line sections,
i.e. one at each end, the loops are specified by the relays
number. Then, by using the concept of break point set (BPS),
loops are broken at these points resulting a radial network. In
fact, these break points are used as the starting point for
setting the relays. First relays at the break points are set with
minimum operating time and then next set of relays are set as
back-up to BPS relays. This procedure continues until all
relays are set [4]. The Real Time Digital simulator which is part
of closed loop relay test system is also used to coordinate in
underground medium voltage radial distribution network [5].
In past decades the design engineers were dependent on
conventional computers in designing and analyzing power
system. Study of power system plays vital role in design. A
structured computer program that uses technically correct
models, employs a user-friendly interface, uses a common
data base, and traps user errors is a powerful tool which
greatly enhances the engineer's efficiency and productivity.
ETAP is the best suitable program of requirements as
mentioned above. Further, ETAP does mathematical
manipulations with relatively high speed, accepts standards
automatically and generates outputs in required formats which
can be easily analyzed [7], [8].

I. INTRODUCTION
The demand for electrical power is generally increased at
faster rate in economical emerging countries. So the
requirement of power system equipment like transformer,
transmission lines, distribution lines and also protective device
like relays, circuit breakers, fuses is increased. These
transmission lines and distribution feeders are required to be
protected by comprehensive and quite involved protective
schemes so that the power system interruption is reduce to a
minimum with regard to time of interruption and the area
affected. The protective scheme must operate speed and
selective before the power system becomes unstable. The
feeders of 11 kV and medium transmission lines of 66 kV are
protected by overcurrent and earth fault relays as primary
protection. The transmission lines of 132 kV and 220 kV are
protected by distance relays as primary protection &
overcurrent and earth fault relays as back-up protection. The
complicated distance relays like quadrilateral relays are used
in lines above 400 kV [1][6].
Using Linear Programming the power system can be
decomposed into subsystem and we can get constrained matrix
of diagonal structure along with linking variables. Sparse dual
revised simplex method of linear programming is helpful to
solve subsystem. Whenever the fault is occurred it is sensed
by primary and back-up relays both.
On occurrence of fault primary protection initiates first to
clear the fault as per the scheme of back-up protection.

II. SYSTEM MODEL


A chemical plant is supplied from a 69 kV system from
two different substations. A one-line diagram of the electrical
system of the plant is shown in Figure 1. The plant is supplied
through two 20 MVA step down transformers from the 69 kV
system. These transformers supply power to the plant through
the 4.16 kV bus. The plant load consists of several induction

Akshar Publication 2014

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International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology


ISSN 2348 - 5264 (Print), ISSN 2348-4071(Online)
Vol. 1 (02) 2014

motors and lumped load at 4.16 kV, 660 V and 480 V levels.
The existing plant load is 12 MW and the operating power
factor is 97%. The required capacitor bank size is 6.6 MVAR.

Fig. 1.

III. MANUAL CALCULATION OF RELAY SETTING


The load flow analysis gives the current, voltage and power
flow of line, bus, transformer, circuit breakers, motors and
other equipments. Using the load flow study, we can decide
the plug setting of relay. Same as load flow study, the short
circuit study is essential to find PSM of relay. Then using this
PSM, we can find the TMS of back up relay. Thus, load flow
and short circuit study must be required in relay coordination.

Chemical Plant Model

Following are the guidelines for overcurrent relay setting for


redial distribution system are:
A. Plug Setting: Plug setting are to be decide considering
three rules:
The relays shall reach at least up to the end of the next
protected zone. This is required to ensure the back-up
protection.
The plug-setting must not be less than the maximum
normal load including permissible continuous overload
unless monitor by undervoltage relay, otherwise the relay
will not allow the normal load to be delivered.
In estimating the plug-setting, an allowance must be made
for the fact that the relay pick-up varies from 1.05 to 1.3
times pug-settings, as per standards.
B. Time Setting:
The time-multiplier setting must be chosen to give lowest
possible time for the relay at the end of the radial feeder.
In the preceding sections towards the source, the time
multiplier should be chosen to give desire selective
interval from the down-stream relay at maximum fault
conditions.
The time multiplier setting should allow not only for the
time of the breaker but also for the overshoot of the relay
and allowable time-errors in the time of operation of
successive relays.
It is a common practice to use a fixed selective interval of 0.25
second (considering 2cycle breakers) between the successive
relays. Time interval between primary and secondary relays
to be decided on the base of operation time of primary relay,
error in operating time of primary relay, breaker time to
quench arc, overshoot time, factor of safety, error in operating
time of secondary relay[1].

Fig. 2.

Chemical Plant Model in ETAP

The general equation for IEC (International Electro technical


Commission) standard:
=

TMS)

= Operating time in second

= Applied multiples of set current value


C and = Constant of Relay
Table 1. Constants for IEC Standard Time Overcurrent Characteristics

IEC Standard
Type of

Normal Inverse
Very Inverse

0.14
13.5

0.02
1

Extremely Inverse

80

Long Time Inverse

120

Short Time Inverse

0.05

0.04

Inverse

9.4

0.7

characteristics

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International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology


ISSN 2348 - 5264 (Print), ISSN 2348-4071(Online)
Vol. 1 (02) 2014

In this model, we have used normal inverse relays. The


fault current of relays are taken from short circuit analysis in
ETAP.

Here, the time discrimination margin is taken 0.25 sec. So


time of operation of R2 =0.29+0.25=0.54 and we can find
TMS of R2.
0.14
= 0.54 =

7.23 . 1

Table 2. Table 2. Relay fault current & CT ratio

Relay

Fault

CTs

CT ratio

current(kA)

0.54 [7.23
0.14

1]

R1

39.53

CT1

4000/1

R2

39.53

CT2

500/1

R3

69.28

CT3

3000/1

= 0.1556 0.16
Same way, the plug setting, PSM and TMS of Relays R1 to R8
are calculated as shown in Table 3 [1],[9],[10].

R4

69.28

CT4

500/1

Table 3. Table 3. Calculated Parameters of Relay

R5, R8

74

CT5, CT8

3000/1

R6, R7

74

CT6, CT7

200/1

Relay parameter calculation for relays R1 & R2:


Plug setting: The plug setting of R1 has to be decided on the
basis of the rated secondary current.
The rated secondary current of transformer T3 ,
3 10
=
= 3608.44
3 480
Current transformer ratio, CT1 ratio is 3000:1,
So, plug setting of R1
3608.44
=
100 = 90.21%
4000
Here, we take plug setting 100 % of 4000 A.

100 > 114 %


125 %
500

23.09

17.5

24.66

17.84

0.54

0.22

0.47

0.75

0.16

0.1

0.19

0.35

0.42

R2

R3

R4

P.S. (%)

100

125

100

P.S.M

9.88

7.23

Time Operation
of Relays (Sec)

0.29

T.M.S (Sec)

0.1

In the ETAP software, the star-view is good feature to show


exact coordination of relays. The star-view of ETAP is timecurrent curve which gives the relay coordination between
whole the relays of system.
ETAP facilitates selection of relay along with its model and
manufacturer for protection of feeder, transmission line,
transformer and generator etc. ETAP also gives graphical
representation of relay characteristic curves individually for
each relay. Coordination can also do by dragging out the relay
characteristic curves. By doing so the relay parameters such as
TMS and PSM are changed automatically.

500

Plug setting Multiplier:


=

R6,
R7
125

R1

IV. RELAY COORDINATION USING ETAP

Now, plug setting of R2,


1.3
480
>

1 4000 > 571.43


1.05 4160
>

125

R5,
R8
100

Relay

39530
=
= 9.88
1 4000

39530
480

= 7.23
1.25 500 4160

Time Multiplier Setting: Initially TMS of R1 is selected 0.1


second.
0.14
=
0.1
.
1
=

0.14
0.1 = 0.29
9.88 . 1
Fig. 3.

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Star-View of All Relays of Chemical Plant

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International Journal of Futuristic Trends in Engineering and Technology


ISSN 2348 - 5264 (Print), ISSN 2348-4071(Online)
Vol. 1 (02) 2014

Hence, the relay coordination from relay R1 to relay R8 is


done by using ETAP software. The graphical representation of
relays coordination is shown in figure 3. Using this figure one
can do whole coordination of primaries and back-up relays.
The figure 3 shows the relays function as it is primary or back
up according to bus fault.
The downstream relay (refer figure 3) provides primary
protection and next relay in the upstream direction gives
secondary protection. Similarly, all the relays provide primary
and secondary protection based on faulted bus.

that there is no unnecessary outage of healthy part of power


system. In radial feeder distribution system overcurrent relay
coordination is the highly constrained optimization objective.
Manual calculation for relay coordination is provided here.
But when the size of the system increases, complication also
increases and hence manual calculation becomes tedious and it
may cause erroneous results. ETAP software proves very good
tool for coordination without malfunctioning. Here practical
industrial power system case in taken under the analysis.
ETAP software solves coordination problem of overcurrent
relays for radial distribution system.

Table 4. Table 4. Current and operational time of model

Relay R1
Current(Amp)
Time(Sec)
39538

0.265

39228

0.506

9514

0.6

11375

1.11

5702

1.08

5876

2.97

3300

7.34

VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Relay R2
Current(Amp)
Time(Sec)

4333

Relay R3

The authors would like to thank B.V.M. Engg. College for


allowing the project work and procure the licensed package of
ETAP software and kind support during project work.
REFERENCES
[1]

Bhuvanesh Oza, Nirmalkumar Nair, Rashesh Mehta, Vijay


Makwana, Power System Protection & Switchgear Tata
McGraw Hill Education Private limited, New Delhi, 2010.pp 1-50,
175-270
[2] Prashant P.Bedekar, Sudhir R. Bhide, and Vijay S. Kale,
Coordination of Overcurrent Relays in Distribution System using
Linear Programming Technique IEE International conference on
Control, Automation, Communicated & Energy Conservation
June 2009.
[3] Rashesh P. Mehta Optimal Relay Coordination , Journal of
Engineering and Technology, Sardar Patel University, 2006,
vol.19, Pg 81-86.
[4] S. Jamali, M. Pourtandorost New approach to coordination of
distance relay zone - 2 with over current protection using linear
programing methods IEEE Trans. Disrib on Power delivery.
[5] Van Der Meer, M. Popov, Directional relay co-ordination in
ungrounded MV radial distribution networks using a RTDS
International Conference on Power Systems Transient in Kyoto,
Japan, June 2009.
[6] Stanley Horowitz and Arun G .Phadke Power System Relaying,
Third Edition., 2008 Research Studies Press Limited. ISBN: 9780-470-05712-4, pp 1-21, 23-48, 75-99.
[7] Keith Brown, Herminio Abcede, Farrokh Shokooh, Interactive
simulation of power system & ETAP application and Techniques
IEEE operation Technology, Irvine, California.
[8] Keith Brown, Herminio Abcede, Farrokh Shokooh, Interactive
simulation of power system & ETAP application and Techniques
IEEE operation Technology, Irvine, California.
[9] S.A. Soman, Power System Protection,
[10] http://www.cdeep.iitb.ac.in/nptel/Electrical%20Engineering/Power
%20System%20Protection/digital_protection/lec15.pdf
[11] Siemens PTD EA Applications for SIPROTEC Protection
Relays, 2005,
[12] http://siemens.siprotec.de/download_neu/applications/SIPROTEC/
english/Appl_03_Coordination_of_Overcurrent_Relais_with_Fuse
s_en.pdf

12.5
Relay R4

Current(Amp)

Time(Sec)

Current(Amp)

Time(Sec)

69807

0.242

68519

0.427

1021

0.875

2747

0.978

653.3

2.01

1096

3.47

507.7

7.34

687.5

6.3

Relay R5, R8

Relay R6, R7

Current(Amp)

Time(Sec)

Current(Amp)

Time(Sec)

74000

0.771

72437

19131

1.26

12362

2.66

4974

4.68

5885

8.85

Now the results obtained from star-view is shown in Table 4.


The fault current and time operation for the fault current of
entire relays are given in table. The results obtained by manual
calculation and from ETAP software are almost same.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Overcurrent relay plays vital role in distribution system
protection system. In same regards they should be properly
coordinated to provide primary and secondary protection
properly. In addition to that malfunction should be avoided so

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