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EmersonNetworkPower.

com

What You Need to Know About


Your Critical Infrastructure
Liebert Services eBook Series

Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Executive Summary
What is Preventive Maintenance?
Why is Preventive Maintenance
Important?
What is the Return on Investment
for Preventive Maintenance?
Preventive Maintenance and Power
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved
Conclusion

EmersonNetworkPower.com

Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Executive Summary

Executive Summary

In our last chapter, we addressed some of the specific issues data center managers face in their

What is Preventive Maintenance?

facility, and highlighted how testing and assessments can prepare them to respond, identify
risks, and improve operations. In this chapter, we address preventive maintenance, and discuss

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?

why it is critically important to a data center.

What is the Return on Investment


for Preventive Maintenance?

What is Preventive Maintenance?

Preventive Maintenance and Power

In our previous chapter, we discussed how testing and assessments can help data center
managers avoid issues that might compromise efficiency, optimization and availability in
their facilities, but in reality, testing and assessments is just part of the solution preventive
maintenance is also a critical component of every data center.
Preventive maintenance is used to ensure maximum reliability of data center equipment by
providing systematic inspections, detection and correction of incipient failures, either before
they occur or before they develop into major defects that result in costly downtime. Preventive
maintenance can include activities such as inspections, tests, measurements, adjustments, parts
replacement, and general housekeeping practices.

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved
Conclusion

Continue...

Preventive maintenance is a critical factor in data center performance.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Why is Preventive Maintenance Important?

Executive Summary

As organizations become increasingly dependent on data center systems, there is a need for

What is Preventive Maintenance?

greater reliability in the critical infrastructure and the reliability of a system only lasts as long
as the shortest component life in the unit. Preventive maintenance is critical for minimizing
unit-related failures, maintaining system cooling efficiencies, and managing operating costs.

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?
What is the Return on Investment
for Preventive Maintenance?
Preventive Maintenance and Power
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling

Kevin McCalla, Vice President of Marketing, Liebert Services,


answers IT preventive maintenance questions in this video.

When to Get a Professional Involved


Conclusion

Continue...

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
What is the Return on Investment of Preventive Maintenance?

Executive Summary

The number of preventive maintenance visits in a data center has a substantial impact on

What is Preventive Maintenance?

system reliability and less downtime and that translates into direct savings for data center
managers.

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?

The return on investment for preventive maintenance can be observed by calculating the

What is the Return on Investment


for Preventive Maintenance?

Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). MTBF is an industry recognized measure of availability
that uses the number and types of failures that products actually experience in real applications.

Preventive Maintenance and Power

In general, a higher MTBF number, stated in hours, indicates a more available unit. For example,

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Power Needed?

a UPS unit with an MTBF of 2 million hours is more available than a unit with an MTBF of
The Business Case for Regular Maintenance

1 million hours.

in
60x increase
in MTBF
51x

Batteries are Important to Your UPS

50x
40x

37x

30x
23x

Increase in
Mean Time
Between
Failures

20x
10x

10x

Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved

1x
0

Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power

Number of
Annual
Preventive
Maintenance
Visits
Number
of Annual
A
P
Preventive
reventi
ive Maintenance
Mainttenance
e Visits

Conclusion

Data is based on a Mean Time Between Failure analysis for three-phase UPS
Regular
maintenance
increases
the mean time
between
failures (MTBF).
systemspreventive
(>100kVA)
with a service
agreement
between
2002-2007.
For instance, the mean time between failures for a system that receives 1 annual
PM is 10 times greater than a system that receives 0 PMs.

Regular preventive maintenance increases the MTBF. For example, the MTBF for a system that

Continue...

By contrast, a system that receives 4 annual PMs, as opposed to 0 PMs, increases


receives one annual preventive maintenance visit is ten times greater than a system that receives
its duration between failures by 51 times.

zero preventive maintenance visits. By contrast, a system that receives four annual preventive

Data is based on Mean Time Between Failure analysis for three phase UPS
maintenance visits, as opposed to zero visits, increases its duration between failures by 51 times.
systems ( 100kVA) with a service agreement between 2002-2007.

Two key statistics are incorporated into MTBF; cumulative operating hours and number of
unit-related failures, to calculate average availability across all units in a given population.
The formula is as follows:

MTFB =

cumulative operating hours


number of outages + 1

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance and Power

Executive Summary

For many organizations, the IT infrastructure has evolved into an interdependent business-critical

What is Preventive Maintenance?

network that includes data, applications, storage, servers and networking. A power failure at any

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?

point along the network can impact the entire operation and have serious consequences for
the business.
To keep running through power outages, utility spikes and other unforeseeable power issues, critical
systems are dependent on the reliability of the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems.
UPS systems are designed to offer the utmost reliability and performance, but in reality, failures
still occur. Data center managers who are proactive with preventive maintenance will greatly
reduce their chances of downtime.
Preventive maintenance programs maximize the reliability and performance of the UPS systems
by providing systematic inspections, detection and correction of incipient failures.

What is the Return on Investment


for Preventive Maintenance?
Preventive Maintenance and Power
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved
Conclusion

Continue...

Liebert NXL color touch screen display allows the users to view needed
operational information.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
How Often is Preventive Maintenance for Power Needed?

Executive Summary

The frequency of preventive maintenance depends on the type of UPS. Small UPS devices should

What is Preventive Maintenance?

be inspected annually, but medium and large systems should be inspected at least twice a year,
sometimes more. Below is a checklist for semi-annual and annual preventive maintenance service.

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?
What is the Return on Investment
for Preventive Maintenance?
Preventive Maintenance and Power
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved

Semi-Annual Service
Power equipment should be inspected one or two times annually.

Conclusion

Typical tasks performed during a Semi-Annual service visit include:


Check all breakers, temperature,

Check power capacitors for swelling or

connections, and associated controls.

leaking oil and DC capacitor vent caps

Repair and/or report all high temperature areas.

that have extruded more than 1/8.

Complete visual inspection of the

Record all voltage and current meter

equipment including subassemblies, wiring

readings on the module control cabinet

harnesses, contacts, cables, and major

or the system control cabinet.

components.

Measure and record harmonic trap filter

Check air filters for cleanliness.

currents.

Continue...

Check module(s) completely for rectifier and


inverter snubber boards for discoloration.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Executive Summary
What is Preventive Maintenance?
Why is Preventive Maintenance
Important?
What is the Return on Investment
for Preventive Maintenance?
Preventive Maintenance and Power
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
Annual Service
Typical tasks performed during an annual service typically include all the tasks performed
during a semi-annual visit plus the following:

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved

Check inverter and rectifier snubbers for burned or broken wires.


Ensure all nuts, bolts, screws, and connectors for tightness and heat discoloration.

Conclusion

Verify fuses on the DC capacitor deck for continuity (if applicable).


With customer approval, perform operational test of the system including unit transfer
and battery discharge.

Continue...

Check and record all electronics and bring to system specifications as needed.
Install or perform any Engineering Field Change Notices (FCN) as needed.
Measure and record all low-voltage power supply levels.
Measure and record phase-to-phase input voltage and currents.
Review system performance with customer to address any questions and to schedule repairs.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance Checklist for Power

Executive Summary

What are Service Providers Evaluating?

What is Preventive Maintenance?

Some common preventive maintenance checks should include:

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?

Power Semiconductors During an annual preventive maintenance cycle, semiconductor


devices should be visually inspected for corrosion and breaks to the hermetic seal. If corrosion

What is the Return on Investment


for Preventive Maintenance?

or seal damage is found, the device should be replaced.

Preventive Maintenance and Power


How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved
Conclusion

Electrolytic DC Capacitors Experience proves that capacitors should be replaced significantly


before the end of their rated service life. This helps account for variations in ambient temperature,
air-borne contaminants and other environmental factors.

Continue...

Oil-Filled AC Capacitors As oil-filled capacitors approach their design life, they are subject to
the internal breakdown of the soggy foils and possible loss of capacitance. Its recommended that all
oil-filled capacitors be inspected and those within six months of their expected life should be replaced.
Circuit Boards There is no rated service life on the components
specified for use on the circuit boards. Circuit boards with problems should
be removed and returned to the manufacturing plant for repair and test.
Before they are returned to service, it is recommended they have all
outstanding revisions incorporated and then undergo system testing.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Batteries are an important element to a data centers UPS and
unfortunately, theyre often overlooked. Semi-annual and annual
preventive maintenance will typically include the inspection of
batteries, but it is recommended that data center managers also

Executive Summary
What is Preventive Maintenance?
Why is Preventive Maintenance
Important?

implement a preventive maintenance program specifically for

What is the Return on Investment


for Preventive Maintenance?

batteries in their system. Stay tuned for more information on

Preventive Maintenance and Power

batteries and battery monitoring in our next chapter.

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Power Needed?

Preventive Maintenance and Cooling


Preventive maintenance is also critical for maintaining
system cooling efficiencies, operating costs, and minimizing
potential downtime. Cooling modules have moving parts
that eventually wear out. Preventive maintenance ensures
that these components last as long as possible. It also ensures
these components perform within their originally designed
operating parameters, allowing data center managers the
opportunity to replace components before they fail.

How Often is Preventive Maintenance for Cooling Needed?


Like preventive maintenance for UPS systems, the frequency and task for cooling preventive

Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved
Conclusion

maintenance can vary depending on the model. The factory recommends at least four preventive
maintenance visits per year, replacing belts and filters as necessary (typically two times per year for
filters and one time per year for belts).

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Continue...

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance Checklist for Cooling

Executive Summary

What are Service Providers Evaluating?

What is Preventive Maintenance?

Some common preventive maintenance checks should include:

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?

Air filters: Clogged air filters reduce the airflow through the systems and increase the load on the
blower drive system.This may result in reduced system cooling performance, higher operating

What is the Return on Investment


for Preventive Maintenance?

costs, reduced component life of the blower drive systems, and higher operating temperatures

Preventive Maintenance and Power

of the equipment in the data center.These higher operating temperatures may be very localized

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Power Needed?

and hard to detect within a data center due to irregular air flow patterns.Similarly, substitution
of non-OEM filters may also change performance of the system.Lower cost substitute filters may
collapse (where the pleats fall flat against the downstream face of the filter box) if they have not

Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power

been designed for the air flow of the system.Always use OEM replacement filters when servicing

Batteries are Important to Your UPS

your equipment.

Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
Blower Drive System: The blower belts, bearings, motors and
wheels need to be inspected regularly.Wear or damage to any of
these components may result in the reduction or loss of airflow

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Cooling Needed?

or reduced cooling performance.Again, all of these components

Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling

are specifically selected for the performance requirements of

When to Get a Professional Involved

the system, and only OEM replacements should be used.Belts,

Conclusion

specifically, are literally machined to match as a set of two or


three belts so that belt tension is uniform to maximize belt life.
Steam Generating Humidifiers: Humidifiers may be connected with valves and hoses that may

Continue...

leak and drains may become clogged over time.These components should be inspected regularly.
Steam generating humidifiers are vulnerable to water deposits that can diminish humidifier
performance.Once these deposits form, more power is required to achieve the same level of
humidification, and the assembly begins to deteriorate toward failure.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
Infrared Humidifiers: IR Humidifier bulbs may burn out, diminishing performance.Drains and
pans should be inspected for deposits and clogs.Emerson Network Power offers the VAPURE
humidifier additive which inhibits these deposits from forming.When handling humidifier bulbs,
it is important not to touch the glass bulb with your fingers. The residue from skin oils creates a
hot spot on the bulb that reduces the life of the bulb.

Executive Summary
What is Preventive Maintenance?
Why is Preventive Maintenance
Important?
What is the Return on Investment
for Preventive Maintenance?

Condensate Drains and Pumps: Confirm

Preventive Maintenance and Power

proper pump function and verify drains are

How Often is Preventive


Maintenance for Power Needed?

not clogged. Obviously, the combination of a


clogged drain and a failed level sensor results in
pan overflow.

Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS

Reheat: Inspect and clean reheat elements.


Inspect and tighten support hardware.
Compressor: Inspect oil level and check for leaks.Compressors running with too much or
too little oil will see diminished service life. Always use the same type of oil supplied with the

Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?

compressor from the OEM.

Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling

Facility Fluid and Piping: Units connected to facility water or glycol should perform necessary

When to Get a Professional Involved

maintenance to assure the quality of the fluid. Contaminants in these fluids can lead to diminished

Conclusion

performance.
Evaporator Coils: Evaporator coils should be checked periodically to
verify they are clean and free of debris.Dirty coils are less efficient at

Continue...

removing heat.
Condensers and Dry Coolers: Condenser coils should be checked
periodically to verify they are clean and free of debris.Motor mounts
should be tight.Bearings should be free and in good condition.
Refrigerant lines should be properly supported.Similar to evaporator
coils, dirty condenser coils are less efficient at rejecting heat.

Emerson Network Power | What You Need to Know About Your Critical Infrastructure

Compressor oil levels should be


checked regularly for maximum
service life.

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Chapter Three

Preventive Maintenance
When to Get a Professional Involved

Executive Summary

Most preventive maintenance measures should be left to a qualified and trained professional.

What is Preventive Maintenance?

UPS and batteries contain high voltage, and only qualified personnel should attempt preventive
maintenance or repair. Data center managers can and should provide preventive support by
replacing air filters when dirty, ensuring environmental specifications are met and maintained,
and monitoring the UPS for alarms.

Conclusion
In the current economic environment, many organizations are relying heavily on existing
equipment to maintain operations, making preventive maintenance more important than ever
before. Preventive maintenance is a critical component of every data center, and it should not be
overlooked. Without it, data center managers are compromising the efficiency, optimization and
availability in their facilities.
Liebert Services is committed to helping organizations understand their critical infrastructure,
identify problems, and incorporate solutions. Stay tuned for chapter four in our eBook What
You Need to Know About Your Critical Infrastructure to learn more about batteries and battery
monitoring. Well highlight how organizations can ensure batteries arent the weakest link in the
UPS, and outline a battery preventive maintenance program.

Why is Preventive Maintenance


Important?
What is the Return on Investment
for Preventive Maintenance?
Preventive Maintenance and Power
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Power Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Power
Batteries are Important to Your UPS
Preventive Maintenance
and Cooling
How Often is Preventive
Maintenance for Cooling Needed?
Preventive Maintenance
Checklist for Cooling
When to Get a Professional Involved
Conclusion

Emerson Network Power | What You Need to Know About Your Critical Infrastructure