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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

**Experimental study on porosity and permeability of anthracite coal
**

under different stresses

Ya Meng a,b,n, Zhiping Li a,b, Fengpeng Lai a,b

a

Beijing Key Laboratory of Geology Evaluation and Development of Unconventional Natural Gas, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083,

PR China

b

School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, PR China

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 31 December 2014

Accepted 2 April 2015

Available online 20 April 2015

Coal porosity and permeability are key factors inﬂuencing coal-bed methane well production. In order to

investigate the permeability behavior during anthracite coal seam methane production, the porosity and

permeability of anthracite coal sample from No. 3 coal seam in Southern Qinshui Basin of China in net

conﬁning stress were measured in laboratory. The correlations between porosity, permeability and

effective stress were analyzed. Permeability damage rate, stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and pore

compressibility factor were proposed to evaluate the effective stress-dependent sensitivity characteristics of anthracite coal. It turns out that, both porosity and permeability of coal sample decrease

exponentially with the increase of effective stress. If the effective stress is less than 5 MPa or 6 MPa,

stress sensitivity coefﬁcient of coal reservoir changed greatly, and the stress sensitivity coefﬁcient

decreases rapidly with effective stress increased. The permeability damage rate increases rapidly with

increasing effective stress, the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir enhanced; while in the effective stress is

greater than 5 MPa or 6 MPa, the stress sensitivity coefﬁcient of the coal reservoir decreases as effective

stress increases slowly, and there is ﬂuctuation, the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir is reduced; while

permeability damage rate with the increase of effective stress increased more slowly. With the increase

of moisture content and temperature, the permeability damage rate of coal reservoir and stress sensitive

coefﬁcient increase, and the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir enhanced.

& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Key words:

effective stress

anthracite coal

porosity

permeability

stress sensitivity

1. Introduction

Both porosity and permeability are key factors affecting the coalbed methane production. Porosity of coal usually refers to the sum of

matrix porosity and ﬁssure porosity. The dual pore system of coal

regulates gas storage capacity, occurrence and transport of methane

through coal. Numerous researches on the relationship between

porosity and permeability of conventional oil and gas reservoirs have

been reported (Louis, 1969; Zimmerman and Bodvarsson, 1996;

Zimmerman, 2000). Pore compressibility factor and reservoir stress

sensitivity factor were deﬁned to assess the stress-dependent permeability of conventional reservoirs (Lubinski, 1954; Biot, 1956; Louis,

1969; Wu et al., 1995; Jia et al., 1995; Jose, 1997; Min et al., 2004; Wang

et al., 2009). Jose (1997) pointed out that permeability loss of the tight

sandstone gas reservoir under conﬁning pressure can reach as high as

90% of the initial permeability. As a typical unconventional gas

reservoir, coal is a type of low porosity and low permeability porous

n

Corresponding author at: School of Energy Resources, China University of

Geosciences (Beijing), No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083,

PR China. Tel.: þ 86 10 13521520515.

E-mail address: mengya629@163.com (Y. Meng).

**http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.04.012
**

0920-4105/& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

**media and is highly sensitive to effective stress. And coal has a high
**

afﬁnity to gases, i.e. nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. Therefore

permeability behavior of coal is more complex than that of conventional oil and gas reservoir. During gas production, coal permeability

decreases with the increase of effective stress at early water pumping

stage and then increases with the increasing shrinkage effect in later

gas extraction stage. A few permeability models were proposed and

widely used to describe the stress-dependent effect and matrix

shrinkage/expansion effect whereas these models did not take into

account the varying cleat compressibility (Shi and Durucan, 2004,

2010; Pan and Connell (2012); Palmer, 2009; Connell, 2009). Experimental studies showed that overall bituminous coal permeability

declines exponentially with the increase of effective stress (Enever

and Henning, 1997; McKee et al., 1988). Enever and Henning (1997)

found the exponential relationship between the permeability of coal

seam and the stress. Based on the study of coal seam permeability and

its relation to the buried depth in Piceance, San Juan and Black Warrior

basins in the United States, McKee et al. (1988) found that the

permeability reduces in the law of negative exponential function as

the buried depth of coal seam and the effective stress increase and the

aperture of coal seam cleat decreases. In order to investigate the

permeability behavior of high rank coal during early depletion of CBM

2013). 3 coal seam in Permian at Sihe coalmine in Southern Qinshui Basin. and degree of shearing of the coal seams (Gentzis et al. we can see that the relationship between the gas permeability of coal and effective stress obeys the negative exponential function as follows: K i ¼ K 0 e ap ð1Þ where K i is the permeability under a speciﬁc effective stress. averagely 0. generated in Carboniferous and Permian periods. Experiment results 3.50 2. The porosity and permeability of anthracite coal sample from No.12% and ash yield 22. experimental temperature is set as 30 1C and 60 1C. gas source for conﬁning pressure is supplied by high-pressure air. 2.. 3.52 2. Previous experimental researches were mainly related to low-medium rank coals.52 2. The exploration and production tests in this ﬁeld have been conducted since 1990s.44 2.1. Conﬁning pressure values were 3. 8.08 4. we used the variation of net conﬁning pressure to simulate the variations of coal seam effective stress.51 2. Thus the understanding of the permeability variation during the exploration and development of CBM was still limited to some degree. Regression analysis results for six experimental samples are shown in Table 2.51 cm to 2. Meng and Hou.96 2. The diameter of coal samples is from 2. Meng et al. Speciﬁcally. CBM reservoir permeability is controlled by coal reservoir stress regime. and the temperature 20 1C.60 5. volatile yield 8.09 5.2. The results may be applicable in developing strategies in exploration.0. MPa. the best development prospect. the same displacement pressure keeps constant during the test process. In order to analyze the inﬂuence of temperature on stress sensitivity.11 4.00 Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry 30.5 MPa to 20 MPa in laboratory..54 MPa 1. 3 coal seam in Southern Qinshui Basin of China in net conﬁning stress were measured in laboratory.75 cm to 5. and 10. Dry coal samples were prepared by drying the raw coal samples in the dryer for 48 h. 2013. with an area of about 7000 km2.63%. The experimental workﬂow is shown in Fig. 2.52 cm and the length from 4.0. However. 1. 2.72 3. 2007). p is the variation value of effective stress from the initial to a certain stress. located in Shanxi Province of the Central China. 9.50 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 60 Fractured Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact 4. 2011). This study was undertaken to address the stress-dependent porosity and permeability of anthracite coal at a varying temperature and moisture content. Experiment conditions To understand the inﬂuence of the coal reservoir stress on coal porosity and permeability.36%. .0. The basic data of the coal samples are shown in Table 1. Experiment samples The Southern Qinshui Basin.7819 10 3 μm2.12% and No. The maximum vitrinite reﬂectance Ro. 10 3 μm2. Coal seams. and a higher commercialized production in the China's coal-bed methane reservoirs (Meng et al.37 MPa 1. The correlations between porosity. The relationship between permeability of coal and the effective stress The relationship between permeability of coal and the effective stress is shown in Fig. Permeability in the coal-bed reservoir is relatively high compared to other coal-bed methane reservoirs in China.Max is 3. CBM reservoir has low permeability and strong gas adsorption capacity. a ranges from 0. 5.8% 100% Dry Dry conﬁning stress. contain abundant methane.26 MPa 1 to 0.0. however researches on the inﬂuence of in-situ stress to the coal reservoir permeability were insufﬁcient due to the lack of coal reservoir stress and permeability data. ID Diameter Length Moisture content (cm) (cm) Experimental temperature ( 1C) Description 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# 7# 8# 9# 10# 11# 2. K 0 ranges from 0.Y.2562 10 3 μm2. The coal samples were collected from the No. and measured the varying porosity and permeability with net conﬁning pressure. so the maximum stress test was designed to 10 MPa.11 cm. MPa 1.1. few researches on high rank coals has been reported.1. Meng and Li (2013) collected 12 high rank coal samples from the southeast margin of China Ordos Basin and two low and medium rank coal samples from the north margin of this basin and determined their air permeability under a varying effective stress from 2.75 5. 4. well completion and production of coal-bed methane. the high-purity helium acts as the test gas source.0. and a is the regression coefﬁcient.50 2.0. 2. The burial depth of the coal seam is from 350 m to 1200 m.3. and the controlling mechanism of permeability variation was studied. variation in in-situ water permeability is likely a function of the maceral composition. and then analyzed the relationships between porosity.00 5. the displacement pressure is ﬁxed. and the temperature test up to 60 1C. permeability and effective stress 3. 2. 7. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 and its inﬂuencing factors. 3 coal seam is semi-bright coal in macrolithotype and is banded or homogeneous in coal texture.1. which is quite different from the conventional oil and gas reservoirs.47 2. To minimize gas slippage effect. averagely 0. mode of deformation. in the course of the experiment.52 2. is the most important production base for high quality anthracite in China. the correlation models between permeability and stress of high rank coal reservoir were established. K 0 is the permeability under initial effective stress. the burial depth of coal seams in southern Qinshui Basin ranges from 350 m to 1200 m. the stress-dependent permeability of anthracite coal was addressed based on laboratory experiments (Meng and Li. According to approximate analysis results on air dry basis.51 2. 10 3 μm2. From Fig. The Southern Qinshui Basin measures approximately 120 km from north to south and 80 km from east to west. In this paper. Experiment apparatus and procedure We used an automatic porosity and permeability instrument (AP – 608) to test the porosity and permeability of coal under net 811 Table 1 Basic data of the coal samples.5.0267 10 3 μm2 to 4.51 2. To avoid the inﬂuence of slippage effect on permeability of coal sample. permeability and effective stress.42% 66. permeability and effective stress were analyzed.0 MPa.50 2. Cylindrical coal samples were carefully drilled in the direction parallel to the bedding plane. Relationships between coal porosity. Experimental method 2. 6. the moisture content is 1. Each stress point sustained long enough. and then gas permeability at this stress point is measured. The results show that the Qinshui Basin is a very promising coalbed methane reservoir with the most exploration wells.99 5. at least in balance for 30 min.

5 -0.000 4.000 1. MPa 1.0 R = 0.07 MPa 1.0 14 5. and c is the regression coefﬁcient.020 -0. Relationship between porosity and permeability of coal and the effective stress.9877 6 1.5 0 2 0. %.002 Effective stress/MPa 0. c ranges from 0.0 2 R = 0.000 2.0 -0.3086x Permeability/10-3 μm2 Permeability 1.0 14 12 4.008 -0.84% to 6.0483x Porosity/% Permeability/10-3 μm2 Permeability y = 3.133 MPa 1.0382x 5.4306x 0. MPa.010 2.0 4.5 14 0 2 4 6 y = 6.040 Permeability/10-3 μm2 Permeability Porosity 0.1901e -0.060 8 Effective stress/MPa 0.9496 y = 0.010 y = 0.0548x y = 4.040 0.5 R = 0.0 0.9871 4. averagely 0. 1. %.000 1.020 3.0 Porosity R = 0. p is the variation value of effective stress from the initial to a certain stress. Meng et al.5 Permeability Porosity/% y = 4.0 -0.2.9811 2 10 0.2615x 4. ϕ0 is the porosity under initial effective stress. 1.5 2 0.1325x y = 5.030 R = 0.0 14 Effective stress/MPa Effective stress/MPa Fig.1121e Porosity/% Permeability/10-3 μm2 5. Regression analysis results for six experimental samples are shown in Table 2. 2.0 2 Permeability/10-3 μm2 3.038 MPa 1 to 0. 3.3628x 2.001 2.050 8 Effective stress/MPa 6.47%.5481 4 y = 0.1.000 2.5 -0. averagely 4.5 14 2.9144 y = 0.5387x 2 R = 0.9395 4 2 3.080 0.030 -0.0 Porosity/% Permeability/10-3 μm2 2.0491x 2 R = 0.4933e 3.4842e 10 0.9868 Effective stress/MPa 0.0 0 1.0 2 R = 0.8 2.004 R = 0.0 0.5 2 0 2 4 6 2 0.005 Porosity/% 4.5 3.5 3.5 2 4 12 Permeability -0. 2013).060 0.010 3.2 Porosity y = 3. The relationship between the porosity of coal and effective stress obeys the negative exponential function as follows: ϕi ¼ ϕ0 e cp ð2Þ where ϕi is the porosity under a speciﬁc effective stress. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 Fig.8397e 1.51%.4715e 0.9797 0 1.067e 2 8 10 12 0.2919x 0.5 0.5 Porosity 2 2.0 0.0957x y = 2. .0 -0.0 Porosity Porosity/% 0.5 Permeability R = 0.9711 0.6 0.004 0.040 2.2562e 0.0 0.039e 6 8 10 12 0.0 -0.9819 Porosity 3. Experimental workﬂow (Meng and Li.0267e 6 8 10 12 0.003 y = 0. 2.9902 3.5 R = 0. ϕ0 ranges from 2.8654e 0.812 Y.006 2 R = 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2.002 0.4 -0. The relationship between porosity of coal and the effective stress The relationship between porosity of coal and effective stress is shown in Fig.020 3.8803e 0.5 0.

0390 0. but also connect the matrix pore by interleave network system and greatly improve the permeability of coal reservoirs.0008 0.Y.0548 0.8 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# 0. averagely 0. that is. the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 increases. Relationship between the porosity of coal and its permeability under the effective stress.0002 to 0.4090 0. As can be seen from Eq.5387 0.6620 0. Porosity 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Average Max.9875 0. But fracture aperture has a power level higher inﬂuence to the permeability than fracture porosity.9811 0.6110 0. as shown in Table 3.9144 0.9902 0.7568 1.9711 0. ID Coefﬁcient m Coefﬁcient b Correlation coefﬁcient R2 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Average Max. Coal usually has densely developed ﬁssures which are very important for coal reservoir.0 porosity/% Fig.3657 0.7587 2. Coal reservoir is a dual pore system media.9859 0. μm.2562 0.0 5. The coal is characterized by complex pore distribution and large pore tortuosity which are difﬁcult to be measured and evaluated. Kozeny (1927)and Carman (1937) gave a theoretical equation governing the relationship between permeability (K) of the porous medium and the porosity and average pore radius as follows: K¼ 1.2 0.1121 0.0 7. value Minimum value 0.9868 0. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 813 Table 2 Relationship between porosity and permeability of coal and the effective stress.0 0.9877 0.9236.0382 0. the higher permeability is. to exterior length of coal core.5387 0. K i is the permeability under net conﬁning stress. the higher the coal reservoir permeability is. Coal is usually fractured Table 3 Relationship between coal porosity and permeability.6110 to 2. which obeys the law of exponential function.4842 5. The permeability of coal reservoir mainly depends on coal ﬁssures.9842 0.9737 0. The relationship between coal porosity and the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 under net conﬁning stress is shown in Fig.0299. however the coal reservoir with small pore diameter but high porosity usually has low permeability. b ranges from 0.6 0.9819 0.0 2.0382 3. These ﬁssures not only provide a reservoir space. and K f is the fracture permeability of coal reservoir.1325 0. aperture is as follows: Kf ¼ ϕf b2 12 ð5Þ where b is the average fracture aperture of coal reservoir.9496 0. the lower the porosity of coal samples. containing matrix pore system and ﬁssure pore system.9902 0. including porosity and average pore size.7587.0267 0. (5).9395 3.4715 4.1. 3. (4) shows that two factors inﬂuence the permeability of coal sample. the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 is deﬁned as the ratio of gas permeability K i to initial permeability of coal K 0 .9236 1. ϕf is the average fracture porosity of coal reservoir.0 Dimensionless permeability (K i/K0) ID ð4Þ where r is the average pore radius of rock. μm2.5057 6. Inﬂuence of pore diameter on the permeability is a power levels higher than porosity.0 3. Besides porosity. value Minimum value Permeability Regression coefﬁcient c φ0 Correlation coefﬁcient R2 Regression coefﬁcient a K0 Correlation coefﬁcient R2 0.0698 0. that is.0 4.8654 4.3628 0. Eq.9871 0. decimal. The regression analysis of experimental results are deﬁned as follows: K i =K 0 ¼ mebϕi ϕr 2 8τ 2 0.2615 0.0002 2.9875 0.2615 4.9797 0. .2988 1. the larger the fracture aperture and fracture porosity is. 10 3 μm2.0299 0.3.0670 0.1901 0. ﬂuid ﬂow path. Tortuosity is the ratio of the actual length of pores.0005 0. ð3Þ where ϕi is the porosity under net conﬁning stress. μm2 and τ is the average pore tortuosity.1736. The coal reservoir with relatively large pore diameter but low porosity may have relatively high permeability. The experiment results show an exponential function relationship between the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 and porosity.6110 2.0 1.9236 0. The theoretical relationship between the permeability in the direction parallel to fracture and fracture porosity.7819 4.0027 0.9395 0.6620 into many matrix blocks. %. with the increase of porosity.9775 0.5529 1.4933 2.5481 0.8397 0. averagely 1.3086 0.1325 0. the lower permeability is.2562 0. Meng et al.0483 0.0002 0.9844 0.8803 6.0491 0. and m and b are regression coefﬁcients.8397 3. The experimental results for six samples under net conﬁning stress indicate that regression coefﬁcient m ranges from 0. dimensionless.0 6.2919 0.4 0.4306 0.9871 0.4715 2. the higher the porosity.0267 0.5481 0. The relationship between coal porosity and permeability under net conﬁning stress In order to more intuitively describe the inﬂuence of coal reservoir stress to the gas permeability.1736 0.0957 0. the smaller the pore diameter.0018 0. the permeability of coal reservoir is closely related to the pore structure.1736 0. The larger the pore diameter within a certain range.9296 0. 3. Based on capillary bundle model.8920 0.

Our experiment referenced the oil and gas industry standards of China (SY/T5336.42%. the coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefﬁcient declines sharply. Coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefﬁcient varies signiﬁcantly under effective stress of below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. pore compressibility factor varies with the increase of effective stress. stress sensitivity increases. 3. study area. (2) Stress sensitivity coefﬁcient is deﬁned as follows: αK ¼ 1 ∂K U K 0 ∂p ð7Þ where K0 is the permeability under initial effective stress. Permeability damage rate under the effective stress of 10 MPa ranges from 82. 0. but there are some ﬂuctuations. permeability damage rate goes up rapidly. coal reservoir stress pore compressibility factor is relatively large and decreases rapidly with the increase of the effective stress.3. With the increase of effective stress over 5 MPa or 6 MPa.2.8% and 100%. ∂K is the variation of permeability. The permeability damage rate has the same meaning as the permeability stress sensitivity coefﬁcient adopted in China's oil and gas industry standards. (1) Permeability damage rate is calculated by Eq.250 MPa 1.42%.115 MPa 1. and ∂p is the variation of pressure. 6. 5358. Moisture CBM reservoir always has high water saturation in the development process. Relationship between the pore compressibility factor and the effective stress Fig. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and the effective stress. that is.010 MPa 1 to 0.10 20 0. It shows that when the effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa in No. coal is highly sensitive to effective stress.2. 3 coal seam within Shanxi Formation Permian System in the Permeability damage rate/% 3. On the contrary. Pore compressibility factor In order to quantitatively evaluate pore compression deformation of coal reservoir. the higher the sensitivity of coal to effective stress will be. and K min ' is the permeability under the highest stress point. we chose three coal samples of different water saturations and carried out experimental analysis. the smaller the αk is.251 MPa 1.7% to 97. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 3. Meng et al. 5.20 0. 6). 8#. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient.070 MPa 1. The pore compressibility factor and stress sensitivity coefﬁcient have almost the same variation trend and law. that is. 10 3 μm2. Under the same water saturation. permeability for coal sample of high water saturation drops more quickly with the increase of the effective pressure. and has some ﬂuctuation due to the closure of micro-ﬁssures. respectively.25 0. The relationship between permeability damage rate. with the increase of effective stress.15 0.020 MPa 1 to 0. MPa. The relationships between the dimensionless permeability and effective stress for three samples are shown in Fig. with the increase of effective stress. the permeability damage rate increases with the increase of effective stress (Fig. the coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefﬁcient decreases. 8#. as shown in Table 4. The water saturation of 7#. 66. Relationship between permeability damage rate. 4). when the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa. pore compressibility factor and effective stress K 1 K 0min Dk2 ¼ 100% K1 ð6Þ where Dk2 is the permeability damage rate after the stress increases to the highest stress point. 10 3 μm2. 3. the average from 0. With the increase of water saturation. %. average 89.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Effective stress /MPa PDR-Permeability damage rate . that is.2. 66. the permeability damage rate is bigger (Fig. 4. in order to investigate the inﬂuence of water saturation on permeability. There are no industry standards about CBM reservoir stress sensitivity test. 5 shows the curves of the pore compressibility factor and effective stress for six coal samples. When effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. The maximum of pore compressibility factor for six samples ranges from 0. Under the .3. Permeability damage rate and stress sensitivity coefﬁcient The stress sensitivity is higher for coal reservoir than for sandstone. 4 shows the curves of the permeability damage rate.2%. 9# samples was 30. as shown in Table 4. As can be seen from Fig. K 1 is the permeability under the ﬁrst stress point. Relationship between permeability damage rates. coal permeability decreases in a negative exponential law. and ﬁnally the reservoir stress sensitivity was analyzed. with the increase of effective stress. with the increase of effective stress. the permeability damage rate increases more slowly. coal reservoir pore compressibility factor has a gently decreasing trend with some obvious ﬂuctuations.003 MPa 1 to 0. ϕ0 is the porosity under initial effective stress.4. and then determined the permeability behavior of coal sample with change of net conﬁning pressure. 10 3 μm2.003 MPa 1 to 0. the minimum from 0. The water saturation of these three samples (7#. 10 3 μm2.011 MPa 1 to 0.2. stress sensitivity is relatively weakened. (6). From Eq. we deﬁned a pore compressibility factor as follows: 1 ∂ϕ ð8Þ Cp ¼ ϕ0 ∂p T where Cp is the pore compressibility factor of coal reservoir. the lesser the sensitivity of coal to effective stress will be. the average from 0. the maximum of the stress sensitivity coefﬁcient ranges from 0. the permeability damage rate and stress sensitivity coefﬁcient increases with the variation of effective stress.157 MPa 1. 3. As can be seen from Fig. the coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefﬁcient declines gently with some ﬂuctuations. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and effective stress Fig. and the minimum from 0. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and effective stress for six experimental coal samples. MPa 1.018 MPa 1 to 0. when the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa.SSC-stress sensitivity coefficient Fig. 4. and ∂ϕ=∂p T is the variation rate of coal porosity over effective stress under isothermal conditions. coal reservoir permeability decreases rapidly with the increase of effective stress. MPa 1.30 100 1#PDR 2#PDR 3#PDR 4#PDR 5#PDR 6#PDR 1#SSC 2#SSC 3#SSC 4#SSC 5#SSC 6#SSC 80 60 40 0.1.05 0 stress sensitivity coefficient /MPa -1 814 0. 6385) and adopted increasing net conﬁning pressure of coal samples to simulate the effective stress variation of coal seam. 9#) were 30.3%. (7).8% and 100% respectively.075 MPa 1. permeability decreases gently with the increase of effective stress.Y.2. 3. we can see that. the bigger the αk is.

054 0.046 0.015 0. The maximum of stress sensitivity coefﬁcient ranges from 0. Water saturation has a relatively high impact on coal reservoir stress sensitivity.062 0.003 0.8 97.090 0.051 0.33 MPa 1.20 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Table 5 Evaluation parameters of stress sensitivity for coal reservoir under different water saturations.9 98.003 0.7 85.011 MPa 1.038 0.075 0. the stress sensitivity for three coal samples of different water saturations are more obvious (Fig.330 12 Effective stress/MPa Dimensionless permeability (Ki/K0) Water saturation 7# 30.007 0.039 0. the gas/water pressure will offset part of the total stress of the coal body and decrease the elastic limit and shear strength.005 MPa 1 to 0.026 0.2 90.006 0.SSC-stress sensitivity coefficient 0.075 MPa 1.80% Permeability damage rate/% 100 Fig.6% respectively.3 97.158 0. Temperature In order to investigate the inﬂuence of temperature on coal reservoir permeability.157 0.2 0 Stress sensitivity coefficient/MPa-1 ID Fig. Under the effective stress for 10 MPa.179 0.111 0. Permeability damage rate (%) 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Average Max.00 0 0.250 0. the average of stress sensitivity coefﬁcient is 0.15 0. Comparing Tables 4 and 5.104 0.6 0 0. The average of stress sensitivity coefﬁcient for coal samples with moisture is 1.070 0. value Minimum value 96.251 0.5.020 0. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 815 Table 4 Evaluation parameters of stress sensitivity for coal reservoir.250 0.039 0.25 0.4 82.103 0.058 0. we can see that stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and permeability damage rate are higher for these three coal samples of different water saturations than for dry ones.250 0. value Minimum value Stress sensitivity coefﬁcient (MPa 1) 86. 95.279 0.8 95. Relationship between permeability damage rate.008 0. effective stress of 10 MPa.075 0.073 0.003 0.005 0. then the coal is easy to generate elastic and plastic deformation and thereby the coal samples of different water saturations are more sensitive to effective stress than dry ones and the increase of effective stress will cause more signiﬁcant permeability loss (Meng and Li.25 MPa 1 to 0.011 0.005 0.6 0. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and the effective stress.8 9# 100 0.2 89.10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Permeability damage rate Stress sensitivity coefﬁcient (MPa 1) (%) (%) Average Max.075 MPa 1 to 0.178 0. 6.Y.30 0.064 0. On the other hand. Meng et al.251 0.003 Pore compressibility factor/MPa-1 0.013 0.005 1 Sw=30.111 MPa 1.019 0.011 0.018 0.054 0.075 0. Compared with dry sample.026 0.8 0.9% to 98.5 93.6%.035 0.073 0. Relationship between pore compressibility factor and effective stress.05 0.77 times as that for dry ones.4 2 4 6 8 10 12 Effective stress/MPa PDR-Permeability damage rate. because water softens the coals and lowers its mechanical strength. 0.10 20 Sw=100% 0. permeability damage rate of three samples with moisture ranges from 95.42% Sw=66. we chose two coal samples (10# and 11#) and carried out stress sensitivity experiments at 30 1C and 60 1C respectively.9% and 98.039 0.070 0. 2013).038 0.018 0.115 0.010 0.8%. the average from 0.20 40 0. 0 2 4 6 8 10 Effective stress/MPa Fig. Relationship between dimensionless permeability and effective stress under different water saturations.084 0. permeability damage rate was 96.40 80 60 7#PDR 8#PDR 9#PDR 7#SSC 8#SSC 9#SSC 0.064 0.012 0.7 Average Maximum Minimum Average Maximum Minimum 0.020 0.5. 0. 7.111 MPa 1 respectively (Table 5). the minimum ranges from 0. 7 and Table 5).2 82.30 0. ID 0. 3.085 MPa 1 and 0.085 0.090 0. .42 8# 66.00 Pore compressibility factor (MPa 1) 0.

7 MPa. with the increase of effective stress. that is K i ¼ K 0 e ap . with the increase of effective stress.3% for 10# and 96. At the same temperature.20 10#SSC 40 11#SSC 0. The higher the temperature is. which obeys the law of negative exponential function.8 T=30° ID T=60° 0. showing a weak stress sensitivity. 8 and 9).7 MPa. which leads to the increase of effective stress and induces the decline of permeability. stable and slow. Discussion Coal is a dual porosity medium. with the rise of temperature. which corresponds to the effective stress variation in the actual CBM well drainage. fracture aperture decreases due to thermal expansion and thereby coal sample permeability decreases. Increasing normal stress will narrow the fractures and then lower the permeability of the coal.4 0. 0. and with the rise of temperature.00 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Stress sensitivity coefficient/MPa -1 0. the effect of temperature rise on coal reservoir permeability can be divided into two stages. The No. Under low in-situ stress regime in shallow coal seam. showing a high stress sensitivity. permeability damage rate is 81.010 10# 30 11# 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Fig. permeability of coal sample reduces in the negative exponential function law. permeability drops more quickly for 11# coal sample of higher temperature than 10# of lower. the water pumping lowers the coal reservoir pressure.816 Y.0 0. Average stress sensitive coefﬁcient is 0. Meng et al.0% for 11#. Coal reservoir permeability decreases with the increase of temperature. 2.30 10#PDR 11#PDR 0. So the permeability depends strongly on the aperture of the fractures in coal. At the low temperature stage. thermal cracking in this temperature range will not occur. Relationship between dimensionless permeability and effective stress under different temperatures. showing a temperature sensitivity.067 MPa 1 for 10# and 0. plastic deformation of coal reservoir due to compaction under stress results in a signiﬁcant reduction in permeability.3 96. which contains matrix pore system and fracture system. coal seam is usually water saturated.333 12 Effective stress/MPa Permeability damage rate/% Temperature Permeability damage rate 12 Effective stress/MPa PDR-Permeability damage rate. on .222 0. thereby the drainage in this stage should be sustained. the relationship between the coal reservoir permeability and effective stress (k σ e ) reﬂects the relationship between the coal reservoir permeability and producing pressure drop in the drainage process (k ΔP). With the increase of the effective stress. coal cracking induced by thermal stress above critical temperature will sharply increase coal reservoir permeability. When the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa. In the drainage process of CBM wells. On the one hand. The experiments in this study aim to simulate the permeability behavior of coal seam with a burial depth of less than 1000 m. Experimental results show that coal reservoir permeability varies exponentially with the increase of effective stress. with the increase of effective stress.71 MPa/100 m. in our experimental process. value Minimum value 81. coal reservoir stress sensitivity will abate due to very small initial aperture and minor compaction. 6 and 8).070 MPa 1 for 11# (Table 6). When the effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. Relationship between the permeability damage rate/stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and effective stress.015 0. Under the effective stress of 10 MPa. coal reservoir permeability reduces. with the increase of effective stress. the stress sensitivity of coal seam diminishes. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 Dimensionless permeability (Ki/K0) 1 Table 6 Evaluation parameters of stress sensitivity for coal reservoir under different temperatures. Coal seam is in a certain in situ stress environment and the stress of coal seam varies spatially. and gas saturation increases. The relationship between dimensionless permeability and effective stress for the two coal samples under different temperatures are shown in Fig. From permeability–stress curves (Figs. more obvious the stress sensitivity is.070 0. 9. The fracture system contributes in a major way to the permeability of the coal seam. with the increase of effective stress. water saturation of coal reservoir decreases as the increasing gas desorption.40 100 60 0. reservoir pressure can drop to abandonment pressure of about 0. coal reservoir pressure varies from 10 MPa to 0. In the middle and later stage of drainage. This process is just the dynamic changing of the coal reservoir permeability. the change of permeability by above two aspects will impact on the gas production.10 20 0. the coal reservoir permeability decreases much more slowly. 80 0. 3 coal seam in Shanxi Formation Permian System in the southern Qinshui basin is up to 1200 m deep. the permeability variation induced by in-situ stress is a static effect. 4. the permeability damage rate is bigger (Figs. gas well ﬂuid level in this stage should keep stable.SSC-stress sensitivity coefficient Fig. 8. 8. the corresponding drop of gas well ﬂuid level is above 500 m or 600 m. that is. That is.067 0. at the high temperature stage. According to the CBM production experience from US. stress sensitivity increases. thermal expansion with the rise of temperature causes a slight decline of permeability. Therefore. the corresponding drop of gas well ﬂuid level is from 0 m to 500 m or 600 m. Therefore. continuous gas desorption will lead to signiﬁcant coal matrix shrinkage and an increasingly rise in permeability and thereby gas production goes up. its reservoir pressure is below 10 MPa and the reservoir pressure gradient averages 0. the coal reservoir permeability drops rapidly. In the early drainage of a CBM well. under high insitu stress regime in the deep. water pressure drops due to pumping and correspondingly the effective stress increases and coal permeability declines quickly. In general. so experimental temperatures are set as 30 1C and 60 1C respectively.2 0 Stress sensitive coefﬁcient (MPa 1) (1C) (%) Average Max. When the water pressure drops to the critical desorption pressure (Pc).6 0. In short.

69. 47–51. Permeability changes in coal: analytical modeling. 2004. Palmer. N. J. Shi. S. and stressdependent permeability in the Southern Qinshui Basin. Luo. Shi.. R.B..R. Q. 162. Z.Y. the dotted line variation path of reservoir pressure during gas production. 1997.F. Int. 77. Chin.. that is. Modeling permeability for coal reservoirs: a review of analytical models and testing data.. The permeability of water-bearing coal sample drops quickly with the increase of the effective pressure. 5. The relationship between permeability and effective stress for Australian coal and its implications with respect to coalbed methane exploration and reservoir modeling. Durucan. Chalaturnyk. Porous Media 23..A. Zhen. and Shanxi Provincial Basic Research Program–Coal Bed Methane Joint Research Foundation under Grant no. Int. Transp. Wu.. Int. Coal Geol.Q. A study on some issues of development disposition of a low permeability oilﬁeld. Eval. SPE Form. et al. Rock Mech... 1927... Jia. J. 457–467. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and pore compressibility factor decrease sharply with the increase of the effective stress. Tsang. Wang. 914–925 SPE-123206-PA. 2000.. 122–131. 15.. the coal has a high sensitivity to effective stress. Z. SPE39055.C. 2010. and the pores and fractures of coal reservoir Biot. Sci. 1937. Trans. 10 shows the relationship between the permeability and effective stress. 150–167. Stress-dependent permeability and porosity of coal and other geologic formations. 2009. 6. Conclusions (1) With the increase of effective stress. that is. The authors also thank the reviewers and editors for their constructive comments and suggestions on improving this manuscript. This study was ﬁnancially supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project in 12th Five-Year Plan Period under Grant no. G. J. stress sensitivity is more obvious. 96–103. 271–306. Rock Mechanics Research Report 10. Pet. Sci. Min.... 2007. 10... Acta Geophys. Imperial College. J. G.. W. Coal Geol.. 2013012002. the porosity of coal pore and fracture decreases and permeability drops sharply. pore pressure.R.. 1). S.. 2012. 2006). 1969. Eng. where Pe is the initial reservoir pressure and Pwf borehole pressure.. Zhang. 2011. China University of Petroleum. Meng. 153–164. Liu. Eng. 2013. 81–91. with the extraction of water and gas from coal reservoir. McKee. Min. the increase of stress results in normal compaction deformation. with the increase of effective stress. Ke is the reservoir permeability at reservoir pressure of Pe. London. 13–22. Sin.X. pp. stress sensitivity coefﬁcient and pore compressibility factor ﬂuctuate and decrease gently. Zimmerman. Int. The heavy solid line represents the correlation curve of permeability and effective stress. Transp.. 30 (1). Beijing. A.. et al. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: a numerical study. With the rise of the temperature. J. Min. 1–44. Koenig. L. the permeability damage rate and the stress sensitive coefﬁcient go up.K. A Study of Deformation and Percolation Mechanisms of Deep Gas Reservoir and its Application. the variation range of permeability is much wider for K0-Ke than for Ke-Kwf. the permeability damage rate varies slowly. Lubinski. K0 is the ground permeability at effective stress of σ eff 0 . 1988. In Fig. Int... Meng. Exponential growth in San Juan Basin Fruitland coalbed permeability with reservoir drawdown: model match and new insights. Porous Media 56. As can be seen from Fig.Q.. 77. 2009. Enever. Z. Kozeny. 10. pp. 2006). Li... M. Meng. 41 (7). C. J. 1956. 247–256.W.P. 2009. Coupling model of stress-dependent permeability in high-rank coal reservoir and its control mechanism. when the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa.Q. Geomechanical properties and permeability of coals from the Foothills and Mountain regions of western Canada. reservoir pressure (Luo. Rock Mech.. An experimental study of changes of porosity of sandstones with pressure. Appl. 22 (4). Durucan. C. which reﬂects that the impact of in-situ stress on permeability is greater than that of dynamic changes of the reservoir pressure in the gas production process (Luo.. S275–S280. I. 2004. 1954.. Phys. 222–233.... Eval..G. X.. J. Sun. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures. Louis. Hou. Uber Kapillare Leitung der Wasser in Boden. Sin. K.J.P.S. Sitzungsber. Quantitative research on stress sensitivity of low permeability reservoir. D. the permeability damage rate increases markedly.A. J. signiﬁcant elastic–plastic deformation occurs in coal. A study of groundwater ﬂow in jointed rock and its inﬂuence of the stability of rock masses. Deisman. Under the compressive stress. Wiss. coal reservoir porosity and permeability decreases in the law of negative exponent function..Q. Rock Mech. (3) The water saturation and temperature of coal reservoir have a marked impact on production of CBM wells. Chen. Geophys. The X-axis denotes permeability and the Y-axis effective stress. 3. 1995. Experimental research on the permeability of high-rank coal under a varying stress and its inﬂuencing factors.R. so the coal reservoir permeability decreases obviously. 48. Theory of deformation of a porous viscoelastic anisotropic solid. resulting in the increase of effective stress in coal reservoir. the permeability damage degree caused by stress is relatively big. 37. 1995. Int. J. Gentzis. Z. 108–117. Zimmerman.A. and Kwf is the permeability at reservoir pressure of Pwf.M. 1997. Coupling in poroelasticity and thermoelasticity. Connell. R. Dev.Y. Int.S. J. the coal reservoir pressure decreases gradually. Geol. Xiao. Fluid ﬂow through a granular bed. Bodvarsson. 27.J.D. R. Rutqvist. the permeability variation induced by reservoir pressure change during production process is a dynamic effect. Numerical simulation of coupled ﬂuid-ﬂow/geomechnical behavior of tight gas reservoirs with stress sensitive permeability. . 667–675. Meng et al.D.P. S. Increasing the moisture content and temperature will enhance the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir. 1–15. Jose. J. 92. 38 (Suppl.C. Li. 1–30. Coal Geol. R.E. Z. R. Eng. Coal Geol. Chem. Fig. Coupled ﬂow and geomechanical processes during gas production from coal seams... 119–126. (5) The variation of permeability induced by in-situ stress is greater than that by dynamic changes of the reservoir pressure in the gas production process. P. In: Proceedings of the 2nd U. and reservoir pressure.. R. A. J. L.. Relationship between permeability and effective stress..W. L. Akad. 79–87. C. A. In-situ stress. J. 56 (2). J. T. Wien 136. 1191–1210.. Acta Pet. Acknowledgment Fig. Connell. 1996. 1–16.C.Q. SPE Reserv. Drawdown induced changes in permeability of coalbeds: a new interpretation of the reservoir response to primary recovery. G.. Sci. Henning. H. (4) In the process of CBM production. Theory of elasticity for porous bodies displaying a strong pore structure. Inst. Bumb.L.. Pan. 2013. J. Wang. Min.L. (2) When the effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. J. 10.. National Congress of Applied Mechanics. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 817 are compressed and closed. Carman. References the other hand. 2006. F. In: Proceedings of the 1997 International Coalbed Methane Symposium. 2011ZX05038-2-1. Explor.

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