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Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817

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Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

Experimental study on porosity and permeability of anthracite coal
under different stresses
Ya Meng a,b,n, Zhiping Li a,b, Fengpeng Lai a,b
a
Beijing Key Laboratory of Geology Evaluation and Development of Unconventional Natural Gas, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083,
PR China
b
School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, PR China

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 31 December 2014
Accepted 2 April 2015
Available online 20 April 2015

Coal porosity and permeability are key factors influencing coal-bed methane well production. In order to
investigate the permeability behavior during anthracite coal seam methane production, the porosity and
permeability of anthracite coal sample from No. 3 coal seam in Southern Qinshui Basin of China in net
confining stress were measured in laboratory. The correlations between porosity, permeability and
effective stress were analyzed. Permeability damage rate, stress sensitivity coefficient and pore
compressibility factor were proposed to evaluate the effective stress-dependent sensitivity characteristics of anthracite coal. It turns out that, both porosity and permeability of coal sample decrease
exponentially with the increase of effective stress. If the effective stress is less than 5 MPa or 6 MPa,
stress sensitivity coefficient of coal reservoir changed greatly, and the stress sensitivity coefficient
decreases rapidly with effective stress increased. The permeability damage rate increases rapidly with
increasing effective stress, the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir enhanced; while in the effective stress is
greater than 5 MPa or 6 MPa, the stress sensitivity coefficient of the coal reservoir decreases as effective
stress increases slowly, and there is fluctuation, the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir is reduced; while
permeability damage rate with the increase of effective stress increased more slowly. With the increase
of moisture content and temperature, the permeability damage rate of coal reservoir and stress sensitive
coefficient increase, and the stress sensitivity of coal reservoir enhanced.
& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Key words:
effective stress
anthracite coal
porosity
permeability
stress sensitivity

1. Introduction
Both porosity and permeability are key factors affecting the coalbed methane production. Porosity of coal usually refers to the sum of
matrix porosity and fissure porosity. The dual pore system of coal
regulates gas storage capacity, occurrence and transport of methane
through coal. Numerous researches on the relationship between
porosity and permeability of conventional oil and gas reservoirs have
been reported (Louis, 1969; Zimmerman and Bodvarsson, 1996;
Zimmerman, 2000). Pore compressibility factor and reservoir stress
sensitivity factor were defined to assess the stress-dependent permeability of conventional reservoirs (Lubinski, 1954; Biot, 1956; Louis,
1969; Wu et al., 1995; Jia et al., 1995; Jose, 1997; Min et al., 2004; Wang
et al., 2009). Jose (1997) pointed out that permeability loss of the tight
sandstone gas reservoir under confining pressure can reach as high as
90% of the initial permeability. As a typical unconventional gas
reservoir, coal is a type of low porosity and low permeability porous

n
Corresponding author at: School of Energy Resources, China University of
Geosciences (Beijing), No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083,
PR China. Tel.: þ 86 10 13521520515.
E-mail address: mengya629@163.com (Y. Meng).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.04.012
0920-4105/& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

media and is highly sensitive to effective stress. And coal has a high
affinity to gases, i.e. nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. Therefore
permeability behavior of coal is more complex than that of conventional oil and gas reservoir. During gas production, coal permeability
decreases with the increase of effective stress at early water pumping
stage and then increases with the increasing shrinkage effect in later
gas extraction stage. A few permeability models were proposed and
widely used to describe the stress-dependent effect and matrix
shrinkage/expansion effect whereas these models did not take into
account the varying cleat compressibility (Shi and Durucan, 2004,
2010; Pan and Connell (2012); Palmer, 2009; Connell, 2009). Experimental studies showed that overall bituminous coal permeability
declines exponentially with the increase of effective stress (Enever
and Henning, 1997; McKee et al., 1988). Enever and Henning (1997)
found the exponential relationship between the permeability of coal
seam and the stress. Based on the study of coal seam permeability and
its relation to the buried depth in Piceance, San Juan and Black Warrior
basins in the United States, McKee et al. (1988) found that the
permeability reduces in the law of negative exponential function as
the buried depth of coal seam and the effective stress increase and the
aperture of coal seam cleat decreases. In order to investigate the
permeability behavior of high rank coal during early depletion of CBM

2013). 3 coal seam in Permian at Sihe coalmine in Southern Qinshui Basin. and degree of shearing of the coal seams (Gentzis et al. we can see that the relationship between the gas permeability of coal and effective stress obeys the negative exponential function as follows: K i ¼ K 0 e  ap ð1Þ where K i is the permeability under a specific effective stress. averagely 0. generated in Carboniferous and Permian periods. Experiment results 3.50 2. The porosity and permeability of anthracite coal sample from No.12% and ash yield 22. experimental temperature is set as 30 1C and 60 1C. gas source for confining pressure is supplied by high-pressure air. 2.. 3.52 2. Previous experimental researches were mainly related to low-medium rank coals.52 2. The exploration and production tests in this field have been conducted since 1990s.44 2.1. Confining pressure values were 3. 8.08 4. we used the variation of net confining pressure to simulate the variations of coal seam effective stress.51 2. Thus the understanding of the permeability variation during the exploration and development of CBM was still limited to some degree. Regression analysis results for six experimental samples are shown in Table 2.51 cm to 2. Meng and Hou.96 2. The diameter of coal samples is from 2. Meng et al. Specifically. CBM reservoir permeability is controlled by coal reservoir stress regime. and the temperature 20 1C.60 5. volatile yield 8.09 5.2. The results may be applicable in developing strategies in exploration.0. MPa. the best development prospect. the same displacement pressure keeps constant during the test process. In order to analyze the influence of temperature on stress sensitivity.11 4.00 Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry 30.5 MPa to 20 MPa in laboratory..54 MPa  1. 3 coal seam in Southern Qinshui Basin of China in net confining stress were measured in laboratory.75 cm to 5. and 10. Dry coal samples were prepared by drying the raw coal samples in the dryer for 48 h. 2013. with an area of about 7000 km2.63%. The experimental workflow is shown in Fig. 2.52 cm and the length from 4.0. However. 1. 2.72 3. 2007). p is the variation value of effective stress from the initial to a certain stress. located in Shanxi Province of the Central China. 9.50 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 60 Fractured Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact Intact 4. 2011). This study was undertaken to address the stress-dependent porosity and permeability of anthracite coal at a varying temperature and moisture content. Experiment conditions To understand the influence of the coal reservoir stress on coal porosity and permeability.36%. .0. The basic data of the coal samples are shown in Table 1. Experiment samples The Southern Qinshui Basin.7819  10  3 μm2.12% and No. The maximum vitrinite reflectance Ro. 10  3 μm2. Coal seams. and a higher commercialized production in the China's coal-bed methane reservoirs (Meng et al.37 MPa  1. The correlations between porosity. The relationship between permeability of coal and the effective stress The relationship between permeability of coal and the effective stress is shown in Fig. Permeability in the coal-bed reservoir is relatively high compared to other coal-bed methane reservoirs in China.Max is 3. CBM reservoir has low permeability and strong gas adsorption capacity. a ranges from 0. 5.8% 100% Dry Dry confining stress. contain abundant methane.26 MPa  1 to 0.0. however researches on the influence of in-situ stress to the coal reservoir permeability were insufficient due to the lack of coal reservoir stress and permeability data. ID Diameter Length Moisture content (cm) (cm) Experimental temperature ( 1C) Description 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# 7# 8# 9# 10# 11# 2. K 0 ranges from 0.Y.2562  10  3 μm2. The coal samples were collected from the No. and measured the varying porosity and permeability with net confining pressure. so the maximum stress test was designed to 10 MPa.11 cm. MPa  1.1. few researches on high rank coals has been reported.1. Meng and Li (2013) collected 12 high rank coal samples from the southeast margin of China Ordos Basin and two low and medium rank coal samples from the north margin of this basin and determined their air permeability under a varying effective stress from 2.75 5. 4. well completion and production of coal-bed methane. the high-purity helium acts as the test gas source.0. and a is the regression coefficient.50 2.0. 2. The burial depth of the coal seam is from 350 m to 1200 m.3. and the controlling mechanism of permeability variation was studied. variation in in-situ water permeability is likely a function of the maceral composition. and then analyzed the relationships between porosity.00 5. the displacement pressure is fixed. and the temperature test up to 60 1C. permeability and effective stress 3. 2. 7. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 and its influencing factors. 3 coal seam is semi-bright coal in macrolithotype and is banded or homogeneous in coal texture.1. which is quite different from the conventional oil and gas reservoirs.47 2. To minimize gas slippage effect. averagely 0. mode of deformation. in the course of the experiment.52 2. is the most important production base for high quality anthracite in China. the correlation models between permeability and stress of high rank coal reservoir were established. K 0 is the permeability under initial effective stress. the burial depth of coal seams in southern Qinshui Basin ranges from 350 m to 1200 m. the stress-dependent permeability of anthracite coal was addressed based on laboratory experiments (Meng and Li. According to approximate analysis results on air dry basis.51 2. 10  3 μm2. From Fig. The Southern Qinshui Basin measures approximately 120 km from north to south and 80 km from east to west. In this paper. Experiment apparatus and procedure We used an automatic porosity and permeability instrument (AP – 608) to test the porosity and permeability of coal under net 811 Table 1 Basic data of the coal samples.5.0267  10  3 μm2 to 4.51 2. To avoid the influence of slippage effect on permeability of coal sample. permeability and effective stress.42% 66. permeability and effective stress were analyzed.0 MPa.50 2. Cylindrical coal samples were carefully drilled in the direction parallel to the bedding plane. Relationships between coal porosity. Experimental method 2. 6. the moisture content is 1. Each stress point sustained long enough. and then gas permeability at this stress point is measured. The results show that the Qinshui Basin is a very promising coalbed methane reservoir with the most exploration wells.99 5. at least in balance for 30 min.

5 -0.000 4.000 1. MPa  1.0 R = 0.07 MPa  1.0 14 5. and c is the regression coefficient.020 -0. Relationship between porosity and permeability of coal and the effective stress.9877 6 1.5 0 2 0. %.002 Effective stress/MPa 0. c ranges from 0.0 2 R = 0.000 2.0 -0.3086x Permeability/10-3 μm2 Permeability 1.0 14 12 4.008 -0.84% to 6.0483x Porosity/% Permeability/10-3 μm2 Permeability y = 3.133 MPa  1.0382x 5.4306x 0. MPa.010 2.0 4.5 14 0 2 4 6 y = 6.040 Permeability/10-3 μm2 Permeability Porosity 0.1901e -0.060 8 Effective stress/MPa 0.9496 y = 0.010 y = 0.0548x y = 4.040 0.5 R = 0.0 0.9871 4. averagely 0. 1. %.000 1.020 3.0 Porosity R = 0. p is the variation value of effective stress from the initial to a certain stress. Meng et al.5 Permeability Porosity/% y = 4.0 -0.2.9811 2 10 0.2615x 4. ϕ0 is the porosity under initial effective stress. 1.5 2 0.1325x y = 5.030 R = 0.0 14 Effective stress/MPa Effective stress/MPa Fig.1121e Porosity/% Permeability/10-3 μm2 5. Regression analysis results for six experimental samples are shown in Table 2. 2.0 2 Permeability/10-3 μm2 3.038 MPa  1 to 0. 3.3628x 2.001 2.050 8 Effective stress/MPa 6.47%.5481 4 y = 0.1.000 2.5 -0. averagely 4.5 14 2.9144 y = 0.5387x 2 R = 0.9395 4 2 3.080 0.030 -0.0 Porosity/% Permeability/10-3 μm2 2.0491x 2 R = 0.4933e 3.4842e 10 0.9868 Effective stress/MPa 0.0 0 1.0 2 R = 0.8 2.004 R = 0.0 0.5 2 0 2 4 6 2 0.005 Porosity/% 4.5 3.5 3.5 2 4 12 Permeability -0. 2013).060 0.010 3.2 Porosity y = 3. The relationship between the porosity of coal and effective stress obeys the negative exponential function as follows: ϕi ¼ ϕ0 e  cp ð2Þ where ϕi is the porosity under a specific effective stress. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 Fig.8397e 1.51%.4715e 0.9797 0 1.067e 2 8 10 12 0.2919x 0.5 0.5 Porosity 2 2.0 0.0957x y = 2. .0 -0.0 Porosity Porosity/% 0.5 Permeability R = 0.9711 0.6 0.004 0.040 2.2562e 0.0 0.039e 6 8 10 12 0.0 -0.9819 Porosity 3. Experimental workflow (Meng and Li.0267e 6 8 10 12 0.003 y = 0. 2.9902 3.5 R = 0. ϕ0 ranges from 2.8654e 0.812 Y.006 2 R = 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2.002 0.4 -0. The relationship between porosity of coal and the effective stress The relationship between porosity of coal and effective stress is shown in Fig.020 3.8803e 0.5 0.

0390 0. but also connect the matrix pore by interleave network system and greatly improve the permeability of coal reservoirs.0008 0.Y.0548 0.8 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# 0. averagely 0. that is. the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 increases. Relationship between the porosity of coal and its permeability under the effective stress.0002 to 0.4090 0. As can be seen from Eq.5387 0.6620 0. Porosity 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Average Max.9875 0. But fracture aperture has a power level higher influence to the permeability than fracture porosity.9811 0.6110 0. as shown in Table 3.9144 0.9902 0.7568 1.9711 0. ID Coefficient m Coefficient b Correlation coefficient R2 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Average Max. Coal usually has densely developed fissures which are very important for coal reservoir.0 porosity/% Fig.3657 0.7587 2. Coal reservoir is a dual pore system media.9859 0. μm.2562 0.0 5. The coal is characterized by complex pore distribution and large pore tortuosity which are difficult to be measured and evaluated. Kozeny (1927)and Carman (1937) gave a theoretical equation governing the relationship between permeability (K) of the porous medium and the porosity and average pore radius as follows: K¼ 1.2 0.1121 0.0 7. value Minimum value 0.9868 0. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 813 Table 2 Relationship between porosity and permeability of coal and the effective stress.0 0.9877 0.9236.0382 0. the higher permeability is. to exterior length of coal core.5387 0. K i is the permeability under net confining stress. the higher the coal reservoir permeability is. Coal is usually fractured Table 3 Relationship between coal porosity and permeability.6110 to 2. which obeys the law of exponential function.4842 5. The permeability of coal reservoir mainly depends on coal fissures.9842 0.9737 0. The relationship between coal porosity and the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 under net confining stress is shown in Fig.0299. however the coal reservoir with small pore diameter but high porosity usually has low permeability. b ranges from 0.6 0.9819 0.0 2.0382 3. These fissures not only provide a reservoir space. and K f is the fracture permeability of coal reservoir.1325 0. aperture is as follows: Kf ¼ ϕf b2 12 ð5Þ where b is the average fracture aperture of coal reservoir.9496 0. the lower the porosity of coal samples. containing matrix pore system and fissure pore system.9902 0. including porosity and average pore size.7587.0267 0. (5).9395 3.4715 4.1. 3. (4) shows that two factors influence the permeability of coal sample. the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 is defined as the ratio of gas permeability K i to initial permeability of coal K 0 .9236 1. ϕf is the average fracture porosity of coal reservoir.0 Dimensionless permeability (K i/K0) ID ð4Þ where r is the average pore radius of rock. μm2.5057 6. Influence of pore diameter on the permeability is a power levels higher than porosity.0 3. Besides porosity. value Minimum value Permeability Regression coefficient c φ0 Correlation coefficient R2 Regression coefficient a K0 Correlation coefficient R2 0.0698 0. that is.0 4.8654 4.3628 0. Eq.9871 0. decimal. The regression analysis of experimental results are defined as follows: K i =K 0 ¼ mebϕi ϕr 2 8τ 2 0.2615 0.0002 2.9875 0.2615 4.9797 0. .2988 1. the larger the fracture aperture and fracture porosity is.  10  3 μm2.0299 0.3.0670 0.1901 0. fluid flow path. Tortuosity is the ratio of the actual length of pores.0005 0. ð3Þ where ϕi is the porosity under net confining stress. μm2 and τ is the average pore tortuosity.1736. The coal reservoir with relatively large pore diameter but low porosity may have relatively high permeability. The experiment results show an exponential function relationship between the dimensionless permeability K i =K 0 and porosity.6110 2.0 1.9236 0. The theoretical relationship between the permeability in the direction parallel to fracture and fracture porosity.7819 4.0027 0.9395 0.6620 into many matrix blocks. %. with the increase of porosity.9775 0.5529 1.4933 2.5481 0.8397 0. averagely 1.3086 0.1325 0. the lower permeability is.2562 0. Meng et al.0483 0.0002 0.9844 0.8803 6.0491 0. and m and b are regression coefficients.8397 3. The experimental results for six samples under net confining stress indicate that regression coefficient m ranges from 0. dimensionless.0 6.2919 0.4 0.4306 0.9871 0.4715 2. the higher the porosity.0267 0.5481 0. The relationship between coal porosity and permeability under net confining stress In order to more intuitively describe the influence of coal reservoir stress to the gas permeability.1736 0.0957 0. the smaller the pore diameter.0018 0. the permeability of coal reservoir is closely related to the pore structure.1736 0. The larger the pore diameter within a certain range.9296 0. 3. Based on capillary bundle model.8920 0.

Our experiment referenced the oil and gas industry standards of China (SY/T5336.42%. the coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefficient declines sharply. Coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefficient varies significantly under effective stress of below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. pore compressibility factor varies with the increase of effective stress. stress sensitivity increases. 3. study area. (2) Stress sensitivity coefficient is defined as follows: αK ¼  1 ∂K U K 0 ∂p ð7Þ where K0 is the permeability under initial effective stress. Permeability damage rate under the effective stress of 10 MPa ranges from 82. 0. but there are some fluctuations. permeability damage rate goes up rapidly. coal reservoir stress pore compressibility factor is relatively large and decreases rapidly with the increase of the effective stress.3. With the increase of effective stress over 5 MPa or 6 MPa.2.8% and 100%. ∂K is the variation of permeability. The permeability damage rate has the same meaning as the permeability stress sensitivity coefficient adopted in China's oil and gas industry standards. (1) Permeability damage rate is calculated by Eq.250 MPa  1.42%.115 MPa  1. and ∂p is the variation of pressure. 6. 5358. Moisture CBM reservoir always has high water saturation in the development process. Relationship between the pore compressibility factor and the effective stress Fig. stress sensitivity coefficient and the effective stress. that is.010 MPa  1 to 0.10 20 0. It shows that when the effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa in No. coal is highly sensitive to effective stress.2. 3 coal seam within Shanxi Formation Permian System in the Permeability damage rate/% 3. On the contrary. Pore compressibility factor In order to quantitatively evaluate pore compression deformation of coal reservoir. the higher the sensitivity of coal to effective stress will be. and K min ' is the permeability under the highest stress point. we chose three coal samples of different water saturations and carried out experimental analysis. the smaller the αk is.251 MPa  1.7% to 97. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 3. Meng et al. 5.20 0. 6). 8#. stress sensitivity coefficient.070 MPa  1. The pore compressibility factor and stress sensitivity coefficient have almost the same variation trend and law. that is. 10  3 μm2. Under the same water saturation. permeability for coal sample of high water saturation drops more quickly with the increase of the effective pressure. and has some fluctuation due to the closure of micro-fissures. respectively.25 0. The relationship between permeability damage rate. with the increase of effective stress.15 0.020 MPa  1 to 0. MPa. The relationships between the dimensionless permeability and effective stress for three samples are shown in Fig. with the increase of effective stress. the permeability damage rate increases with the increase of effective stress (Fig. the coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefficient decreases. 8#. as shown in Table 4. The water saturation of 7#. 66. Relationship between permeability damage rate. 4). when the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa. pore compressibility factor and effective stress K 1  K 0min Dk2 ¼  100% K1 ð6Þ where Dk2 is the permeability damage rate after the stress increases to the highest stress point. 10  3 μm2. 3. the average from 0. With the increase of water saturation. %. average 89.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Effective stress /MPa PDR-Permeability damage rate . that is.2. 66. the permeability damage rate is bigger (Fig. 4. in order to investigate the influence of water saturation on permeability. There are no industry standards about CBM reservoir stress sensitivity test. 5 shows the curves of the pore compressibility factor and effective stress for six coal samples. When effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. The maximum of pore compressibility factor for six samples ranges from 0. Under the .3. Permeability damage rate and stress sensitivity coefficient The stress sensitivity is higher for coal reservoir than for sandstone. 4 shows the curves of the permeability damage rate.2%. 9# samples was 30. as shown in Table 4. As can be seen from Fig. K 1 is the permeability under the first stress point. Relationship between permeability damage rates. coal permeability decreases in a negative exponential law. and finally the reservoir stress sensitivity was analyzed. with the increase of effective stress. with the increase of effective stress. the permeability damage rate increases more slowly. coal reservoir pore compressibility factor has a gently decreasing trend with some obvious fluctuations.003 MPa  1 to 0. ϕ0 is the porosity under initial effective stress.4. and then determined the permeability behavior of coal sample with change of net confining pressure. 10  3 μm2.003 MPa  1 to 0. the minimum from 0. The water saturation of these three samples (7#. 10  3 μm2.011 MPa  1 to 0.2. stress sensitivity is relatively weakened. (6). From Eq. we defined a pore compressibility factor as follows:   1 ∂ϕ ð8Þ Cp ¼ ϕ0 ∂p T where Cp is the pore compressibility factor of coal reservoir. the lesser the sensitivity of coal to effective stress will be. the average from 0. the maximum of the stress sensitivity coefficient ranges from 0. the permeability damage rate and stress sensitivity coefficient increases with the variation of effective stress.157 MPa  1. 3. As can be seen from Fig. the coal reservoir stress sensitivity coefficient declines gently with some fluctuations. stress sensitivity coefficient and effective stress Fig. and the minimum from 0. stress sensitivity coefficient and effective stress for six experimental coal samples. MPa  1.018 MPa  1 to 0. when the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa.SSC-stress sensitivity coefficient Fig. 4. and  ∂ϕ=∂p T is the variation rate of coal porosity over effective stress under isothermal conditions. coal reservoir permeability decreases rapidly with the increase of effective stress. MPa  1.30 100 1#PDR 2#PDR 3#PDR 4#PDR 5#PDR 6#PDR 1#SSC 2#SSC 3#SSC 4#SSC 5#SSC 6#SSC 80 60 40 0.1.05 0 stress sensitivity coefficient /MPa -1 814 0. 6385) and adopted increasing net confining pressure of coal samples to simulate the effective stress variation of coal seam. 9#) were 30.3%. (7).8% and 100% respectively.075 MPa  1. permeability decreases gently with the increase of effective stress.Y.2. 3. we can see that. the bigger the αk is.

054 0.046 0.015 0. The maximum of stress sensitivity coefficient ranges from 0. Water saturation has a relatively high impact on coal reservoir stress sensitivity.062 0.003 0.8 97.090 0.051 0.33 MPa  1.20 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Table 5 Evaluation parameters of stress sensitivity for coal reservoir under different water saturations.9 98.003 0.7 85.011 MPa  1.038 0.075 0. the stress sensitivity for three coal samples of different water saturations are more obvious (Fig.330 12 Effective stress/MPa Dimensionless permeability (Ki/K0) Water saturation 7# 30.007 0.039 0. the gas/water pressure will offset part of the total stress of the coal body and decrease the elastic limit and shear strength.005 MPa  1 to 0.026 0.2 90.006 0.SSC-stress sensitivity coefficient 0.075 MPa  1.80% Permeability damage rate/% 100 Fig.6% respectively.3 97.158 0. Temperature In order to investigate the influence of temperature on coal reservoir permeability.157 0.2 0 Stress sensitivity coefficient/MPa-1 ID Fig. Under the effective stress for 10 MPa.179 0.111 0. Permeability damage rate (%) 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# Average Max.00 0 0.250 0. the average of stress sensitivity coefficient is 0.15 0. Comparing Tables 4 and 5.104 0.6 0 0. The average of stress sensitivity coefficient for coal samples with moisture is 1.070 0. value Minimum value 96.251 0.5.020 0. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 815 Table 4 Evaluation parameters of stress sensitivity for coal reservoir.250 0.039 0.25 0.4 82.103 0.058 0. we can see that stress sensitivity coefficient and permeability damage rate are higher for these three coal samples of different water saturations than for dry ones.250 0. value Minimum value Stress sensitivity coefficient (MPa  1) 86. 95.279 0.8 95. Relationship between permeability damage rate.008 0. effective stress of 10 MPa.075 0.073 0.003 0.005 0. then the coal is easy to generate elastic and plastic deformation and thereby the coal samples of different water saturations are more sensitive to effective stress than dry ones and the increase of effective stress will cause more significant permeability loss (Meng and Li.25 MPa  1 to 0.011 0.005 0.6 0. stress sensitivity coefficient and the effective stress.8 9# 100 0.2 89.10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Permeability damage rate Stress sensitivity coefficient (MPa  1) (%) (%) Average Max.075 MPa  1 to 0.178 0. 6.Y.30 0.064 0. On the other hand. Meng et al.251 0.003 Pore compressibility factor/MPa-1 0.013 0.005 1 Sw=30.111 MPa  1.019 0.011 0.018 0.054 0.075 0. Compared with dry sample.026 0.8 0.9% to 98.5 93.6%.035 0.073 0. Relationship between pore compressibility factor and effective stress.05 0.77 times as that for dry ones.4 2 4 6 8 10 12 Effective stress/MPa PDR-Permeability damage rate. because water softens the coals and lowers its mechanical strength. 0.10 20 Sw=100% 0. permeability damage rate of three samples with moisture ranges from 95.42% Sw=66. we chose two coal samples (10# and 11#) and carried out stress sensitivity experiments at 30 1C and 60 1C respectively.9% and 98.039 0.070 0. 2013).038 0.018 0.115 0.010 0.8%. the average from 0.20 40 0. 0 2 4 6 8 10 Effective stress/MPa Fig. Relationship between dimensionless permeability and effective stress under different water saturations.084 0. permeability damage rate was 96.40 80 60 7#PDR 8#PDR 9#PDR 7#SSC 8#SSC 9#SSC 0.064 0.012 0.7 Average Maximum Minimum Average Maximum Minimum 0.020 0.5. 0. 7.111 MPa  1 respectively (Table 5). the minimum ranges from 0. 7 and Table 5).2 82.30 0. ID 0. 3.085 MPa  1 and 0.085 0.090 0. .42 8# 66.00 Pore compressibility factor (MPa  1) 0.

7 MPa. with the increase of effective stress. that is K i ¼ K 0 e  ap . with the increase of effective stress.3% for 10# and 96. At the same temperature.20 10#SSC 40 11#SSC 0. The higher the temperature is. which obeys the law of negative exponential function.8 T=30° ID T=60° 0. showing a weak stress sensitivity. 8 and 9).7 MPa. which leads to the increase of effective stress and induces the decline of permeability. stable and slow. Discussion Coal is a dual porosity medium. with the rise of temperature. which corresponds to the effective stress variation in the actual CBM well drainage. fracture aperture decreases due to thermal expansion and thereby coal sample permeability decreases. Increasing normal stress will narrow the fractures and then lower the permeability of the coal.4 0. 0. and with the rise of temperature.00 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Stress sensitivity coefficient/MPa -1 0. the effect of temperature rise on coal reservoir permeability can be divided into two stages. The No. Under low in-situ stress regime in shallow coal seam. showing a high stress sensitivity. permeability damage rate is 81.010 10# 30 11# 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Fig. permeability of coal sample reduces in the negative exponential function law. permeability drops more quickly for 11# coal sample of higher temperature than 10# of lower. the water pumping lowers the coal reservoir pressure.816 Y.0 0. Average stress sensitive coefficient is 0. Meng et al.0% for 11#. Coal reservoir permeability decreases with the increase of temperature. 2.30 10#PDR 11#PDR 0. So the permeability depends strongly on the aperture of the fractures in coal. At the low temperature stage. thermal cracking in this temperature range will not occur. Relationship between dimensionless permeability and effective stress under different temperatures. showing a temperature sensitivity.067 MPa  1 for 10# and 0. plastic deformation of coal reservoir due to compaction under stress results in a significant reduction in permeability.3 96. which contains matrix pore system and fracture system. coal seam is usually water saturated.333 12 Effective stress/MPa Permeability damage rate/% Temperature Permeability damage rate 12 Effective stress/MPa PDR-Permeability damage rate. on .222 0. thereby the drainage in this stage should be sustained. the relationship between the coal reservoir permeability and effective stress (k  σ e ) reflects the relationship between the coal reservoir permeability and producing pressure drop in the drainage process (k  ΔP). With the increase of the effective stress. coal cracking induced by thermal stress above critical temperature will sharply increase coal reservoir permeability. When the effective stress is over 5 MPa or 6 MPa. In the drainage process of CBM wells. On the one hand. The experiments in this study aim to simulate the permeability behavior of coal seam with a burial depth of less than 1000 m. Experimental results show that coal reservoir permeability varies exponentially with the increase of effective stress. with the increase of effective stress.71 MPa/100 m. in our experimental process. value Minimum value 81. coal reservoir stress sensitivity will abate due to very small initial aperture and minor compaction. 6 and 8).070 MPa  1 for 11# (Table 6). When the effective stress is below 5 MPa or 6 MPa. Relationship between the permeability damage rate/stress sensitivity coefficient and effective stress.015 0. Under the effective stress of 10 MPa. coal reservoir permeability reduces. with the increase of effective stress. the stress sensitivity of coal seam diminishes. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 133 (2015) 810–817 Dimensionless permeability (Ki/K0) 1 Table 6 Evaluation parameters of stress sensitivity for coal reservoir under different temperatures. Coal seam is in a certain in situ stress environment and the stress of coal seam varies spatially. and gas saturation increases. The relationship between dimensionless permeability and effective stress for the two coal samples under different temperatures are shown in Fig. From permeability–stress curves (Figs. more obvious the stress sensitivity is.070 0. 9. The fracture system contributes in a major way to the permeability of the coal seam. with the increase of effective stress. water saturation of coal reservoir decreases as the increasing gas desorption.40 100 60 0. reservoir pressure can drop to abandonment pressure of about 0. coal reservoir pressure varies from 10 MPa to 0. In the middle and later stage of drainage. This process is just the dynamic changing of the coal reservoir permeability. the change of permeability by above two aspects will impact on the gas production.10 20 0. the coal reservoir permeability decreases much more slowly. 80 0. 3 coal seam in Shanxi Formation Permian System in the southern Qinshui basin is up to 1200 m deep. the permeability variation induced by in-situ stress is a static effect. 4. the permeability damage rate is bigger (Figs. gas well fluid level in this stage should keep stable.SSC-stress sensitivity coefficient Fig. 8. 8. the corresponding drop of gas well fluid level is above 500 m or 600 m. that is. That is.067 0. at the high temperature stage. According to the CBM production experience from US. stress sensitivity increases. thermal expansion with the rise of temperature causes a slight decline of permeability. Therefore. the corresponding drop of gas well fluid level is from 0 m to 500 m or 600 m. Therefore. continuous gas desorption will lead to significant coal matrix shrinkage and an increasingly rise in permeability and thereby gas production goes up. its reservoir pressure is below 10 MPa and the reservoir pressure gradient averages 0. the coal reservoir permeability drops rapidly. In the early drainage of a CBM well. under high insitu stress regime in the deep. water pressure drops due to pumping and correspondingly the effective stress increases and coal permeability declines quickly. In general. so experimental temperatures are set as 30 1C and 60 1C respectively.2 0 Stress sensitive coefficient (MPa  1) (1C) (%) Average Max. When the water pressure drops to the critical desorption pressure (Pc).6 0. In short.

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