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Mathematical Modeling and Field Application of Heavy Oil Recovery by Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Stimulation

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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
**

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / p e t r o l

**Mathematical modeling and ﬁeld application of heavy oil recovery by
**

Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic stimulation

Alfred Davletbaev a, Liana Kovaleva b, Tayfun Babadagli c,⁎

a

b

c

**RN-UfaNIPIneft, Rosneft, Russian Federation
**

Bashkir State University, Russian Federation

University of Alberta, Canada

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 14 February 2011

Accepted 29 July 2011

Available online 6 August 2011

Keywords:

electromagnetic heating

heavy-oil recovery

ﬁeld results

mathematical modeling

a b s t r a c t

A multi-layer, two-dimensional mathematical model of reservoir heating by Radio-Frequency (RF)

Electromagnetic (EM) radiation for heavy oil recovery is presented. The model takes into account the heat

loss in the wellbore and into the surrounding formations. The validity of the mathematical model is tested on

a real ﬁeld case application. A sensitivity analysis on the damping coefﬁcient of EM waves is also performed.

It is shown that the occurrence of volumetric heat sources at the bottom hole caused by EM ﬁeld action yields

an intensive deep heating of the reservoir with a small temperature gradient. Numerical calculations show

that the bottom-hole pressure and the EM generator power are essential factors in determining the heat

transfer processes and heavy oil production. The method of RF-EM radiation is also compared to “cold”

production (without any inﬂuence of heating).

© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Heavy-oil and bitumen recovery from difﬁcult geological media such

as deep, heterogeneous and high shale content sands and carbonates,

and water repellent oilshale reservoirs requires techniques other than

conventional thermal and miscible injection methods. Materials in oil

reservoirs (formation water, crude oil, oil–water emulsions, bitumen

and their components like resins, asphaltenes, and parafﬁn) are nonmagnetic dielectric materials with low electrical conductivity. If an

electromagnetic ﬁeld can be created to change these properties, electrothermo controlled hydrodynamics could improve the displacement and

recovery of heavy-oil/bitumen.

This paper deals with the recovery improvement of heavy-oil by

Radio-Frequency (RF) Electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The RF-EM ﬁelds

in the form of waves can penetrate deeply enough – from fractions of a

meter to several hundred meters – into oil and gas containing reservoirs

to generate heat and eventually improve recovery mainly due to the

reduction of oil viscosity.

Results of RF-EM treatment experiments were well documented in

numerous studies (Chakma and Jha, 1992; Kasevich et al., 1994;

Nigmatulin et al., 2001; Ovalles et al., 2002). Theoretical aspects of

heavy-oil production were covered by Abernethy (1976), Islam et al.

(1991), Sahni et al. (2000), Sayakhov et al. (2002), and Carrizales et al.

⁎ Corresponding author at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

School of Mining and Petroleum Eng., 3-112 Markin CNRL-NREF, Edmonton, AB, Canada

T6G 2W2.

E-mail address: tayfun@ualberta.ca (T. Babadagli).

0920-4105/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2011.07.006

**(2008). Several other studies investigated the heat and mass transfer
**

processes in heavy oil reservoirs stimulated by EM radiation (Davletbaev

et al., 2008, 2009; Kovaleva and Khaydar, 2004; Kovaleva et al., 2004;

Sayakhov et al., 1998). A number of other investigations proposed

analytical models of lab experiments (Nigmatulin et al., 2001; Ovalles

et al., 2002).

Various methods of EM treatment of hydrocarbon deposits were

reported over more than ﬁve decades (Bridges, 1979; Dyblenko et al.,

1981; Haagensen, 1965, 1986; Jeambey, 1989, 1990; Ritchey, 1956;

Sayakhov, 1992, 1996, 2003; Sresty et al., 1984). Field tests of bottomhole heating by RF-EM radiation were carried out in a number of oil

ﬁelds in Russia, the USA, and Canada (e.g., Kasevich et al., 1994;

Sayakhov et al., 1980; Spencer, 1987, 1989).

Abernethy (1976), in one of the pioneering works, solved the

problem of heat transmission within the production well under the

RF-EM ﬁeld inﬂuence. The following expression for the oil ﬂow rate,

taking into account the effect of temperature on the oil viscosity, and

the one-dimensional expression for the density of heat sources, was

adapted in that paper:

q = 2αd Jb

rd

expð−2αd ðr−rd ÞÞ;

r

ð1Þ

**where αd is the damping factor of the EM-wave, Jb is the intensity of
**

radiation at the well bottom, and rd is the radius of EM-wave radiator.

The use of two horizontal wells for bitumen recovery by EM heating

in Alaska was simulated by Islam et al. (1991). According to the model

presented, one of the wells is intended for water or gas injection and

The boundary-condition differential equation system was solved by the ﬁnite difference method using the implicit scheme. The heat equation with a heat source in a one-dimensional formulation was solved by Ovalles et al. Later. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 another well is intended for ﬂuid recovery. thereby increasing its mobility. The algorithm of calculation included the reﬁnement of the unknown parameters. i. Structural model used in the development of mathematical model: (1) well. (2010).1989) deﬁnes production stimulation by thermal excitation of the producing wells. (2004). The high-viscosity oil production method introduced in Dyblenko et al.. Then. It is assumed that in each elementary volume of the porous medium. the third layer is non-productive layer (surrounding rock) Z2 b z b Z3. Such distribution is. pay zone and surrounding rocks were a multilayer system consisting of six layers along the coordinate r. The solvent injection combined with RF electromagnetic radiation in a producing well for extra-heavy oil recovery was presented by Davletbaev et al. the mathematical model was used for EM simulation in three hypothetical oil ﬁelds in Venezuela with different viscosities of heavy oil. In these methods. The results of ﬁeld tests in Russia (heavy oil reservoir by Ishimbayneft. and the equation of heat. in the general case. The well. 1. the heat transfer between the skeleton of the porous medium and ﬂuid occurs instantaneously. The heat propagation process and ﬂuid ﬁltration in the layer were assumed as radial. The emergence of volume heat sources in the substance serves to heat and ultimately reduce the viscosity of oil. the Darcy law. The ﬁrst layer along the coordinate r is a layer from the well axis to the inner radius of tubing 0 b r b R1. Fig. The deformation of the skeleton of the porous medium is absent and the ﬁltration of ﬂuid in a porous medium is described by Darcy's law. The general system of equations describing the processes in the system (well-pay zone-rocks surrounding the well and the pay zone). the frequency and power of radiation. in particular. Field case results (Yultimirovskaya tar sands) were used to test and validate the model. Mathematical models were developed for one-dimensional radial and linear cases. Deﬁnition of the model: geometry and basic equations This paper presents a two-dimensional mathematical model and numerical results of the heavy oil recovery by EM radiation from a well. Davletbaev et al. Oil ﬂows through the borehole from the well bottom to the wellhead. and the dielectric properties of the medium. oriented along a well axis from top to bottom was used. the fourth layer is the casing of a well from the inner to the outer radius of R3 b r b R4. z) with the axis z. Sahni et al. an estimate of the damping factor of EM waves in the reservoir (adaptation of the measured and theoretical data temperature). . Nigmatulin et al. and the sixth layer is a surrounding rock from the outer radius of the bafﬂe plate to the boundary of a layer R5 b r b re.915 GHz). taking into account the convective heat transfer along the well and heat losses into the surrounding rock. (2008. 2 ð2Þ where ω— frequency of EM waves. ε' — relative permittivity of the medium to liquid. (3) and (4) surrounding rock (matrix). ε0— electric constants. The model was described and a critical sensitivity analysis using the model was provided as a sample exercise. Physics of RF-EM heating of oil The distribution of electromagnetic waves in oil is associated with frequency dispersion of dielectric inductivity (capacitance) caused by orientational polarization of polar components.e. Due to ﬁnite conductivity of the coaxial conductor (the tubing and casing strings). the transmitted EM energy is converted into thermal energy that generates volume heat sources in the rock. and 3 layers along the coordinate z (Fig. (2002). Application of the EM heating for oil recovery in two oil reservoirs was tested. (2) pay zone. EM radiation and electrical heating methods were compared by Carrizales et al. Under the RF-EM inﬂuence. (2008). Yultimirovskaya and Mordovo_Karmalskaya tar sands) and basic mathematical model of RF-EM application were described by Davletbaev et al. Due to dielectric losses in the pay zone. 2009). and E— electric ﬁeld intensity. This paper begins with mathematical modeling of the RF-EM process to determine the optimal application conditions. the ﬁfth layer is bafﬂe plate R4 b r b R5. (2001) studied the effects of RF-EM radiation when applied simultaneously with miscible oil displacement. the second layer is the producing layer from the roof to the subface Z1 b z b Z2. a hydrocarbon reservoir saturated by heavy-oil or bitumen is exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EM) produced by a surface generator. tgδ— dielectric loss (dissipation) tangent. 1944): q= ωε0 ε′ tgδ 2 E . includes the continuity equation for the ﬂuid in a porous medium (diffusion equation). given by the following equation (Landay and Lifshitz.A. The aim of this work was to mathematically model the physical experiments described in the same paper. Ramo and Whinnery. 647 The heating process has a volumetric character and is largely governed by the structure of the electromagnetic wave. The dissipation of the EM energy is accompanied by the occurrence of heat sources distributed in the medium. EM oil recovery by horizontal oil wells was also considered by Kovalyova (Kovaleva) and Khaydar (2004) and Kovaleva et al. the second layer is the tube itself from its inner to outer radiuses R1 b r b R2. additional heat (besides the Joule heat) is generated owing to electric polarization effects. The ﬁrst layer along the coordinate z in the model is a nonproductive layer. 2. 1984. (2000) analyzed the use of low-frequency electric ﬁeld (ohmic) heating (ω = 60 Hz) and microwave electromagnetic heating (ω = 0. An axial-symmetric coordinate system (r. 1). The heat released prevents parafﬁn dropout along the wellbore and provides additional heating of the oil in place. 3. the layer from the wellhead to the roof of pay zone 0 b z b Z1. (1981) and Spencer (1987. Appendix A presents the mathematical model in detail. part of the EM energy traveling from the well head to its bottom hole transforms again into thermal energy. These models considered the heat losses in the well and surrounding formations. The EM radiation effect and usual “cold” recovery of high-viscosity oil were also compared. the third layer is the well annulus ﬁlled with air R2 b r b R3. A satisfactory agreement between the calculated and the laboratory data was obtained.

decreasing monotonically with distance from the borehole.5. Z1 = 83 m. Ng = 0. 0. m Fig.5 m (in the surrounding rock). including radiofrequency electromagnetic ﬁeld impact and injection of solvent into the formation in other studies (Davletbaev et al. λm = 3 W = ðm·KÞ.648 A. Pwf = 0. μ0 = 1 Pa·s: The average parameters were chosen in the range typical of highviscosity oil deposits of the Urals region of Russia. h = 10 m. 4.5 MPa. 0. m 10 10 0 5 5 10 0 x. Ng = 10 kW. 30 kW. 4-b).035 m (on the tubing surface). R5 = 0:115 m. 3 shows reservoir temperature distribution curves for different output performance settings of the RF-EM generator for μ0= 1 Pa·s. °C 100 75 50 0 10 50 25 5 0 5 y.5 MPa. αm = 1200000 J = m3 ·K . m Fig. σt = 3:4·106 . Z3 = 96 m. 2. Temperature distribution across the reservoir during simultaneous RF EM heating and production for different RF generator performance settings: Ng = 10 kW (a) and Ng = 20 kW (b). . it is possible to achieve the target bottom-hole temperature and bottom-hole zone heating depth. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 An example calculation was performed using the following hypothetical data for a sensitivity analysis in the next section: Pi = 1 MPa.5 MPa. Temperature distribution across the reservoir during simultaneous RF-EM heating and production at different times: t = 0. The water absorbs high frequency waves really high in microwave. μ0 = 1 Pa·s. 2–6. The generated thermal ﬁeld in the ﬁrst case (Fig. Z2 = 93 m. (2010). at different distances from the wellbore central axis: 0. In addition. re = 60 m. t = 3 days. 4 illustrates the 3-D distributions (for r-φ coordinates.Z3 = 3:95 W = ðm·KÞ. 3 days forμ0 = 1 Pa·s.1. 4. 5 illustrates wellbore temperature distributions after 3 days of treatment.Z3 = 2926000 J = m3 ·K . T0 = 8:8˚С. m b 200 T. Pwf = 0. αZ1. αR2. 2 shows reservoir temperature distribution curves at different times for μ0 = 1 Pa·s Pwf = 0. ϕ = 0:25. It is apparent that by changing the Fig. We can also observe increasing temperature and its gradient in the borehole zone during electromagnetic radiation into the reservoir. °C 100 150 50 0 10 100 50 5 0 y. Details about the ﬁeld characteristics can be found in Davletbaev et al.5. 0:25. 0.R4 = 45 W = ðm·KÞ. 4-a) and 20 kW (Fig. R2 = 0:035 m. Fig. Ng = 10 kW. λR5 = 1:2 W = ðm·KÞ. 30 kW for μ0 = 1 Pa·s. αd = 0:03267 m−1 . Temperature distribution across the reservoir during simultaneous RF EM heating and production for different RF generator performance settings: Ng = 10. μ0 = 1 Pa·s. αR5 = 2500000 J = m3 ·K . λR3 = 0:0315 W = ðm·KÞ.5 MPa and time t = 3 days. R1 = 0:03 m. Fig. Fig. Pwf = 0. λZ1. 10.11 m (on the inner wall surface of the cement casing). 4) is characterized by high temperatures (because of intense absorption of EM energy) in the borehole environment. 3. Note that the electromagnetic radiation we use is of radio frequency range (f =13. The absolute bottom-hole temperatures correspond to the values of the reservoir temperature distribution curves a 100 T. R4 = 3641900 J = m3 ·K . R3 = 0:105 m. 2008.5 MPa. Zc = 376:8 Ohm. αo = 1912680 J = m3 ·K . λR2.56 MHz) and therefore. R4 = 0:11 m. ρo = 950 kg = m3 . 1. t= 3 days. Davletbaev et al. 0:75 MPa. kr = 0:183 10−12 m2 . the saturation of water in the collector is small and it can be neglected. Fig. 20. its absorption is mostly in oil. We noticed that such technology is more effective for extra-heavy crude oil and can increase the processing of well bottom zone in comparison with RF treatment only more than twice.. αR3 = 142977 J = m3 ·K . f = 13:56 MHz. 5 10 10 0 5 5 10 0 x. 0. Pwf = 0. 2009). kz = 0. 20. Pwf = 0.5 MPa. Application of the model and analysis of the results The results obtained using the solution of the mathematical model for the RF-EM treatment/continuous oil production process and applying the data given above are presented in Figs. emitting performance of the generator. 0:5. λo = 0:125 W = ðm·KÞ. corresponding to 10 m from the wellhead) of temperature after 3 days of treatment for an RF-EM generator power of 10 kW (Fig. The temperature of the medium at the bottom can reach sufﬁciently high values due to enhanced absorption of energy by electromagnetic waves near the radiator (in this case ~100 °C). We consider the combined technology. γo = 0:042 K−1 . Pwf = 0. ct = 10−9 Pa−1 . μat = 3:42·10−6 .7 m (in the annular space).

9 °C. 6 shows the ﬂow dynamics for different generator output performance settings (Fig.A. and the other element was lowered into Well 1 at 83. 2 indicates that after t1 =1. 6a) for different reservoir/bottom-hole differential pressures (Fig. the temperature at the bottomhole of Well 150 increased from 8. One measuring element was lowered through the tubing string into Well 150 and positioned at 87. . Fig. 5. The pay zone has 25% porosity.64 days). 7. 3.4 h) of continuous heating in this mode. (Figs.39 days (33. the generator was readjusted to output 30 kW.5 m. Within the pay zone. the wellbore temperature curves indicate the presence of hightemperature spots. the greater is the ﬂow of oil from the reservoir. The distance between these wells is 5 m. The test section included two wells: no.8 °C.5.5 m (the middle part of the radiator). 30 kW (a). t = 3 days.6% bitumen saturation and the permeability ranges between 0 and 183 mD. The greater the pressure differential between the borehole and formation. the generator was switched to the prolonged heating mode and its output performance was set to approximately 20 kW. the succeeding rate increase is the result of reduction in oil viscosity. 5. which is more mobile than the initial oil in place. 0. Temperature distribution in Well 150 during RF-EM heating. The temperature in both wells was measured by thermocouple elements. 30 kW. The EM energy was produced by a RF generator and transmitted by a coaxial conductor (well). μ0 = 1 Pa·s. An abrupt fall in temperature is observed on the border between the pay zone and the reservoir bottom. Davletbaev et al. An experimental section was selected for these tests in the ﬁeld. Production rate dynamics during RF EM treatment for “cold oil” production Ng = 0 kW and for generator performance settings Ng = 10. the duration of oil production and the duration of EM radiation). The initial rate drop is due to the well reaching the stationary ﬂow regime. Fig.5 MPa. and 0 kW. the temperature in Well 150 reached 149. which can be attributed to the absence of heat sources in this zone. Ng = 20 kW (b). Pressure differential between the borehole and the formation has no signiﬁcant effect on the dynamics of change in ﬂow rate (in the case considered here the range of pressure difference between wellbore and formation. this decreasing trend then slows and turns into a monotonous upward tendency. At the initial stage of production. Initially. 6.8 °C to 117. This is due to well/rock interaction effects in the bottom-hole zone — volume heating occurring within the pay zone 83 ≤ z ≤ 93 m is caused by EM energy absorption by the medium and a convective heat transport from the heated oil in the reservoir. The EM heating of the bitumen reservoir was performed in several stages for different RF generator operation modes. As a result. the generator was Fig. At the next stage. 7 shows the changes in temperature recorded in the bottom-hole zones of the wells during the RF-EM treatment. after 6 h (by t2 =1. and for different reservoir/bottom-hole differential pressures P0 − Pwf = 0. After that. Fig. Heating Fig. the greater is the increased oil production as compared with the production of cold oil. 20. 60 kW.75 MPa (b). 2–5). with the generator performance set to 20 kW. Initially. 6b). Pwf = 0. the liquid rate falls rapidly.25. water from Well 150 was displaced by air at an injection pressure of 0. Model validation using a ﬁeld case RF-EM tests were conducted in the Yultimirovskoye bitumen ﬁeld located in Sugushlinskaya Square operated by Tatneft.4–0. Fig.6 MPa. 150 and no. Temperature distribution along the wellbore during simultaneous RF EM heating and production for different RF generator performance settings: Ng = 10 kW (a). / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 649 of the wellbore caused by the EM wave absorption by the tubing string and the inﬂux of ‘hot’ oil from the matrix can help prevent parafﬁn formation and produce heated oil coming to the surface. 0. 1. The greater the duration of stimulation and the power of the emitter of EM waves.

which is determined from the density of oil ρo and the volume of additional oil ΔQo.80 days) of operation at the maximum-output mode. These data were used to estimate the energy balance. This value of damping coefﬁcient of EM waves in the reservoir was used for mathematical modeling of the RF-EM ﬁeld and the production of extra-heavy oil. Simulation results were compared with those of a ﬁeld test. We formulated a two-dimensional mathematical model of heavy oil recovery for RF-EM radiation heating. The energy balance calculations were performed for: (1) “cold” oil production at a constant bottomhole pressure in the well (the period of 30 days of oil production). 2. The damping coefﬁcient of EM waves in a reservoir was evaluated to match the measured and calculation data. When modeling.80– 1.29. In calculating the energy balance was taken 5 days of oil production with RF-EM heating and then 25 days production without RF-EM radiation. hence. and (2) 5 days — oil production and RFEM radiation and 25 days — oil production stopped RF-EM generator (the total duration of 30 days). energy losses in transmission lines from the thermal station (where oil production is burned conventionally) to the location of RF-EM generator.03267 m − 1. Temperature distribution across the reservoir during simultaneous RF-EM heating for different stages.75. which is assumed to be 4.61∙107 J/kg. after the 5th (t5 = 1. RF-EM generator has efﬁciency ηG = 0. The mathematical model takes into account the heat losses into the rock surrounding the wellbore and reservoir. where G— caloriﬁc value of oil.21–6. 2.21 days of generator at 60 kW operating) and 6th stages (t6 = 3. The RF-EM generator was shut for 72 h (t6 =3. The increase in temperature to 44. After that. the temperature at the well bottom hole increased from 149. This model allowed us to quantify the degree of heating the reservoir.21 days). Energy balance calculation Fig. energy equivalent of additional oil production to compare the expenditure of energy of using RF-EM radiation. . the efﬁciency is ηL = 0.87–3. its efﬁciency. The base case is accepted by the “cold” oil production 30 days without RF-EM radiation.21–6. Fig. As seen. 8. Wellbore temperature distribution in Well 150 (from the well head) after RF-EM treatment (measured and calculated curves). Efﬁciency of thermoelectric power station is ηEPS = 0. 7. the energy consumption is equal to the product consumed by power RF-EM generator NPC on the duration of RF-EM radiation t1: WPC =NPC ⋅t1. i.87 days). 7 and 9. Numerical simulations suggest that bottom-hole temperature and heat/mass transfer effects in the reservoir can be controlled by setting the output performance of the RF generator and by the difference between the reservoir and bottom-hole pressure. Fig. The analysis showed that the ratio of the energy balance is 5. and the efﬁciency of power transmission lines were included in this exercise. with the presence of water in the well production is ηLH = 0. set to its maximum output capacity of 60 kW.8 °C was detected.35. Power consumption.20 days). These two cases were compared and the additional oil production by high-frequency electromagnetic radiation into the reservoir was calculated. The best combination of measured and theoretical data was obtained at the value of αd = 0. It is assumed that the efﬁciency of the transmission line from the thermoelectric power station to the location of the RF-EM generator is ηTF = 0.64–1. In addition the energy obtained is determined by the formula of WAP =M⋅G. The results indicate.87– 3. Davletbaev et al.3 °C. 9 illustrates the theoretical and measured temperature distributions along the borehole (from the wellhead to bottom). the heating dynamics soared and within 3. the absolute values of temperature do not coincide. RF electromagnetic generator. Note that the mathematical model did not take into account the geothermal gradient of temperature. the RF-EM system worked at maximum output of the generator with electromagnetic waves of ~60 kW for 32 h (t5 =1. Total power consumption with all the loss is determined from the following expression: NPC = N0 : ηG ηL ηEPS ηTF ηLH Assessment of energy balance is described by the form factor Kem. Then. WAP to the consumed energy due to the RF generator WPC: Kem = WAP : WPC Here. 9. the RF generator was switched out for 1. Conclusions Fig. As seen in Fig.20 days generator stop).e.67. 3. 8 shows the theoretical curves of temperature distribution in the reservoir from borehole 150 in different time periods. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 6. and can be used to quantify the magnitude of heat loss.72 h (t4 =1.563.476. Heat loss EM energy in the borehole that are associated with oxidation and contamination of surface pipe tubing.7 h (t3 =1. During the RF-EM treatment of Well 150 the temperature on the bottom of Well 1 which was on distance of 5 m from Well 150 was registered. 9) calculated after a few days shows a small loss of heat at the top and bottom of the reservoir.8 to 191. 1. The distribution of temperature along the borehole (Fig. the measured and theoretical curves are in good agreement.650 A. the temperature at 5 m from the well (Well-150) increased to 32 °C. M=ΔQo ⋅ ρo— the mass of additional oil. Transmission line of EM waves from the wellhead to the bottom is a coaxial system of tubing and casing. which equal to the ratio of produced additional energy. the damping factor of the EM waves in the reservoir was used as a parameter to match the measured and theoretical data in Figs.

Q ﬂow rate. m − 1. AB. λ0 length of the EM wave produced by the generator. ϕct r ∂r μ ∂r ϕct ∂z μ ∂z ∂t ðA 2Þ where kr and kz— permeability of productive stratum along coordinates r and z. ε0 and χ0 electric and magnetic constants. μ— oil viscosity. J/kg. μat and σat absolute magnetic permeability and speciﬁc electrical conductivity of the tubes. Zc wave resistance of air ﬁlling the intertube space. J/(m 3·K). J/(m 3·K). The pressure distribution in the reservoir is described by the diffusion equation: ∂P k 1 ∂ r ∂P k ∂ 1 ∂P = r + z . and Q— ﬂow rate. Reservoir oil viscosity is a function of temperature as given by: μ = μ0 expð−γo ⋅ΔT Þ. ðA 5Þ where μ0— value of viscosity at T = T0. °C. respectively. N0 power of EM-wave radiator. respectively. Pa·s. ωw ﬂow in the tubing. MPa. m. λm thermal conductivity of the rock skeleton. Petr. WPC energy due to the RF generator working. tgδ dielectric loss (dissipation) tangent. ρo density of the oil. m − 1. Jb = N0/Sb intensity of radiation at the well bottom. Z3 maximal observed distance along coordinate z. J/(kg·K). . ΔT = T − T0. ñ speciﬁc heat capacity of oil. The RF-EM energy loss along the wellbore (between the generator and the bottom hole) can be considered an advantage as it prevents parafﬁn deposition and boosts the mobility of the produced oil. m. ηTF efﬁciency of transmission line from the thermoelectric power station to the location of the RF-EM generator. W/(m·K). ρo— density of the oil. density of oil. rd radius of EM-wave radiator (rw = R2). respectively.. J/s. 19–21 Oct. WAP produced additional energy. m 3. m. m 2. and γo— coefﬁcient allowing for temperature dependence of the viscosity of oil. Calgary. respectively. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2 . Conf. α heat capacity per unit volume. Davletbaev et al. μ0 value of viscosity at T = T0. m.A. q— density of distribution of these heat sources. cm and co compressibility of the rock skeleton and of oil. λo thermal conductivity of oil. μ ∂r w ðA 3Þ It is assumed that the ﬂuid motion along the wellbore from the borehole to the wellhead is deﬁned by ωw = Q . Ng power of RF EM generator. ΔT = T − T0— change in temperature in the reservoir. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 4. kW/m2. kW. ηL efﬁciency of transmission line of EM waves of a coaxial system of tubing and casing. 1/K. re pool boundary along coordinate r. υr— rate of ﬁltering in the stratum along stratiﬁcation. ηEPS efﬁciency of thermoelectric power station. the diffusion equation and Darcy's law. Appendix A. rw ≤ r ≤ re . P0 initial reservoir pressure. The rate of ﬂuid ﬂow in a porous medium is determined from Darcy's law: υr = − kr ∂P . The general system of equations includes the equation of heat transfer. m. R5 outside radius of bafﬂe plate. m. m 2. Z1 and Z2 coordinates of the roof and subface of stratum. T temperature. kW. Nomenclature ω frequency of EM waves. J/(m 3·K). NPC t1 G ρo ΔQo 651 total power. ct— total compressibility of the system. f cyclic frequency of EM waves. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z3 . ωw— ﬂow in the tubing. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z1 . ∂ T/∂ ϕ = 0 and ∂ P/∂ ϕ = 0. m 3/day. cP. volume of additional oil. E electric ﬁeld intensity. Ohm. J. αm heat capacity of the rock skeleton. R1 and R2 inside and outside radius of tubing. respectively. P pressure. ηG efﬁciency of RF-EM generator. αd2 and αd4 damping factor of EM waves in the tubing and casing. i. m/s. W/(m·K). Z1 and Z2— coordinates of the roof and subface of stratum. caloriﬁc value of oil. ε' relative permittivity of the medium to liquid. m/s. Pwf bottom-hole pressure. Kem energy balance factor. kg/m 3. γo coefﬁcient allowing for temperature dependence of the viscosity of oil. ϕ— porosity of the medium. R3 and R4 inside and outside radius of casing. and Z3— maximal observed distance along coordinate z. αd damping factor of EM-wave. λ thermal conductivity of the medium. MHz. Formulation of the problem and basic equations We assumed that the ﬁltration of ﬂuid in the reservoir and the distribution of the thermal ﬁeld in the radial direction is carried out uniformly. Pa − 1. α ∂z where α— heat capacity per unit volume.e. m. ηLH efﬁciency of heat loss EM energy. duration of RF-EM radiation. co— speciﬁc heat capacity of oil. Rs active part of surface resistance of tubes. MPa. h stratum thickness. m. λ— thermal conductivity of the medium. respectively. J. r ≤ r ≤ re . MHz. Sb area of EM-wave radiator. MPa. rw and re— well radius and pool boundary along coordinate r. m. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2 . 0 ≤ r ≤ re . ct total compressibility of the system. respectively. Canada. The heat conductivity equation in the system is deﬁned as follows: ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T ρ c ∂T = rλ + λ −υr o o α⋅r ∂r α ∂z α ∂r ∂t ∂r ∂z −ωw ðA 1Þ ∂T q + . T0 initial temperature of the medium. respectively. °C. mPa·s. kr and kz permeability of productive stratum along coordinates r and z. 0 ≤ r ≤ R1 . ϕ porosity of the medium. αo heat capacity of oil. W/(m·K). υr and υz rate of ﬁltering in the stratum along and across stratiﬁcation. π⋅R21 ðA 4Þ where R1— inside radius of tubing. kg/m 3. m 3/c. Pa − 1. Acknowledgment This paper is the revised and improved version of SPE 136611 presented at the 2010 SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources and Int.

US Patent 4. The density of distribution of these heat sources can be formulated as follows (Abernethy. rw ≤ r ≤ re . respectively. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2 r ðA 9Þ where αd— damping factor of EM-wave. L.C. R. US Patent 4. A. A.. US Patent 4.M. t = 0Þ = P0 . 47 (4).652 A. ðA 22Þ ∂T ðr. L.. ðA 18Þ T ðr.593. 2004. al. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2) are as follows: where λm and λo— thermal conductivity of the rock skeleton and of oil. Can.M.. Jeambey.S. t Þ = 0. z = Z3 .180.S.. 1981.. z. et. Davletbaev. ∂z ðA 24Þ P ðr = re . 1990. Chakma. Kasevich.. Ng: N0 = Ng exp½−2ðαd2 + αd4 ÞZ1 . Numerical simulation of injection of a solvent into a production well under electromagnetic action.B. D. D...527.. lose part of their energy. Khaidar.A. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z1 .E. 91–97. z. 1989. R3 ≤ r ≤ R4 . It is assumed that the EM waves. Pwf — bottom-hole pressure. Oil Production Deep-Well Pumping Unit. Calgary.A. Minnigalimov. Colorado. 1979. Islam. 1994.A. M. Dyblenko. A. 43 (4). z. New Orleans. AB. Conf..971. while in the other layers of the well q = 0. Anchorage. z. J. Bridges. ðA 8Þ Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the saturated porous medium (deﬁned in rw ≤ r ≤ re. Heavy-oil recovery from thin pay zones by electromagnetic heating. Production increase of heavy oils by electromagnetic heating. K. C. Kovaleva. αj = cj ⋅ρj .M... 25–28 September. 2Zc ⋅ lnðR3 = R2 Þ R3 ðA 12Þ where Rs— active part of surface resistance of tubes: 2 Rs = πf μat . The initial and boundary conditions for the equations are determined by matching the well/reservoir/surrounding rock system. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2 .D. f— cyclic frequency of EM waves. N. C. Davletbaev. which creates a sort of ‘internal distributed heat sources’ in the tubing and casing walls. R. Technol. Jb— intensity of radiation at the well bottom. Johns. Enhanced oil recovery of Ugnu Tar Sands of alaska using electromagnetic heating with horizontal wells. χ0 and ε0— electric and magnetic constants. A. Davletbaev et al. L. z... and are given as follows: P ðr. Nasyrov. Paper SPE 22177 presented at the International Arctic Technology Conference. Mathematical modeling of highfrequency electromagnetic heating of the bottom-hole area of horizontal oil wells.912. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z3 . t Þ = 0. 2008. ðA 10Þ where Ng— power of RF EM generator.M. respectively. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2 . The total ﬂow. and ρm and ρo— density of the rock skeleton and of the oil. Heavy oil and bitumen recovery using radio-frequency electromagnetic irradiation and electrical heating: theoretical analysis and ﬁeld scale observations. z. The output performance (power) of the EM radiator is obtained from the known generator output performance. Fontaine. SU Patent 802. t Þ = 0..N. Fluid Dyn. US Patent 4. Z1 ≤ z ≤ Z2 : ðA 25Þ Here P0— initial reservoir pressure. A. ðA 6Þ where R4— outside radius of casing. An investigation of the processes of heat and mass transfer in a multilayer medium under conditions of injection of a miscible agent with simultaneous electromagnetic stimulation. j = m. 1992. 0 ≤ r ≤ re . Lake. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z3 . ∂z ðA 23Þ ∂T ðr. R1 ≤ r ≤ R2 . L. σt ðA 13Þ and Zc— wave resistance of air ﬁlling the intertube space: 2 Zc = χ0 : ε0 ðA 14Þ Here. 19–21 Oct. ðA 19Þ P ðr = rw . 1965. Price.T. respectively. S. 4–7 October. 2010.G.R. A. Paper SPE 24817 presented at the 67th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. 2009. M. Q of the injected agent is given by the ﬁltration velocity at the bottom hole: α = ð1−ϕÞαm + ϕαo . Eng. Kovaleva. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 λ = ð1−ϕÞλm + ϕλo . Petr. Faust.F. M.. 2010.170. R2— outside radius of tubing. 15 (3). System for Recovery of Petroleum from Petroleum Impregnated Media.140.. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z2 . t = 0Þ = T0 . ðA 7Þ Q = 2π rw hυr .A.W. αm and αo— heat capacity of the rock skeleton and of oil. Nasyrov. 1184–1191. 1991. 2008. 0 ≤ r ≤ re . US Patent 3.119. 1976): q = 2αd Jb rd expð−2αd ðr−rd ÞÞ. References Abernethy. rd ≤ r ≤ re .. Haagensen. Kovaleva. Wadadar. Apparatus for Recovery of Petroleum from Petroleum Impregnated Media. μat and σt— absolute magnetic permeability and speciﬁc electrical conductivity of the tubes. Davletbaev. Paper SPE 136611 presented at the 2010 SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources and Int. J. 583–589.. J. Oil Recovery System and Method. 2Zc ⋅ lnðR3 = R2 Þ R2 ðA 11Þ αd4 = Rs 1 ⋅ . Paper SPE 115723 presented at the 2008 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. 77 (6). Petrol..L.Ya. USA. . E. A.. 0 ≤ z ≤ Z3 . 0 ≤ r ≤ re . 574–579. High Temp. Kovaleva. V. T. Denver. Jeambey. t Þ = Pwf . and R3— inside radius of casing. respectively.R.. Pilot testing of a radio frequency heating system for enhanced oil recovery from diatomaceous earth.. The energy interaction between the EM waves and the reservoir rock causes the emergence of volumetric heat sources distributed across the reservoir.711. ðA 20Þ ∂T ðr = 0.L. 1986.Ya. Nasyrov. αd 2 and αd4— damping factor of EM waves in the tubing and casing. R. Carrizales. and rd— radius of EM-wave radiator. These are given by: q= q= αd2 N0 expð−2ðαd2 + αd4 ÞzÞ.P. π r 2 lnðR2 = R1 Þ ðA 15Þ αd4 N0 expð−2ðαd2 + αd4 ÞzÞ. N. o. ∂r ðA 21Þ T ðr = re . cm and co— speciﬁc heat capacity of the rock skeleton and of oil. z = 0.. Thermophys.. 1976. Phys. Oil Well Microwave Tools.. N. S. π r 2 lnðR4 = R3 Þ ðA 16Þ ðA 17Þ where h— stratum thickness. Canada. Production improvement of heavy-oil recovery by using electromagnetic heating.G. Banzal. while traveling along the annual space from the head towards the bottom hole of the well. Babadagli. 21– 24 September. Jha. t Þ = T0 .. The EM wave damping factor for the coax conductor (well tubing and casing) is estimated from: αd2 = Rs 1 ⋅ . Haagensen. Alaska. 29–31 May.187. Washington D. Method for In-situ Heat Processing of Hydrocarbonaceus Formation..620. L. Paper SPE 28619 presented at the 69 Annual Technicel Conference and Exhibition. USA. t Þ = P0 ..

J.I. Alberta. Electrodynamics of Continuous Media. et al... Phys.. F. Electric heat breaks parafﬁns. H. N. Canada. boosts production. J. Kumar. 475–479.M. 1987. California. US Patent 2.L. et al. L. Kovaleva.. 2002.. Pergamon Press.. R.A.757.738. London. N.. Sayakhov. Chapman and Hall. 215–218. Fonseca. M.10 .-Fiz. 5–8..W. Sayakhov. 1998.1-2). Whinnery. A. 46 (3). Nasyrov. Sresty. J. Lara. 1984. Snow.D. L. RU Patent 2. Heat and mass transfer in the wellstratum system under the electromagnetic action on massive oil deposits..A.L. (30. . US Patent 4. . Opportunities of downhole dielectric heating in venezuela: three case studies involving medium..L. L.. Thermophys.L.213. 2002. Appl. 19–23 June. Ritchey. 4–7 November.M. 1980.. 2001. Electromagnetic Oil Recovery Ltd...314. Sci. Spencer. G. Sayakhov.. heavy and extra-heavy crude oil reservoirs.L. 1956. 75 (1). Ranson. Inzh. Recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale by electromagnetic heating in situ. 2003. Calgary.. Enhanced Recovery Week.A.858. Alvarado.. 2000. / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2011) 646–653 Kovalyova (Kovaleva). F. Nasyrov..L. K. H. H. E. Zh. Eng. A. 1944.. L. Radiation Heating System.L.H. 1989.. 653 Sayakhov. Sayakhov. Dokl..M. V. Inc. Lifshitz. Mendoza. Landay. NY. SU Patent 1. Surf. F. Phys.869. Physical and rheological properties of petroleum ﬂuids under the radio-frequency electromagnetic ﬁeld effect and perspectives of technological solutions. A. Wiley and Sons. H. General Electric Advanced Engineering Program. A.L. Oxford. R. 1992. Knapp. 161–165. Method for Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon Pool.. SU Patent 1.B.R.E. F. Davletbaev et al..P.983. Ramo... 71 (1). C. 238 (1–4).A. Bridges. F. Spencer..824. Urrecheaga. Delo (1). Nigmatulin. Kovaleva. Sayakhov.. Electromagnetic heating for heavy oil reservoir. Khaydar.M. Calgary. Paper SPE 78980 presented at the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well Technology Conference. Sahni. Cross transport phenomena in disperse systems interacting with a high-frequency electromagnetic ﬁeld.. Paper SPE 62550 presented at SPE/AAPG Western Regional Meeting.. Sayakhov. Ovalles. Kovaleva. J. F. L. A. New York.C. 1984. F. R.485... 1996.L.. 1st ed...A.. Special features of heat and mass exchange in the face zone of boreholes upon injection of a solvent with a simultaneous electromagnetic effect. Method for Mineral Recovery. S.723. Long Beach. Method of Development of High-Viscosity Oil and Bitumen Pools. England. RNTS Neftepromysl. Fields and Waves in Modern Radio. 2004.

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