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A. Role of facts in framing the problem which concerns ethics
In the textbook, it was stated that “we usually experience moral disagreement and controversy
within a context of agreement”, meaning, we tend to disagree in a certain situation where we
don’t usually known the important facts or matters concerning the issue. People react to a
particular choice in different ways depending on how the situation is presented to them.
B. Known and Unknown facts
It is normal when people disagree with the opinions of others especially when they are reasoning
from different point of views. These agreements are sometimes difficult to resolve especially
when there is no enough information about the situation. In a situation, important facts are the
ones who are usually unknowns and making the situation hard to resolve. Unknown facts are
sometimes the key in solving the problem but in order to know that, you will use the information
that you already know or the known facts to help you solve for the unknown facts. It is also
important to distinguish the relevant and irrelevant facts.
C. Weighing the important facts
Two different person can agree on important facts but also can disagree on it. That’s why, in
weighing the important facts, two different person should throw all their ideas, suggestions,
opinions, everything that’s on their mind so that at the end of the day, eventually, they can agree
on something.
2. What are the concepts needed to be clarified? Why is there a need to clarify them? Give a
scenario in the book
- Example of concepts needed to be clarified are ‘‘public health, safety, and welfare,’’ ‘‘conflict
of interest,’’ ‘‘bribery,’’ ‘‘extortion,’’ ‘‘confidentiality,’’ ‘‘trade secret,’’ and ‘‘loyalty’’.In
communication, clarification involves offering back to the speaker the essential meaning, as
understood by the listener, of what they have just said. Thereby checking that the listener's
understanding is correct and resolving any areas of confusion or misunderstanding. In the book
the given scenario is that there was a disagreement between Tom and Jim regarding the concepts
such as safe, substantial, health and material impairment. Tom and Jim might agree on the effects
of exposure to benzene at various levels and still disagree as to what is ‘‘safe’’ or ‘‘healthy’’ and
what is not. Though in this scenario both of them gave to different meanings of “safe”, also the
level of risk meaning if one of them can willingly give their approval. If both of them can agree
on the meaning of safe, they can proceed to other discussion.

3. Why is it important to set up the common ground and to consider the general principles in
framing the problem.

Despite these problems. 4. Also it is important to consider the general principles in framing the problem because as stated in the book. “Sometimes keeping a promise will harm someone. Framing the Problem quantifying values in ways that do justice to them.It is important to set up the common ground because to be able to determine what facts are relevant and what can be useful. One problem is that the cost–benefit analysis assumes that economic measures of cost and benefit override all other considerations. it can play an important role in utilitarian analysis. we should know the kinds of moral resources we have in able to help us think through the case. Act Utilitarian Approach . cost–benefit analysis often does not take into account the distribution of costs and benefits. In addition. cost–benefit analysis can make an important contribution to moral problem solving. Finally. cost–benefit analysis might seem to justify many practices in the past that we have good reason to believe were morally wrong. b. Cos-Benefit Approach One approach that has some appeal from an engineering perspective is cost–benefit analysis: The course of action that produces the greatest benefit relative to cost is the one that should be chosen. as well as telling the truth” that’s why it is important to realize that different moral principles often converge in different ways thereby strengthening our conclusion and providing support from one another. Discuss the following Utilitarian thinking a. There are serious problems with using cost–benefit analysis as a sole guide for protecting the public from pollution that endangers health.