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Hai Nghiem – Homework 1

1. DPMO for the process = [(1500-1477)/1500] *1000000 =15,333, which is beyond the Six Sigma
control (4 defect/1 million opportunities). If the goal of the process is to reach Six Sigma control, then
we can conclude that the process has failed to reach the goal. If we use the SPC process to assess the
performance, we need data over a particular period to reach conclusion.
2. a. Should this inspection position be eliminated?
The cost to inspect/unit: 9/50=0.18
Benefit: 0.04*10=0.4
=> We should keep the inspection position as the cost < benefit.
b. What is the cost to inspect each unit?
$0.18/unit
c. Is there benefit (or loss) from the current inspection process? How much?
The net benefit from the current process is 0.4-0.18=0.22 USD/Unit.
3.a.The specification LSL and USL is (0.99;1.01). The process control limits is (0.993,1.011).
Cpk= min(1.33,0.89) = 0.89
b. The Cpk for the process is shifted to the right and the Cpk <1, meaning the process has problem in
exceeding the uper specification (diameter is too large) and fail to fall within the specification limit.
0.25
0.20
P-defect

0.15

UCL
Pbar

0.10

LCL

0.05
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

4. a. p-chart for 95 percent
confidence (1.96 standard deviation).
Pbar =0.07
Std=0.06
UCL = 0.19
LCL = 0

28 UCL(X) LCL(X) UCL( R) LCL( R) 1. The next rolls still have irregularities within the control limits calculated from the previous batch. 6.003 25 15 25 22 26 X-bar A2 R-bar D3 D4 Range (Ri) 999 0.3)= 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1010 995 990 1015 1013 994 989 1001 1006 992 996 1019 981 999 1013 Readings (in OHMS) 991 985 986 996 1009 994 1003 1015 1008 1020 1009 998 1019 1005 993 1001 994 1005 992 982 1020 986 996 996 989 1005 1007 1007 1006 979 1006 997 989 996 991 1011 991 989 1003 993 988 984 1002 1005 992 X-bar 993 999 1.3  Because the benefit>cost.02*25=0.5-0.45 LCL = 4.4 b.15 b.4=$0. Cost/unit: 8/30 = $0.004 991 991 1. it would be worth it to look at those samples too to see factors that could improve the process.3) = 0. Cost/unit: 8/20= $0. a.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 b. 7.002 996 997 1.3+2*sqrt(4. No.1/unit. the inspector should be hired.73 22 0 2. C-average = 4. The defective rate for the 2nd and 8th sample is outside the control limit.5 => the benefit from the process: 0. the company should investigate these samples to see what happened.008 999 996 995 1. UCL = 4.015 983 50 0 11 38 15 18 28 17 28 22 15 21 .27 Benefit: 3%*10 = $0. thus. thus.3.004 1.011 1. 5.a.3-2*sqrt(4. For the samples with zero defective items. The benefit for the inspection: 0. the process is under control. 8.

a. The information can be expressed as follows: .Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 X chart R chart 1. In other words. the process is in control.015 1.005 1. 9.010 1.000 995 990 985 980 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Comment: the Xbar and R chart for the process shows that the observed values fall within the control level in both the sample means (X bar) and sample ranges (R chart).

06 (mean) .1.065 0.075 0. The sample size should be tested is 87 parts.04 0.04 0.07 0.075 UCL= 0.06 Se = 0.064 0. 10.33 => c= 5 => n/AQL=2.613 => n= 87.045 Sample Size 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 10000 Pi 0.05 0.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 AQL: 3% α: 5% LTPD: 10% Β: 10% => LPTD/AQL= 3. Date 1-Dec 2-Dec 3-Dec 4-Dec 5-Dec 6-Dec 7-Dec 8-Dec 9-Dec 10-Dec Total Number of Unsatisfactoy Meals 74 42 64 80 40 50 65 70 40 75 600 P mean = 0.08 0.074 0. The number of defect in 87 items must be equal to or lower than 5.042 0. b.075 LCL = 0.

To implement the test plan. We need to decide the sample size to be tested and the maximum number of defects acceptable at certain level of risk. it should also be understood why the 2nd. Mean while.15 and LPTD of 0.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 0. We have AQL of 0. Sampling plan is a plan to test a single sample to decide if the sample meet the specification.02 0.007 Feb 9 1000 0.03 0. the chip department must decide the level of which they accept the risk of rejecting a good batch (alpha) and the assembly department must decide the level they accept the risk of accepting a bad batch (beta). 12.01 0.4.01 0 0 0 Jan 7 1000 Crime Rate 0.01 0. In order to calculate n and c. 5th and 9th day have very low level of unsatisfactory meals.01 0 Pi UCL LCL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Comment: The result of the survey shows that the percentage of unsatisfactory meals varies a lot.06 0.07 0. There were two days.09 0.009 Crime Rate UCL LCL P bar . b. 11. we need to decide the size of the test sample (n) and the acceptance level (c) which we use to decide if the sample “passes” or not.01 0. a. 4 and 10 in which the number of satisfactory meals is out of the intervals.01 Mont h Crime Incidence Sample Size 0. 0. Special inpection should be made to these days to see what happened and what can be done.04 0.08 0.02 0.05 0.

007 Jun 9 1000 0.014 LCL 0.014 0.01 Sep 8 1000 0.01 Dec 8 1000 0.007 May 7 1000 0. 0.011 Jan-Dec: 0.003 and 0.003 0.008 Oct 11 1000 0.009 Jul 7 1000 0. in the last 3 months (Jan-Mar).007 Aug 10 1000 0.011 Nov 10 1000 0.028 .03 Crime Rate 0.007 Apr 7 1000 0.008 JAn 10 1000 0. the rate is increasing and is above the mean level for the previous year.01 Feb 12 1000 0. However.018 0.014 0. Locatio n 1 2 3 4 5 6 No of crimes 14 3 19 18 14 28 Sample Size 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Crime Rate 0.03 0.012 MAr 11 1000 0.02 P bar 0.014).01 0.02 UCL LCL 0.019 0.01 0 13.008 P mean Se 0.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 Mar 7 1000 0.003 UCL 0.04 0. which should be a concern over the trend.003 Comment: The crime rate seems to be under control within the intervals of (0.

505 0.504 0.035 0.495 0.485 0.493 0.007 Based on the crime rate chart above.47 0.526 0.023 0.481 0. in this case.497 0.512 0.471 0.517 0.472 0.515 0.506 0.516 0.034 15 0. the city should allocate more crime protection effort to the areas with highest potential for crimes.507 0.5042 0.057 6 0.497 0.496 4 5 Xbar Range 0.501 0.02 0.03 0.523 0.49 0.05 20 0.506 0.495 0.473 0.041 8 0.504 0.5 0.493 0.027 12 0.495 0.01 0.004 0.4948 0.493 0. 14.034 7 0.499 0.0373 Mean .021 11 0.499 0.513 0.067 13 0.49 0.481 0.492 0. The areas in which the rate is low can have lower protection.506 0.516 0.475 0.501 0.494 0. 10.023 0. 17 and 19.525 0.5064 0.023 16 0.506 0.513 0.529 0.042 0.497 0. Sample Number Observation 1 2 3 1 4 5 0.487 0.521 0.01 0.014 0.499 2 0.512 0.48 0.012 0.506 0.502 0. 16 and 20.511 0.483 0.4944 0.5074 0.469 0.459 0.494 0.477 0.4966 0.492 0.015 0.489 0.497 0.516 0.516 0.5 0.512 0.486 0.491 0.51 0.511 0.051 9 0.483 0.526 0.05 17 0.482 0.504 0.474 0.491 0.03 0.496 0.02 0.493 0.003 0.4992 0.486 0.036 18 0.488 0.525 0.521 0.473 0.004 0.487 0.02 10 0.468 0.501 0.506 3 0.4922 19 0.493 0.5122 0.015 0.511 0.509 0.511 0.49851 0.493 0.479 0. They are 2.498 0.492 0.018 0.5088 0.4922 0.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 10 18 12 3 20 15 12 14 10 30 4 20 6 30 Mean P Se UCL LCL 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0.4858 0.03 0.006 0.033 0.484 0.49 0.536 0. These areas have the crime rate that are out of control level.495 0. they are 6.507 0.495 0.515 0.04 0.522 0.485 0.012 0.032 14 0.5032 0.521 0.5048 0.485 0.

We could say that the process is in control. 15.07 0.003-4.520144 0.0373 UCL( R) 0.46 0.53 0.001-3.58 LCL (X) 0.02 0. Cpk = min([(4.08 0.11 A2 R mean 0.997)/(3*0.001)/(3*0.47 0.49 0.45 0.002)]) .49851 UCL(X) 0.48 Xbar UCL (X) Xbar LCL(X) 0.476876 0.09 0.06 Range 0.05 UCL( R) 0.04 Mean R 0.5 0.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 X-bar 0.51 0.01 0 Comment: The length dimension is within control level in terms of mean and range.52 0.002)] and [(4.03 LCL ( R) 0.078703 D3 0 LCL ( R) 0 D4 2.

dist function. thus.17. we will have nearly 31% of the products defective.5) = 0. c.83 <1 Currently. using norm. 16.5σ from the lower specification level. the Cpk of the process is: Cpk = min [10/(3*4) and 10/(3*4)] = 0.Hai Nghiem – Homework 1 = min (0. . With 0. With this. the mean of the process is 0.67. b. New Cpk = min [(92-90)/12 and (110-92)/12] = min (0.33) = 0.33 The Cpk of the machine is lower than 1. it is not capable. The process is shifted to the left.17 Cpk. meaning the machine is operating out of the 3σ intervals and is not capable under the six sigma theory => C-Spec shouldn’t use this machine.0. a. the process does operate within 3σ.17 & 1. Supposed that the process currently has mean of 100.