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The Application of Six Sigma in Industry

The application of Six sigma is usually related with DMAIC methodology (Define, measure,
analysis, improve and control phase). In Define Phasse, the goal of the project should be defined,
cross-functional teams should be formed including individuals with adequate knowledge,
historical information collected and appropriate process selected for improvements. Further,
quantitative analysis about failure modes should also be conducted by plotting a Pareto chart to
find a most economic way to reduce those failure modes.
In Measure phase, SIPOC Diagram (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs and Customers) is usually
used by the team to identify all relevant elements of a process improvement project before work
begins. The SIPOC tool is particularly useful when it is not clear:
Who supplies inputs to the process?
What specifications are placed on the inputs?
Who are the true customers of the process?
What are the requirements of the customers?
Similar to SIPOC, thought process map (TMAP) is another tool that team come together to figure
all operations in the process and input and output list should be completed.
Several steps are needed to complete the SIPOC diagram. First, create an area that will allow the
team to post additions to the SIPOC diagram. Then begin with the process and map it in four to
five high level steps. Identify the outputs of this process and the customer that will receive the
outputs of this process. Finally, identify the inputs required for the process to function properly
and the supplier of the inputs that are required by the process.

ir/images/36703296357416548058. This involves collecting data on measures of quality. there are some special properties in making SIPOC.In measure phase. and throughput/cycle time. In Process. (http://8pic. in many cases. operational definition. cost.In manufacturing scenario. The purpose of the Measure step is to evaluate and understand the current state of the process. For the customers. data collection chart. which mean there might be different lead time and respond time in manufacturing. the desired information may not have been retained. When there are many workers in the system. there could be material type. It is important to develop a list of all of the key process input variables (sometimes abbreviated KPIV) and the key process output variables (KPOV). supporting equipments etc. as the history may be incomplete. and. Consequently. For inputs. it should represent the time and energy that involved or consumed. There are many statistical tools that are potentially useful in the Analyze step. For suppliers. work sampling may be useful. it would better to provide a service plan for repairable product. but this may not always be satisfactory. or it may be done by sampling from the relevant data streams. Data may be collected by examining historical records. it should contain the correct product within designed specification and some other by products which might cause safety or environment issues. activities include process mapping. machine. there are international suppliers and domestic supplies. the objective is to use the data from the Measure step to begin to determine the cause-and-effect relationships in the process and to understand the different sources of variability. it is often necessary to collect current data through an observational study. the methods of record keeping may have changed over time. evaluation of the existing system. In Outputs.pdf) In the Analyze step. assessment of the current level of process performance etc. Among .

In Improve step. regression analysis. For quantitative methods. there are Pareto analysis of the causes. Designed experiments can be applied either to an actual physical process or to a computer simulation model of that process. Designed experiments are usually a very important statistical tool in the Improve step. Flow chart is extensively used in redesigning to find the bottlenecks and defects. graphical data displays. A lot of tools can be used in the Improve step. in place? . etc. control charts. the team starts to think about the specific changes that can be made in the process and other things that can improve the process performance. Sometimes mistake-proofing (designing an operation so that it can be done only the right way) an operation will be useful. The objectives of the Control step are to complete all remaining work on the project and to hand off the improved process to the process owner along with a process control plan and other necessary procedures to ensure that the gains from the project will be institutionalized. The qualitative methods includes cause and effect diagram. the Why-why analysis. (Were the original objectives accomplished?) (ii) Is the process control plan complete? Are procedures to monitor the process.these are qualitative methods and quantitative methods. such as control charts. etc. and can be used both for determining which factors influence the outcome of a process and for determining the optimal combination of factor settings. hypothesis testing and confidence interval estimation. The tollgate review for the Control step typically includes the following issues: (i) Data illustrating that the before and after results are in line with the project charter should be available. FME Aanalysis which leads to identify the vital few factors in other to identify the root causes of the defects.

Green Black and Master Black. This can be used to develop future projects. (v) A list of opportunities that were not pursued in the project should be prepared. with a few company providing White or Yellow Belts. The widely accepted certifications are denoted by Six Sigma Belt with different colors. Taking the training or obtaining certification are not a guarantee to be a good practitioner but it still provide a change for people who want to know about six sigma and impalement it into their working. (vi) A list of opportunities where the results of the project can be used in other parts of the business.(iii) Is all essential documentation for the process owner complete? (iv) A summary of lessons learned from the project should be available. as well as lots of third party training company and many universities. Green Belts are entry level knowledge normally with 1 or 2 weeks training and can assist on major project teams or lead a small project. Black Belts are advanced knowledge trained for at least 4 weeks and they can lead teams that are focused on projects with both quality and business impact for the . Trainings of Six Sigma Today many companies provide interior sig-sigma training for employees working in quality department or management. it is very important to maintain an inventory of good potential projects to keep the improvement process going.

generally with strong background in industrial engineering or industrial managing education.organization. there is no standard requirement for any six sigma certification across the US and this brings an inconsistency in those certifications. Purdue University. Among the training organizations. such as Arizona State University. there are a lot of third party training organizations that would fill up the pages when searching Six Sigma by any search engine. Currently. Besides. Institute of Industrial Engineers and chartered Quality Institute. Also. Black Belts and Master Black Belts can move to different industries and do more soft skill and change management type work. a project of six sigma implementation is generally required. basic statistics and design of experiments/six sigma.com/US- EN/Training+Home/Lean+Six+Sigma) All those training organizations provide their own programs and certifications with different training focuses.org/wiki/List_of_Six_Sigma_certification_organizations). university certification programs and third party (for-profit) training organizations.wikipedia. ASQ is highly recognized by the industry and the books it published are becoming universal as textbook for Six Sigma certification passing exam. etc. In order to pass the exam and obtain the certification. (http://www. The most authentic organization are those companies implemented sig sigma for long time. . University of Michigan. For universities providing Six sigma training. The Master Black Belt is the top level of Six Sigma who can train others. consult on projects and make strategic work. the professional associations in US are American society for quality (ASQ). such as Motorola Solutions. Green Belts are no required to get a Black Belt. However.motorolasolutions. there are mainly three groups: professional associations. there are at least thirty-one universities (http://en. Most of them should cover a detailed training about DMAIC.

Nevertheless. health industries or even banks. . the course learning path is not so important and the key point is a tight connection to the work. the gist of six sigma could be applied in many fields like manufacturing industries.This might cause some troubles for beginners who need a certification for jobs.