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IV Sententiae d. 15, q.

3
Concerning Fasting
utrum per binam comestionem jejunium
solvatur.

Article 4: Whether the fast is broken by two meals.

ad quartum sic proceditur. videtur quod per Sub-article 1: It would seem not.
binam comestionem jejunium non solvatur.
quia jejunium est determinatum ad
subtractionem nutrimenti. sed non solum
nutrimur cibo, sed etiam potu. cum ergo
potus assumptus praeter comestionem
statutum ab ecclesia jejunium non solvat,
videtur quod nec etiam cibi bina assumptio.

Objection 1: For fasting is oriented to the denial of
nourishment. But we are nourished not only by
food, but also by drink. Therefore, since the fast is
not broken, having taken drink besides the meal
allowed by the Church, it would seem that neither
the taking of food twice (would break the fast).

praeterea, aqua potata impedit sumptionem
eucharistiae, sicut et sumptio alterius cibi:
quia solvit jejunium naturae, quod requiritur
in eucharistiam sumentibus, sicut et alii cibi.
si ergo aqua potata non solvit jejunium
ecclesiae, videtur quod nec alius cibus
assumptus.

Objection 2: Furthermore, water consumed
impedes the taking of the Eucharist, just as the
taking of food (does). For it breaks the fast of nature
which is required for the taking of the Eucharist, as
of other foods. Therefore, if water consumed does
not break the fast of the Church, it would seem that
neither does food taken.

praeterea, electuaria etiam cibi quidam
sunt. sed eorum assumptio jejunium non
solvit; quod patet ex communi consuetudine
multorum, qui etiam diebus jejunii absque
conscientia fractionis jejunii electuaria in
magna quantitate manducant. ergo nec
ciborum aliorum iterata assumptio jejunium
solvit.

Objection 3: Furthermore, electuaries are a kind of
food. But the taking of these does not break the
fast, which is clear from the common practice of
many who, even on the days of fasting, without an
awareness of breaking the fast, consume
electuaries in great quantities. Therefore, neither,
again, does the taking of the other kinds of food
break the fast.

praeterea, odor jejunium non solvit. sed
odore aliqui reficiuntur, sicut et cibo. ergo
nec cibus.

Objection 4: Furthermore, odor does not break the
fast. But some are refreshed by odor, just as (they
are) by food. Therefore...

sed contra est, quia in hoc distinguuntur
jejunantes a non jejunantibus, quia semel
manducant. si ergo bina comestio jejunium
non solveret, non esset differentia inter
jejunantes et non jejunantes.

On the contrary: Those fasting are distinguished
from those who do not in this, that they eat a single
time. Therefore, if fasting is not broken by two
meals, then there would be no difference between
those fasting and those who do not.

ulterius. videtur quod esus carnium jejunium Sub-article 2: It would seem that the eating of meat
non solvat.
does not break the fast.
quia jejunium est institutum ad
comprimendum concupiscentiam. sed
vinum magis inflammat concupiscentiam
quam carnes. cum ergo potus vini non
solvat jejunium, nec esus carnium solvet.

Objection 1: For fasting is instituted for the
restraining of concupiscence. But wine inflames
concupiscence more than meat does. Therefore
since the drinking of wine does not break the fast,
neither does the eating of meat.

praeterea, legumina inflativa sunt, et sic ad Objection 2: Furthermore, legumes make one

neither the eating of meat. quasi transgressores praecepti ecclesiae. sed contra est generalis consuetudo On the contrary. but also by other conditions. so too (does one ita ab ovis et lacticiniis. quae hoc versu continentur: praepropere. praeterea. ulterius. sicut enim non servat tempus ab ecclesia institutum qui tardat comestionem." Therefore. ergo nec ille qui anticipat. praeterea. some dairy and eggs are used. being broken. quod durum est dicere): videtur quod nec praepropere comedere. quantum ad exquisitum modum cibaria praeparandi (alias mortaliter peccarent qui in diebus jejuniorum hoc facerent. nor sumptuously with respect to the richnesses which are sought in food. jejunium est actus abstinentiae. ergo cum nimis comedere quantum ad quantitatem non solvat jejunium. nec laute. sed abstinentia impeditur non solum per anticipationem horae comestionis. sicut in diebus Objection 4: Furthermore. But during the days quidam lacticiniis et ovis utuntur. videtur quod anticipatio temporis jejunium non solvat.luxuriam provocant. studiose. nor (does this apply to consuming) ardently with respect to the longing for consumption. Therefore. does not break the fast instituted by the Church. Therefore. nor eagerly with respect to the exquisite way of preparing food (some mortally sin who act in this fashion during the days of fasting. as this is said with respect to quantity. nimis. ardenter. Objection 1: For just as one who delays consumption does not preserve the time instituted by the Church. Objection 2: Furthermore. ergo et of fasting. neither does he who anticipates it. sed etiam per alias conditiones. neither the flesh of birds quadrupedum. praeterea. ardently. excessively. jejunium solvat. ita nec ille qui anticipat. quae jejunantibus usum carnium Church which forbids those fasting the use of meat. ergo nec esus carnium. laute. But he who delays. of the precepts of the Church. Therefore. is that which the Cabilonese council states: "By no means during the 40 day fast is it to be believed that they fast who before they have eaten have celebrated the evening office. one is able to take meat without the fast solvatur. sumptuously. nec ardenter quantum ad aviditatem comedendi. But abstinence is impeded not only through anticipation of the hour of consumption. fasting is an act of abstinence. which is to anticipate the time. quantum ad pretiosa quae in cibum quaeruntur. pisces aliqui ita delectabiliter Objection 3: Furthermore. breaks the fast. quod est tempus anticipare. being transgressors. But no consumption of the flesh of fish solvit. Sub-article 3: It would seem that anticipation of the time (of the fasting meal) does not break the fast. just as one abstains from quadragesimalibus abstinetur a carnibus. non solvit jejunium ab ecclesia institutum. there is the common custom of the ecclesiae. meat during the 40 day fast. which are contained in the (following) verse: "very hastily. interdicit. some fish are delectably comeduntur sicut carnes aliorum animalium. as it were. nec studiose. But the eating of these does not break the fast. consumed in the same fashion as the meat of other sed nulla caro piscium comesta jejunium animals. eagerly. sed contra est quod dicit concilium cabilonense: in quadragesima nullatenus credendi sunt jejunare qui ante manducaverunt quam vespertinum On the contrary. so too neither does one who anticipates it. It would seem not to consume ahead of time. or quadrupeds. sed esus eorum non solvit jejunium. since to consume excessively. sed in diebus jejunii abstain) from eggs and dairy. does not break the fast. ergo nec carnes avium aut breaks the fast." . which is hard to say). sed ille qui tardat. flatulent and thus excite one to inordinate veneral pleasure. carnibus uti possunt sine hoc quod jejunium Therefore.

or merits less (those meretur. and not consumed in the stomach. In one way. The Church intends in a specific way to regulate the eating (of the fasting meal). is broken. ergo anticipatio temporis Therefore.celebretur officium. a man is made a servando. And thus. so quod homo vel non meretur. namely that those fasting eat once a day. in that they are sometimes actum meritorium. If. vel saltem non observator. nisi ex transgressor of the statutes of the Church dispensatione vel causa legitima dimittat. he is not an observer (of those statutes). the taking of drink is not called an act of eating. but rather to some other use (which use is not generally called an act of eating). et ideo si aliquorum sumptio. alio modo solvitur accidentally related to the meritorious act. Thus the taking of this sort does not break the fast. or (that) he has been released through a legitimate cause. but rather to the good condition of those which they nourish. eo quod which either augment or diminish the merit of an quandoque accidentaliter se habent ad act are indeterminate. (the water is) drawn away through one's members. we do not intend (to quae meritum alicujus actus augent vel discuss) at the present moment. fasting meal) breaks the fast. et in stomacho non comburantur. one is especially able to consider the intentions of the one who regulates (the rules binding and governing the fast). if the taking of something which one is accustomed in the act of eating to consume. ut scilicet per membra deducantur. anticipation of the time (of eating the solvit jejunium. understood in the second way. jejunium praedicto modo acceptum solvitur. Concerning this breaking of the (Church's) fast. ita relation to (the) merit (that attends to the fast). secundum quod est ab ecclesia second way in which a fast is broken is said in institutum. And for this reason. et de hac solutione jejunii non things promised or gained by the fast). sed ad alium usum. In this regard. . The jejunium. nevertheless in itself it is not ordered to nutrition. Hence. and this either before or after this one meal) does not make one to eat twice. quod quamvis aliquis potus aliquo modo nutriat. non facit esse binam manducationem. qui usus communiter manducatio non vocatur. respondeo dicendum ad primam I respond to the 1st question (sub-article 1) saying quaestionem. secundum quae manducatio solet compleri. in solvitur. namely. de hac solutione jejunii nunc quaerimus. et concerning the observance of fasting. ut scilicet semel in die jejunans manducet. ad hoc autem praecipue valet considerare intentiones statuentis. Concerning intendimus ad praesens: quia conditiones this breaking of the fast. talis cibi vel potus sumptio praeter manducationem unam ante vel post. indeterminatae sunt. non dicitur bis manducare. uno modo quantum ad meritum. however. so that. the taking of this sort of food or drink (in addition to the one act of eating. unless by reason of a dispensation (that he has received). he who drinks outside of the hour of the single meal is not said to eat twice. something is taken which is not ordered per se to the act of eating. sed magis ad dispositionem bonam eorum quae nutriunt. we here investigate (at the present moment). fasting. ex qua solutione homo efficitur relation to that which is instituted by the Church. at the least. et ideo talis sumptio jejunium non solvit. tamen de se non ordinatur ad nutriendum. if this is taken again. quod jejunium dupliciter that the fast is broken in two ways. et Response to the first objection: Although a drink may nourish in some fashion. For the conditions minuunt. transgressor statuti ecclesiae de jejunio Through this breaking. intendit autem ecclesia certum modum statuere manducandi. vel minus that man either does not merit. ad primum ergo dicendum. si autem aliqua sumantur quae ad manducandum de se ordinata non sunt. unde sumptio potus manducatio non dicitur: et ideo ille qui potat extra horam unicae comestionis. iteretur.

quia aliquo modo nutrit. someone can merit or not. quod si electuaria comedantur ad delectationem. But the statute of the positive law does not attend to the intention of the one observing (the fast). ad tertium dicendum. quod electuaria etsi aliquo modo nutriant. Therefore. although one can wholly by this destroy the merit of the fast. non solvitur jejunium. he is not a transgressor of the Church's precept unless he were to engage in deception. but. but is the end of the precept. they do not. in that the mode of virtue does not fall within the precept. et ideo dicendum. If. but rather to the act itself. quod quidam dicunt. Response to the third objection: Some say that if electuaries are eaten for pleasure. But because of (one's) intention. For he who does something so as to deceive the law violates the law. rather. comforts in another way. quod aqua etsi solvat jejunium naturae. they are taken as medicine. if there is immoderate pleasure. sed statutum positivae legis non attendit intentionem observantis. Thus. sed est finis praecepti. quod odor non nutrit. sed aliquo modo confortat. ut patet per philosophum in libro de sensu et sensato. nevertheless this is not its principal use. solvunt jejunium. nevertheless it does not break the fast of the Church. and for the restraint of concupiscence. aut si eis quasi aliis cibis uteretur ad famem extinguendam. unde non solvit neque jejunium naturae neque jejunium ecclesiae. he does not break the statute of nisi fraudem faciat: quia legem violat qui in the Church. Response to the fourth objection: Odor does not nourish as is clear from the Philosopher in his book Concerning Sense and Things Sensed. deception.propter hoc nec statutum ecclesiae frangit. si sit immoderata libido. ad secundum dicendum. ut scilicet semel tantum jejunans comederet ad afflictionem I respond to the 2nd question (sub-article 2) saying that he is said to break the ecclesial fast who does not preserve the mode of abstinence instituted by the Church. or even mortally sin. vel etiam mortaliter peccare. or if he were to utilize them like other foods so as to extinguish hunger. Response to the second objection: Even if water breaks the fast of nature. sed ipsum actum. cum autem jejunium ecclesia instituerit ad satisfaciendum. si autem causa medicinae sumantur. Hence they have not customarily been taken on the occasion of eating. et ideo talis sumptio jejunium ecclesiae non solvit. However. ad quartum dicendum. sed id quod principaliter ad nutriendum ordinatum est. ad secundam quaestionem dicendum. quamvis homo possit totaliter vel in parte ex hoc meritum jejunii perdere. non tamen est transgressor praecepti ecclesiae nisi in fraudem sumeret. even if they do nourish in some way. Since the ecclesial fast was instituted for the sake of reparation. since it does nourish in some fashion. it should be said that electuaries. According to this. just as she (the Church) has determined the abstinence of the fast with respect to number. sed ex intentione potest aliquis mereri vel demereri. quia ecclesia non attendit in statuendo id quod quocumque modo nutrire potest. non tamen solvit jejunium ecclesiae. eo quod modus virtutis non cadit in praecepto. this sort of taking does not break the fast of the Church. but rather is ordered principally to (what is involved in) nutrition (as was detailed in both the response and the prior reply). namely so that he who fasts eats only once for the affliction of his flesh on account of . except where he engages in a fraudem legis aliquid facit. sicut determinavit ad abstinentiam jejunii quantum ad numerum. however. they break the fast. For the church does not attend in the making of statutes to that which in any way at all is able to nourish. Hence it breaks neither the natural or ecclesial fast. et concupiscentiam reprimendum. unde nec loco manducationis sumi consueverunt. quod ille dicitur jejunium ecclesiae solvere qui modum abstinendi statutum ab ecclesia non servat. non tamen hic est principalis usus eorum.

ita taxavit ut a carnibus abstineretur. quod. Hence. quia hoc genere cibi praecipue concupiscentia fovetur et roboratur. Hence. concupiscence especially is encouraged and strengthened. quod omittere Response to the first objection: It is not licit to . sicut carnes. the drink of wine does not. ideo potus vini non adeo efficaciter operatur ad concupiscentiae fomentum. tamen in aliis jejuniis apud diversos in his est diversus abstinentiae modus. so too has she determined that one abstain from meat because with this kind of food. when unde cum ecclesia instituit certum tempus the Church institutes a certain time for eating for comedendi jejunantibus. work efficaciously to the encouragement of concupiscence. it suffices if around the hour that the Church illam quam ecclesia instituit. he breaks the fast who does not ecclesiae determinationem non servat. ad tertium dicendum. quod vinum concupiscentiam incitat inflammando per modum alterantis. Response to the fourth objection: The 40 day fast is more strictly observed than the other fasts because by it we imitate the fast of Christ according to our state. jejunium solvit. but which passes quickly. as was said. unde sufficit si circa horam Hence. unde comestio carnium jejunium solvit ab ecclesia institutum. that he who fasts take food. just as the eating of meat by which the matter of concupiscence is especially ministered to and the natural heat is strengthened much more radically. he who perceptibly excessively notabiliter anticipat. And since these kinds of alterations do not endure for long. I respond to the 3rd. to a great extent. quo praecipue materia concupiscentiae ministratur. preserve the Church's determination. unde non fuit tanta meats. et similiter dicendum ad secundum de inflatione leguminum. ad quartum dicendum. qui nimis those who fast. et ex alia parte subtractio vini nimis debilitaret naturam propter digestionis impedimentum. sicut esus carnium. that it is an accidental cause provoking concupiscence. on the other hand. Nor is it appropriate to use astrolabium accipere ad horam comestionis an astrolabe so as to know the hour of eating. quia eo christi jejunium secundum modum nostrum imitamur. etiam si aliquantulum propter he somewhat anticipates on account of some aliquam necessitatem anticipet. et calor naturalis confortatur radicitus magis. the denial of wine excessively weakens nature on account of hindering digestion. ille jejunium solvit qui that. even if cibum. reparation. ad tertiam quaestionem dicendum. necessity. nevertheless during the other fasts. question (sub-article 3) saying sicut dictum est. et cito transit. et ideo. For enim ecclesia arctare intendit ad subtilem the Church does not intent to bind one to an exact temporis inspectionem. Hence it does not become as great a necessitas prohibendi pisces. Response to the first objection: Wine incites concupiscence by inflaming through the mode of alteration. quod pisces frigidiores Response to the third objection: Fish are naturally sunt naturaliter quam carnes. quod est accidentalis causa concupiscentiam provocans. jejunans sumat has instituted. nec colder than (other) meats.carnis propter satisfactionem. Response to the second objection: And in a like way do we treat of the flatulence of legumes. in this they do not alimentum ita conveniens corpori praestant provide nourishment to the body like the other sicut aliae carnes. non anticipates (the time of eating) breaks the fast. although the use of cheese and eggs is generally forbidden during the 40 days. et quia tales alterationes non diu manent. quod quadragesimale jejunium arctius observatur quam alia jejunia. nec oportet inspection of the time. ad primum ergo dicendum. there is a diversity of the ways of abstinence. ad primum ergo dicendum. necessity to prohibit fish in the same manner as meat. quamvis usus casei et ovorum in quadragesima sit generaliter interdictus. cognoscendam.

nevertheless the statute of the Church is not ecclesiae statutum transgreditur. non tamen part. Hence. disregard the precept of the Church. but not to anticipate.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index. sicut of food or in the other conditions enumerated. sed supererogare licet.desales.html) . although he sins through a lack quamvis per inordinationem circa illas of proper ordering concerning those circumstances. � Stephen Loughlin (sjl1@desales. circumstantias peccet. do not sub determinatione legislatoris. jejunium non solvit. Since potest accipi certa mensura in quantitate a certain measure cannot be taken in the quantity cibi vel aliis conditionibus numeratis. licet tardare per horam.praeceptum ecclesiae non licet. et ideo transgressed. quod ea in quibus Response to the second objection: Those things in non potest accipi certa mensura. ad secundum dicendum. et ideo cum tardatio horae ad poenalitatem jejunii faciat. et meritum jejunii and loses the merit of fasting either in whole or in amittat vel in toto vel in parte. ideo conditiones this reason the conditions of the other four do not aliae quatuor non cadunt sub fall under the determination of the Church's determinatione praecepti ecclesiae. And so. sed non anticipare. And so the fast is not broken. non cadunt which a certain measure cannot be taken.edu) The Aquinas Translation Project (http://www4. although lateness of the hour conduces to the penalty of the fast. it is licit to delay through the hour (appointed to eat). for in tempore accipi potest. et quia non fall under the determination of the legislator. et ideo precepts. but licit to meet and exceed it.