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OTC000003

WDM Principle
ISSUE1.1

OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.1

Contents

Contents
Course Explanation......................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction to the Course.......................................................................................................... 1
Course Structure........................................................................................................................ 1
Course Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
References................................................................................................................................. 1
Chapter 1 WDM Overview............................................................................................................... 3
1.1 WDM Optical Transmission Technology...............................................................................3
1.1.1 WDM Conception....................................................................................................... 3
1.1.2 WDM Technology Background...................................................................................3
1.2 Overview of DWDM Principle...............................................................................................5
1.3 Transmission Methods of WDM Equipment.........................................................................6
1.3.1 Unidirectional WDM................................................................................................... 6
1.3.2 Bi-directional WDM.................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Open and Integrated System...............................................................................................8
1.5 WDM System Compositions:................................................................................................ 8
1.6 Advantages of WDM............................................................................................................ 9
1.7 Brief Introduction to CWDM................................................................................................ 10
1.8 Questions........................................................................................................................... 11
Chapter 2 WDM Transmission Media........................................................................................... 12
2.1 Optical Fiber Structures...................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Types of Optical Fiber........................................................................................................ 13
2.3 Basic Features of Optical Fiber.......................................................................................... 14
2.3.1 Physical Dimension (Mode Field Diameter).............................................................14
2.3.2 Attenuation Constant............................................................................................... 15
2.3.3 Dispersion Coefficient.............................................................................................. 15
2.4 Questions........................................................................................................................... 16
Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies............................................................................................ 17
3.1 Light source........................................................................................................................ 17
3.1.1 Modulation Mode Of A Laser....................................................................................18
3.1.2 Wavelength Stability of the Laser.............................................................................20
3.2 Photoelectric Detector........................................................................................................ 22
3.2.1 Positive Intrinsic Negative Photodiode (PIN)...........................................................22
3.2.2 Avalanche Photo Diode (APD).................................................................................22
3.3 Optical Amplifier................................................................................................................. 23
3.3.1 Optical Amplifier Overview.......................................................................................23
3.3.2 Erbium Doped Fiber (EDF)......................................................................................24
3.3.3 EDFA Flat Gain Control........................................................................................... 25
3.3.4 EDFA Gain-Lock...................................................................................................... 26
3.3.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of EDFA................................................................27
3.3.6 Raman Fiber Amplifier............................................................................................. 28
3.3.7 Related Technical Features.....................................................................................29
3.4 Optical Multiplexer and Optical Demultiplexer....................................................................29
3.4.1 Optical Grating Type Wavelength Division Multiplexer.............................................30
3.4.2 Dielectric Film Wavelength Division Multiplexer.......................................................31
3.4.3 Fused Conical Type Wavelength Division Multiplexer..............................................32
3.4.4 Integrated Optical Waveguide Type Wavelength Division Multiplexer......................33
3.4.5 Performances of Wavelength Division Multiplexing Components............................33
3.4.6 Basic Requirements to Optical Multiplexing Components.......................................34
3.5 Optical Supervisory Channel.............................................................................................. 35
3.5.1 Requirements on Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)............................................35
3.5.2 Interface parameters for supervisory channel..........................................................36
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OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.1

Contents

3.5.3 Frame Structure of Supervisory Channel.................................................................36
Questions................................................................................................................................. 37
Chapter 4 Technology Specifications for DWDM Optical Transmission System.....................38
4.1 ITU-T Recommendations on WDM....................................................................................38
4.2 Definition of Transmission Channel Reference Points.......................................................38
4.3 Distribution of Optical Wavelength Areas...........................................................................39
Questions................................................................................................................................. 41
Terms and Abbreviations.............................................................................................................. 42

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OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.1

Course Explanation

Course Explanation
Introduction to the Course
This course mainly introduces the basic knowledge of WDM technologies, expounds
key technologies and optical transmission specification of DWDM. Through this
course, you will have a relatively complete understanding of the WDM knowledge and
the development orientation of optical transmission networks.

Course Structure
This course is divided into four sections as follows:
Section 1 WDM Overview
This section tells you what WDM is, how it derives, the operation modes, structure
and characteristics of DWDM. After reading this book, you will have a basic idea of
the advancing front technology of optical transmission network-WDM.
Section 2 WDM Transmission Media
This section tells us the basic structures and types of optical fibers,and we will learn
the characteristics of optical fibers,including attenuator,dispersion and so on.
Section 3 DWDM Key Technologies
From the aspect of hardware, how to implement DWDM when converting it into
commercial product? Reading this section with the question, you'll know the key
technologies and implementation methods of DWDM, including light sources,
components for optical amplification and wavelength division multiplexing, etc.
Section 4 Technical Specifications of DWDM Optical Transmission System
This chapter mainly introduces some proposals and specifications of ITU-T to WDM,
and gives us a basic understanding of some of the ITU-T knowledge involved in the
WDM system.

Course Objectives
1)
2)
3)
4)

To know the basic conception, principle, transmission mode and structure of
WDM;
To know the basic structures,types and characteristics of optical fibers;
To know the technical principle of DWDM and the method to implement its key
technologies.
To know the technical specifications of DWDM optical transmission system.

References
(1) Basis for Optical Communication
(2) Guide to DWDM Technologies
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OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.1 Course Explanation (3) DWDM Transmission System Principle and Testing (4) High Speed Optical Communication ITU-T Specification and System Design (5) Metropolitan Area Fiber Network (6) TA052401 Optical Supervisory Channel and Its Application in DWDM ISSUE 1.0 Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading without Permission 2 .0 (7) TC000001 Fiber and Optical Components ISSUE1.0 (8) TC000001 Optical Amplifier ISSUE1.

so as to obtain the large transportation capacity to be developed in fiber. There are many methods to increase the capacity and flexibility of fiber network. there are still WDM with low densities that are called CWDM (CWDM-Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing). the wavelength density in the same fiber will become very high. Optical and wavelength division multiplex is in fact the optical and frequency division multiplex on fiber (OFDM). communication method and component of WDM To understand the DWDM background and technical features. In recent years.Wavelength Division Multiplexing) and SDM (SDM-Space Division Multiplexing). Information Age requires transmission network with larger and larger capacity. FDM. WDM system adopts optical spectral component that is different from filter adopted in the common communication. Frequency division is wave division. Depending on the fact that a fiber can transmit several optical carrier of different wavelengths at the same time.1. To use DWDM technology is similar to using the driveway not yet used. WDM and SDM refer to optical communication systems classified according to the frequency. but optical wave usually use wavelength instead of frequency. But in optical communication system. A fiber can be regarded as a road with several driveways here.1 WDM Conception Optical communication system can be classified according to different modes. each band transmits a kind of optical signal with a preset wavelength.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Chapter 1 WDM Overview  Objectives: To master the basic concepts of WDM To master the basic principle.2 WDM Technology Background With the rapid development of science and technology. The traditional TDM system just uses one of driveways. WDM is a kind of transmission technology of fiber communication. We shall compare the different expansion methods in the following. No Spreading without Permission . it can be classified into FDM (FDMFrequency Division Multiplexing). To increase bit rate is to increase the driving speed in the driveway in order to increase the transportation burden in unit time. Along with the development of the electric-optical technology. wavelength and space. 1. It can be said that frequency is closely connected with the wavelength. to describe. So we still classify them into two different systems. Compared with DWDM (DWDM-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing). 3 Confidential Information of Huawei. TDM. it divides wavelength possibly used by fiber into several bands. information transmission in communication area expands with accelerated speed. As an independent channel. TDM (TDM-Time Division Multiplexing).OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. time.1 WDM Optical Transmission Technology 1. If it is classified according to signal multiplex mode. WDM (WDM. 1. companies and manufacturers worldwide have paid more and more attention to WDM technology. supervise and control. and increase the transmission speed and expand capacity. and been more concerned about it.1.

This transmission method is a great waste of optical capacity because the bandwidth of optical fiber is almost infinite when compared to the single wavelength channel we currently use. If there are not enough optical fibers in the existing optical cable tunnel. Secondly. rate upgrade lacks flexibility.g. you will have to lay down additional cables to expand the capacity. the optical cable manufacturing technology is very much matured. the method to expand capacity in SDM is very limited. and this method will multiply the engineering cost. whether using SDM or TDM to expand the capacity. STM-16 and STM-64 of current SDH. and the 40Gbit/s TDM equipment has reached the rate limit of the electronic component. and STM-1. Even for the rate of 10Gbit/s. and the transmission equipment will be increased linearly. Thus the equipment in operation must be interrupted during the upgrade process. At present. too. WDM ( Wavelength Division Multiplexing) WDM utilizes the large bandwidth of low loss band section in single-mode fibers to transmit by mixing optical signals with various rates (wavelengths). TDM technology can enhance the capacity of optical transmission information in duplication and greatly reduce the circuit cost in equipment and line. This means doesn’t make full use of transmission bandwidth of fibers as well and results in the waste of fiber bandwidth resources. Let's take SDH as an example. it is impossible to expand capacity by laying down new fibers all the time. Currently. on the other hand huge network resources are being wasted. An overall upgrade to higher rate levels required to replace the network interfaces and equipment completely. multiplexing of the primary group to the fourth group of the traditional PDH. We can Confidential Information of Huawei. adopt traditional PDH or SDH technology. TDM method has two disadvantages. it is easy to extract specific digital signals from the data stream via this multiplexing method. it is very hard to estimate the increasing business demand and the number of fibers that should be laid down at the beginning of the project. Moreover. 3. the limitation due to the component and line features will drive you to look for other solutions. SDM (Space Division Multiplexing) The SDM method increases the transmission capacity linearly by adding the number of optical fibers. The digital signals carried by optical signals with different wavelengths can be either the format of the same rate and protocol or the format of different rates and protocal. STM-4. the TDM technology is widely used for the capacity expansion since it can expand the capacity by constantly upgrading the system rate. its non-linear effect in different types of optical fibers will exert various limitations on the transmission. Upgrading affects services. the only way is to upgrade the system to 622Mbit/s even though two 155Mbit/s are idle. the multi-core band optical cables are widely used.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. the advanced optical fiber connection technology makes the construction easier. e. TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) TDM is also a commonly used method for capacity expansion. It is especially suitable for networks requiring the protection strategy of self-healing rings. i. utilizing optical signals on a single wavelength for transmission. Therefore.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 1. But when the rate reaches a certain level. when a system with a line rate of 155Mbit/s is required to provide two 155Mbit/s channels. TDM equipment of higher rate costs much more.e. As the construction of communication networks. Presently. All the basic transmission networks. In fact. However. No Spreading without Permission 4 . but the increase in the number of optical fibers will inevitably complicate the cable layout and maintenance. Firstly. We are worrying about the jam of networks. 2.

For the WDM with rate under 2. the current technology can completely overcome the limitation due to the fiber dispersion and fiber non-linear effect. we can choose the number of WDM optical channels according to the transmission capacity and use the maximum optical carriers under the possible condition.2 Overview of DWDM Principle Based on such features as bandwidth and low loss of the single mode optical fiber. multiplexing with a larger channel spacing (even in different windows of optical fibers) is called optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). 1. the DWDM technology uses multiple wavelengths as carriers and allows the signals to be transmitted simultaneously over the carrier channels in the optical fiber. 4. divide the low attenuation window of optical fibers into several channels according to the frequency (or wavelength) difference of each wavelength channel and implement multiplexing transmission of multi-channel optical signals in a single fiber. it is difficult to implement the ultra-dense optical frequency division multiplexing (coherence optical communication technology) of optical channels. In fact. Since some optical components (such as narrow-bandwidth optical filters and coherence light source) are currently very immature. That is. Usually. this multiplexing method is very effective in optical communication systems.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. in optical fiber communication systems. but also has many advantages. No Spreading without Permission . so it enjoys bright prospects. the frequency division multiplexing (FDM) method is often adopted to make full use of the bandwidth resources of cables and enhance the transmission capacity of the system. the multiplexing of the nanometer level wavelength spacing can be implemented by using modern technologies. to utilize band-pass filters to filter the signal on each channel according to the frequency differences among the carriers.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies determine the network capacity according to requirement of the users by adding new features of wavelength. We can choose the highest transmission rate of TDM according to fibers of different types. Unlike the frequency division multiplexing in analog carrier communication systems. With the progresses of sciences & technologies. alternate-optical-channel frequency division multiplexing can be implemented based on the current component technical level. Technology combination of TDM and WDM It is the application direction to make use of the technology advantages of TDM and WDM for network capacity expansion. only need stricter component technical requirements . In the same way. the dense WDM (DWDM) not only drastically increases the communication capacity of the network system and fully uses the bandwidth of the optical fiber. especially it can directly access multiple services. Compared with the general single channel system. It can satisfy various requirements for transmission capacity and transmission distance.5Gb/s. The disadvantage of WDM is that it needs many fiber components and increases the failure probability. at the receiver end. In analog carrier communication systems. Undoubtedly the transmission capacity of multi-channel is forever bigger than that of single channel and is more economical. to transmit several signals of different frequencies simultaneously in the same cable and. Even the multiplexing of sub-nanometer level wavelength spacing can be implemented. However. and DWDM in the same window with smaller channel spacing is called dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). optical frequency division multiplexing method can also be used to enhance the transmission capacity of the systems. 5 Confidential Information of Huawei. On this basis. such as simple expansion and reliable performance. optical fiber communication systems utilize optical wavelengths as signal carriers.

8nm). the optical transmitter sends out the optical signals whose wavelengths are different but whose accuracy and stability satisfy certain requirements. One only implements the transmission of signals in one direction while the other implements the transmission of the signals in the opposite direction. 16. Confidential Information of Huawei.692 suggests.52nm).ITU-T G. multiplexing of 8. the absolute reference frequency of DWDM is 193.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Hence. 1. 32 or more wavelengths with smaller wavelength spaces is called DWDM. then they will be sent to the optical wavelength demultiplexer to split the channels of optical signals. different wavelength frequency spacing should be integral multiple of 100GHz (corresponding wavelength spacing is about integral multiple of 0.1 Composition and spectrum illustration of the DWDM system At the transmitting end. such signals are multiplexed together through the optical wavelength multiplexer and sent to the EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) (the EDFA is used mainly to compensate for the optical power loss caused by the multiplexer and improve the transmitting power of the optical signal).1 Unidirectional WDM As shown in Figure 1-2.1THz (the corresponding wavelength is 1552. where they will be amplified by the preamplifier (used to improve the receiving sensitivity to extend the transmission distance). Diagram of DWDM system structure and spectrum is shown in figure 1-1. λ λ1 OTU1 λ OTU 2 OTU … OTU λN M U D X U X λ2 M Optical line amplifier Optical booster amplifier Single channel Optical spectrum Optical line amplifier Optical spectrum … Optical pre-amplifier λN λ1λ2λ3λ4λ5λ6     λN WDM … Wavelength Wavelength Figure 1. then the amplified multi-channel optical signals will be sent to the optical fiber for transmission. when they get to the receiving end through or not through the optical line amplifier.3. No Spreading without Permission 6 .OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.3 Transmission Methods of WDM Equipment 1. the unidirectional WDM system adopts two optical fibers.

which is very flexible. Under the prerequisite that the actual fiber dispersion is unknown.2 Bi-directional WDM As shown in Figure 1-3.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Figure 1. However. and the signals in the different directions should be assigned on different wavelengths. it is also a means to use multiple 2. its total FWM effect are much less than that of the two-fiber unidirectional transmission. No Spreading without Permission . 1. saves a half of the fiber components of unidirectional transmission. 7 Confidential Information of Huawei. The single fiber transmits optical signals in both directions simultaneously. In long-haul networks. components such as bi-directional optical fiber amplifier and optical circulator must be adopted.3.1 Unidirectional transmission mode of WDM This kind of WDM system can fully exploit the huge bandwidth resources of the optical fiber and expand the transmission capacity of a single optical fiber to several or tens of times. The single fiber bi-directional transmission mode allows a single fiber to carry full duplex channels and.5Gbit/s systems to implement the ultra-large capacity transmission to avoid adopting ultrahigh speed optical systems. the disadvantage of this system is that it requires a special measure to deal with the light reflection (including discrete reflection resulted by optical connectors and Rayleigh backward reflection of the fiber) to avoid multi-path interference. Since signals transmitted in both directions do not interact and create FWM (Four-Wave Mixing) products. When the optical signal needs to be amplified to extend the transmission distance. capacity can be expanded by adding wavelengths gradually according to the demands of practical traffic. but their noise coefficients are a bit poor. usually. bi-directional wave WDM system utilizes only one optical fiber.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.

Different application modes can be adopted according to the demands of engineering. The integrated DWDM system does not adopt the wavelength conversion technology. Each of its input port inputs optical signal of a preset wavelength. Most feasible WDM systems adopt the double fiber unidirectional transmission mode. no clear opinion is given on adopting the single fiber bi-directional WDM transmission mode or double fiber unidirectional WDM transmission mode. Wavelength division multiplexer can be classified into transmitting optical multiplexer. System utilizes the conversion of optical/electricity/optical (O/E/O).1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Figure 1. and then electrical signal will converted into optical signal with specfic wavelength. Optical multiplexer is used in the transmitting end of the transmission system. Confidential Information of Huawei.1 WDM bi-directional transmission mode In the ITU-T recommendations G.DWDM system adopts wavelength conversion technology to convert the optical signal of the multiplex terminal into the specific wavelength.5 WDM System Compositions: The overall structure of the WDM system of N-channel wavelength is composed of transmission optical multiplexing terminal unit. there are:     Optical tansponder unit(OTU) Wavelength division multiplexer: optical demultiplexer unit/optical multiplexer (ODU/OMU) Optical amplifier( BA/LA/PA) Optical Supervisory Channel( OSC) Optical wavelength transfer unit converts wavelength into standard wavelength specified in ITU-T. instead. and that different multiplex terminal equipment sends different ITU-T wavelengths complying with ITU-T recommendation. i. In practical applications. 1.e. thus they can be combined together. 1.692 document. uses photodiode to convert optical signal received into the electrical signal. It is a component with several input ports and one output port. it requires that the wavelength of the optical signals at the multiplex terminal conforms to the specifications for the DWDM system. open DWDM and integrate DWDM can be mixed. If it is classified by composition modes. Input lightwaves of different wavelengths export from the same output port. Opposite to optical multiplexer. the only requirement is that these interfaces meet the optical interface standards defined in ITU-T. it has an input port and several output ports which classify different wavelength signals. receiving optical multiplexing terminal (OMT) unit and optical relay line advanced (OLA) unit. Optical signals from different terminal equipment are converted into different wavelengths meeting the ITU-T recommendation. so that the wavelengths can occupy different paths to enter the coupler. Optical demultiplexer is used in the receiving end of transmission system. so as to get the new optical wavelength signal that meets the requirements.4 Open and Integrated System The DWDM is usually applied in two modes:   Open DWDM Integrated DWDM The feature of open DWDM system is that it has no special requirements for multiplex terminal optical interfaces. which are then multiplexed. No Spreading without Permission 8 .OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.

broadband. the transmission capacity of a single optical fiber is increased by several. you can just change the optical transmitter and receiver. A WDM system service can carry “service” signal of many formats. each optical wavelength channel in the WDM system is like the “virtual” optical fiber. 4.The 1510nm wavelength. clear layers and convenient service grooming. WDM implements the transparent transmission. and FRA (Fiber Raman Amplifier) etc. The current highest commercial transmission capacity is 1. With an additional wavelength. the flexibility. HDTV and B-ISDN etc). Super-large capacity The transmittable bandwidth of the current widely used conventional fiber is very wide. Optical supervisory channel is set for the supervision of WDM optical transmission system. with one optical signal transmitted in a single fiber. tens of or even hundreds of times when compared to the transmission capacity of single wavelength systems. However. Because of the simple network architecture. Utmost protection of the existing investment during system upgrade In expanding and developing the network. 9 Confidential Information of Huawei. To fully use the huge bandwidth resources of optical fiber and increase its transmission capacity. For signal at the “service” layer. 1. it is not necessary to make changes to the optical cable lines. SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier). economy and reliability When compared to the traditional networks using electrical TDM networks. line amplifier and power amplifier. High networking flexibility. By using DWDM technology. you can add any new service or new capacity you want. economy and reliability of networking are obvious. 2. which is transparent to the data. online. Data transparency transmission DWDM systems conduct multiplexing and de-multiplexing in terms of optical wavelength differences and are independent of signal rates and modulation modes. instead. But it must go down optical path before EDFA and go up optical path after EDFA. The DWDM technology has the following features: 1. Among them.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. new communication networks based on the WDM technology are greatly simplified in architecture and have clear network layers. but the utilization ratio is still low. No Spreading without Permission . low noise. only exploited a little part of the abundant bandwidth of optical fiber. traditional optical fiber communication systems. IP or signals that may appear in the future.6 Advantages of WDM The capacity of optical fiber is huge. Receiving sensitivity ( better than 50dBm) of low rate can still work normally. big capacity and high rate and is used as preamplifier. so this is an ideal expansion method and also a convenient way to introduce the broadband services (such as CATV. Dispatching of various services can be implemented simply by adjusting the corresponding wavelengths of the optical signals. It is the indispensable key component in the new fiber communication system. EDFA is widely used in fiber communication system of long distance. The fiber amplifier currently used mainly has the EDFA (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier).6 T bit/s.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Optical amplifier not only can directly amplify the optical signal but also features the all optical amplifier of real time. high gain. a new generation optical fiber communication technology based on the dense WDM (DWDM) has emerged. 3. capacity of 2Mbit/s should be preferentially adopted. such as ATM.

OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. That is why they are called “coarse” or “dense”. CWDM is more and more widely used in the industry. So WDM technology is one of the key technologies to implement all optical networks. These equipment should be more than simple modification of the corresponding DWDM equipment. SONET ring etc. It is possible to implement transparent and highly survivable all optical networks based on the existing WDM system. processing of telecommunication services adding/dropping and cross connections is implemented by changing and adjusting the optical signal wavelengths. the spacing is 20nm. They are different in two aspects: (1) Carrier channel spacing of CWDM is wide. driven by the market demand and technology development. CWDM is the close relative of DWDM. It is especially suitable for the communication occasion of short distance. As more and more metropolitan area network operators begin to seek for more reasonable transmission methods. Compatible with all optical switching It is foreseeable that. Confidential Information of Huawei. Is it possible to enjoy the WDM technology at a low cost? To meet this demand. CWDM provides very high access bandwidth that is suitable for all kinds of popular network architecture such as point to point. Moreover. The spacing between different wavelengths in the same optical fiber is the main parameter to separate DWDM from CWDM. high bandwidth and dense access point such as network communication inside a building or between buildings. (2) the cost of equipment such as multiplexer and multiplexing modulator etc should be further reduced. Hence the CWCM system is mainly applied to metropolitan area network. while DWDM adopts the cool laser and needs the cooldown technology to stabilize the wavelength. (2) CWDM modulate laser adopts the uncooled laser. CWDM avoids this difficulty. Telling from the name. WDM systems can be compatible with future all optical networks. which cause the high cost in the future capacity expansion. which is proved by the development of past years. The cost of whole CWDM system is only 30% of the cost of DWDM. development of system depends on the breakthrough of key technology and relevant standard formulation. but on the other hand it is very expensive. The experts within the industry point out the following Three disadvantages that currently exist in CWDM: (1) there are a few multiplexing wavelengths supported by CWDM in the single fiber. With very low cost. No Spreading without Permission 10 . so it greatly reduces the cost. At the same time. (3) No standard has yet been formulated for CWDM. WDM developed quickly both in China and abroad. The DFB laser adopted by CWDM system does not need cooling. To summarize. in the middle of 1990s. Compared with the DWDM system. and can multiplex 16 wavelength channels.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 5.7 Brief Introduction to CWDM DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) is undoubtedly the preferable technology in the current fiber application area. CWDM (coarse wavelength division multiplexing) emerges. the CWDM greatly reduces the system cost while providing certain amount of wavelength and transmission distance within 100 kilometers. The CWDM currently used generally works from 1270nm band to 1610nm. Ethernet. in the all optical networks realizable in the future. 1. However CWDM is the compromise of cost and performance and inevitably has some limitations on performance. which is very hard to implement and costs too much. DWDM is mainly applied to the long distance transmission network and CWDM system that is applied to metropolitan area network and Ethernet are widely used in commerce. It is also very flexible. so a single optical fiber can multiplex 2 to 16 optical wavelengths.

DWDM and CWDM? Briefly introduce two transmission modes of WDM equipment. Confidential Information of Huawei.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 1. No Spreading without Permission .OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.8 Questions 1) 2) 3) 4) 11 What are WDM. What is the open and integrated system? Briefly introduce the composition of the WDM system.

Coating Cladding n2 Core n1 Figure 1. No Spreading without Permission 12 .1 Optical Fiber Structures The kernel of optical fiber used in communication systems consists of a cylindrical glass core and a glass cladding. The whole fiber is cylindrical.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Chapter 2 WDM Transmission Media  Objectives: To master basic structures and types of optical fibers. The typical structure of optical fiber is shown in Figure 2-1. To know basic characteristics of optical fibers. The outermost layer is a plastic wear-resisting coating. 2.1 The typical structure of optical fiber Confidential Information of Huawei.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.

The other one is that the refractive index of the core is not a constant. This is also a classification method of optical fiber. there is little difference between the profiles of these two types of fiber.655. forming a light ray similar to the sine-wave through the fiber axis and guiding the light wave to propagate along the core. The common feature of this two fiber cross-section is that the refractive index of the core n1 is larger than that of the cladding n2. Hence this fiber is called graded-index fiber. As can be seen from this figure.2 Types of Optical Fiber Since the single-mode optical fiber has advantages of low internal attenuation. the continuous refraction occurs to the light wave in the core. At present. Hence. ITU-T has defined four types of single mode optical fiber with different design in Recommendations G. 2. The core diameter of a single mode fiber is very small and. The tracks of the two light rays are shown in Figure 2-2. step-index fiber or graded-index fiber can be classified into single mode fiber and multimode fiber according to the number of transmission modes.2 Three typical types of optical fibers Thickness of the core and refractive indexes of the core material and cladding material are critical to the properties of the fiber. the number of modes transmitted in the fiber is different. The diameters of fibers with a plastic jacket are less than 1mm. it is internationally agreed that DWDM systems will only utilize single mode fiber as transmission media. One is that the refractive index radial distributions of the core and the cladding are uniform. generally. 13 Confidential Information of Huawei.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies n2 n1 n2 n1 n2 n(r) Figure 1.653. This fiber is called step-index fiber. However.652. G. and the change of refractive index at the core-cladding boundary is a step function. No Spreading without Permission . This is also a necessary condition for the optical signal to transmit in the fiber. For a step-index fiber. G. total internal reflection can occur at the core-cladding boundary and the light wave can propagate along the core. For a graded-index fiber. and the core diameter of a multimode fiber is relatively large and often equal to 50m. It gradually decreases as the radial coordinate of the core increases until it equals to the index of the cladding. Figure 2-2 shows three typical optical fibers. large bandwidth. less than 10m.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.654 and G. easy upgrade and capacity expansion and low cost. there are two typical refractive index distributions in the fiber core-cladding cross-section. With the difference of the diameter size of the core of step-index and graded-index fibers.

They have similar properties.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies G. and the nominal mode filed diameter of G. The nominal mode filed diameter of G.6~9. is similar to G. the concept of single mode fiber core diameter is physically meaningless and should be replaced with the concept of mode field diameter.6m. The former is simple in manufacturing but has relatively larger macrobend loss and microbend loss while the later has larger connection loss. up to 18ps/(nm.652 fiber is currently a single mode fiber for extensive use.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.655 fiber.655 fiber at 1550nm wavelength area should be 8~11m with a deviation of less than 10%.3~1. G. it can also be divided into two categories: matched cladding fiber and depressed cladding fiber. a nonzero dispersion shifted single mode optical fiber. In addition. Because of the optical diffraction effect. Its zero dispersion point is still near 1310nm. G. a large effective area fiber suitable for higher capacity and longer distance has emerged.km).  Thought: Which type of optical fiber is widely laid at present? 2.1 Basic Features of Optical Fiber Physical Dimension (Mode Field Diameter) The fiber core diameter of a single mode fiber is 8~9m in the same magnitude as the operating wavelength 1. The dispersion at 1550nm is relatively high. No Spreading without Permission 14 . So single longitudinal mode laser must be used to eliminate the affect of the dispersion. called 1310nm property optimal single mode fiber and also called dispersion unshifted fiber. This kind of fiber is mainly designed to reduce the attenuation at 1550nm.5m with a deviation of less than 10%. since the field intensity distribution of the fundamental mode LP01 isn't confined within the fiber core. G.3. Confidential Information of Huawei.3 2.654 fiber is cut-off wavelength shifted single mode fiber.652 fiber at 1310nm wavelength area should be 8. Mode field diameter measures the concentrate level of the fundamental mode field spatial intensity distribution within the fiber. the zero dispersion point of this kind of fiber is shifted to the 1550nm window to match the minimum attenuation window.654 fiber is mainly used for submarine optical fiber communication with very long regenerator section distance. G. Its zero dispersion point is near 1510m and its effective area is up to 72 square mTherefore. According to the refractive index cross section of the core.653 fiber is called dispersion shifted fiber or 1550nm property optimal fiber. Except for the above-mentioned four types of standardized fiber. it is not easy to measure the exact value of the fiber cord diameter. By designing the refractive index cross section. It is suitable for DWDM system applications. it can effectively overcome the nonlinear affects and is especially suitable for DWDM system applications based on 10Gbit/s.653 fiber and preserves certain dispersion near 1550nm to avoid four-wave mixing phenomenon in DWDM transmission. This makes it possible to implement ultrahigh speed and ultra long distance optical transmission.

Absorption loss is caused by the fiber material where excessive metal impurity and OH.652. has no great effect on the attenuation constant in fiber.1~6.3. The absolute value of the dispersion coefficient of G. 3) Waveguide dispersion: In the fiber. respectively. scattering loss and bend loss. it is absorption loss and scattering loss that mainly determine the attenuation constant in fiber. Combining the above losses.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. As defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.093ps/(nm2.655 fiber should be within 0. three kinds of dispersion exist in optical fiber. This causes dispersion. However. this kind of scattering loss is much less than the former one. the dispersion coefficient is approximately 20ps/(nm. ITU-T G. causing wavelength independent scattering loss and upward shifting the whole curve of fiber loss spectrum.0 ps/(nm2.4dB/km. These three types of dispersion are called chromatic dispersion. Generally. signal components of different frequency propagate at different velocities along the fiber.5dB/km and 0. 2) Material dispersion: Because the refractive index of the fiber core material is a function of the frequency.3~0. 2.652 defines a zero dispersion wavelength range of 1300nm~1324nm and a maximum dispersion slope of 0. the attenuation constant of single mode fiber at 1310nm and 1550nm wavelength areas is 0. In the wavelength range of 1525~1575nm.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies The cladding diameter of both types of above-mentioned single mode optical fibers is 125m. for a signal carrying different frequencies in the same mode. 1) Modal dispersion: This is caused when the fiber carries multiple modes of the same frequency signal energy and different mode has different time delay during transmission.17~0. So. GeO2 and P2O5. dispersion is caused because of different group velocities during propagation. 2.653 defines a zero dispersion wavelength 1550nm and a dispersion slope of 0.km).5ps/(nm.25dB/km (1550nm). Bend loss. The physical dimension of these structural defects is much larger than the lightwave. respectively.085ps/(nm2.4dB/km (1310nm) and 0. No Spreading without Permission . Scattering loss is often caused in the case that a part of optical power is scattered outside the fiber when uneven refractive index distribution local area emerges within the fiber and causes light scattering because of the micro-change in fiber material density and uneven density of compositions such as SiO 2.km). scattering loss can be aroused if some defect occurs or some bubbles and gas scabs are remained at the core-cladding boundary.3 Dispersion Coefficient Dispersion in optical fiber refers to a physical phenomenon of signal distortion caused when various modes carrying signal energy or different frequencies of the signal have different group velocity and disperse from each other during propagation.km).ion absorb the light to result in loss.km) in the range of 1530~1565nm.2 Attenuation Constant Attenuation in optical fiber is mainly determined by three types of loss: absorption loss. ITU-T G. Or. the attenuation constant at 1310nm and 1550nm should be less than 0.km) in the wavelength range of 1525~1575nm where the maximum dispersion coefficient is 3.3. 15 Confidential Information of Huawei. as described above.

652 fiber G.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.4 Questions 1) 2) What are the basic structures and types of optical fibers? What kinds of dispersion are there in the optical fiber? Confidential Information of Huawei.655 fiber with positive dispersion coefficient Dispersion coefficient (ps/nm¡ ¤ km) 17 G.653 fiber G.655 fiber with negative dispersion coefficient 1310 1550 Wavelength¦ Ë (nm) 2. G. No Spreading without Permission 16 .1  Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Technical details: The following figure shows the dispersion characteristics of several types of fiber.

Their common features are small in dimension. the laser diode is required to operate at a standard wavelength and possess good stability. but its output characteristics curve is of better linearity. The major difference between the two types of semiconductor lasers in terms of their performance lies in their emitting spectrum. The light sources of the DWDM system are required to use lasers more advanced in technology and more excellent in performance in order to elongate the dispersion limited distance of the transmission system and to overcome the nonlinear effects of the fiber {such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The monochromatism of SLM laser is better than that of MLM laser. To understand the DWDM Multiplex/Demultiplex technology To understand the DWDM Optical Supervisory Channel 3.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. To sum up. modulation instability and four-wavelength mixing (FWM)}.1 Light source The function of light sources is to generate laser or fluorescent light. thus it is suitable for short-distance and small-capacity communication systems. No Spreading without Permission . Standard and stable wavelength. The semiconductor laser LD (Laser Diode) and semiconductor LED (Light Emitting Diode) used as light sources for optical fiber communication are both semiconductor devices. LED has a wider spectrum bandwidth with low modulation efficiency and low coupling efficiency with optical fiber. The operating wavelengths of DWDM systems are relatively dense.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies  Objective: To understand the requirements and solutions of DWDM light sources To understand the DWDM optical amplification technology. On the other hand. and light sources are important devices to constitute the optical fiber communication system. The major difference between LD and LED is that LD generates laser and LED generates fluorescent light. Confidential Information of Huawei. self-phase modulation (SPM). the wavelength spacing is from several nanometers to sub-nanometers. The emitting spectrum bandwidth of SLM laser is of 0. light in weight and low in power consumption. Generally. Hence.1 nm order. And LD is typically applicable to long-distance and large-capacity communication systems. the light source of the DWDM system has two outstanding features: 1) 2) 17 Larger dispersion tolerance value. and it has a long service life and low cost. and is widely used in high-speed PDH and SDH equipment. So. stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The emitting spectrum bandwidth of MLM laser is comparatively wider and of the nm order. The light sources used in high-speed optical fiber communication systems are classified into two categories: MLM lasers and SLM lasers. and only single harmonic peak can be observed. and multiple harmonic peaks can be observed. the non-electrical regeneration relay distance of DWDM systems is increased from 50~60km transmitted by a single SDH system to 500~600km. cross-phase modulation (XPM).

this modulator works as a switch. is actually a kind of wavelength (frequency) jitter inevitable for direct modulation of the sources. so no modulating frequency chirp occurs and the bandwidth of its optical spectrum keeps at minimum.1 Modulation Mode Of A Laser At present. The constant light source is a highly stable source which continuously emits a fixed wavelength and power. ensuring .5Gbit/s and transmission distance longer than 300km. Its structure is shown in Figure 3-1. called modulation chirp. in DWDM systems with optical line amplifiers. the lasers for transmission are generally indirectly modulated. Lasers adopting indirect modulation are relatively complex with big loss and high cost. not to modulate the laser directly but to add an external modulator in the laser output path to modulate the light wave. to modulate the light source directly and change the output light wave intensity by controlling the injection current into the semiconductor laser. 2. changes of the modulation current will result in the changes of the length of the laser resonant cavity.5Gbit/s. deteriorates its spectrum characteristics and limits the transmission rate and distance of the system. the spectrum characteristics of the light wave will not be affected. Hence. One characteristic of direct modulation is that the output power is in proportion to the modulation current. low loss and low cost. This variation. Confidential Information of Huawei. i. Direct modulation Direct modulation is also called internal modulation. Indirect modulation Indirect modulation:This modulation method is also called external modulation.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 3. 1. which will cause a linear variation of the emitting laser wavelength corresponding to the current. Generally. According to the electric modulation signal. There are two types of intensity modulation for light sources. No Spreading without Permission 18 .e. i.the quality of the spectrum.652 optical fiber.1.e.e. In fact. direct modulation of the lasers can be considered to save the cost. the transmission distance is ≤ 100km and the transmission rate ≤ 2. The chirp broadens the bandwidth of the emitting spectrum of the laser. However. but its modulating frequency chirp is very low.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. for conventional G. i. direct modulation and indirect modulation. During the modulation process. LED or LD sources used in traditional PDH and SDH systems under the rate of 2. the optical modulator processes the highly stable laser light from the constant light source in an “enabled” or “disabled” manner.5Gbit/s employ this modulation mode. For DWDM systems without optical line amplifiers. It has the advantages of simple structure. It is not affected by the electric modulation signal during light emision. the optical fiber communication systems in wide use employ intensity modulation — direct detection system. It can be used in systems with the transmission rate ≥2.

Acoustic-optical effect refers to the phenomenon that the medium changes under the pressure of an acoustic wave when it propagates through the medium. When the modulator is biased. as illustrated in Figure 3-2. The commonly used modulators are electro-absorption modulators which. Thus the launched power is minimum and the modulator is turned off. meet most application requirements in their performances. acoustic-optical modulators and waveguide modulators. A crystal that is able to generate the electric-optical effect is called electric-optical crystal.1 Structure of the external modulated laser External modulators frequently used are electro-optic modulators. As a maturing technology. thus affecting the transmission characteristics of the light wave. light in weight and easy for optical integration. Thus the launched power of this wavelength is maximum and the modulator is turned on. The acoustic-optical modulator is made by utilizing the acoustic-optical effect of the medium. the boundary wavelength of the material absorption region shifts and the wavelength from the laser is within this region. No Spreading without Permission . the wavelength from the laser is out of the absorption range of the modulator material. operates at the boundary wavelength of the material absorption region. The electric-optical effect refers to the phenomenon that the electric field causes the variation of the refractive index of a crystal. The waveguide modulator is manufactured by diffusing titanium (Ti) into LiNbO 2 substrate material. It has many advantages such as small in size. When the modulator isn't biased. Electro-absorption modulator.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. According to the integration or separation conditions of the light source and the external modulator.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Figure 2. then making the specific waveguide dimensions by the photolithography process. This change causes the variation of the refractive index of the medium. small and compact and integrated with the light source. a kind of loss modulator. external modulated lasers can be classified into two categories: integrated external modulated laser and separated external modulated laser. 19 Confidential Information of Huawei. The basic operating principle of the photoelectric modulator is the crystal linear electric-optical effect. integrated external modulation becomes the development trend of DWDM light sources.

OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. Hence. the deviation of the central wavelength should not be greater than one fifth of the optical channel interval. 3.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Figure 2. Moreover. No Spreading without Permission 20 . The separated external modulated laser generally uses the constant output laser (CW + LiNbO3} Mach-Zehnder external modulator.1.8nm).5Gbit/s over 600km. the information of the electrical signal is transferred onto the optical signal and optical intensity modulation is implemented. suitable for batch production. its cost is relatively low compared to the electro-absorption modulated external laser.2 Wavelength Stability of the Laser In the DWDM system. the combined optical signal is an interference signal with varying intensity. The frequency chirp of the separated external modulated laser can be equal to zero. wavelength stability of the laser is a critical problem. With this method. According to the requirement of recommendation. far beyond the transmission distance of directly modulated lasers.3 M-Z external modulator This modulator separates the light input into two equal signals which enter the two optical branches of the modulator respectively. Changes of the refractive index of the optical branches will result in the change variation of the signal phases. which is then put on a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). when the signals from the two branches recombine at the output end. as illustrated in Figure 3-3. For Confidential Information of Huawei. An InGaAsP photoelectric integrated circuit is to integrate a laser and an electroabsorption modulator on a single chip. it is easy to integrate the laser and the modulator. the DWDM system has strict requirements to the wavelength stability of the lasers. LD Figure 2. Its reliability is similar to that of standard OFB lasers with an average service life of 20 years. This typical photoelectric integrated circuit is called electro-absorption modulated laser (EML). For example. These two optical branches employ an electro-optical material whose refractive index changes with the magnitude of the external electrical signal applied to it. So its development is fast. Therefore. Because the optical channel interval is very small (possibly as low as 0.2 Variation of the absorption wavelength of the electro-absorption modulator The electro-absorption modulator can be manufactured with the same technological process as for the semiconductor laser. It can support the signal transmission of 2.

02nm/°C and its central wavelength meets the requirement within the range of 15°C-35°C. the drive current of the laser can also affect the wavelength. the higher the requirement. For the 1. smaller than the effect of the temperature in one order. In addition to the temperature. According to the corresponding characteristics of the wavelength and chip temperature. shift an optical channel to another be controlled within 0. It is ideal to directly utilize a wavelength sensitive component for wavelength feedback control of the light source. MWQ-DFB laser technology can guarantee that the wavelength deviation meets the requirements of the DWDM system during the service life (20 years) of the laser. The temperature sensitivity of the wavelength is 0.5nm variation of the wavelength can one. temperature conduction by connection wires from the encapsulation to the laser platform and inward radiation from the encapsulation package will also affect the device wavelength). The above methods can effectively solve the problem of short-term wavelength stability.5ųm DFB laser. The sensitivity is 0. In some cases. the EML can be adjusted to a specific wavelength with an adjustable range of 1. the variation should specific requirement is determined according to smaller the interval. the wavelength-temperature coefficient is about 0. The principle diagram is shown in Figure 3-4. No Spreading without Permission . Additionally.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. The chip temperature is adjusted by changing the drive current of the cooler and then stabilized at a basically constant value by using a thermal resistance as feedback.6nm. The the wavelength spacing.008nm/°C. wavelength stabilization technology. the distributed feedback laser (DFB) controls its wavelength by controlling the temperature of the laser chip to achieve wavelength stability. However.e.g. encapsulation temperature may also affect the device wavelength (e. In welldesigned encapsulation. This temperature feedback control method completely depends on the chip temperature of the DFB laser.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies example. they are incapable of dealing with long-term wavelength variations caused by factors such as laser aging. Figure 1.1 Wavelength control principle  ? Think It Over: Why does the DWDM system set strict requirements to the wavelength stability? 21 Confidential Information of Huawei. the So the lasers should adopt strict Fine tuning of the wavelength of the integrated electro-absorption modulated laser is mainly implemented by adjusting the temperature. By adjusting the chip temperature in the range of 15°C to 35°C. In practical systems. its effect can be controlled to minimum.2nm.008nm/mA. this effect can be ignored. Standard wavelength control and reference frequency disturbance wavelength control in this type of control solutions are under development and quite promising. i. a 0. The normal operating temperature is 25°C. At present.

1 Positive Intrinsic Negative Photodiode (PIN) PIN photodiode is a semiconductor device. the optical signal sent from the optical fiber is rather weak. and collide with the crystal lattice in the depletion region at a very high speed. The gain and response speed of the avalanche photodiode is better than those of the PIN photodiode. that is APD. When photons are absorbed in the depletion region. generally only about several nanowatts. In the signal amplification process. the optical current is multiplied in the photodiode. PIN photodiode has the advantages of low cost and easy use.2. optical power of only several milliwatts is emitted from lasers and through long-distance fiber transmission to reach the receiving end. but the noise characteristic of the avalanche photodiode is not so satisfactory. Generally. APD multiplies the optical current utilizing the avalanche multiplication effect of photo-generated carriers in the depletion region.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 3. it is composed of an intrinsic (light doped) area between the P type and the n type. photo-generated carriers are excited and accelerated by the strong electric field. The additional noise caused by the photoelectric conversion process should be as low as possible. Confidential Information of Huawei.2. It should work stably and reliably. the output current will be of only several nanowatts. It should work at a high response speed. but its response speed is slow. forming a chain reaction.2 Photoelectric Detector The function of photoelectric detector is to convert the received optical signal to corresponding electric signal. The avalanche multiplication effect means that a strong electric field will be formed in the depletion region when a high reverse bias voltage is applied to the P-N junction.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. 3. Small in size and convenient in use 5) There are two types of semiconductor photoelectric detectors that can satisfy the above requirements: positive intrinsic negative (PIN) photodiode and avalanche photodiode.2 Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) In long-distance optical fiber communication systems. with good linear properties and wide frequency range. If a PIN photodiode is used for detection. and the output current is in proportion to the input optical power. various types of circuit noise will be inevitably introduced thus decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the photoreceiver and degrades its sensitivity. an almost infinite internal resistance appears (just like open circuit). so very high requirements are put forward to the photoelectric detector. The optical signal received at the receiving end is very weak. and has comparatively satisfactory stability and long service life. Thus new photo-generated carriers are generated. No Spreading without Permission 22 . When this device is inversely biased. Another kind of photodiode with the internal current amplification function is adopted in optical fiber communication systems in order to overcome the above shortcomings of PIN photodiode. The output current must go through multistage amplification in order to make the judgment circuit of the photoreceiver work normally. 1) 2) 3) 4) Its responsivity in operating wavelength range should be high enough. 3. the signal distortion should be as less as possible. Therefore.

EDFA and Raman fiber amplifier are fiber amplifiers in practical application. as illustrated in Figure 3-5: Figure 1. different bit rates and signal formats require different regenerators. Just like SOA. so they support any bit rate and signal format.3 Optical Amplifier We know that there is attenuation of the optical fiber. which results in high network cost. This property is often described as that optical amplifiers are transparent to any bit rate and signal format. various modulation formats and different wavelengths. And the non-linear fiber amplifier utilizes the non-linear effect of the fiber to amplify the optical signal. 3. EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) has many advantages such as high gain. its appearance has turned the wavelength-division multiplexing and all-optical network theory into reality. and the transmission distance is thus limited by attenuation. Second. that is the optical amplification technology. FOA can be classified into Rare Earth Ion Doped Fiber Amplifier and Non-linear Fiber Amplifier. Compared to regenerators. As a key component of new generation optical communication systems. WDM technology did not play an important role in optical fiber communication until optical amplifiers. An optical signal will be amplified when it goes through this fiber segment. And only optical amplifiers support the timedivision multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing networks with various bit rates. every channel needs a regenerator. the operation theory of the rare earth ion doped fiber amplifier is also the stimulated radiation. So. A traditional way to amplify optical signals is to use regenerators. there are two major types of optical amplifier in use: semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and fiber optical amplifier (FOA). No Spreading without Permission . First. But there are several disadvantages with this method.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 3. In fact. large output 23 Confidential Information of Huawei. a semiconductor amplifier is a laser diode without or with little optical feedback. especially EDFA. EDFA is the most popular optical amplifier. optical amplifiers have two major advantages thanks to the above feature. So. people wish to find a way to amplify optical signals without regenerators. appeared. but also the amplification of optical signals in a certain wavelength rage.3. optical amplifiers support not only the amplification of single signal wavelength – like a regenerator. In another word. a regenerator can only work under a determined signal-bit rate in a determined signal format.1 OA Optical amplifiers do not need to convert optical signals into electric signals and then convert them back into optical signals. the active medium (or gain medium) of FOA is a segment of special optical fiber or transmission optical fiber which is connected to the pumping laser.1 Optical Amplifier Overview Optical amplifiers amplify optical signals in a simply way. FOA is different from SOA. First. we have to amplify optical signals in order to transmit them through a longer distance.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. At present. SOA is actually the active medium of the semiconductor laser. optical signals will attenuate during transmission along the optical fiber. Second. optical amplifiers simply amplify any signal they receive.

To illustrate its amplification principle.3 EDFA Flat Gain Control In DWDM systems. E2 is the metastable state energy level and E3 is the high energy level. E2 level is a metastable energy band on which particles' survival span is relatively long. the high energy level is not stable and erbium ions are soon dropped to the metastable state E2 via a non-radiation decay process (i. Its gain medium is the transmission fiber itself. Particles excited by the pump light continuously gather on this level in the form of nonradiative transition.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. i. an EDFA can be a booster amplifier (BA). It is an indispensable key component in large capacity DWDM systems. inverse distribution of the particle number is achieved. When it is used together with conventional EDFA. According to its location in the DWDM optical transmission network.3. we need to begin with the energy level diagram of Er ions. Confidential Information of Huawei.3.e. Theoretically. where E1 is the basic state energy level. E2 and E3 in Figure 3-6). No Spreading without Permission 24 . low noise figure and the amplifying characteristic independent of the system bit rate and data format. it will greatly decrease the system noise figure and increase the transmission span. polarization independence. wide operating optical bandwidth.1 EDFA energy level diagram When high-energy pump lasers are used to excite the EDF. 3. a line amplifier (LA) or a preamplifier (PA). However. The gain wavelength of Raman Fiber Amplifier is determined by the pump light wavelength. implementing the function of continuous amplifying the signal light transmitted in the EDF. as shown in Figure 3-6. signal amplification of any wavelength can be achieved only if the pump source wavelength is proper. Figure 1. The outer electrons of Er ions have a structure of 3 energy levels (E1. no photon is released).1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies power. 3. When an optical signal with the wavelength of 1550nm passes through this erbiumdoped fiber. and there are more and more optical amplifiers needed to be in serial connection. This greatly increases the quantity of photons in the signal light. Thus. there are more and more optical channels to be multiplexed. It is a kind of optical fiber doped with a certain concentration of Er3+.2 Erbium Doped Fiber (EDF) EDF is the kernel of the optical fiber amplifier. This requires that a single amplifier occupy a wider and wider bandwidth. and its noise figure is low. particles in the metastable state are transited to the basic state via stimulated radiation and generate photons identical to those in the incident signal light. lots of bound electrons of the erbium ions are excited from the basic state to the high energy level E3.e.

With the currently mature technology 1dB gain flattened range can be achieved which almost expands to the whole erbium pass-band (1525nm~1560nm). the red band area is preferred when the transmission capacity is less than 40Gbit/s. Technically. basically solving the problem of gain unflatness of ordinary EDFA. Figure 2-7 compares the gain curves of non-aluminum-doped EDFA and aluminum-doped EDFA. To solve the above-mentioned problem and adapt to the development of DWDM systems. It greatly improves the operating wavelength bandwidth of the EDFA and suppresses gain fluctuation. No Spreading without Permission . the range of 1525nm~1540nm in EDFA gain curve is called blue band area and the range of 1540nm ~1565nm is called red band area.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies However. And the gain fluctuation between 1530 and 1542nm is very large.1 Improvement of EDFA gain curve flatness  Technical details: Performance comparison between EDFA gain unflatness and flatness is given in Figure 3-8. Cascading amplification of amplifier gain unflatness Cascading amplification of amplifier gain flatness Figure 1. When the channel arrangement of the DWDM system exceeds the flat gain region. channels near 1540nm will suffer severe signal-to-noise deteriaration and normal signal output can't be guaranteed. Generally.2 Diagram of EDFA gain flatness 25 Confidential Information of Huawei. a range of approximately 12nm. up to about 8dB. a gain flattened EDFA based on aluminum-doped silicon optical fiber is developed.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. EDFA based on ordinary pure silicon optical fiber has a very narrow flat gain region only between 1549 and 1561nm. 1525nm-1565nm non-aluminum-doped EDFA Gain 1525nm-1565nm aluminum-doped EDFA Gain Wavelength Wavelength Figure 1.

all the energy will concentrate to the one wavelength left and its power may be up to about 17dBm. In limiting case. When some signals of the input wavelengths are lost. abrupt increase of the electrical level may result in error codes. OUTPUT INPUT TAP PUMP PIN TAP PIN Non-linear control Figure 1.  Technical details: Performance comparison between gain-locking EDFA and non-gain-locking EDFA falling wavelength >1dB adding wavelength >1dB Figure 1. At the transmit end. their energy will be transferred to those unlost signals due to gain competition.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 3. the output power of this wavelength is very small. and this will also cause lots of error codes. the output power of the saturation wavelength will automatically increase in order to compensate the energy of the lost wavelengths and maintain the output power and gain of the EDFA to be constant. The internal monitoring electric circuit of the EDFA controls the output of the pump source by monitoring the input-output power ratio. if seven out of the eight wavelengths are lost. the output power of the pump source will be reduced in order to keep the gain (output/input) of the EDFA unchanged. No Spreading without Permission 26 . There are many gain-locking technologies for EDFA. there is a saturation wavelength method. as illustrated in Figure 3-9. so its speed is faster than controlling the pump source.1 Gain-locking technology of controlling the pump light source Furthermore. the total output power of the EDFA is reduced and the output signal power is kept stable. thus the power of other wavelengths increases. in addition to the eight operating wavelengths. At the receiving end. the output power of the saturation wavelength will correspondingly decrease. When some line signals are lost. Via the feedback circuit. the system sends another wavelength as the saturation wavelength. In normal cases.3.2 Gain variation diagram of no-gain-locking EDFA dropping and adding wavelengths Confidential Information of Huawei. This method directly controls the output of the saturation wavelength laser.4 EDFA Gain-Lock EDFA gain-locking is an important issue because the WDM system is a multiwavelength working system. One typical method is to control the gain of the pump light source. When the multiwavelength line signals are restored.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. Hence. When signals of certain wavelengths are lost . This will result in strong nonlinear effects or receiving power overload of the receiver. the input power will decrease and the output-input power ratio will increase.

but its gain spectrum is not flat.5dB Falling wavelength adding wavelength <0. large output power and minimum cross-talk. This is also the limitation of rare mental doped fiber amplifiers.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies <0. Special measures must be adopted in WDM system applications in order to flatten the gain of EDFA. High coupling efficiency. Optical surge problem: EDFA can enlarge the input optical power rapidly. 6) EDFA is an indispensable key component in high capacity DWDM systems. Praseodymium doped fibers can only work on 1310nm window. Major advantages of EDFA: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Its working wavelength is consistent with the minimum attenuation window of the single mode optical fiber.3. This results in a thorough interaction between the light and the gain medium Er ion. i. and the fiber is characteristic of linear transmission. The optical surge phenomenon is especially obvious in the case of EDFA cascading. low noise figure. optical surge will occur at the moment when the input signal power jumps.3 Gain variation diagram of gain-locking EDFA dropping and adding wavelengths 3. since its dynamic gain changes slowly. highly centralizing the light energy. 2. High gain. The core of EDF is smaller than that of transmission fiber.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. and higher light energy conversion efficiency if added with EDF of appropriate length. When very high optical power is injected into optical fiber---nonlinear optical medium.3. a peak occurs to the output optical power. signal light and pumping light are transmitted in EDF at the same time. the optical power is not high. 3. As a fiber amplifier. However. No Spreading without Permission .6 Raman Fiber Amplifier In normal fiber system. Major disadvantages of EDFA: 1) 2) 3) The gain wavelength range is fixed: the energy level difference between the energy levels of Er ion confines the working wavelength range of EDFA to a fixed 1550nm window.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of EDFA 1.5dB Figure 1. Gain bandwidth unflatness: EDFA has a wide gain bandwidth. High energy conversion efficiency. it can be easily coupled with the transmission fiber. Stable gain characteristics: EDFA is insensitive to temperature and polarization independence Gain characteristic independent to system bit rate and data format. the pumping light of high energy (shorter wavelength) scatters 27 Confidential Information of Huawei. For instance.e. The peak power can be up to a few watts and is possible to damage the O/E converter and the end surface of the optical connector.

However. the signal light power is comparatively low along the fiber. and for the use of stimulated Raman scattering in fiber. As the amplification is distributed along the fiber instead of centralized in a section. As a result. e.g. it can produce signal amplification of any wavelength if the pump source wavelength is proper. Theoretically. The incident photons are called pumping light. that is. Quantum mechanics describes the phenomenon as that a photon of incident light is scattered by a molecule into another photon of lower frequency and the molecule implements its transition between vibration states. as illustrated in Figure 3-12. The usage of multiple pump sources can also get much wider gain bandwidth than that of EDFA (Being limited by energy level transition mechanism. sea fiber-optic cable communication. GAIN PUMP1 PUMP2 PUMP3 30nm 70~100nm Figure 1. It is especially suitable for cases disallowing repeaters.1 Raman gain spectrum of multiple pumps 2) The gain medium is the transmission fiber itself.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. No Spreading without Permission 28 . Normal Raman scattering needs very high laser power. the difference between the output power when the amplifier is on and that when the amplifier is off. and thus implement long-distance trunk-free transmission and remote pumping. If a weak signal and a strong pumping light wave are transmitted through the fiber at the same time. Confidential Information of Huawei. the weak signal can be amplified. This enables Raman fiber amplifiers to amplify optical signals online and constitute distributed amplification. EDFA has a gain bandwidth of 80nm only. Such SRS-based OA is call Raman optical amplifier. thus reducing the interference from non-linear effect. especially FWM effect. Experiments prove that quartz fiber has wide SRS gain spectrum and a wide gain peak around a frequency 13THz lower than that of the pumping light.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies and shifts a small portion of incident power to the lowering light of another frequency. the monomode optical fiber can limit the interaction between high-intensity laser field and medium in a quite small section and thus increases the optical power intensity of incident optical field. The frequency lowering scale is determined by the vibration mode of the medium. in which the dotted lines are the gain spectrum of the three pump sources. Raman optical amplifier’s gain is the switch gain. and the wavelength of the weak signal is set within the Raman gain bandwidth of the strong pumping light. the interaction between the optical field and the medium can keep for a long distance. in fiber communication. This feature enables Raman fiber amplifiers to amplify in the wavelength range beyond EDFA. In low attenuation fiber. allowing for adequate energy coupling in the meantime.) Therefore. and the frequency-shifting photons of lower frequency are called stokes wave. Raman optical amplifier has three outstanding features: 1) Its gain wavelength is determined by the pumping light wavelength. the diameter of the core of monomode optical fiber as a nonlinear medium is very small (generally under 10μm). it is irreplaceable in the development in the whole low attenuation region (1270nm – 1670nm) of the fiber.

1 DWDM components The performance of wavelength division multiplexing components used in WDM systems meets the requirements of ITU-T G. large crosstalk attenuation and wide pass band range. fiber coupler. as illustrated in Figure 3-13. There must be obvious safety warning signs on OA to ensure personal safety.7 Related Technical Features    The maximum optical power electrical level of single channel or multiple channel fiber is +17dBm or +20dBm.671 and the relevant recommendations. optical multiplexer and optical demultiplexer are the same. There are many kinds of optical wavelength division multiplexers. are the core parts in wavelength division multiplexing systems. No Spreading without Permission . only differentiated by the directions of input and output. When the fiber is disconnected. Theoretically. Optical multiplexer is mainly used to combine multi-signals into a single fiber for transmission. The performance of WDM systems depends on the WDM components.1 3) Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Low noise fact. fiber grating and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). optical demultiplexer is mainly used to separate multiple wavelength signals transmitted in a single fiber. The service life of the optical component (pump source) of OA should be at least 300. little insertion loss. approximately including four types: interferometric optical filter. it will largely decrease the system noise figure and increase the transmission span. that is. All of which are actually optical filters. The optical joint and optical connector should be kept clean.4 Optical Multiplexer and Optical Demultiplexer Wavelength division multiplexing components. Figure 1. and their performance determines that of the whole system to a great extent. 3.. 29 Confidential Information of Huawei. optical multiplexer and optical demultiplexer. When it is used together with ordinary EDFA.3. The requirements of which are enough channels.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. the pump source should automatically shut down or decrease the EDFA output power down to firm power. 3.000 h.

Fiber Bragg grating can be feasibly designed and manufactured at low cost. the optical signals with different wavelengths are reflected in different angles due to the angular dispersion function of the grating. It is manufactured employing the interference of high power ultraviolet light beams to form periodic variation of refractive index at the optical fiber core. So it can be fabricated into band-pass or band-stop filter with small channel spacing. Hence. as shown in the following figure. making it necessary and feasible to adopt temperature control measures.4. The inverse process is also correct. 131 0.1 Principle of blazed optical grating wavelength division mutiplexer This optical grating requires high manufacturing accuracy and is not suitable for mass production.012nm/°C. The most prevalent diffraction grating is made by depositing epoxy resin on a glass substrate and then making grating lines on the epoxy resin. it is extensively applied in DWDM system. If temperature control measures are adopted.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. Typically. The accuracy can be up to 10000 lines per centimeter. it is very sensitive to polarization and its optical channel bandwidth-to-spacing ratio is not satisfactory.0004nm/°C. When the incident light reaches the optical grating. Then these signals are converged to different output optical fibers via lenses in order to implement wavelength selection function. The advantage of the blazed optical grating is high-resolution wavelength selection function. its temperature drift varies with the thermal expansion coefficient and refractive index of the material. the temperature shift can be reduced to 0.5nm. the grating type component works in parallel and its insertion loss doesn't increase with the number of wavelengths multiplexed. Additionally. Except for the above traditional optical fiber component. Moreover. ¦ Ë 1¦ Ë 2¦ Ë 3¦ 4 ˦ Ë 5¡ ¦ Ë n output (in) Diffraction grating ¦ Ë 1¦ Ë 2¦ Ë ¡ ¦ Ë n input (out) Figure 1. the isolation is up to 55dB.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 3. At present. For a wavelength spacing of 1nm. as shown in Figure 3-14.1 Optical Grating Type Wavelength Division Multiplexer Optical grating type wavelength division multiplexer. No Spreading without Permission 30 . Its filtering characteristic is flat inband and very steep out-of-band (rolling slope is better than 150dB/nm and out-of-band suppress ratio is up to 50dB). it is generally applied in experimental scientific research. the component temperature shift is approximately as high as 0. At present. The disadvantage of blazed grating is relatively large insertion loss. generally as high as 3~8dB. forming the reflective-type blazed diffraction grating.5nm-spacing wavelengths can be multiplexed at good isolation. employs the angular dispersion component to separate and combine optical signals of different wavelengths. hence acquiring large number of multiplexing channels. It has very low insertion loss and stable temperature characteristic. Moreover. Confidential Information of Huawei. This component can be directly melted with the optical fiber of the system. The blazed grating type filter has excellent wavelength selectivity and can reduce the wavelength spacing to about 0. a kind of angular dispersion type component. Therefore the optical spectrum utilization is low and the wavelength faulttolerance requirement for the light source and the wavelength division mutiplexer component is relatively high. which can separate most energy of specific wavelength from other wavelengths and focus it in centralized directions. the manufacturing technology for optical fiber Bragg grating filter is getting more sophisticated.

the reflected light suddenly decreases and most light becomes transmitted light. Thus. the reflected light has no phase shift. when only 4 to 16 wavelengths are involved. different refractive indexes and different thickness combined according to design requirements. And if epoxy resin is used along the light path.2 Optical fiber Bragg grating filter However this kind of optical fiber grating has relatively narrow wavelength range. the light reflected by the low refractive layer undergoes a 360 0 phase shift and in-phase superposes with the light reflected by the high refractive layer. The disadvantage is that the limited number of channels.0005nm/°C. reflected lights of the layers superpose near the central wavelengths and form intensive reflected light at the front-end surface of the filter. DTF interference filter is composed of tens of dielectric films of different materials. No Spreading without Permission . Layers of high refractive index and low refractive index are alternatively overlapped. In wavelength division multiplexing systems. forming the required filter characteristics. 31 Confidential Information of Huawei. When the light incidents on the high refractive layer. this component has relatively long design and manufacturing process and low output of production. Since the layer thickness is 1/4 wavelength (90 0).2 Dielectric Film Wavelength Division Multiplexer Dielectric film filter type wavelength division multiplexer is a kind of core interactive wavelength division multiplexer consisting of dielectric film (DTF). the film interference type filter can be made to band pass certain wavelength range and band stop the other wavelength range. allowing flexible applications. the reflected light undergoes a 180 0 phase shift. if the film filter type wavelength division multiplexer is made of soft materials.4. The specific characteristics are related to its structure. its wavelength may be changed under the environmental influence because the filter can easily absorb moisture. The main features of dielectric film filter wavelength division multiplexer are as follows: miniaturization and structural stability of the component can be implemented via design. However. Additionally. and its insertion loss is low and channel isolation is good. Accordingly. The structural principle of the film interference type filter is shown in the following figure. it is hard to achieve high isolation and narrow bandwidth. Each film layer is 1/4 wavelength in thickness. For instance. confining it to single wavelength. In the highly backward reflecting area. this type of wavelength division multiplexing component is relatively ideal. when the light incidents on the low refractive layer.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. 3. the signal pass-band is flat and polarization-independent.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Ultraviole light interference ¦ 1˦ 2˦ 3Ë ¦ 2Ë Periodic variation of the refractive index (grating) Figure 1. the temperature stability is better than 0. The benefit it brings forth is that the filters can be added or removed according to the number of wavelength used. When employing hard dielectric film material.

Then two optical fibers processed via the same method are butt jointed and coated with a layer of index matched solution between them.1 Principle of film interference filter type de-multiplexer 3.3 Fused Conical Type Wavelength Division Multiplexer There are two types of optical fiber coupler. making it especially suitable for ultrahigh-speed and large capacity wavelength division multiplexing systems.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. Therefore it will become a preferred option for implementing optical switching in future optical transport networks. large number of channels and flat pass-band. No Spreading without Permission 32 . Moreover. drawing multiple fibers under hot-melt condition to form a cone and slightly twisting and fusing them together. the required coupling power can be obtained via evanescent wave coupling on the conical region.4 Integrated Optical Waveguide Type Wavelength Division Multiplexer Integrated optical waveguide type wavelength division multiplexer is a plane waveguide component based on optical integration technology. The extensively used one of which is fused biconical tapered coupler. The typical manufacturing process is to deposit a thin layer of silica glass on the silicon substrate.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies ¦ Ë1-4 ¦ Ë1 filter Self-focusing lens ¦ Ë1 ¦ Ë3 filter ¦ Ë2 ¦Ë 3 ¦ Ë4 Glass Figure 1. The second type of coupler removes part of cladding of the optical fiber by grinding and polishing. except for wavelength division multiplexer. leaving only a thin cladding layer.4. and form the expected pattern by utilizing photetch and etch. it can be fabricated into matrix structure to add/drop optical signal channels (OADM). Its structure is sketched in Figure 3-17. Fused conical type wavelength division multiplexing component is simple to manufacture and is extensively applied. 3. Thus the two fibers can couple via the evanescent wave in the cladding and obtain the expected coupling power. Japan. including small wavelength spacing. i. Confidential Information of Huawei.e. Because the cores of different fibers are extremely close to each other. It has many advantages.4. This component supports integration manufacture and has great application prospective in future access networks. A typical component which uses integrated optical waveguide wavelength division multiplexer is Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) optical multiplexer/de-multiplexer manufactured by NTT Company.

flat in band. 1. large number of multiplexing channels and small size. large isolation. No Spreading without Permission .5~10 Diffractive grating type Dielectric film type Fusible cone type Integrated optical waveguide type Angular dispersion Interference/ absorption Wavelength dependent Plane waveguide ≤-30 3~6 Common 1~100 2~32 ≤-25 2~6 Relatively easy Easy 10~100 2~6 ≤-(10~45) 0.1 Comparison of various wavelength division multiplexing components Component type Mechanism Mass production Number of channels 131 Noise(dB) Insertion loss (dB) Main disadvantages Common Channel spacing (nm) 0.1 Principle of AWG wavelength division multiplexer 3.5 Performances of Wavelength Division Multiplexing Components Table 1. integrated optical waveguide type and dielectric film filter type. Their relevant parameters should meet optical multiplexer parameters requirements in Table 3-2.4. steep insertion loss variation out band.1 Requirements of the optical multiplexer parameters Item 33 Unit 16-channel index 32-channel index Confidential Information of Huawei.2~1. Table 1. At present.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. In order to insure the performance of the wavelength division multiplexing systems.5 1~5 4~32 ≤-25 6~11 Temperature sensitive Small number of channels Small number of channels Large insertion loss 3.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Waveguide grating λ1¡ λ2 ¡ Free space Fan-like waveguide Fan-like waveguide Figure 1.4. good temperature stability. the following basic requirements to optical multiplexing components are needed: low insertion loss. there are two commonly used types of 16-channel and 32-channel optical multiplexer.6 Basic Requirements to Optical Multiplexing Components Wavelength division multiplexing components are important in wavelength division multiplexing systems. Optical multiplexer (OMU) The optical multiplexer of WDM system can be implemented via various technologies.

dielectric film filter type. Coded Mark Inversion (CMI) for supervisory channel is used as the line code type. being 1510 nm. D1-D12). At present.5 <0. the OSC must lie outside the available gain bandwidth of EDFA (out band OSC). ADM or REG. no matter TM.5 Optical Supervisory Channel In SDH system. what if the service bearing in DWDM channel is otherwise service and not SDH signals? And management and monitoring information cannot depend upon services. Table 1. which is called the Optical Supervising Channel (OSC). there are three commonly used types of 16-channel and WDM system optical demultiplexer. A special wavelength channel can be added to DWDM system for system management. Optical demultiplexer (ODU) The optical demultiplexer of WDM system can be implemented via various technologies. and integrated optical waveguide type.5 DB >22 >22 DB >25 >25 DB <2 <3 2.2 * >0.2 * 3. the gain area of EDFA is 1530 nm -1565 nm. Moreover. That is why a separate channel must be used to manage DWDM equipment. if wavelength bears overhead bytes in SDH. No Spreading without Permission 34 . it is still a problem which SDH signal is to be used. As service signals have only a light-to-light process instead of add/drop of service signals. Their relevant parameters should meet the requirements in Table 3-3.5 0. E2.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. Differed from SDH system. line amplifier equipment in DWDM system only performs optical amplifying to service signals. For the optical line amplifiers adopting Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) technology. the network administrator can manage and monitor network equipment via the overhead bytes in SDH frame structure (such as E1. a signal must be added to monitor the OA running status.1 Requirements of the optical demultiplexer parameters Item Channel spacing Insertion loss Reflection coefficient Adjacent channel isolation Non-adjacent channel isolation Polarization dependence loss Maximum difference of each channel insertion loss Temperature characteristics -1dB bandwidth -20dB bandwidth Unit GHz DB nm DB 16-channel index 100 <8 40 >25 32-channel index 100 <10 40 >25 DB >25 >25 DB 0.1 Insertion loss Reflection coefficient Operating Wavelength Range Polarization dependence loss Adjacent channel isolation Non-adjacent channel isolation Maximum difference of each channel insertion loss Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies DB DB nm <10 >40 1548-1561 <12 >40 1530-1561 DB <0. Next.5 DB <2 <3 nm/℃ * * nm nm >0. optical fiber Bragg grating type. Confidential Information of Huawei.

the supervisory channel is separated before the main channel is pre-amplified and demultiplexed by the system. The wavelength of the optical supervisory channel is located beyond the gain area bandwidth of the optical amplifier. but it is terminated and regenerated in every site This is contrary to the main channel. while in receiving direction. the supervisory channel is separated in the first place. The wavelength division equipment only provides it with transparent optical channels.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.2 Interface parameters for supervisory channel The interface parameters for supervisory channel are shown in Table 3-4. 3. Therefore.1 Requirements on Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) The requirements on DWDM to optical supervisory channel are as follows:     The optical supervisory channel doesn't limit the pump wavelength of the optical amplifier. for Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) uses the laser with these wavelengths as the pump source and Raman optical amplifier uses the laser with the wavelength around 1480nm as the pump source at the same time. the wavelength of the optical supervisory channel is 1510nm or 1625nm. No Spreading without Permission . for which will occupy bandwidth resources of 1310 window. so that the optical supervisory channel will not be affected when the optical amplifier fails. hindering the traffic in 1310nm window. while in receiving direction. According to the recommendations of ITU-T. in the OLA site. Usually. the supervisory channel is combined in the end in the sending direction. According to the above requirements: 1) 2) 3) 4) The wavelength of the optical supervisory channel should not be 980nm and 1480nm. the optical supervisory channel of DWDM system should be completely independent of the main channel. so that the distance between stations will not be confined due to the power of OSC.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies 3. In the OTM site. while such independence between the two channels is embodied fully in signal flow directions. the wavelength of the optical supervisory channel must be located beyond the gain bandwidth of EDFA. The optical supervisory channel is still available when the line amplifier fails. The optical supervisory channel doesn't restrict the traffic in the 1310nm wavelength. For optical line amplifiers adopting erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier (EDFA) technology. As seen from the above. The wavelength of the optical supervisory channel should not be 1310nm. the supervisory channel does not take part in amplifying in the whole transmission.5. The optical supervisory channel doesn't limit the distance between two line amplifiers. Likewise. Table 1. The receiving sensitivity for the optical supervisory channel can be set very high. and such distance may be the distance between optical amplifiers. the gain spectrum area is 1528-1610nm. Hence the optical supervisory channel needs to use low rate optical signals to insure high receiving sensitivity.5.1 Interface parameters for supervisory channel 35 Supervisory wavelength 1510nm Supervisory ratio 2Mbit/s Confidential Information of Huawei. the supervisory channel is combined and amplified in the sending direction before put into the main channel. as it does take part in the amplifying of the optical power in the whole process. and is not terminated and regenerated in the whole line.

At least it must be free bytes made available for future expansion. as shown in Figure 3-18.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. for orderwire and user channel respectively.. while the other acts as an orderwire between optical multiplexing bands and can be combined in the end of WDM system. In a frame structure. Both are used to transmit network management information of the related WDM system.704 specification. In a frame structure. which can be combined in the optical line amplifier repeater site. 16 17 . with the frame structure and bit rate compliant to G.1 The frame structure of supervisory channel Time slot 0: frame synchronization byte.5..3 Frame Structure of Supervisory Channel 2Mbit/s system physical interface of the supervisory channel should conform to G.. 29 30 31 Figure 1.. Terminal Equipment has two interfaces.703 requirements.. 0 1 2 3 .1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Signal code pattern CMI Signal transmitting power (0~-7dBm) Source type MLM LD Spectral characteristics * Minimum receiving sensitivity -48 dBm 3. What are optical supervisory channel wavelength and supervisory rate of DWDM? Confidential Information of Huawei.. there is only 1 time slot provided for users (usually the network provider).... One of which acts as the optical regenerator section service contact and can be combined in the optical amplifier repeater site. There are at least 2 time slots used as the orderwire channels in a frame structure. there must be 4 bytes used as the DCC channel of the optical repeating band and 8 bytes as the DCC channel of the optical multiplexing band.. Questions 1) 2) 3) 4) What are electro-absorption laser modulation scheme and M-Z modulation scheme? How many types are there for the wavelength division multiplexer? What are their individual characteristics? Which are the kinds of optical amplifiers? Describe gain flat control and gain lock of EDFA. No Spreading without Permission 36 ....

655(1996) shifted single-mode optical fiber cable Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion ITU-T Recommendation G. Tx 2.691(1997) Optical interface for single channel systems with optical amplifier SDH and STM-64 systems.661(1993) Definition and test methods for the relevant generic parameters of optical fiber amplifiers ITU-T Recommendation G.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. another wavelength division multiplexer (optical demultiplexer) is used to separate these optical carriers in which different wavelengths carry different signals.692(1998) with optical amplifier Optical interface for multi-channel systems 4. as shown in the following figure.671(1996) Requirements for passive optical components ITU-T Recommendation G. No Spreading without Permission . Tx 1.663(1996) Optical amplifier related transmission problems ITU-T Recommendation G. mostly shown in the following recommendations: ITU-T Recommendation G. ITU-T Recommendation G.662(1994) equipment and sub-systems Main characteristics of optical amplifier ITU-T Recommendation G.652(1993) Characteristics of single-mode fiber cable ITU-T Recommendation G0.2 Definition of Transmission Channel Reference Points In order to normalize optical interface parameters. and TxN usually refer to terminal transmitters of a system. Wavelength division multiplexer (optical multiplexer) is used in the transmitting end to merge different wavelength signal optical carriers and send them to a single fiber for transmission. 4.692 document defines all the reference points for WDM optical transmission systems.1 ITU-T Recommendations on WDM International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) has made significant contributions for WDM. In the receiving end.681(1997) Functional characteristics of interoffice and long-haul line systems using optical amplifiers.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Chapter 4 Technology Specifications for DWDM Optical Transmission System  Objective: Learn the recommendations and relevant specifications of ITUT on WDM system. ITU-T G.653(1993) mode fiber cable Characteristics of dispersion shifted single- ITU-T Recommendation G. 37 Confidential Information of Huawei. including optical multiplexing ITU-T Recommendation G.

3 Distribution of Optical Wavelength Areas    A fiber has two long wavelength and low loss windows. Nominal central frequency refers to the central wavelength corresponding to each channel in optical wavelength division multiplexing systems. The unequal spaced wavelength is used to avoid the fourwave mixing effect.1-196. G.Therefore the working wavelength area for wavelength division multiplexing system is 192.655 fibers. RM1 RMn: The reference points on the fiber at OM/OA optical input connector in channels 1…n.692 is based on frequency and spacing series of reference frequency 193.1 WDM optical interface reference points The WDM system in the above figure has the following reference points: S1…Sn: The reference points on the fiber at transmitter optical output connector in channels 1…n.652 and G. MPI-R: A reference point on the optical fiber in front of the OA/OD input optical connector.1THz. S': A reference point on the optical fiber behind the optical output connector of the optical line amplifier. 1310nm window and 1550nm window.1THz. Both of which can be used to transmit optical signals.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Figure 1.692 document recommends the following standard wavelengths in Table 3-1 for WDM systems using these fibers.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1. Confidential Information of Huawei. MPI-S: A reference point on the optical fiber just behind the OM/OA optical output connector. The standard wavelength of WDM channel has two configurations: equal spaced and unequal spaced. No Spreading without Permission 38 . Channel frequency allowed in G.1THz and minimum spacing 100GHz or 50GHZ. R': A reference point on the optical fiber in front of the optical input connector of the optical line amplifier. As no obvious four-wave mixing effect has been observed in WDM systems using G.1-196. but the commonly used working wavelength range for the erbium-doped optical amplifier is 192. R1…Rn: The reference points at receiver optical transmitter input connector. SD1…SDn: The reference points at the OA/OD optical output connector. 4.

65 195.14 1542.55 193.75 193.16 1529.80 193.30 195.54 1542.43 1535.77 1540.20 – 194.73 1544.90 – 193.33 1530.00 – 194.70 – 194.22 1536.72 1548.92 1545.10 194.86 1534.50 195.10 – 195.19 1538.40 – Standard central wavelength (nm) 1528.70 – 193.75 194.00 – 195.25 194.40 1537.94 1543.60 – 195.20 – 195.07 1533.52 1546.11 1548.72 1546. No Spreading without Permission .45 194.16 1540.95 195.47 1533.32 1545.80 194.80 195.51 1531.90 193.10 196.40 194.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.98 1539.60 – 194.52 Confidential Information of Huawei.10 – 194.61 1537.55 195.95 193.65 193.10 195.1 Standard central frequency Standard central frequency (THz) 50 GHz Spacing 196.29 1532.82 1536.45 193.25 195.85 195.20 194.80 – 194.40 – 194.12 1546.00 193.90 194.90 – 195.72 1531.20 195.91 1549.35 39 Standard central frequency (THz) 100 GHz Spacing 196.50 – 193.05 196.00 1537.85 194.55 1529.50 194.80 – 193.70 193.90 – 194.25 1534.68 1533.40 193.70 – 195.12 1550.00 194.51 1548.75 195.95 1541.35 194.15 194.77 1529.92 1547.56 1540.30 194.40 – 195.10 – 196.75 1542.40 195.72 1550.60 194.04 1535.30 – 194.33 1543.05 194.80 – 195.55 194.58 1538.05 195.30 – 195.1 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Table 1.37 1539.00 195.00 – 193.95 194.60 – 193.13 1544.50 – 194.15 195.70 195.90 195.90 1532.64 1535.50 193.85 193.53 1544.32 1547.79 1538.32 1549.12 1531.35 195.50 – 195.35 1541.94 1530.60 195.70 194.65 194.60 193.45 195.

15 1556.40 – 192.15 192.05 193.92 1551.75 1556.10 Standard central wavelength (nm) 1550.20 1560.25 193.72 1552.54 1554.10 193.94 1555.OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.32 1551.50 – 192.77 1558.30 193.95 192.90 – 192.79 1560.00 192.55 1556.10 – 193.85 192.50 192.98 1559.17 1558.20 – 192.60 – 192.90 192.30 – 193.25 192.96 1557.55 192.80 192.60 192.45 192.10 Chapter 3 DWDM Key Technologies Standard central frequency (THz) 100 GHz Spacing 193.75 192.20 192.40 192.52 1552.34 1555.80 – 192.61 Questions 1) 2) Which are the ITU-T recommendations involved for WDM part? What is the absolute reference frequency for optical wavelength division multiplexing systems? What is their channel spacing? Confidential Information of Huawei.39 1559.58 1558. No Spreading without Permission 40 .12 1552.20 193.70 – 192.36 1557.35 192.13 1554.93 1553.33 1553.65 192.73 1554.1 Standard central frequency (THz) 50 GHz Spacing 193.00 – 192.30 192.20 – 193.30 – 192.15 193.70 192.

1 Terms and Abbreviations Terms and Abbreviations Abbreviations Add and Drop Multiplexer Automatic Gain Control Automatic Level Control Automatic Laser Shutdown Avalanche Photo Diode Automatic Power Reduction Amplified Spontaneous Emission AWG BA BER CLNS Arrayed Waveguide Grating Booster Amplifier Bit Error Ratio Connectionless Network Layer Service CMI CRC CSES Coded Mark Inversion Cyclical Redundancy Check Continuous Severely Errored Second CWDM Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex DCC DCF DCM DCN DDN DFB DSP DWDM ECC EDFA ETSI FEC FIFO GE GUI IEEE Data Communication Channel Dispersion Compensation Fibre Dispersion Compensation Module Data Communication Network Digital Data Network Distributed Feedback Digital Signal Processing Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Embedded Control Channel Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier European Telecommunication Standards Institute Forward Error Correction First In First Out Gigabit Ethernet Graphic User Interface Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ITU-T Telecommunication Sector LA LAN LCN LCT LD MCF Line Amplifier Local Area Network Local Communication Network Local Craft Terminal Laser Diode Message Communication Function MD MPI-R Mediation Device Main Path Interface at the Receiver MPI-S Main Path Interface at the Transmitter NE 41 Explanation ADM AGC ALC ALS APD APR ASE Network Element Descriptions Add/Drop Multiplexer Auto Gain Control Auto Power Control Automatic laser shutdown APD Automatic Power Reduction Amplified Spontaneous Emission Arrayed Waveguide Grating Booster Amplifier Bit Error Ratio Connectionless Layer Network Service Coded Mark Inversion Cyclic Redundancy Check Consecutive Severely Errored Second (CSES) Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing Data Communication Channel Dispersion Compensation Fiber Dispersion compensation module Data Communication Network Digital Data Network Distributed Feedback Digital Signal Processing DWDM Embedded Control Channel Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier ETSI Forward Error Correction First-In First-Out Gigabit Ethernet Graphic User Interface International Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Sector Line Amplifier Local Area Network LCN LMT Laser Diode Message Communication Function Medium Device Main Path Interface at the Receiver Main Path Interface at the Transmitter Network Element Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading without Permission .OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.

No Spreading without Permission 42 .OTC000003 WDM Principle ISSUE1.1 Abbreviations NF NRZ OA OADM OD ODF Overhead Processor Unit OLA OM OS OSC OSI OSNR OTM Terms and Abbreviations Explanation Noise Figure Non Return to Zero Optical Amplifier Optical Add and Drop Multiplexer Optical Demultiplexing Optical Distribution Frame Overhead Processing Optical Line Amplifier Optical Multiplexing Operations System Optical Supervisory Channel Open Systems Interconnection Optical Signal/Noise Ratio Optical Terminal Multiplexer OTU PA PDH Optical Transponder Unit Pre-amplifier Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy PIN PON SCC Positive Intrinsic Negative Passive Optical Network System Control & Communication SDH SNCP Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Subnetwork Connection Protection STM TCP/IP Synchronous Transport Module Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TMN Telecommunication Management Network TTL WDM WS Transistor-Transistor Logic Wavelength Division Multiplexing Work Station Descriptions Noise Figure Non Return to Zero OA Optical Add and Drop Multiplexer Optical Demultiplexing Optical Distribution Frame Overhead processing Optical Line Amplifier equipment Optical Multiplexing Operation system Optical Supervisory Channel Open Systems Interconnection Optical signal-to-noise ratio Optical Terminal Multiplexing Equipment Optical Transponder Unit Preamplifier Plesynchronous Digital Hierarchy Positive Intrinsic Negative Passive Optical Network System control and communications Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SNCP (Subnetwork Connection Protection) Synchronous Transport Module Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Telecom Management Network(TMN) Transistor-Transistor Logic WDM Workstation Confidential Information of Huawei.