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Work Stress and Alcohol Effects: A Test of Stress-Induced Drinking

Author(s): M. Lynne Cooper, Marcia Russell, Michael R. Frone
Source: Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Sep., 1990), pp. 260-276
Published by: American Sociological Association
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more important forour purposes.g.Thus negaAssociation.whichin turnpromotes problematic alcoholuse amongvulnerableindividuals. Trice and Roman1978).Thus the purpose of thispaper is to proposeand testa comprehensive modelof workstress-induced drinking.Dean McFarlin.Existingresearchfailsto provide an adequate theoretically groundedtest of workstress-induced drinking. awarded to the second author. conditionsand increaseddrinking.distress. annual meetingof the AmericanPsychological anxiety.whichin turn concerning addressedto the firstauthorat 348 Park Hall.that people drinkalcohol forits tension-reducing * This researchwas supportedby National properties (CappellandGreeley1987). FRONE StateUniversity ofNew Yorkat Buffaloand TheResearchInstitute on Alcoholism Journal of Healthand Social Behavior1990.we hypothesized thatworkstressorslead to increaseddistress. tional states that plausiblycould serve as Portionsof these resultswere presentedat the aversivesourcesof motivation. The beliefthatworkstresspromotesheavy or problematic alcoholuse is widelyaccepted (e. StateUniversity on alcohol of New Yorkat Buffalo. stressful Correspondence thisarticleshouldbe to increasenegativeemotions. The social learningperspective PsychologyDepartment. Thatis.. use and abuse complementsand extends 260 . Theoretical Perspectives on Stress-Induced Drinking At leasttwo majortheoretical perspectives articulatea causal link betweenstressand alcohol-related pathology. and JennyCrockerfor theirhelpful stressful conditionsare hypothesized commentson an earlierdraftof thismanuscript.efforts to reducework stress or to provide alternativeformsof copingwithstressare currently advocatedas measurestoprevent alcoholabusein thework force(e. 1988.Tensionreduction theoryproposesthatalcoholreducestension and. "TenInstitute of AlcoholAbuse and AlcoholismGrant sion" refershere to variousnegativeemo#AA05702. We testedour modelin a randomsampleof574 employed adults..GerardConnors.usinga combination ofpath analyticand hierarchicalmoderatedregressiontechniques. LYNNE COOPER MARCIA RUSSELL MICHAEL R.or depression.held in New York City in August tiveemotionsplaya keyintervening rolein a 1987.g.Buffalo. The authorswishto thankJeremy Skinner. Jim Neff. Indeed. few studies provideconvincingempiricalsupportfor thisnotion.Work Stressand AlcoholEffects: A Test of Stress-InducedDrinking* M. putativecausal sequence linkingexposureto WilliamGeorge. Shain 1983.NY 14260. increasealcoholuse. Results revealed no supportfor a simple tensionreductionmodel of work stress-induced drinking and onlylimitedsupport for a social learningmodel. suchas fear. Yet despitewidespread acceptanceof the belief that work stress promotesproblematic alcoholuse.We concludethata muchmorecircumscribed viewoftheetiologicroleofworkstress inproblematic alcohol use is indicated.Vulnerable individuals are hypothesized to possess few personal and social resourcesfor respondingadaptivelyto work-related stressorsand distressand to holdpositiveexpectancies foralcohol's effects. Gupta and Jenkins1984. Milleret al. 31 (September):260-276 Drawingon bothtensionreduction and social learningtheories. Vol. Herold and Conlon 1981. see Weiss 1986 for opposingviewpoints).

of these. For resources(e. outcomes. 1983). Seeman and Anderson featuresof thesetheoretical perspectives.mayinfluenceboththelikelihood workenvironment of normative of holdinga stressful insteadtheinfluence mayreflect job andratesof alcohol that promotedrinkingor of use and abuse. Yet a positiverelationship on theother..1983. House et al.Sociodemofeatureof the graphic characteristics.and tieshave been identified thatmay lead to psychologicaldistress. 1981. onlyfive key studies(Brometet al.Hingson.Manrevealsthatfewstudieshaveincorporated As gione. one cannot distinguish moreappropriate theybelieve thatalcohol enhancespositive unequivocally betweenthisand otheralternamood or reducesnegativemood. is Of 17 workstress-alcohol relationship studiesthatwe cally.of a highlyunrepresentative sample(all male comes and interactiveeffectsof negative police officers)and by relianceon a singleitemindicatorof drinking to cope withwork emotionswithcopingand expectancies.Seemanand individualsare more likely than othersto Anderson1983. only stimuli. 1981.most work negativeemotionsratherthan a failureof moderating negativeemotionsto lead to increasedalcohol stress-alcoholstudies failed to controlfor use.tensionreductiontheory HarrisandFennell1988. positive results potentialconfounding variables.WORK STRESS AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS 261 notionsin severalimportant among higher-echelon tensionreduction workers. et al. theremay be both directeffectsof thatstudy. 1988.noneexaminedcoping this way rendersambiguousthe resultsof or alcohol-related expectanciesas potential to testworkstress-inducedmoderators of the work stress-alcohol studiespurporting relaOn theone hand.personal and social social support) Conlon 1981.Fennellet al. foralcohol'seffects. such as sex and stressful linkinga presumably to increasedalcohol use education. Trice and Roman 1978). emotionslink stressorsand alcohol-related 1981. vidualsaremorelikelyto drinkin responseto consequencesof theirdrinking.evenwhenplausiblemediating reflectthefailureof stressors and effectswere tested.nullresultsmay tionship. therebycreatinga spurious prescriptions who relationship betweenworkstressand alcohol structural elementsthatallowindividuals drinkheavilyto go undetected(Herold and outcomes. expectancies To summarize. 1988.Scotch.who hold ways (see Abramsand Niaura 1987 for a moreresponsibleand moredemanding jobs.tiveexplanations.Nevertheless. tensionreductiontheoryre. Menschand Kandel 1988. sence of a demonstrated link withelevated stress-producing copingresponsesand when negative emotion. Fimianet al.Accordingto thisperspective. Seemanet al. Parkerand proposesa moderatedmodelin whichsome Farmer1988.patternsof alcohol of the workenvironment increasedalcoholuse and abuse (e. Parker use. Similarly.As noted one testedthe mediatingrole of negative responseto stress-producing exclu. theexperienceand thepercepexample. Hypotheti.In the abstimuliwhentheylackother. self-esteem. Conway et al. Syrotuik experience negative alcohol outcomes in and D'Arcy 1982. Hingson. Hingson. 1983). drinking.thesemodelsare notmutually sive. 1988.emotion(Violantiet al.Mangione. . 1981. Syrotuikand roleof D'Arcy 1982) incorporated ofthemediating potential moderaquiresexplicittesting negativeemotion.g. proposesa mediatedmodelin whichnegative and Barrett1981. hide their drinkingor the negative review). 1985.timepressuresandjob responsibili.mayinfluence features tionof workstressors. An adequatetestof a sociallearning model of stress-induceddrinkingmandates the EmpiricalStudiesoftheWork inclusionof relevantvariableshypothesized Stress-Alcohol Relationship to moderate thenegativerelationship between A reviewof workstress-alcohol research emotionand alcohol. 1978.only four (Brometet al. Violantiet al. et al. Markowitz1984. 1988. indi. Seeman et al.then. whereas social learningtheory 1987. as stressful on theone hand..g.arecompromised byuse negativeemotionson alcohol-relatedout. to give rise to Finally. and alcohol Of the 17 work stress-alcoholstudies betweenthesejob characteristics use mightreflectinstead greaterlatitude reviewed.Sadava et al. 1988.Indeed.thedistress-alcohol moderated bycopingbehaviorandbypositive found(Brometet al. statedabove.however. failureto testin torvariables. stressas thesole dependent measure. On the other hand. The resultsof earlier. and theexperienceof drinking problems andFarmer1988).

Pluses and minuseson the paths indicatethe cope. Mattesonand Ivancevich1987) and are not negativeemotion-alcohol hypothesized Second. of tensionreducimplications methodological Althoughthe proposed model specifies tion and social learningmodels of stress.Accordingto this model (Figure 1). Greenhausand Parasuraman1986. Similarly.insofaras confounding work distressis foundto exertsignificant pathology. promoteheavy or problematicalcohol use.262 JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Seeman and Anderson1983. alcohol-related directeffects on alcohol-related outcomes. Hypothesized Model Relating Aftersociodemographic and personaland Work Stressors and Distress to social resourcevariablesare controlled.key ence variables. effectsnor hypothesizedthree-way distress. sociodemographic effectson despiteboth theoreticaland empiricalevi. and alcoholproblems.Finally.distress. On thebasis of a social learninganalysis.which in turn On the basis of tensionreductiontheory. explanations and alcohol-related outcomes. work AlcoholOutcomes stressorswill be related significantly and positivelyto workdistress(Hla). \H2a/ I workdistresswillbe relatedsignificantly and to cope.and to experience to of hypothesized direction correspond effects. we hypothesize on theone hand. Four broad groups of adaptive sociodemographic are examinedin thepresent interactions 2e) are modeled.the proposed studiesareopento third-variable model.the presenceof significant moderating effectson thefirstlinkcould have implications forthe THE PRESENT STUDY magnitude of thetotalworkstressor effecton 1 We propose and test a model of work alcoholoutcomes. moderating effectsonlyon thelatter. to drinkheavily.andto holdstrong This cies foralcohol's effects. positivelyto drinking and alcoholabuse (Hlb).moderating effectson boththeworkstressorhave notbeen incorporateddistressand thedistress-alcohol induceddrinking links. Syrotuikand D'Arcy 1982) included torsof thenegativeemotion-alcohol relationcon.Thus testsof potentialmoderating linkare beyondthe dence suggestingthe potentialfor serious theworkstressor-distress of perceivedwork stressand scope of thispaper. roleofnegative relationshipgives rise to the following modelspecifiesthemediating hypotheses: FIGURE 1. Seeman et al. few studieshave includedadequate centralto eithertensionreductionor social and psychosocialcontrols learningmodels of alcohol use and abuse.ship.we test studies.Thus theproposed outcomeswillbe relatedonlyindirectly. controlforpossiblespurious andpsychosocial bothsociodemographic trols.existingresearchsuffers of potentially confounding individualdifferfromtwo important limitations. emotionand incorporates potentialmodera1988.these studies have largely ating effectson the work stressor-distress ignored the mediatingrole of negative relationshiphave been studiedextensively emotions and the moderatingeffectsof elsewhere(forreviewssee Froneand McFarcoping and alcohol expectancieson the lin estimated. thattherelationship between especially among vulnerable individuals. alcohol use. thataddresseseach of stress-induced drinking the above limitations.anddrinking to possess workstressors. we hypothesizethat individuals low in director main adaptivecoping shouldbe morelikelythan hypothesized Note: Solid linesrepresent moderating those high in adaptivecoping to drinkto hypothesized effects.Moderintothedesignof workstress-alcohol In particular. To summarize.willbe mediatedby increasesin positiveexpectan. Thus 13 of 17 work stress-alcohol associationsamongworkstressors. adaptivelyto workstressorsand consequent on theother.For the sake of distress. will controlfora range of theirfindings.First. work stressorsincrease DETAILED HYPOTHESES negativeemotions(distress). Nonetheless.numbers in response to work neither drinkingproblems specifichypotheses. Such individualsare hypothesized few resources and skills for responding to cope.brokenlines represent effects. alcohol use. (see Hypothesis copingindicators Adaptive Personal & Social Resources Work Stressors Hia + Dist stress Alcohol Expectancies Hib + Alcohol Use/Abuse + .Thus stressorsand alcohol distress.

The overallsamplecompletion indicativeof avoidance of emotion will rate in the presentstudywas 78. In contrast.but employedat least 20 hours per week. Of not necessarilyamonglow-avoidancecopers these. thatare intendedto reducea givenproblem low-resource..Designatedrespondents 19 yearsof age nor negativeemotion-by-coping were testeddirectlyin these studies. copingresources.(H2c). Moos et al.3 percent.e. betweenworkdistressand alcoholoutcomes theworkdistress-alcohol positiverelationship Coping resourcesare generalizedattitudes such thata significant and skills thatare consideredadvantageous should be obtainedamong high-expectancy theyincludeattitudes individualsbut not among low-expectancy acrossmanysituations.copingstyles.high-expectancy individuals.and workdistresswill interact to cope.intellectual skill(social compe. resourcesandskillsarehypothesized the negative emotion-alcoholrelationship. (Menaghan1983).Thoits thatactive.Finally. and whereascopingresponsesare specificactions to predictdrinking (overtor covert)made in specificsituations alcohol problems such that high-distress. positiveexpectancies. Leavy Thus we hypothesizethat positivealcohol 1983) and thuswould be expectedto buffer expectancieswill exacerbatethe relationship relationship (H2a).problem-focused betweengroupswithandwithout 1986).g.these and older were identifiedin a three-stage data nonethelessimplythathigh-avoidance probabilitysample designedto yield equal of two racial groups(blacks copersare morelikelyto relyon alcoholas a representation or managingthedistress and nonblacks)and threeeducationallevels meansof alleviating generatedby stressfullife events.933 householdresidentsin Erie County.916 were significantpositive relationshipshould be observedamonghigh-avoidance copers. tiveresources.That is. cope withworkdistress. 1983.5%) of the noncompletions distressand alcohol outcomessuch that a refusals.and discriminate copingresponses. adaptive relationshipof work distress to alcohol to buffer outcomes.Thus we (less thanhighschool.adapof approaching (i.we proposethatindividualswho (beliefin mastery). Social support is widely regarded as ultimatelyto experiencealcohol problems. were exacerbatethe relationshipbetween work most (84. Our model suggeststhatindividualswho whereas maladaptiveattributeswould be hold strongpositiveexpectanciesfor alcothis hol's effects shouldbe morelikelyto drinkto expected to exacerbateor strengthen to drinkheavily.attitudes skills(intelli. Thus. Priorresearch METHOD whorelyon avoidant suggeststhatindividuals formsof emotion-focused coping are more Sample likely to experiencenegativealcohol outlife Respondentsin the presentstudy were comes in response to stress-inducing events(Billingsand Moos 1983. Althoughneitherstressor-by-coping interactionsYork. the natureof each moderator dependsto a greatextenton the a priori al. 1981). abouttheworld individuals(H2d).933 respondents.Accordingto theproposed clinically significantevidence of alcohol effect pathology(Billingsand Moos 1983. Thus we do not anticipatethat coping will moderatethe specificationof the moderatorvariable as problem-focused adaptiveor maladaptive. copingwith)problems. copingdoes not ceived usefullyas copingassistance.WORK STRESS AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS 263 previousresearchsuggests study:social support(which may be con. adaptive(e.and interpersonal and who tence)(Menaghan1983).highlevelsof (or highin maladaptiveattributes) copingresourcesalso would be expectedto are also highin positiveexpectanciesshould relationship be mostlikelyto experienceadversealcohol bufferthe workdistress-alcohol outcomesas a resultof elevationsin work (H2b). In the presentstudywe will exhibitthe greatestinvolvementwith contrast twobroadformsof copingstylesand alcohol(H2e). alcoholuse. 175 respondentswho abstainedand . coping responses-activeor problem-focused versus avoidantor emotion-focused coping (Folkmanand Lazarus 1980)..are deficientin adaptiveresourcesand skills gence). Of the 1. Copingstylesare typicalor habitualways distress. at least anticipatethatcoping stylesand responses somecollege).New 1981). Moos et model.Thus. Broadheadet al. highschool.and relationship. aboutself(esteem). drawnfroma randomsamplesurveyof 1.

in patterns differences Respondentsin the presentstudy were becauseofdocumented ofthese sociodemographicallyheterogeneous.The completeinterviewre.race (1 = our test of the proposed hypotheses. 2) measures). House et al. almost present study.age (in years). workpressureand lack of job control. and lack of job control).Sex (1 = adultrespondents Sociodemographic a monthoverthepastyear. Insel Interviewers receivedfive days of intensive and Moos 1974.4) workdistress(one measure).264 JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR thearithmetic meanof 167 who drankless thanonce a monthwere formedby computing eliminated. whohaddrunkat leastonce covariates..revealedtwo robustfactorsin whichitems 90 minutesto adminis. education(in years). sional.yieldinga final sample of 574 theirrespectiveitems. constraints on theirabilityto function autonomously and to influenceimportantjob Bothscales werederivedempiriparameters. techniques.ofalcoholuse andabuseas a function characteristics proximatelyhalf were white (51. 2 who drank and occupationalstatus(1 = white-collar. Procedures cally froma pool of 17 itemstakenfrom Data were collected by a corps of 27 several previouslypublished measures of in thesummerand fallof 1986.months.Because theobtainedtwo-factor strucacrossboth tureprovedto be largelyinvariant sexes and races and because it yieldedthe Measures most reliable indices. 1979.Work sd = 10. Pearlinand Schooler1978).both highly structuredinterviewschedule that responsibility. Workstressors. Race and education were degreesof controlledbecause of the highlystratified certainly wouldexperience varying job stress.Thustheirinclusionwouldtendto samplingdesign used in the presentstudy. averagedaily consumption over the past 12 and 6) alcohol expectancies(one measure).5.8). respondents of Exceptwherenotedotherwise. 47 sociodemographic (e.2) work stressors(two threealcohol-related outcomesin thepresent outcomes(three study: 1) the self-reported measures). was assessed by six items.Ap. additional22 quencywithwhichindividuals perceivedhigh percenthad completedfouror moreyearsof job-relateddemands resultingfrom heavy Lack of job college. 11 items) assessed the frehad completedhighschool. age. limitedthesampleto respondents drinkers.and study. consistency ficientalpha). Hilpercentwere marriedor living in stable ton 1987. We used a four-point trainingon generalinterviewing responseformat (almost of the survey.3) alcohol-related frequencywith used alcohol to cope. six items) assessed the frequency with which individualsperceived by 53 percentof thesample. variables: 1) sociodemographiccovariates Alcoholoutcomemeasures.constituting theworkloadandtheresponsibilquiredapproximately werepaid $25 fortheirtime.On a four-point descriptive all scaleswere scale.5) whichrespondents personaland social resources(12 measures).. reportedthe frequency . we employed the We employeda totalof 24 indicesin the empiricallyderivedscales in all subsequent presentstudyto assess six broadcategoriesof analyses(see appendixforindividualitems).managerial)werefollowed control(LJC. Abstainers and infrequent thoughunlikely to use alcoholto cope.Respondents factor.2 = female). months.We examined (five indicators).and Drinkingto cope (Polich and Orvis 1979) statistics are providedin Table 1. administration specific procedures.They rangedin age from19 to 69 (mean = 36.technical. Olkinuora1984).6%).2 = black). ity dimensionsloaded togetheron the first ter.g.To avoid biasing male. sex. workstressors interviewers (viz.We assessedtwostressors: relationship.neverto almostalways).and 3) the numberof drinking These measuresare describedbelow. and self-adminis-principalcomponentsand factor analyses containedbothinterviewerteredportions. White-collaroccupations(profes. Nearly73 percentof thesample pressure(WP. 51 percentwere female.workloadand responsibilities.we nonblack. = blue-collar)wereused as covariatesin the regularly.Interviewswere conwereintended to Althoughitemsoriginally ductedin respondents' homesaccordingto a measurethreestressor dimensions (workload. esti. and occupationwere controlled attenuate thepredicted effects.problems experiencedover the past 12 matesof internal reliability (coef.

Activebehavioral 13 b. Alcoholconsumption-02 10. Appraisal 02 b.08 are significantat p<. Lack ofjob control 17 MediatingVariable 3. Anger-in 13 b. Tangible 03 5. Workpressure (81) 2. Occupation (I = whitecollar.TABLE 1. Social support a. Positivealcohol 11 expectancies OutcomeVariables 9. Workdistress 37 Moderating Variables 4. Except for sociodemographic variables. -20 2=bluecollar) (68) 51 (86) -10 -18 -07 -14 -19 -11 (71) 52 49 (68) 53 (72) . 2=black) -18 14. all measures are scored so that highernumbers indicate more of the me alpha) are on the diagonal. 2=female) 06 13.25 -23 . All correlations ' . DescriptiveStatisticsand CorrelationsamongMajor StudyVariables 1 2 3 4a 4b 4c 5a Sb 6a 6b 6c 6d 7a 7b 7c (78) 22 (80) 8 10 25 16 32 -13 -03 (68) 57 10 (65) 25 (52) -13 04 08 21 (82) 9 Stressors 1. Drinking problems -04 11. Copingresponses a. Self-esteem 02 6. Activecoping 09 7. Activecognitive 09 c. Anger-reflect -04 d. Belonging -02 c. Drinking to cope 06 Demographic Variables 12.26 -21 26 27 25 32 22 22 (76) 61 (85) 35 22 29 17 -16 -21 -25 -19 -19 -06 09 20 -24 -14 -08 -10 11 08 21 29 -25 -14 28 20 -31 -23 32 29 (69) 55 (70) -31 -48 -17 -18 -01 -01 -02 -07 22 12 15 11 02 01 -21 -27 06 10 01 -02 -18 -24 07 -02 -29 -02 -01 -04 -09 32 20 -16 -13 -19 -27 29 20 01 -08 -26 -05 -09 -26 -03 -11 -24 -08 -13 -31 04 13 24 03 -02 13 -10 18 -07 00 -08 -07 -05 01 04 00 -01 08 07 16 23 16 26 46 4 3 04 -05 -11 -04 10 08 -16 00 06 04 08 03 -28 02 07 17 11 -09 17 13 -07 -07 01 -12 -02 06 14 -15 00 -08 -14 12 08 -08 15 19 -22 07 21 10 03 -15 -09 -03 -15 -02 -10 -11 01 09 17 03 -15 -04 00 -13 -08 23 -04 -06 03 -24 18 -01 07 -04 -18 -05 -14 -19 -10 05 -05 -10 -31 01 07 20 09 14 11 -06 06 01 00 -08 04 11 04 -04 0 -06 1 Note: N = 574. Age (years) -06 15. Copingstyles a. . Mastery -04 b. Decimals are omitted. Anger-out 14 c. Sex (1 = male.05. Avoidance 03 8. Race (I = nonblack. Education(years) 15 16. Copingresources a.

Croughan. or one ounce of (1965) 10-itemself-esteem In this studywe used two measuresof . the degree to which individualsengage in al.Conversely. directand active effortsto do so. duringthe study included masteryand self-esteem. 2) withthestressful We assessed Positivealcoholexpectancies.Anger-in(Spielberger et al. Average alcohol consumption past 12 monthswas estimatedfromstandard Mastery(Pearlinet al.or tensionreductionas strategies event. measuresof alcoholuse. approximately absolutealcohol)." In thepresentstudywe computed underlyingproblemor the cause of their the anger. Self-esteem refers (Wilsnacket al.Williams.coupled with Diagnostic Interview Schedule (Robins.and 3) belong.g. which used a three-pointsolving.expectancieswith a compositeof six subconfidant of someone scales takenfromthe abbreviated versionof ing support(i.e. angryor upset. the availabilityof a andtrusted advisor). (See Stacyet al. Croughan.denial.Activecognitivecoping (11 items) assessestheuse of cognitivestrategies aimed format.etc.. six an indexofdrinking problemsbycounting totalnumberof problemsthathad occurred items)assesses the extentto whichrespondentstypically suppressor avoiddealingwith one timeor morein thepast 12 months.e. 1985.2) derivedthreemethod-of-coping coping resources.and avoidcopingresponses.and having "blackouts" or the their anger in an effortto address the "shakes. 1986).e. seven items) questionsemployedin the assessed the extentto whichindividualssee quantity-frequency National Health and Leisure Time Survey themselvesas controllingthe forces that affecttheirlives. 1981. they angryfeelings. to forgetyour worries.activecognitive.5 ouncesof hardliquor(i. 1985 for activecoping style("JohnHenryism"[JH] and two meathereliability and valid.3) coping styles. job Coping responseswere assessed by the felt when thinkingof theirday-to-day Health and Daily Living Coping Response experiences. Interpersonal forcoping andHoberman1983): relax). Anger-reflect (Harburgand Ratcliff 1981forvalidityandreliability problemsinclude going on Gleiberman1986.dentsengagedin directactionand problem sponse indices. beer. We convertedre.Avoidancecoping(seven abbreviated SupportEvaluationList (Cohen items)assessesrelianceon avoidance.) ityof self-report We assessed drinkingproblemswith 17 anger-out).and 4) tivebehavioral.JH activecopingstyle(Jameset style itemsdesignedto yielda DSM-III diagnosis al.also see Robins.takenfrom characterizedby the belief that one can the National Instituteof Mental Health control one's environment. aggressive behaviors when motivatedby frustrated.."losinga job becauseof extentto whichrespondents drinking. fourounces of coping. four items) assesses the Representative control typically "bingesor benders. appraisalsupport(i. anger-reflect) evidencesupporting sures of avoidant coping style (anger-in. 1984).experiencedstressful indices: acalcohol relationship:1) social support. Copingresourcesexaminedin thepresent cheerup whenyou'rein a bad mood).All psychosocialresource ance coping. 1985.Helzer. pleased(reversescored).Index(Moos et al. (1985). Anger Helzer. six items)measures witha six-itemscale developedby Kandelet (Spielberger intensity scale.anger-out et al.We potentialmoderatorsof the work distress. and Spitzer copingstylesassess how individualscharacreact or behave when theyfeel 1981..266 JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR could socializeor drinkingto manage or cope with negative withwhomtherespondent emotions(e. theavailability .and teristically data). or redefining in a thesituation Social supportwas measuredby three at minimizing subscales(fiveitemseach) of the morepositivelight. Workdistress. rated Personal and social resources. On a four-point respondentsstatedhow botheredor upset.Workdistresswas assessed theirangryfeelings. 1983.. Respondents cluded four broad categoriesof resource the extentto which theyused each of 32 variablesas covariatesand examinedthemas coping responsesto deal with a recently eventor situation. We in. Active behavioralcoping (13 Likert-typeitems)assesses the extentto whichresponmeasuresemployeda four-point responseformatexcept for the coping re. 12 items)is a stress-coping of alcoholabuse and dependence.strongly of self-worth.2 ityof 1) tangibleassistanceor materialaid. we sponses into averagenumberof drinksper to one's generalperception day: one drinkwas definedas 12 ouncesof assessed this resource with Rosenberg's scale.

Collectively for a nontrivialincrementin explained expressiveness.5 ously.copingresponses.redundantpresentationof the stressor-distress coefficomemeasures(as depictedin Figure1) were cients. thedirecteffectsof workstressors stressorsand negativeemotionalsequelae. We estimatedthe model controllingfor all psychosocialresource.we werecontrolled. tancyvariables.Thus Hypothesisla was supported. and tensionreduction. toCp 07 and relaxation Work power. For each of three alcohol measures(drinking to cope.followedby 2. .and distressvariables(a total of theseoutcomesare summarized direct of 21 variables)on thefirststep. analytictechniques(see Kenny1979). Estimated Model Relating Work theAlcoholEffectsQuestionnaire Stressors and Distress to Three 1983).Each item used a two-pointscale (true.and drinkingproblems).Afterall sociodemo.096 Alcohol Distress Consumption 023 Lack of Dnnking Problems IndirectEffectsofWorkStressors on AlcoholOutcomes Alcohol Outcomes RESULTS TensionReductionModel of theWork Relationship Stress-Alcohol Alcohol Consumption Dnnking Problems Work Pressure .social and physical and aggression pleasure.and drinkingproblems by distress(thussupporting Hla).but.personal resource. We obtaineda summaryscore forpositiveexpectanciesby JobControl themeanof themeansforthesix computing subscales. alcohol graphicand psychosocialresourcevariables criterion workdistressdid notsignif. shipwereestimatedvia standardhierarchical techniques(Cohen and regression As shownin Figure2.267 WORK STRESS AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS (Rohsenow FIGURE 2.psychosocialresource.we responseto the experienceof work-related job control(LJC) simultaneously.001) of work tancieson theworkdistress-alcohol distress. however. summarized As shownin Figure2. we estimatedthe direct effect of work stressorson distressby regressingwork Thus ourresultsfailedto supporta simple distresson workpressure(WP) andon lackof tensionreductionmodel of alcohol use in Second.coping resources. estimated and distresson drinkingto cope.4 enteredthe main effectsfor all sociodemoon each graphic. positiveexpectancy Drinking Presure . none of the indirect by-resource effects would be considered statisticallytion termson the second step.Cohen 1983).006 Lack of Job Control .214. we foundno each alcohol outcomein turnon significanteffectsfor work stressorsor regressing WP.expectancy.using standardpath sociodemographic. To reduce (interamongcross-product multicollinearity reliable(Cohenand Cohen 1983).consumption.026 .OOl. Because of the lack of significant effectsof work distress on the alcohol a block of relevant two-way distressor distress-by-expectancy interacoutcome measures.020 -. resultsare presentedin a singlepathdiagramto avoid stressorsand distresson threealcohol out. bothWP and LJC Social LearningModel of theWork exertedsignificantdirect effectson work Stress-Alcohol Relationship and distress.All indirecteffectsare nonsignificant.Hypothesis moderated lb was not supported. icantlypredictanyof thealcoholoutcomes.distress on three separate alcohol-related forall criteria eachequationcontrolling We estimated forsociodemographic aftercontrolling sociodemographic. and andpsychosocial failingto resources(thereby social resource variables described previ.sexualenhancement. coping trolled. and workdistresssimultaneously.and expecestimatedin two steps. * p<. alcohol Althoughwork stressorsdid increasework consumption. p < .027 -.and alcoholexpecrelationvariance(R2 = .008 Work Stressors Drinking to Cope for each of the alcohol Note: The path coefficients The directand indirecteffectsof work outcomeswere estimatedin separateequations.even after sociodemographic The hypothesizedmoderatoreffectsof psychosocialresourcevariables were conthesestressors accounted social support. effectsof workstressors The indirect in Figure workstressor.035 .supportHlb). LJC.3First. Subscales assessed expectanciesfor Indicatorsof AlcoholPathology global positiveeffects.false).276 Work -.Relevantresultsof theseanalysesare in Figure2.

1984fora discussionofthisand strategy otherissues relatedto the estimationand errorwithoutunduly sacrificingstatistical power. Thus a total of 15 ber of potentiallyconfoundingsociodemoequationswas estimated.018 .014* .active cognitivecoping. Personal and Social Resources.anger-out.037 .548 .008* WD x copingresources . andwe probeinteractions only in Table 2.050 Mastery Eq.appraisalsupport.005 .and separateregressionlines fromthe overall alcohol expectanciesinteractedsignificantly thedistress. The magnitude of all effects at relatively high(+ 1 sd drinking alcoholrelationship TABLE 2. from their means) before computingand moderator We believe thatthe presentdata analytic testingthe hypothesizedinteractions(see is conservative withrespectto TypeI Finneyet al..008 .042 1.007 WD x social support .549 ..occupationalstatus.550 Self-esteem .095* JHactivecoping Eq.mastery.002 3.098* Anger-out . Summary of Hierarchical Moderated Regression Analyses Predicting Alcohol Outcomes from Work Distress.123** .002 .Results these21 maineffectsmaybe otainedfromthefirstauthoron request. education.016 . We probed significantinteractions Workdistress-drinking describedbyCohenand ship.044 -.048 1. 4.Main effectsforthefollowing21 variableswereenteredin a blockon thefirststep: sex.012* 3.551 Positiveexpectancies * p<. Step2: .tangiblesupport. and the Distressby-ResourceInteractions Drinkingto Cope Moderator Variables AR2 AlcoholConsumption AR2 Drinking Problems AR2 DF Step 1: . concerning . Note: WD = Workdistress.016 Tangiblesupport Eq. We use an inherently conservative effects).548 Anger-in 1.lack of job control.038 . As shownin the firsttwo columnsof following procedures Cohen (1983).020 1. Step2: .108** ..550 .positivealcohol expectancies.012 1..we generated Table 2.001 .copingstyles.548 .548 .01. 3.039 -.05 level.004 .088* 1.024 .009 4. **p<.workpressure.100* -.062 -.010 Anger-reflect .000 2.JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 268 low (.549 Avoidancecoping Eq.549 Cognitivecoping -.550 . Specifically.of theoretical of thefivecategoriesof hypothesized contributions aftera largenumators and for each of the three alcohol independent outcome measures. Step2: .050 1.Analyses graphicand psychosocialresourcevariables regression arecontrolled. age.009 .008 WD x copingresponses .016 .549 . abovethemean)and at relatively action)termsand theirconstituent we centeredall variables(or deviatedthem below the mean) levels of the relevant variable.318** All maineffects Eq. Step2: .anger-reflect.008 . 1.009 1.549 -. copingresources.051 . self-esteem. are summarized We conductedfollow-upanalyses only when the entireblock of producttermsis at the conventional significant p when the block of interactionsattained statistically significanceat the conventionalp < . activebehavioralcoping..023 1.anger-in.551 WD x expectancies .. 5.064 1.05.056 .011** . avoidancecoping. race.and workdistress.belongingsupport. of modifier interpretation procedurein whichthevariables We estimatedseparateequationsforeach hierarchical interestmustmake significant moder.056 .027 .030 Behavioralcoping .548 -.091* .549 .004 1.549 .100* 1. to cope relationlevel.552 ...031 1..009 WD x copingstyles .056 Appraisalsupport . active coping.018 1.549 Belongingsupport .1 sd variables.with work distress in the predictionof equationto represent regression to cope..147** 143** 21. 2.05 < . Step2: .

and problemsin response to cope. high-distress (H2b).. morethan2 percentofthevariancein alcohol Workdistress-alcoholconsumptionrela. by-expectancy increasingwork distress. was consistent withprediction effectsof mastery(H2b). however. . only one of five moderatorsets coping resourceinteractions. avoidantor malthisinteraction betweendistressand adaptiveformsofcopingwithemotion(H2c). In addition. scale).Across these analyses (data not for anger-reflect has failedto findmoderat. positivelyto drinkingto cope among low.theyaccountedforno weak expectancies. 1?/2percentof the variancein drinking Workdistress-drinking experiencedrinking of distress.of social supporton the distress-alcohol outcomerelationship (H2a) or forthehypothing effectson theworkdistress-consumption Not one of the five blocks of esized three-wayinteractionsof adaptive relationship.outcomes.shown). Within the block of work distress-by-ship.accounting to variancein alcoholconsumption. We evaluated moderating high in avoidant styles of coping with effectsin independent equationsforeach of emotionaremorelikelyto drinkto cope with the four categoriesof personaland social theresultsobtained resources. Billings and Moos . we foundno evidenceformoderat. in who are deficient resources adaptive als of theblockof workdistressExamination for who also hold strong expectancies and by-copingstyle interactionsrevealed that be most effects would alcohol's positive and anger-out interacted signifianger-reflect cantlywithworkdistressto predictdrinking likelyto drinkto cope. high-avoidance to drinking problemsunder more vulnerable effectof coping resources sized buffering (H2c).5 on a 1-to-4 individuals. we obtained no tionship. Significant weresmall effectsgenerally essentiallyzero among individualsholding in magnitude. suggestingthat individuals on prior steps. Hence we obtainedno supportforthe 1983). not a single block of three-way researchgenerally formeasuresof activeor problem.scale).9 (below levelsof We hypothesized thatindividuinteractions. underlow-distress unrelatedamong high-mastery copersappearedto be This patternis consistentwiththe hypothe.we regressedeach of threealcohol crossoverswere evidentat or below 1. Summary Finally. as predicted conditions. bothanger-coping way interactionsafter enteringall main interactionis consistentwith by-anger-out effectsand all relevanttwo-wayinteractions Hypothesis2c. (H2d). although slight pothesis.5 for on a blockof threeoutcomesindependently The distressmoderators. exceptfora slightcrossoverat lower Work distress-by-resource-by-expectancy on 1-to-4 a work distress was ship.if such an effectwereto predicted interactions (H2e).however. Examiningthe formof the interac. to drinkheavily.In contrast. 1979).positivealcohol expectanciessignificantlymoderated the work distress.WORK STRESS AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS 269 forless than interactiontermsaccountedfor significant was small.As shownin Columns3 and 4 of supportforthehypothesized effects buffering Table 2. Prior estimated. one would expecta buffering is widelyregardedas an becauseanger-reflect adaptivecopingstyle(Harburget al. but was essentially conditions (1. The relationship and positive andpositiveexpectancies to cope was significant drinking foralcohol'seffects among individualsholding strongpositive (H2d) on the workdistress-alcohol relationexpectanciesfor alcohol's effects.05.tressin theprediction a crossover we observed slight Although masteryindividuals.Resultsof these analysesprovidelimited The formof support for the hypothesizedmoderating drinkingto cope relationship.Empirical to levels work high tionsrevealedthatbothhigh anger-outand for this would be sughypothesis support individualswere more high anger-reflect a significant distress-by-resourceby gested likely to drink in order to cope with To test this hyinteraction. As shownin the last two columnsof only mastery Table 2. were unexpected.thus a totalof 12 equationswas workdistress.g.interactions ingeffects atp < was statistically significant focused coping (e. accountedfor a small (about 11/2%) but interactedsignificantly in explainedvariance. in addition. with work distress. increment Examinationof the formof the interaction significant withworkdisrevealed that work distress was related Avoidancecopinginteracted of drinking problems. three-way effect occur.

17 we obtainedan estimated Moreover.270 JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR directeffectof . way to addressalcoholproblemsin Indeed.Of three separate standarddeviationabove the mean on both.perhapsbecausetheylack many graphicand psychosocialresourcevariables of the skillsrequisiteto successfulemployand we obtained ment.6 . whichshowthatdrinking of gies aimed at alteringnormsthatpromote maymediatetheinfluence at leastpartially of the or at structural features on alcohol heavydrinking individual differences predisposing thatallow heavydrinking workenvironment use and abuse.not one was Othercombinations by exposureto work it seems plausiblethatthe most vulnerable predictedsignificantly in the in factareunderrepresented stressorsand the experienceof work-relatedindividuals negative emotion after both sociodemo. stressorsand distressand several alcohol resources. predictionsmade by the social learning Results of the present study suggest model. motivations Trice and Roman 1978).ourresultsunderscore to in modelspurporting relatedoutcomesis likelyto be small. This patternof findings may prove usefulin reducingotherstressmay be relatedproblems(e. our findingssuggestthat the real.theestimated betweenwork relationships problemswas revealsignificant on the experienceof drinking small:foreach sd increasein workdistress.For example. including activecognitivecoping.First. morelikelyto governmotivations impacton alcoholpathology.absenteesuggeststhatindividualdifferences it seems unlikelyto fordrink.On necessarily model of workstress-induced theone hand.g.On the other outcomesin responseto work stress and of hand. Despite limited support for theoretical maybe useful(Triceand Roman1978).Thus alcohol outcomesexamined. only six (less than 1%) were a full drinking. the only consistentpatternof effective was obtainedfor the workforce.and distress(H2e). problems. 1987) and empiricalresearch(Cooper et al.interventions the experienceof drinking withboth knownor suspectedto have alcohol-related is consistent Such an interpretation social learningtheory(Abramsand Niaura problemsmay be more appropriate(e. low productivity). Instead. Bry et showingenhancedvulner.Althoughsuch an approach effects interaction significant drinkingto cope. effects Finally.g. 1982).Zerovulnerable(e.ism.Becauseofthesmallnumber logic of the appearlikelyto experiencenegativealcohol cies supportthe fundamental social learningperspective. Overallwe foundno supportfora meanon bothavoidancecopingandexpectansimple tension reductionmodel of work cies.and angerreflect.Hencetheimpactof workstressors Furthermore.workforce. theneedto controlfor worldimpactof workstressorson alcohol. JHactivecoping.8 sd increasein drinking althoughthepresenceof multiplevulnerability factorsmay predisposean individualto outcomes experiencenegativealcohol-related in responseto highlevels of workstress(cf. withlimitedcoping maintain abilityamongindividuals ofpeoplewho abilitiesand strongpositivealcoholexpectan. In addition.we obtainedcounterintuitive for several indicatorsof active coping.vulnerability in relationto theexperience people (about6% of the sample)were even induceddrinking of work stressorsand negativeemotional one-halfof one standarddeviationabove the sequelae. depression. only 33 This researchtesteda model of stress. individualdifferences even among individualsidentifiedas most examinethe impactof work stressorsand outcomes. few individualsin this sample of employedpersons representative DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS were actually high on more than one factor.7 only qualifiedsupportfor a social learning work distress on alcohol outcomes may be limitedby therelativecompedrinking. programsaimed at reducingand or acrossmultipleoutcome prevention givenmoderator managingwork stressmay not be a costmeasures.Indeed.severaldirectionsforfutureresearch.. of workstressors ordercorrelations.g.. these effectswere neitherrobustnor because of thegenerallysmallmagnitude ourfindings suggestthat consistentacross multipleindicatorsof a theobtainedeffects. were controlled.tence of those who are able to secure and employment. Archer 1977. those high in avoidance distresson alcohol-related as reportedin Table 1. stress-induced provedequallyrare. effect coping). or have significant ingthanto influencealcoholconsumption targetedto individuals problemsper se.strate1988).expectancies.. constructiveconfrontation.

beyond the scope of the presentpaper. featuresof the researchinclude structural whereas male deviance is more outwardly workenvironment thatpromotedrinkingor directedand antisocial(see Robbins 1989 for allow it to go undetected.with the Second. roleof workstressin alcoholpathology. effectson alcohol use and drinking problems. effect.a stressfulweek at work may be more vulnerablethan othersto work stress followedby heavieruse thatweekend.. Hence femalesmaybe proneto that workplacenorms. overtlyor covertly alcohol-related problemsas a resultof workof this study.gender has been identified as a potentially moderator important 1988). indicatorsof alcohol pathology. however.First.2. Mensch and Kandel important. effectsare etiologically characteristics are Second.WORK STRESS AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS 271 viewoftheetiologic for sociodemo. we have chosen not to model testof our model. issue).. in viewoftheessentially nullresults Third.g.sociodemographic is likelyto be played latethattheirinfluence not modeled as potentialmoderatorsof the out over the courseof hoursor days rather workstress-distress or distress-alcohol relationday at work thanyears. Althougha smallnumberof individuals Farmer(1988) and House et al. stressors findingssuggestthe adoptionof a consider.cultures.g. person test of either tension reductionor social may be needed to test work stress-related learningmodels. maybe morelikelytouse alcoholandtoexhibit encouragedrinking.or networks internalize stress-related whereasmales keepingwiththegenerally thesetests. by racial/ ethnic or socioeconomiccharacteristics are evening. futureresearch using domainassumption of similarconsequentstatusin our specific measures of personal and social model.The available findlittlesupportforthe widelyheld belief data. 1988 for a recentdiscussionof this of alcohol-related discreteindicators pathology.Potentially characterizedby internalization of distress.modelinga causal order reported causal designswould enable moreconfident inference.we Despite the limitations relatedstressorsand distress. low . in thispaper. Consequentlythe failure to use The net effectof any bias introduced by this domain-specificmoderatormeasures may ofouroutcomemeasuresshouldbe to treatment moderatorefunderestimate systematically themagnitude of the workstress overestimate fects. alcoholuse.Hence effectson alcohol-related outcomes.we observedno significant ships between work stress and alcohol NOTES variables. a stressful ships. not relevant to an adequate fects are specifically a fluctuations diary study) daily (e.Yet insofaras workstress-related amongtheseoutcomeswouldnotalterourbasic conclusions.Aftercontrolling graphicand psychosocialresourcevariables. 1988).In particular.Indeed. Such analysesare therefore effectson alcoholuse moredefinitively.theassumption relationships amongthemin orderto maintain consistencyimpliedby the cross-situational withotherpublishedresearchin comparability use ofgeneralmeasuresofpersonalandsocial the workstress-alcohol literature wherethese (see Swindle resourcesmaynotbe warranted outcomes have been treated universally as et al. Accordingto LazarusandFolkman(1984). relationhowever.we do notmean omitting resultsreportedin this and several other to imply that these effects may not be recent studies (e. we believe that increasedresearch to HorwitzandWhite(1987).for example.That is.however. In the interestsof parsimonywe have made in theproposed severalsimplifying assumptions characdue to sociodemographic confounding well as relateddata). In weak Finally.ablymorecircumscribed outcomes. Althougha causal order may exist resourceswould providea morecompelling amongthesedependent measures(cf. Althoughit is possible that some maybe followedbyincreasedalcoholuse that subgroupsdefined. and deficitsin personal teristicsor to underlying drinkingproblems are treated as separate and social resources.drinking to cope. we specuimportant.female deviance hypothetically usefulareas forfuture behavior.According attention shouldbe focusedon otherpossible stylesof influence on drinking malesand femalesmayhavedifferent sourcesof work-related is pathology. (1986) suggest who are deficientin adaptiveresourcesor littledifference betweenmales and femalesin who hold strongpositiveexpectanciesfor the magnitudeof effectsfor work-related alcohol's effectsmay be vulnerable. futureresearchusing prospective Therefore.Data reportedby bothParkerand use.This outcomesuggeststhatsignificant zero-orderrelationshipsmay reflect 1. Cooperet of al. lend little supportto this alcohol thatworkstresspromotes problematic hypothesis.our on alcoholuse.such efwithina designsensitiveto suchshort-term.

The issue raised by thisreviewer.Resultsobtainedby using variablesdidnotdiffer substanthetransformed tivelyfromthosebased on thenontransformed variables. includingbothinfrequent drinkers and abstainers (N = 787).074).First.Thus the low reliability obtainedforseveralof generally the coping indices in the presentstudymay reflectaccuratelythe underlyingnature of coping processes.77 respectively verforproblems).. We also reestimatedthe model.e.we reestimatedthe path model.035). both variables(skewness = log-transformed forconsumption and . we reranall analysesinvolvingeither dependentvariable. Hence in at least some themethodological gains associated situations. Nonetheless.theresultsof these analyses suggestthatour findingsare relatively robustandwerenotbiasedundulyby ourexclusionary Schmitt(1989) pathanalyticmodelsmay pointedoutrecently. Threeof theseinteractions werenotdiscussed previouslybecause the blocks did not reach conventionallevels of significance. In addition.. attenuateestimatesof theirinteractive (Baronand Kenny1986). structural ingalso has a numberof drawbacks. Moreover.Overall.severalof whichmilitateagainstits use in the present context. equation models be preferableto structural insofaras theyare morereadilyaccessibleto a wider audience.itis equally compatiblewithbothmodels.Resultswere essentiallyidenticalto in Figure2. distinguishing betweena spuriousanda mediatedrelationship) is a classic exampleof two alternative models thatcannotbe distinguished on thebasis of the data (see Asher 1983 and Rogosa 1979 fora moredetaileddiscussionof thiscase). First. In particthaninadequatemeasurement ular. can be examinedto determine how closelythe observedrelationships to thehypocorrespond theticalrelationships thatshouldbe observedif the theoryis correct.theseauthorsarguethatthesuccessfuluse withina givencopingdomain of one strategy may obviatethe need to use others.a large numberof interaction effectsare specifiedin the presentmodel. . 1981) reportthatdecreasesin masteryand self-esteemmediate the impact of chronic stressorson depression.Thus onlyresultsusingtheuntransin thisstudy.of course.g. psychosocial tangible social support)on drinkingto cope. exceptthatthe thosesummarized path fromworkdistressto drinkingto cope became significant (p = . al.thespecific interpretations case raisedbythisreviewer(i.we and4.2) On the basis of correlationsreportedin Table 1. Both alcohol consumption lems were highlyskewed(skewness = 4.we must acreliability knowledgethat lower-than-optimal variablesmay amongsome of our moderator effects 6.The reviewer citestwo pieces of evidencein supportof this possibility: 1) Pearlinandcolleagues(Pearlinet al. whichare treatedas potentialconfounders and as moderators in the presentmodel. equationmodeling withthe use of structural maybe morethanoffsetby theaccompanying loss in a criticalone that questions the fundamental modelproposedand accuracyof thetheoretical testedin thepresentstudy. significant directeffectscan be shownforseveralof the variables(e.appearedto reflectan increasein powerdue to thelargersamplesize (N = 711 vs. however.272 JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR reliabilitymay reflectan internal-consistency rather property of thecopingconstruct inherent perse. 1982). and found no appreciable or thesignificance changesin themagnitude of effects on alcoholuse or alcoholproblems. The use of structural takesintoaccountthe effectsof measurement overstandard errorhas severalclearadvantages (Bollen 1989. one mustjustifythecausal order Ultimately specified among variables in a model on . equationmodelingthat 3.using the log-transformed sions.severalpointsmayhelp to place it in perspective.Jameset pathanalytictechniques equationmodel. 574) ratherthanan appreciableincreasein ofthepathcoefficient themagnitude (B = . This change. Thusthe factthatdirecteffects maybe shownforseveral ofthepsychosocial variablesdoes nothelpus to discriminate betweenthesemodels.7. Affirmative results.Yet the consistency(as indicatedby the sign of the interaction term)observedacrosstheseseveral activecopingindicators is noteworthy. self-esteem. instead stressor-distress maymediatethehypothesized or distress-drinking to cope links. Even so.the difficult consequencesof violatingthese assumptions (Kennyand are notgenerallywell understood Judd 1984).We could not reestimate the model in thislarger sampleusingdrinking to cope as theultimate outcomebecause abstainersdid not complete drinking to cope items.theveridicality of this or any othercausal model cannotbe A network established of variables definitively. One anonymousreviewerraised the concern that several of the psychosocialvariables. ruleoutalternative however.01 and 1. whodrankless thanonce including respondents a month. Althougha comprehensive responseto this concernis beyond essentiallyepistemological thescopeofthispaper. To assess the effectof deletinginfrequent noteffectively of thedata. formedvariablesare reported 5. Indeed.08 respectively). and drinking prob4.64 To reduceskewness. fortesting sucheffects amonglatent techniques variablesare complexand carrya numberof stringentassumptionsthat in practice are to meet(Bollen 1989).088 vs.

tokeepup withnew 5." Pp. Do youworryaboutmeetingtheconflicting accepted models of general stressprocesses demandsofdifferent peopleyouworkwith? (see.1987.. 1983.Third.our model would 3.Nonethe4. Are you confusedaboutexactlywhatyou orderingmightlead to different an alternative are supposedto do? conclusionsregardingthe influenceof work 6. standardmultipleregressionproceduresin Archer. Do you worktoo manyhours? theoriesof alcoholuse). the you? alternative causal ordersare plausibleand that 5.2nded. Lack ofJobControl which examinedthe relationshipbetween a 1.Thus the substantiveconclusions drawnwithregardto these outcomeswould REFERENCES appear to stand regardlessof the particular modelto whichone subscribes. Leonard. Are you givena lot of freedomto decide stress processes on drinkingmotives. Areyouunderpressure of work stressprocesses (see Mattesonand waysof doingthings? Ivancevich1987 for a reviewof workstress 6.WORK STRESS AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS 273 2."Addictive Behaviors8:205-18.J. and David A. To theextentthat Press.5 sd editedbyH. 8.E. Areyouunsureaboutwhatpeopleexpectof to cope. ReviewofIssuesanda Guideto theLiterature. the model is compatiblewith widely 4. treated chronicstressorand drinking you? psychosocialvariablesnot as mediatingvari2.HowardT.David B.We used New York:Guilford. Niaura. traitlikecharacteristics 10.g. Moos. may be regardedas an upper limit on the Baron.Results in Pp. Do you have important responsibilities? withthisguideline.1987. drinking problemsof . and which all sociodemographic.eitherforalcoholuse or fordrinking problems. 131-78 in on drinkingproblems in a subgroup of Theoriesof Drinkingand AlcoPsychological high-avoidancecopers (individuals +. Can you use your own initiativeto do 3. ReubenM.Baltimore: edited by C.CA: Sage. Do youhave too muchworkto do? . the to containampleprecedent support posited things?(reversescored) causal orderamongthesevariables. e. Do you have to decide things where drinking(see models). CohenandWills 1985fora review).priorwork consistent by Pearlin (Pearlin and Radabaugh 1976). 1983. APPENDIX "PsychosocialProcesses of Recoveryamong for Alcoholicsand TheirFamilies:Implications WorkStressorItems Cliniciansand ProgramEvaluators. and KennethE.Herbert this value reasonably elevationin workdistress. On rational. Billings. NewburyPark.1977. responsibility fortheworkof others? the basis of such criteria." JourStrategic. JohnsHopkinsUniversity stressoreffectsare mediatedfully through B. Kenny. In this study. Do youfeelthatyouareunableto influence ables but as potentialconfoundersand as your supervisor'sdecisions-even when to cope moderatorsof the stress-drinking theyaffectyou? wouldappearto Thustheliterature relationship. holism. Second. and RaymondS. and Statistical Considerations. and of stress-induced mistakescouldbe quitecostly? Blane and Leonard 1987 for a review of 7. Do you feel that you have a lot of bases. 2-28 in Alcoholismand Its Treatment showed a directeffectof work distresson Schramm. We estimatedthedirecteffectof workdistress "Social Learning Theory. Asher.or substantive theoretical. BlaneandK.our treatment getthejob done well? psychosocialresource variables (which are stable. Industry. or mentally? First. No how to do yourwork?(reversescored) evidence of mediated effects was found." stressorvariables were controlled. "OccupationalAlcoholism:A resource. Do you have to deal withor satisfytoo morestablevariablestypicallyare modeledas manypeople? causally antecedentto less stable variables to 9. WorkPressure Blane. however. that would be expected of the effect magnitude VariableDistinction "The Moderator-Mediator on alcohol problemsfromincreasesin work in Social PsychologicalResearch:Conceptual. Leonard.T. 1986. Causal Modeling.172. 1. Do youhave too littlehelpor equipment of (Davis 1985). abovethemeanon avoidancecoping).AndrewG. Can youtakeiteasy and stillgetyourwork predominantly done?(reversescored) such as mastery)as causally antecedentis 11. nal of Personalityand Social Psychology 51(6):1173-82. and RudolfH. keepa close watchon Does yoursupervisor in mind that bear should reader less. stressors.Janet. psychological 8. theoretical Abrams. Do you workveryhard-eitherphysically seemto be bothreasonableand well grounded.

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1988. and Robin M. "Validityof of Alcoholand OtherDrugUse: A Self-Reports Assessment. Seeman. in DrinkingBehavMastery..andBrian to Lakey. Jacobs. Swindle. in theepidemiology ofalcoholuse and abuse amongwomenand itseffects is interested psychologyat the State MICHAEL R. Stacy.Charles D.In additiontoherworkon alcoholuse. HarrisonM. Melvin.edited by M. conflict. 1988.. on Alcoholism at New YorkStateResearchInstitute MARCIA RUSSELL is a seniorresearchscientist and an associate clinical professorin the Departmentof Social PreventiveMedicineat the State ofNew Yorkat Buffalo.. "Drinkingand Reproductive Dysfunction in Womenin a 1981 National Survey. RichardM.and bloodpressure. Cohen. September/October. Ernest H.Crane. and Art Budros.Currently behaviorsamong and AlcoholAbuseto studyalcohol use. Seeman. Trice.John M. DC: Hemisphere. Jr. 1985. Washington.RosarioJ. Wilsnack. and Barbara Howe. Klassen.Work. 1978. and Paul M. Locus of Controland Health among Men in a Prairie Province.276 JOURNALOF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR "Alienationand Alcohol: The Role of Work.H. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.GerardA. Worden.and otherhealth-related adolescents.RalphW." AmericanSociologicalReview48:60-77. 1986..A. 1986. 1983. and RichardW. "Preventionof Substance in theWorkHealthPromotion Abuse through pp. "OccupationalStress." Canadian Journalof BehavioralSciences 14: 122-33. James Marshall. .and Community ior. "The Experienceand Expressionof Anger:Construction and Validationof an Anger Expression Scale. "A ConceptualReorientation the Study of Personalityand StressfulLife Events. sexual risktaking. Roman.. "Police OccupationalDemands.she University on reproduction. Johnson.KennethHeller. and A Longitudinal StudyofAlienation Community: andAlcoholUse." Pp." EAP Digest. "Powerlessness." Journalof OccupationalMedicine 25:455-58. Weiss. editedby L. stress. NewburyPark. John. and Carl D'Arcy. Rosenman.Her researchinterestsinclude Aspectsof Health at the State University of stresson modelsof alcohol use.Ron Hays. Spiritsand Demonsat Work:Alcoholand Other Drugs on the Job. 5-30 in Anger and Hostilityin Cardiovascularand BehavioralDisorders. and stressandfactorsthatmoderateeffects cognitive-motivational on Alcoholism she is fundedby theNationalInstitute psychologicaland physicalwell-being."JournalofConsulting and Clinical Psychology 54:416-23. 1983.and job involvement." JournalofHealthand Social Behavior29:185-98.Alan W. Martin. Managerial Ideology and theSocial ControlofDeviancein Organizations. DiMatteo. 1985. Russell. Spielberger." Pp. Chesneyand R. Alice Z. FRONE is a doctoral candidate in sociallorganizational on at theNew YorkStateResearchInstitute ofNew Yorkat Buffaloand a researchscientist University occupationalstress. Widaman. "Social Supportas Coping Assistance. Alcoholism. Thoits. StephenF.H. Shain. and Social Psychology Personality Syrotuik. KeithF. Wilsnack. place.and TimothyJ. Psychological Distressand theCopingFunction of Alcohol. AlbertD.CA: Sage."Journalof Multitrait-Multimethod 49:219-32. 1982. 237-68 in Life Events and Psychological Functioning:Theoretical and MethodologicalIssues. Violanti.PeggyA." Alcoholism:Clinical and Experimental Research8:451-58.His currentresearchis in work-family employees'alcohol use. in theCenterfor theStudyof Behavioraland Social LYNNE COOPER holdsa researchappointment of New Yorkat Buffalo. 39-51. 1984.New York:Praeger. Sharon C.