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Steps for Construction of Earth roads

Hi, today I am going to share with you the steps which are necessary for
the construction of the earth roads:

General :
First of all what is an earth road? Earth road is a type of road whose
whole pavement section is constructed with the locally available earth
material preferably. Borrow pits are located at the nearby sites preferably
outside the land width where, the required earth is available.
Sub-grade and the surface of the earth roads are given larger camber of
1in 33 to 1 in 20 because they need faster drainage to be safe from the
moisture. A maximum value of camber of 1 in 20 is the limit because
higher camber will result in the formation of cross ruts and corrosion of
pavement soils.

Specifications of Materials:
The earth material used for the construction of earth roads are termed as
satisfactory if they possess the following properties:
Base Course
Wearing
Course
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Clay content
<5%
10 to 18%
Silt content
9 to 32%
5 to 15%
Sand content
60 to 80%
65 to 80%
Liquid limit
<35%
<35%
Plasticity Index
<6%
4 to 10%

Construction steps(Procedure):
1.
Material: Suitable borrow pits are located by doing the survey of
the adjacent land which are easy to reach and at economical haulage
distance. The various organic materials like trees, shrubs and grass roots
are removed before the excavation of the earth.

light compaction is considered desirable. Opening to traffic: The compacted earth surface is allowed to dry out for few days and then is opened to traffic. camber and longitudinal profile. 3. The sub-grade should be compacted to the desired grade. desired amount of compaction and availability of equipment. 5. Atleast 95% of dry density of I. hauling and compaction equipment. pick and hand shovel or using the mechanical equipment like Bulldozer and scraper etc. To follow the desired vertical profile of the road. reference pegs are also driven at a certain spacing which depends upon the estimated length of the road construction per day. spade. Preparation of the sub-grade: Following steps are necessary for the preparation of the sub-grade: (a) Clearing site (b) Excavation and construction of fills (c) Shaping of sub-grade The site clearance may be done manually using appliances like spade. Excavation and construction of fills may also be done manually or using the excavation. 4. Dozers are considered very useful for haulage of short distances.S. The type of roller for compaction is decided based on soil type. The moisture content is checked and if extra moisture is needed. Location of the center line: The center line and the road boundaries are marked on the ground by driving the wooden pegs. rammers and hand rollers.2. baskets. spread and rolled in layers such that the compaction thickness of each layer does not exceed 10 cm. The soil is mixed. is added to bring it to OMC. it should be left to get consolidated under atmospheric conditions. The soil may be a mixture of more than one soil to get the desired properties. Pavement construction: The soil is dumped on the prepared subgrade and pulverized. If the compaction is done manually it will not be sufficient and proper. . The camber of the finished surface is checked and corrected when necessary. pick-axe. Various equipment used by manual labor are shovel.