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List of figures
Figure 1: Die......................................................................................................................24
Figure 2: Component.........................................................................................................25
Figure 3: Round punch......................................................................................................38
Figure 4: Stationary stripper..............................................................................................42
Figure 5: Spring stripper....................................................................................................43
Figure 6: Open die sets......................................................................................................51
Figure 7: Pillar die sets......................................................................................................51
Figure 8: Methods of bending............................................................................................56
Figure 9: Springback..........................................................................................................59
Figure 10: Pressure pad.....................................................................................................63
Figure 11: Before sorting...................................................................................................68
Figure 12: After sorting.....................................................................................................68
Figure 13: Die storage.......................................................................................................70
Figure 14: R.M Storage.....................................................................................................71
Figure 15: Press machines.................................................................................................72
Figure 16: Clean surrounding............................................................................................72
Figure 17: Filling system...................................................................................................74
Figure 18: IRC5 Controller................................................................................................77
Figure 19:Hemming operation...........................................................................................81
Figure 20: Hemming Robot...............................................................................................82
Figure 21: Part produced...................................................................................................83
Figure 22: Setup for Hemming..........................................................................................87
Figure 23: Sensor...............................................................................................................88
Figure 24: Juke box...........................................................................................................91
Figure 25: Weld Line.........................................................................................................92
Figure 26: Assembly outer SH...........................................................................................93
Figure 27: Map for weld line.............................................................................................95
Figure 28: Layout of station..............................................................................................96
Figure 29: Daily Storage Monitor......................................................................................98
Figure 30: Daily Storage Monitor......................................................................................99
Figure 31: Brazing Operation..........................................................................................107
Figure 32: Grinding operation.........................................................................................108
Figure 33: Tinkering Operation.......................................................................................108
Figure 34: Pick and place arrangement...........................................................................121

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List of Tables
Table 1 Values of spring back for steel..............................................................................56
Table 2 Body side outer details..........................................................................................93
Table 3 Time measurement for RH....................................................................................99
Table 4 Various Time at stations......................................................................................100
Table 5 Time measurement for LH..................................................................................101
Table 6 Various time at different stations........................................................................102
Table 7 Tkt time at LH.....................................................................................................105
Table 8 Tkt time for RH...................................................................................................105
Table 9 Change times for LH...........................................................................................109
Table 10 Change times for RH........................................................................................109
Table 11 Parellel operations time for LH.........................................................................111
Table 12 Parellel operations time for RH........................................................................112
Table 13 Reading at LH after duplication........................................................................115
Table 14Reading at RH after duplication.........................................................................115
Table 15 Result time of June RH.....................................................................................115
Table 16 Result time of June LH.....................................................................................118

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COMPANY PROFILE

Head Office:
ROJEE-TASHA Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
3rd, Floor Symphony Building,
Range Hill Corner, Shivajinagar
Pune - 411 020, India
Phone: +91 20 25520062

1.1 Introduction:
RTTEC is an Engineering Services company catering to Engineering Designs and
software applications for manufacturing & product companies. Design capability is one
of the core strengths of RTTEC. A strong manufacturing background of GANAGE group
enables RTTEC to offer practical solutions designed for manufacturability
A 22 year young GANAGE GROUP having INR 5 billion revenue, has its
operations in to Sheet Metal Stampings, Press tools manufacturing and assemblies. It has
press capacities ranging from 50 Tons to 1600 Tons RTTEC Private limited is fully
owned subsidiary of INR 5 billion GANAGE Group, formed with a goal of pioneering
and providing solutions in each and every engineering service arena. The in house

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technical centre at GANAGE group has now metaphorios to this new entity with a view
to cater the industrial needs.

1.2 Business Areas:


RTTEC caters to wide spectrum Business Areas covering various activities, with
a flavor in each vertical.

1.3 Engineering Services:


RTTEC provides high quality solutions in manufacturing Engineering in the field
of Automotive, Farming, Industrial and Aerospace. Our experienced engineers have
expertise in tooling and manufacturing. We give low cost solutions to our customers by
maintaining high quality and schedules. We are continuously looking for new ways to
improve both product quality and delivery to better serve our customers.

1.4 Talent Creation Division:


In todays fast paced world, with neck to neck competition, addressing the
technical skilled man power is one of the biggest challenges. Most of the training
institutes create resources, lagging domain and practical expertise .necessitating the
organization to make up for these lacunas.
INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

1.5 Resources:

FUNCTIONAL SKILLS

SOFTWARE EXPERTISE

We have 50+ highly skilled members and senior technical professionals having
more than 250 man-year experience.

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1.6 Business:
We have segregated our business focus areas into 3 divisions. Talent Creation
division creates skilled man power. On site division supports our clients projects with
our human resources. Project division render services to our clients projects.

1.7 Business Of Talent Creation Division:


We have industrial training program which brings a whole new concept in talent
creation. We offer training to individuals and corporate customers on international
methodology with live projects. This helps the individual to learn and adapt himself to the
industrial standards very quickly to be productive from day 1 when employed.

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1.8 Projects and Consultancy:


Value added services covering complete spectrum right from concept to
prototyping. We will be extending our services in Simulations, Reverse Engineering and
Prototyping.

1.9 Process:
We provide services to OEMs, Tier 1 and Medium Scale organizations with value
added services to provide cost effective quality manufacturing solutions.

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Some of the projects which were executed by us:

Sheet Metal

Fixture

Dashboard in Plastics

Styling of Dental Brush


of a Component

Meshing

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1.10 Clients:

GANAGE

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INRODUCTION
GANAGE PRESSINGS PRIVATE LIMITED is a company of GANAGE
GROUP OF COMPANINES. Company is the one of the leading manufacture of sheet
metal dies and sheet metal component. Company is the one of the prime vender of TATA,
FIAT, MAHINDRA AND MAHINDRA, KIRLOSKAR COPELAND LTD., KINETIC
ENGINEERING LTD.
The company is situated in MIDC area in Pimpri. The company is about 14 km
from Pune city. The company is near material gate of TELCO. It is in the F II block of the
MIDC Pimpri.
Rather than to do all works in one plant, the group is divided into number of small
companies, which are situated nearby the main plant. In these small plants, the similar
operations are grouped together for the better co-ordination such that the assembly and
the paint shop are situated at different places rather than in one plant. Press lines of
different capacities are grouped in one plant for effective working. For e.g. the
sophisticated double acting press machines which are required for skin components of the
automobiles are placed in the Automotive Metal Stampings Pvt. Ltd. and all the outer
components are manufactured there.
All the components after press operations are shifted to these weld shops and
paint shop for the further operations are final dispatch is done there.

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COMPANY HISTORY
In 1985 the company was established comprising of small presses. The turnover
of group during the inception financial year was Rs.30 Lac.
A medium range press shop (up to 400T capacity) was commissioned in year
1988 under the name and style M/S GANAGE PRESSING PVT. LTD. for the supply of
various sheet metal structure components such as chassis, frame cross member, assembly
body mounting brackets, chassis frame gussets and reinforcement, etc.
In recent past group has commissioned a large bed press shop comprising of wide
range of presses from 500T to 1050T capacity and at the unit under the name and style
M/S. GANAGE PRESSING LIMITED at F II 50, M.I.D.C. Pimpri, and pune.18. The
TELCOS requirement of various body shell panels of 207 family vehicles is made from
this unit. The wide range of body shell panel includes side panel assemblies and door
inner panels, floor panels, tie members etc.
Due to increased requirement of sheet stampings and assemblies of TELCOS
various existing vehicle models, group undertook the company POONA TOOLS PVT.
LTD. this press shop consists of medium capacity presses (up to 600T) the few existing
components have been transferred from F II 50 to POONA TOOLS PVT. LTD. in the
manufacturing range. This is done to have rationalized loading i.e. the group has spare the
capacity at both the units for supply of heavy sheet metal stamping and assemblies from
F II 50 and medium sheet metal stampings and assemblies from POONA TOOLS PVT.
LTD.
M/S TELCO has recently awarded us letter of intent on our new unit under the
name and style M/S. AUTOMOTIVE METAL STAMPING PVT. LTD. where double
acting press line is commissioned and is now giving production. in the same unit there is
one medium range press line and plans to have another medium range press line and a
modern weld shop to cater the requirement of sheet metal stamping and assemblies for
TELCOS SMALL CAR PROJECT.

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OUR RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS

Tata Motors awards complete chassis and major cab assemblys


business of
their forthcoming Light Commercial Vehicle TATA ACE.
TATA
MOTORS

Resumed supply of skin components like Tailgate Outer, both


floor panels
and other major sheet metal components for their popular
models like
Indica, Indigo, and Indigo Marina.

MAHINDRA
&
MAHINDRA

Successfully developed 68 components with 21 weld Assemblies for


Scorpio Project.

FIAT

Completed turnkey project for Palio - 178 in record time


consisting
149 components including ROOF TOP & all FLOOR
PANELS
comprising of 368 Dies, checking Fixtures.

L&T
JOHN
DEERE

Successfully developed Fender Assembly for Tractor consisting 24


components on turnkey basis, including design, development, mfg.
of checking fixture, welding fixture, dedicated welding line,
manufacture of components & supply of assembly.

PIAGGIO

Started supply of skin components like Dome for 3-wheeler &


Back Panel
and other components for their 4-wheeler models.

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OUR SALES TURNOVER (Rs. Millions)

3000

2500

2500

1800

1500
1200

1170

1000

880

798
683
581

750

650
480 520

500
251

24

1
9
0
9
9
1

46

2
9
1
9
9
1

65 104

3
9
2
9
9
1

4
9
3
9
9
1

5
9
4
9
9
1

6
9
5
9
9
1

7
9
6
9
9
1

8
9
7
9
9
1

Year

12

9
9
8
9
9
1

0
0
9
9
9
1

1
0
0
0
0
2

2
0
1
0
0
2

3
0
0
2
2
0
0
2

4
0
0
2
3
0
0
2

5
0
0
2
4
0
0
2

6
0
0
2
5
0
0
2

D
E
T
A
M
I
T
S
E

2006-2007

Sales

2000

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MILESTONES
1985

ESTABLISHED ROJEE-TASHA STAMPINGS PVT. LTD. WITH INITIAL CAPACITY UP TO 300 T PRESSES .

1991

COMMENCEMENT OF PRODUCTION ON LARGE BED PRESSLINE WITH 500 T TO 1050 T CAPACITY PRESSES
AT GANAGE
PRESSINGS PVT. LTD

1995

COMMENCEMENT OF PRODUCTION ON MEDIUM RANGE PRESS LINE WITH 400 T TO 630 T CAPACITY
PRESSES AT POONA
TOOLS PVT. LTD.

1996

ISO-9002 CERTIFICATION BY RWTUV.

1998

QS-9000 CERTIFICATION BY RWTUV.

2000

COMMENCEMENT OF EXPORT OF FIAT UNO DOORS FOR THEIR GLOBAL OPERATIONS.

2001

SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF 149 SHEET METAL COMPONENTS INCLUDING ROOF TOP AND ALL
FLOOR PANELS ETC. FOR
FIAT PALIO ON TURNKEY BASIS.
LAUNCHED ACT-CII 3-YEAR CLUSTER PROGRAMME FOR PRODUCTIVITY & QUALITY IMPROVEMENT AT
GANAGE PRESSINGS.

2002

COMMENCEMENT OF PRODUCTION OF 68 COMPONENTS & 21 ASSEMBLIES FOR SCORPIO OF MAHINDRA


& MAHINDRA.
ISO/TS 16949:2002 CERTIFICATION BY RWTUV.

2003

2004

2005

THE UNIDO 2.5 YEAR CLUSTER PROGRAMME ON PRODUCT & QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TAKES OFF AT
POONA TOOLS PVT.
LTD.

TATA MOTORS LTD AWARDS THE BESTSELLER INDICA AND INDIGOS A & B CLASS COMPONENTS
BUSINESS TO GANAGE
GROUP.
TATA MOTORS AWARDS COMPLETE CHASSIS AND MAJOR CAB ASSEMBLYS BUSINESS OF THEIR
PRESTIGIOUS NEW
PLATFORM CALLED CUB TO GANAGE GROUP.
COMMENCEMENT OF BUSINESS WITH PIAGGIO VEHICLES TO SUPPLY DOME FOR THEIR POPULAR 3WHEELER
ISO 14001: 1996 CERTIFICATION BY RWTUV.

SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF FENDER ASSLY FOR L&T JOHN DEERE TRACTOR.

DEVELOPMENT OF EXPORT FENDER FOR L & T JOHN DEERE .


2006

COMMENCEMENT OF BUSINESS OF FLOOR PANEL AND OTHER COMPONENTS WITH PIAGGIO FOR THEIR
FORTH COMING
4-WHEELER MODELS. A LANDMARK YEAR IN THE GROUPS HISTORY

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PRESS LINE

GPPL - LINE - I GPPL - LINE - II


CAPACITY

CAPACITY

1050 T

630 T

800 T

500 T

630 T

500 T

630 T

300 T

PTPL - LINE - III AMSPL - LINE - IV


CAPACITY

CAPACITY

1030 T D/A
630 T

630 T

500 T

630 T

500 T

500 T

500 T

500 T

400 T

500 T

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RTSPL - LINE - V

CAPACITY

630 T ( H )

800 T
630 T
500 T

SMALL PRESSES FROM 25T TO 250T LINE


VI & VII

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WELDING FACILITIES

S/N

MACHINE

SPEC.

NO.

Projection Weld M/C

10 KVA*

Projection Weld M/C

30 KVA*

Projection Weld M/C

75 KVA*

Welding Gun

32 KVA*

Welding Gun

42 KVA

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Welding Gun

76 KVA*

Spot Weld M/C

50 KVA

Spot Weld M/C

75 KVA

Spot Weld M/C

100 KVA

CO2 Weld. M/C

500 amps

14

10

CO2 Weld. M/C

750 amps

TOTAL EQUIPMENTS

62
* WITH MICROPROCESSOR

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PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE

CAD Data / Drawing & APQP


Die Design CAD / CAM (Tebis,CATIA,UG)
Die Manufacturing
Die Assembly
Die Spotting

Try -Out
Sample Approval
Pilot Batch
PPAP
Production

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DIES MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

S/
N

DESCRIPTION

MAKE

1.

CNC COPY MILLING 1400


DT

RAMBAUDI

XYZ AXIS
4000 X 1400 X 930

2.

JIG BORING

STROJIMPO
RT, USSR

TABLE 600 X 900 mm

3.

DIE SPOTTING PRESS

MINCHANG,
TAIWAN

3500 X 2200 mm

4.

DIE SPOTTING PRESS

ISGEC

3500 X 2200 mm

5.

CO-ORDINATE
MEASURING

MMT

TABLE 2000 X 1250


mm

SPECIFICATION

NOS.

ALL OTHER ALLIED MACHINES REQUIRED FOR DIE MAINTENANCE &


MANUFACTURING

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Enhancement of Tool Room Capabilities

SR.N
O.

M/C DESCRIPTION

SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL

NOS.

5 Axis CNC BOKOE

1200X1500X1000

Normal BOKO ( Convn.)

1200X1000X750

SIP Jig Boring

MP 640 CNC 7A
( Conventional)

SIP Jig Boring)

7A ( Conventional)

ZEISS CMM

2000X1200X750 / (KMZ201210)

AGIE Wire-cut

EDM M/C (AC 200 )

Surface Grinder

ELB (SWBE 015)

CNC Tool room Lathe

NEF 500 Plus

Radial Drilling

( WEBO BR 70 R)

10

CNC machining Centre


( VMC)

8000 Rpm

11

CNC Plano Borer

Proposed

12

5 Axis Laser Machine

Proposed

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Tooling capabilities
( Per Month)

Small and medium dies

10-12 Nos

Welding and assembly fixtures

6 8 Nos

Inspection fixtures

6- 8 Nos.

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OUR CUSTOMERS

NAME

LOCATIO
N
PUNE

TATA
MOTORS

LUCKNOW
JAMSHEDP
UR

PRODUCT RANGE
UTILITY
VEHICLES
SUMO
SAFARI
SIERRA
MOBILE

COMMERCIAL
VEHICLES
LCV (407, 608,
709)
HCV (LPT 1312,
1612, 2215)

CAR:- INDICA
INDIGO
MARINA
PALIO, PALIO nv, PALIO
ADVENTURE, SIENA, SIENA
WEEKENDER, UNO

FIAT INDIA
PVT. LTD.

MUMBAI

MAHINDRA &
MAHINDRA

NASIK,
ZAHIRABA
D

UTILITY VEHICLE SCORPIO


MAHINDRA CHAMPION

L&T JOHN DEERE


PVT. LTD.

PUNE

TRACTOR

BAJAJ TEMPO LTD.

PUNE

MINIDOOR, TEMPO TRAX

KINETIC
ENGINEERING
LTD.

PUNE

MOTER CYCLE CHALLENGER,


BOSS

VIDEOCON
INTERNATIONAL LTD.

HYDERABA
D

DISH WASHER

PIAGGIO VEHICLES
PVT. LTD.

BARAMATI

APE ( AUTO RIKSHAW & LOAD


BODY)

TATA FICOSA LTD.

PUNE

AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS
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TATA INDICA MAJOR COMPONENTS

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2. DIE DESIGN
2.1 INTRODUCTION TO DIES:
A die set is the fundamental portion of every die. It consists of a lower shoe, or a
die shoe, and an upper shoe, both machined to be parallel within a few thousands of mm.
The upper die shoe is sometimes provided with a shank, by which the whole tool is
clamped to the ram of the press. Because of their much greater weight, large dies are not
mounted this way. They are secured to the ram by clamps or bolts. However, sometimes
even large die sets may contain the shank, which in such a case is used for centering of
the tool in the press. Both die shoes, upper and lower, are aligned via guide pins or guide
posts. These provide for a precise alignment of the two halves during the die operation.
The guide pins are made of ground, carburized, and hardened-tool steel, and they are
firmly embedded in the lower shoe. The upper shoe is equipped with bushings into which
these pins slip-fit. The die block, containing all die buttons, nests, and some spring pads,
is firmly attached to the lower die shoe. It is made of tool steel, hardened after machining.
The die block is usually a block of steel, either solid or sectioned, into which the
openings are machined. The openings must match the outside shapes and outside
diameters of the die bushings; they must be precise and exact, since the die bushings are
press-fitted into them. A relief pocket must be provided for headed bushings heads.
The punch plate is mounted to the upper shoe in much the same manner as the die
block. Again, it is made of a hardened-tool steel, and it may consist of a single piece of
steel, or be sectioned. It holds all punches, pilots, spring pads, and other components of
the die.
Their sizes and shapes conform to tooling they must contain minus the tolerance
amount for press fit. Both the die block and the punch plate are often separated from the
die shoe by back-up plates, whose function is to prevent the punches and dies from
becoming embedded in the softer die shoe.
The sheet-metal strip is fed over the die blocks upper surface, and it is usually
secure between guide rails or gauges. There are two types of gauges: side gauges, for

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guiding the sheet through the die, and end gauges, which provide for the positioning of
stock under the first piercing punch or blanking punch at the beginning of each strip.
The strip is covered up, either whole or its portions, by the stripper, which provides for
stripping of the pierced material off the punch. The stripper is usually made from coldrolled steel, and its openings are clearance openings for the shapes of punches. Where
bushing are provided for a more positive guidance, press-fitted method of their insertion
is often used. The stationary stripper is mounted to the upper surface of the die block
with a strip retaining channel running its entire length. The spring-loaded stripper is held
in an offset location by the force of springs, and in such a case it is attached to the punch
plate.
With reverse punching, where the punch is mounted in the die block and the die is
up in the punch plate, the stripping arrangement is reversed. Here the knock out pins are
going through the head of the punch, their stripping pressure being provided by a spring.
The pins force the pressure pad or stripping insert out against the material, so that the
blank is held down when the punch moves upward. Their pressure increases with the
descent of the die. The die contains a similar set of pins, here called push pins. These lift
up the cup off the die face after forming.
The stripper is stationary, and it prevents the remainder of the strip from moving
up on opening of the die, along with the movement of forming/blanking punch. This
punch cuts the blank out of the strip with its outer diameter, forming it afterward with its
face area and inner diameters edge, finally bottoming on a forming support.

Figure 1: Die

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2.2 COMPONENT DETAILS:

Figure 2: Component

Component name: BRACKET (H.P Regulator Mounting)


Operations to be carried out:
1) BLANK and PIERCE
2) FORM-I
3) FORM-II
4) FORM-III

2.3 Design of a above component is carried out in following steps:

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2.3.1 Operation 1:- BLANK and PIERCE


2.3.1.1 Blank Development
Blank development is the process of developing the minimum blank size to make
a part. The smallest blank size depends on the product shape, sheet metal, process and
tooling designs.
Blank size calculation is based on the concept of balance of material volume
between initial and final form. The implementation can be in the form of:

Pitch line balance, e.g. flat bends and roll forming

Balance of surface area, e.g. round and box shells

Balance of volume
Blank development can either be done manually or via computer programs, with

various degrees of accuracy.


Blank development has economic (decreasing cost) and technical (reducing
forming severity and forming stages) ramifications. For many parts, material costs are
approximately 50-80% of the overall price. Therefore, any savings in the blank shape
can provide a substantial per piece savings. This amount can be quite significant for
higher volume components. In order to maximize material savings, some complicated
geometries are formed with a fully or roughly developed blank, which also helps to
reduce forming severity.
With the type of blank shape shown above, a higher material utilization factor is
generally achieved (as compared to a rectangular blank). Cost-effective material
utilization is essential to maintaining a competitive edge in the automotive industry.
During the process and material planning stages, many questions must be considered in
order to ensure maximum material usage. The following are some of the questions that
require consideration:

Is the blank shape cost effective?

Can it be developed?

Does the panel have geometrical features that unnecessarily warrant an irregular

blank shape (are tabs necessary)?

Is the material used, the lowest cost possible without sacrificing quality

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Methods:
Estimating a blank shape essentially requires turning the three-dimensional part
geometry into a flat blank, which can be accomplished by unfolding section details into
flat lengths of line and transposing them onto the plan view of the part. The manual steps
for determining a blank shape and its material costs are:
1) Trace the finished part outline from the plan view (pressing direction) onto the
part drawing. Determine the sections required to estimate the blank shape. Since
individual sections only provide information that is specific to the region they are
cut through, many sections may be required to determine the total blank shape. A
reference point(s) on each section must also be noted to allow for its location on
the plan view. Vehicle body lines often serve as good reference points.
2) Determine the length-of-line of each section and transpose its endpoints onto
the plan view of the part. The positioning of the endpoints is determined by a
sections location on the plan view and its reference point(s). Each endpoint will
serve as a reference point on the developed blank.
3) Connect the plan view points to create an outline of the developed blank shape.
4) Add any required addendum and drawbead material around the developed blank.
Determine the profile of the rough blank size. Modify the blank size for stretch.
5) Determine the material coil width and progression.
6) If a drawing operation is required, extra material should be added for the
addendum and drawbeads. This procedure can take some time depending on the
complexity of the components. The amount of addendum to be added varies from
part to part and should be given careful consideration. Mistakes in determining
the required addendum can greatly affect the blank shape and nesting
arrangements.
7) After the addendum is added, the drawbeads should be placed where required.
The requirement for drawbeads varies around the periphery of the component.

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Cad cam softwares:


CAD-Based Unfold Routines
Fabricated Parts (Straight Bends)
Most 3D CAD systems contain sheet metal tools that can geometrically flatten these parts
quickly and easily with very high accuracy.
Solution is based on some form of K factor to account for bend allowance
These systems typically cant handle formed geometry (parts with stretch)
Calculation:
Thickness of component (t) =2.5mm
Now check,
R < 2t

then C = 0.33t

R = 2 to 4t,

then C = 0.4t

R > 4t,

then C = 0.5t

Where, C=distance of neutral axis from outer radius


R=3.5mm
So,

C=0.33t (since 3.5<2t)

Now,
Cutting force (Fsh) = Lt Ssh tonnes
1000
L

= Length of cut in mm = 1588.7mm (from developed blank)

= thickness of stock in mm = 2.5mm (given)

Ssh

= Shear strength of the material Kg/mm2 = 40 Kg/mm2 (given)

Cutting force = 1588.7*2.5*40


1000
= 158.87 tonnes

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Pressure tonnage:
The amount of pressure exerted by the RAM on to the die is known as pressure tonnage.
Too much tonnage could cause the workpiece to break.
Formula used,
Pressure tonnage=1.5 * cutting force
=1.5 * 158.87
=238.81tonnes
Available press on production floor in required range is of 250 tonnes. Therefore, we
selected press of 250Tonnes.
Parameters of 250T HMT press:
1) Bolster size

LB=1100 FB=1500

2) Slide size

LR=1100

3) Strokes

=300

4) Slide adjustment

=250cm

5) Cushion travel

=180mm

Stripping force:
The force required to retract the punch from the die and to remove punch from the
sheet.
Formula used,
Stripping force (F str) = 0.09 * cutting force
=0.09 * 15.887 tonnes
=14.928 tonnes

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2.3.1.2 Strip layout


The designer must consider the spacing of the blanks of the stock. There are two main
considerations:
1) The best location of blanks to save material and
2) The best location of blank to serve good bending where bending is required
While solving problems of strip layout, a cardboard or celluloid template cut to
conform to the contour of the workpiece is often helpful. The outline of the workpiece is
traced from the template on a blank piece of paper. The template is then placed in various
positions adjacent to the workpiece outline until the most favorable relationship is
determined. The template must not be reversed or turned over unless a two pass die or a
gang die is used.
The grain direction of the strip may be a considerations in the location of the
workpiece especially if a bending operation is required. When sheet metal is rolled in the
steel mill, a fiber, or grain, is produced in the direction of rolling. The obtain the
maximum strength from bent parts, the bend should be made at angle 90degree to the
grain direction. The normal grain direction of a coil strip is parallel to the edge of the
strip. When workpiece are sheared from sheet stock, it is possible that the grain direction
may be 90degree to the edge of the strip, depending upon how the strip is sheared from
the sheet.
The burr produced during piercing or blanking operation may determine the position
of workpiece in some instances. On some workpieces it may be desirable to have the burr
on one side. An example would be to locate the burr on a hidden surface and thus
eliminate a deburring operation. Remember that inverting the blank position will also
invert the burr side with respect to the workpiece contour.
Using workpiece templates may immediately show the best strip layout with regard to
material utilization; however, in two or three layout the maximum utilization may not be
apparent. To find the percentage of scrap or material utilization, the following formula
may be used:
% of material utilization= (A / B) * 100
Where A=area of uncut strip
B=total area of blank cut

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The best strip layout is not always the one with the best utilization of material. For
example, the layout with best utilization of material may require the construction of more
complex die which would offset the saving obtained unless a large number of parts is
unnecessary.
It is always necessary to consider the spacing between blanks while laying out the
strip. Blanks located too close together or too close to edge of the strip tend to allow the
metal to slip by the cutting edges of the punch and die. The web between the blanks that
forms the scrap skeleton must be strong enough to withstand feeding forces. A general
rule of thumb for strip layout is to make the web between the blanks and edges of the
strip at least 1 times the strip thickness; however, other factors may allow the web to be
thinner, including the thickness of the strip, the hardness of the material, the length of the
scrap web, the shape of the workpiece, and type of operation.
Calculation:
% utilization of material:
It should be minimum 60 %.
Area of blank

= 42052 sq.mm.

Area of irregular shape

= 2984.73 sq.mm.

Area of circle having diameter 8mm = 50 * 2 number = 100sq.mm


Area of circle having diameter 9mm = 63.47 * 2 number = 126.94sq.mm
Area of circle having diameter 7mm = 38.5 sq.mm
Actual area of 1 blank

= 42052-(2984.73+100+126.94+38.5)
= 38801.83sq.mm

Metal sheets are available in two dimensions.


1) 2500 * 1250
Area of 7 blanks = 38801.83 * 7
= 271612.81sq.mm
Area of 1 strip

= 461654.18sq.mm

Area of 6 strips = 461654.18 * 6


= 2769925.08sq.mm
Area of sheet

= 3125000sq.mm

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% utilization of material = total area of blank cut * 100


Area of uncut strip
= 271612.81 * 6 * 100
2769925.08
= 58.83% (approx. 60 %)
2) 2000 * 1000
Area of 5 blanks = 38801.83 * 5
= 194009.15 sq.mm
Area of 1 strip

= 370323.35 sq.mm

Area of 5 strips = 370323.35 * 5


= 1851616.75 sq.mm
Area of sheet

= 2000000 sq.mm.

% utilization of material = total area of blank cut * 100


Area of uncut strip
= 194009.15* 5 * 100
1851616.75
= 52.39 %
In case of sheet of 2500mm * 1250mm, the % utilization of material is greater
than sheet of 2000mm * 1000mm. Therefore, we selected sheet of 2500mm * 1250mm
sheet and it will give us 42 numbers of blanks.

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2.3.1.3 Selection of die


Dies are classified by the type of operation performed and by the type of construction
of the die. The classifications throughout the die industry are too numerous. The common
classification of dies is given below.
1) Progressive die
2) Compound die
3) Combination die
Progressive dies perform two or more operations at different stages every time the
ram descends. The stock strip is advanced through a series of stations that perform one or
more distinct die operations on the workpiece. The strip must move from the first through
each succeeding station to produce a complete workpiece. Thereafter a complete
workpiece is produced with each stroke of the ram. The distance from one station to the
next must be the same. The station to station distance is also the same as the advance
distance. The advance distance is the distance the strip moves in order to relocate at each
successive station.
The principal advantage of a progressive die is in the number of operations that can
be achieved with one handling of the stock strip. The main disadvantage is that
workpieces may become dished as they are pushed through the die as they generally
have very little support. Thin stock of soft material may cause trouble by bending or
tearing around piloting holes, especially in die sets having many stations where the
friction and inertia of the stock are considerable.
A compound die differs from a progressive die in that it performs two or more cutting
operations during one stroke of the press at one station only. In order to do this, both the
upper and lower member of the die set carry punching and blanking elements which are
directly opposed to each other. In other words, the piercing punch acts in the opposite
direction with respect to the blanking punch. Note that the blanking punch also serves as
the piercing die.
Compound dies are slower in operation than progressive dies, but they have
advantages for certain jobs, especially where tolerances are close.
The cutting operation, aided by the action of the knockout plate, ensures flatness of the
blank.

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Pierced holes in the workpiece (blank) can be held to close tolerances with the
edges. This is very important when blanking out such parts as clock gears having a
central hole.
Large parts can be blanked in a smaller press if compound dies rather than
progressive dies are used.
Progressive dies of necessity need long strips of material. Sometimes scrap blanks
are available, and these can be hand fed to a compound die under conditions where the
saving in material will offset the cost of the labor.
A die in which cutting operation is combined with a non-cutting operation is referred to
as a combination die. The cutting operations may include blanking, piercing, trimming
and cut-off and are combined with non-cutting operations which may include bending,
extruding, embossing and forming.
So for our purpose we select compound die.
2.3.1.4 Use of split dies
If the blank is having irregular shape, using regular shaped or rectangular shaped
dies will result in extra steel for dies, which will increase the weight of dies and also cost
for extra material. Therefore, for economical purpose we use split die. The steel blocks
are available in standard sizes. Machining and arranging these blocks we can construct a
split die.
In our case, the blank is having irregular shape. So, we need to use the split die.
2.3.1.5 Deciding Cut section
Selection of cut section is quiet important. Select a cut section such that it will cut
minimum required holes in horizontal and vertical sections. It will show us the
positioning of punches in dies.

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2.3.1.6 Selection of Punches


The male force element of a stamping die that contacts the stock to perforate,
bend, draw or shape the desired work piece is called the punch. It generally consists of a
working end and a retaining portion.
Working End (Point):
The working end produces the desired hole, form, or shape in the part. In the case of a
perforating punch, the point shape is constant for a length to provide the passage through
the stock and for sharpening. The point shape is blended into the shank by a smooth
radius (radii) tangent to the point shape to resist fatigue in transmitting the punching
forces to the shank.

Retaining Portion (Shank):


The shank is cylindrical to fit a round hole in the punch retainer. The fit of the shank to
the retainer hole provides location of the punch (relative to the punches, etc.) in the
stamping die. The forces applied to the punch are transmitted by the shank to the retainer
backing plate or punch holder.
Head:
A cylindrical section larger than the shank, which, by shoulder action, opposes the
stripping force (opposite of punching force) and increases bearing area is a head of
punch.
Types of Punches:
1) Punch Blank:
It is a punch with a single diameter for both shank and point with standard shank
diameters and tolerances. They are intended for alteration for special diameters or point
shapes.

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2) Perforating (Piercing) Punch:


It is a punch to produce a hole. The point end is forced through the stock, simultaneously
producing a hole in the work piece and a waste slug. The hole will be the same shape as
the end of the point.
3) Pilot Punch:
It is a punch that extends beyond the overall length (L) of the perforating punches to enter
previously pierced holes for accurately positioning the stock within the die.
4) Ejector Punch:
A punch intended for mechanical or pneumatic separating of the waste slug from the end
of the punch point to prevent the slug from being pulled out of the die cavity.
5) Round punch:

Punch Feature Nomenclature:


Point Diameter (P):
It is the diameter of the working end of a round perforating punch or pilot punch.
Point Dimension:
The dimensions required to define the end shape of a punch point other than round.
W - The smaller dimension of a point shape.
P - The larger dimension of a point shape.
Diagonal (G):
It is the diagonal of a rectangle or a square.

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Limiting Diameter (Gmax):


The maximum circumscribed diameter of a rectangle, square or other shape.
Point Length (B):
The length of the working end of a punch point that includes the radius blend (R) and
allowances for penetration in to the work piece and grind or wear length (life) - length to
be reduced by sharpening grinds.
Radius Blend (R):
It is a smooth radius, tangent to point shape, to blend the point (round or other shape) to
the cylindrical shank (generally larger than the point).
Shank Diameter (D):
It is the cylindrical portion of the retaining end that fits to a hole in the punch retainer.
Press Fit:
The shank is larger than the retainer hole to produce a rigid joint. Installation and
replacement requires pressure or impact to remove the punch.

Slip Fit:
The shank is smaller than the retainer hole. Replacement should not require pressure or
impact to remove the punch.
Overall Length (L):
It is the total length of a punch.
Nominal Length (L):
It is the length of a pilot punch excluding the bullet nose leading point end.

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Head Diameter (H):


It is the diameter of a cylindrical head or largest diameter of a conical head.
Head Thickness (T):
It is the thickness (length) of a head.
Lead Diameter (Press-in lead, Pilot Lead):
The portion of a press fit shank diameter (adjacent to radius blend) which is smaller than
the retainer hole to allow primary entry and piloting during assembly.
Fillet:
It is the blend of a shank diameter to head diameter to avoid stress concentration of a
sharp corner.
As per our requirement we need 2 punches having dia. 9mm, 2 having 8 mm, and 1
having 7mm. We selected these from standard set.

Figure 3: Round punch

2.3.1.7:- Design of Punch Retainer


Multipart retainers are an additional punch-guiding provision to a die. They
resemble small, self-contained punch plates, and they come in various sizes and shapes
and with different tool-retaining openings. The whole unit, along with the punch or
punches it holds, is secured to the holding plate with dowels and locked in this position
by screws. The punch, equipped with a ball-retaining groove, is precision-located by a
pressure of the spring-loaded ball.
Design is based on punch diameter.

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2.3.1.8 Design of die block


The design of the die block depends basically upon the workpiece size and
thickness, although the contours of the workpiece and type of die may be influential at
times. Die blocks for small workpieces are usually constructed from a solid block of tool
steel. The size of die blocks is generally based on the past experience of the designer.
The distance between the die opening and the outside edge of the die block should be one
and one fourth times the thickness of the die block for smaller dies. The distance should
be increased to 1 to 2 times the die thickness for large dies or when sharp corner are
present in the die opening counter. Solid die blocks that are symmetrical maybe
incorrectly assembled after repair. This can be prevented by intentionally placing one
dowel a different distance from its nearest screw hole, a practice often referred to as fool
proofing the die block. Substantial savings can be derived from using insert dies in the
construction of die blocks. Die blocks made in two or more sections, known as sectional
die blocks, are used to conserve tool steel in the construction of large dies or when the
complexity of the die counter in such that it is easier to machine it sections. An added
advantage of sectional die blocks is that only one component need be placed in case of
die failure. Sectional components may be screwed and doweled to a die holder or die
shoe with the sections butting against each other. The section should be wide enough to
resist tilting. Dies subjected to heavier cutting forces should be constructed to resist
lateral displacement of the die sections. The use of the sectional components to tie other
components, is advantageous for use with moderate cutting forces. Extremely heavy
cutting force requires that the section be nested in the pocket.
Selection of material:
The material used in standard die sets is cast iron, cast steel or rolled steel. Cast iron die
sets are lower in cost because of the reduction in machining but are subject to cracking
under heavy shock loads. They are primarily used for smaller dies that do not require
maximum strength. Cast steel has a greater toughness and greater resistance to shock
loads. Rolled steel die sets exhibit maximum toughness and resistance to shock loads and
are generally used for larger and special dies.

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To calculate die thickness:


Method1:
(Rule of Thumb) Assuming a die block of tool steel its thickness should be 20
mm. minimum for a blanking perimeter of 75 mm. or less 25 mm. thick for perimeters
between 75 mm. and 250 mm. and 32 mm. thick for larger perimeters. There should be a
minimum of 32 mm. margins around the opening in the die block.
The die opening should be straight for a maximum of 3 mm; the opening should
then angle out at to 1 to the side (draft).

The straight sides provided for

sharpening of the die; the tapered portion enables the blanks to drop through without
jamming.
To secure the die to the die plate or die shoe, the following rules provide sound
construction:
1) On die blocks up to 175 mm square, use two M10 cap screws and two dowels of
dia. 10 mm.
2) On sections up to 200 mm. square, use three cap screws and two dowels.
3) For blanking heavy stock, use cap screws and dowels of dia. 12-mm. diameter.
Counterbore the cap screws 3.2 mm. deeper than usual, to compensate for die sharpening.
Method 2:
Thickness of die-plate (td)
t d 3 Fsh

Where Fsh = Shear load in tonnes


td in cm.
Therefore,

t d 3 158.87
t d 5.41cm
t d 55mm

Considering factor of safety=1.3


We get,

t d 72mm

Therefore, thickness of upper die= 36mm and thickness of lower die=36mm


The lower and upper die plate is having the same contour that of the blank to be cut.

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2.3.1.9 Design of stripper plate


Stripping of parts off the face of the tooling is a complex problem, influenced by
the thickness of material and its type, by the surface finish of the strip, and by the surface
condition of the tooling as well. The stripping of parts is further complicated by the
prevailing manufacturing procedures, since all conventional metalworking machinery
leaves circumferential grooves in the surface of a machined part. The sheet-metal
material, forced by the pressure of tooling, may sometimes be coerced into fitting within
these grooves in some sensitive sections and thus may generate a serious stripping
problem.
For this reason, all problem-prone surfaces should obtain their final finish by
some longitudinal grinding or polishing process, which may level these circumferential
grooves and perhaps even replace them with slight lengthwise arrangements. Another
influence detrimental to parts stripping is the emergence of vacuum between the cut
metal and its tooling.
Stationary and Spring Strippers:
Strippers, as used in the die work, are either stationary (nonmoving) or springloaded (moving). Stationary strippers are low in cost when compared to spring strippers.
Therefore, spring-backed stripping arrangements should be used with thin, fragile
punches, where the immediate stripping action may prevent their breakage.
Spring strippers are of advantage also where additional flattening or materialretaining function is needed or considered beneficial. Such retaining action is usually
utilized in drawing, flanging, or other forming operations.
Stationary strippers are provided with a milled channel made to accommodate the
strip material. It retains the strip in a fixed location, preventing it from moving anywhere,
up, down, or sideways. Naturally, this type of stripper is not adequate where the height of
a part is increased during the die operation, such as the height of drawn, formed,
embossed, or flanged parts.
The stationary stripper is attached to the die block and it can be using the same
screws and dowel pins necessary for attaching the die block to the die shoe. This way, a
single set of dowel pins provides for the alignment between all plates, and a single set of
screws is used for their attachment.

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Figure 4: Stationary stripper

The holes containing dowel pins must be precision-reamed throughout all plates.
But the holes for screws cannot be tapped all the way through, as a misalignment,
binding, and a host of other difficulties will be encountered during assembly. Openings
for screws must be relief openings all the way through the blocks, no matter what their
number or height should be, with only the final block being tapped.
Spring strippers are utilized where an increase in the height of a part is
encountered. They also provide for much firmer stripping action, while acting partially as
spring pads during the cutting, forming, or drawing activity of the die.
Spring strippers are attached to the punch plate, which makes them slide along
with the movements of the ram. Even with all the precision work and tight tolerances, a
stripper plate can sometimes be observed as floating, especially where retained by
stripper bolts only. In such instances, a guided stripper is recommended, particularly
where some fine punches are being used in the die assembly. Guided-stripper plate should
also be utilized with higher press speeds, so that possible movements of the stripper plate
will not endanger the rest ofthe tooling.

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Figure 5: Spring stripper

Material of the stripper plate must be ground on both sides and perfectly square.
Where serving as a pressure pad, or where some wipe forming is involved, roughening of
that surface may be needed, with dependence on testing for that particular operation and
for that particular sheet-metal material. For the purpose of testing and adjustment, prehardened hot rolled steel, HRc 35-38 is often recommended.
A minimum stripper-punch clearance per side should be anywhere from 0.001 in.
(0.025 mm) up to a maximum of two-thirds of the material thickness. Again, testing and
prevailing manufacturing practice should guide our choices.
To calculate stripper plate thickness:
The thickness of a stripper plate can be calculated by using the formula
h= 0.35 td for unguided
h= 0.75 td for guided
The result should be rounded up to the nearest fractional dimension in the eighths range,
such as 0.375 in., 0.50 in., 0.625 in., 0.750 in., and so on.

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We take, thickness =0.35td


h =0.35 * 72
h =25.2mm
h =26mm (approximately)
2.3.1.10 Calculating number of springs required
Poly-Urethane (PU) spring:
Urethane compression springs are designed primarily for applications where
corrosion, vibration, and magnetism prevent the use of conventional steel springs.
Also, urethane springs have proven to be the safest, most efficient and reliable
compression springs for punching, stamping and drawing dies.
As compared to conventional springs, the advantages of the urethane springs include
the following:
1) High load-carrying capability
2) High dielectric strength and non-magnetic
3) Protection against marring/galling
4) Longer life
5) Abrasion resistance
6) Oil and solvent resistance
7) Low noise
8) Vibration damping and shock absorbance
9) 100% load-bearing surface
10) Bondable to mating parts
11) Effectiveness between - 30 F and 180 F

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Design of PU spring:
Calculations:
Stripping force= 15.887tonnes (as calculated above)
=15887 kg
Let us select spring (by looking from the standard chart) of force 1321 per spring @40%
of load.
Therefore,
No. of springs required= stripping force
force per spring
= 14298/ 596
= 24 springs approx.
It is not feasible to place 24 springs within the blank area. So we move on to next
spring.
Let us select spring of force 1910 per spring @30% of load.
Therefore,
No. of springs required= stripping force
force per spring
= 14298/ 1910
= 8 springs
Therefore, we need to place 8 springs each for upper die and lower die.
Now it is feasible to place 8 springs. So we select it.
From standard chart we get,
Diameter (D)

= 60mm

Safe deflection (F) = 20mm

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Calculation for Bulging Diameter:


We know,
@40% load=30 mm
@30% load=x
Therefore x= 30 * 30 / 40
=900 / 40
x=22.5 mm
Now, Bulging diameter= dia. + x
=60 + 22.5
=82.5mm
Calculating travel (y):
Now,
@40% load=20
@30% load=y (travel)
Therefore y=30 * 20 / 40
=600 / 40
y=15mm
Placing PU spring:
Placing of PU spring is quiet important. Spring must be placed in such a manner
that there should be uniform load transfer at all the sections. If not done properly it can
lead to breaking of component at maximum load point. Sometimes or for heavy load it
can cause improper working or failure of dies. These are placed at a distance in a multiple
of 5 from the center line. In lower die

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2.3.1.11 Design of Blank holder


Since we have used split dies, it is necessary to hold all the splits at one level. For
this purpose we use blank holder.
2.3.1.12 Riser
Risers are used because:
1) They are precision ground to a specific height for controlling accuracy of the shut
height.
2) To maintain the component above a certain level.
Design:
The thickness of upper riser is calculated as,
Thickness= height upto top plate- thickness of all components
=183-158
=28mm
Similarly, Thickness of lower riser=34mm
2.3.1.13 Transfer plate
Transfer plates are used for piercing in applications generally similar to those for
which progressive dies are used. A number of operations are done in successive stations
of the transfer die. Piercing, blanking, cutoff, lancing, notching, forming and drawing can
be done in transfer dies. The method differs from progressive die operation in that the
work piece does not remain attached to the strip for feeding, but is fed from station by
transfer by mechanical fingers, levers or cam. Transfer dies are particularly suited to the
making of parts that would be difficult to connect to the stock skeleton with carrier tabs.
Advantages of transfer dies for bending include high production rate, greater versatility
than progressive dies and more efficient use of stock. Disadvantages include high
equipment cost, high setup and tooling maintenance cost, difficulties in handling thin
work metal and poor applicability to large or odd shape parts that needs variations in
blank holder pressure and counter. Production quantities must be large enough to justify
the cost of tooling and equipment.

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Design:
The transfer plate must be kept above riser at a distance equal to travel of PU
spring, so that it can provide required cutting force on the workpiece.
For safety we keep transfer plate at a distance = travel of PU spring+2
= 15+2
=17mm
Thickness of transfer plate is 22mm. (as per standard)
2.3.1.14 Design of cushion pin
An elastic member is disposed on a load supporting device such as cushion pins
and wear plates, which are placed between at least a workpiece and a die cushion pad and
transfer a load applied to the work to the die cushion pad, to support the load. The load
supporting device is disposed in two or more on the die cushion pad to realize
equalization of the load applied to a die cushion. Thus, use of a conventional large-scale
hydraulic circuit is eliminated, and the device can be simplified. Also, the press machine
can be produced at a low cost.
The blank holder forces are transmitted from the cushion plate to the blank holder
of the die by several cushion pins. The only way to increase the blank holder pressure in a
certain area is to put little pieces of sheet between the blank holder and the corresponding
cushion pin, but this makes process reproducibility difficult.
this cushion system makes it possible to adjust the blank holder forces point by point over
the stroke. This can help to decrease the time needed for tryout of new or redesigned dies,
and it widens the working range of the blank holder force over the stroke between the
point at which wrinkling occurs and the point at which tearing occurs.
Design of cushion pin:
Diameter = 28mm (as per standard available)
Length

=97mm

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2.3.1.15 Design of top plate and base plate


Base plate
The main foundation and supporting structure upon which the operating parts of the
machine are mounted and guided.
Top plate and base plate selection depends on press used.
2.3.1.16 Rib
1) Rib act as a supporting member.
2) It also provides space for arrangement of tray.
Calculation:
Height = distance between top plate and upper riser
= 55mm
Length = length of top plate
= 500mm
Width = 40mm

2.3.1.17 Die set or pillar


Die Set Types:

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The two basic types of these die sets are:


1) Open die set, which is used for manufacture of simple parts in small quantities or
where no close tolerances are required. It is the most inexpensive die set, but since
the guide posts are not there to secure the alignment of the two halves, setting up
of these tools in press is often problematic.
2) Pillar die set comes in a wide range of shapes, sizes, and combinations. The
pillars, or guide posts, can be located in various places.
Back post die sets have two guide posts located in the back, two post die sets have
the posts placed either diagonally or opposite each other.
Four post die sets contain one guide post in each corner. Guide posts provide a
perfect alignment between the two halves of the die. They keep the punches and die
buttons in a fixed location against each other, which protects their cutting edges from
damage. The press-mounting demands are decreased as the die alignment is already builtin. The storage and transportation of the die places no strain on its elements, thus
guarding their working surfaces and extending the die life.
The vast majority of die work is done with die sets that have two guide posts. But
where greater accuracy is required or for heavy gauge strips or large size dies, four post
die sets are a better choice.
Die-Shoe Size and the Forces Affecting its Choice
Dimensions of the blocks as well as dimensions of the whole die are governed not
only by the size of the press opening, but by the requirements for strength and stability of
the tool as well. Ideally, the overall size of the die should accommodate for the
distribution of the utilized press force in such a way that the center of all piercing,
bending, forming, embossing, and other operations is located under the shank in the

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Figure 6: Open die sets

Figure 7: Pillar die sets

(a) back post die set

(b) rectangular diagonal two post die set

(c) four post

center of the tool. This does not mean we should measure the distance off the center of
each punch to the center of the tool. Rather, the amount of force required to do the
particular operation has to be accounted for and the center of all such operations be
established. For example, where a lot of punching activity is concentrated at the
beginning of the die and just a simple cutoff opposite from it, balancing such operations
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in one direction only, or x, will not provide us with a correct tooling center. Rather, the
press-force distribution must be evaluated in both directions, x and y to come up with the
correctly placed center of forces.

Figure 8 Selection of pillars

Pillar selection:
In our case, we selected two guide post pillars. Guide pillar assembly consists of
guide pillar, guide bush, bush bearing and pillar bearing. The guide pillars are available in

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different diameters which are standard. The required pillar set can be selected depending
upon the dimensions of lower and upper plate. It can be seen from figure8.
On X axis left to right distances are plotted and on Y axis front to back distances
are plotted. According to our lower and upper plate dimensions, we can select the
diameter of guide pillar.
Dimensions of lower and upper plate = 500mm * 670mm,
which falls within standard dimensions of 600mm * 800mm.
In this range, we can use guide pillar having diameters 40mm and 42mm.
We selected diameter 40mm for guide pillar.
Mounting of Guide Post Set
1) Preparing guide post and bushing attachment holes:a. Guide post and bushing installations holes should be made by boring or jig
grinding etc., after all the other hole have been machined and processing stress
have been alleviated (regrinding of top and bottom surfaces etc.).
b. To set up the upper and lower dies in required measurements, we can prepare
a dummy hole and insert a reference pin.
2) Attaching the guide post:a. After cleaning the attachment hole fix the guide post using a bolt.
b. Offsetting the reference plane of a guide post by 90 degree to the other post
can help prevent errors in assembling the upper and lower die sets.
c. Check the perpendicularity of the post. (0.01mm/100mm or less)
3) Attaching the guide bushings:a. Insert the bushing so that it match-mark and symbol align with their counter
parts on the guide post.
b. Place a parallel block on die holder and mount the punch holder. Then slide
the guide bushing to check if there is any interference.
c. After cleaning any oil or soil on the contact surface put anaerobic adhesive
agent into guide bushings adhesive groove, and insert it into the attachment

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hole. Keeping the guide bushing in place in the plate, wait 3-6 hours (in
ambient temperature) for adhesive agent to harden.
2.3.1.18 Screw and dowels
The components of dies are held together by socket head cap screws and are held
in alignment by dowel pins. The head on the cap screw is almost always recessed in
counter bored hole to eliminate projecting screw heads.
A minimum of one cap screw and two dowels are necessary to position and hold a
die component in place accurately. More cap screw may be used, but two, and only two,
dowels should be used for positioning. Most die designer try to use at least two cap
screws, but small components may allow only one because of space limitations. The
diameter of screws and dowels is also determined by the size of the component.
Generally 3/8 diameter screws are used on die components up to 6mm in. square. Heavy
die components are usually secured with to 5/8 in diameter screws. Dowel diameter
should be same as that of cap screws.
Dowels should be located diagonally across each other and as far apart as possible
to increase locational accuracy. All screws and dowels should be located from 1 to 2
times their diameter from the component edge. Whenever possible, screw and dowel
holes should be placer nearer to outer edge of the die block and as far away as possible
from the edge of the blanking contour.
Dowel holes always extend through the die components so that the dowels can be
easily removed. A hardened dowel pressed into a blind hole is almost impossible to
remove by conventional methods. When the thickness of the component is 4 times greater
than the dowel diameter, the dowel hole should be relieved. This practice is especially
recommended when the dowel hole must be finished after heat treatment, as it minimizes
lapping and fitting time.
General guidelines:
1) In cutting dies blades steel with side screwing is preferred only for sheet thickness
up to and including1.6mm. Beyond 1.6mm only vertical screwing is to be done.

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When die steel are all round for partially screwed or vertically screwed each steel
should have one dowel.
2) When die steel are all round embedded and side screwed dowel pins are not
necessary for any steel.
3) When die steel are partially embedded and side screwed only end steel will have
one dowel each.
4) When the die steel are all round embedded and vertically or side screwed, the
steel are not to be doweled. (side screwing is preferred)
5) When the die steel are partially embedded and vertically or side screwed, only the
end steel should have one dowel each.
2.3.1.19 Shoulder screw
A shoulder screw differs from machine screws in that the shank is ground to a
precise diameter, known as the shoulder, and the threaded portion is smaller in diameter
than the shoulder. Shoulder bolt specifications call out the shoulder diameter, shoulder
length, and threaded diameter; the threaded length is fixed, based on the threaded
diameter, and usually quite short. It is usually used for revolving joints in mechanisms
and linkages; when used as a guide for the stripper plate in a die set, it is called a stripper
bolt. The difference between shoulder screws and other types of screws lies in how far up
the threading the ridges that spiral up the shaft of the screw and draw it into the hole as
it turns goes. On normal screws, the threading goes all the way up to the head of the
screw. On shoulder screws, the threading stops a distance from the head, leaving a
smooth-sided round or square shaft between the threading and the head. This shaft is
usually slightly larger than the threaded portion of the screw.
Shoulder screw is selected as per below table
Table 1 Standard shoulder screw

Stripping force in
tons

Screws
M6

M8

M10

M12

M16

M20

No. of bolts/screws
0.2

0.25

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0.32

0.4

0.5

0.63

0.8 1.0

1.25

1.6

2.0

2.5

3.2

6.3

8.0

10

12.5

16

As per above table we select 4 bolts of M20.

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2.3.2 Operation2:- FORM-I


FORMING
Metal forming is a process totally dependent on the influence of outside tensile
forces against the structure of the material. The resulting permanent deformation is called
forming. The force-exerting instrument is the punch, which by pulling the sheet-metal
material along, makes it enter the die, where it is compelled to take upon itself the
impression of the assembly.
The decision if the part is to be formed or drawn is usually based on the
evaluation of its shape and dimensional requirements. Drawing is utilized for those parts
made of thicker materials or for those with vertical (or slightly inclined) walls and sharp
corners at the bottom.
Since a forming die may often be instrumental in the formation of wrinkles or
cause development of excessive tensile strains in the material, which away tear the part in
the process, drawing is often resorted to in such cases.
Following are the steps involved in form-I.
2.3.2.1 Calculating Bending pressure:
Bending is the uniform straining of material, usually flat sheet or strip metal,
around a straight axis, which lies in the neutral plane and normal to the lengthwise
direction of the sheet or strip. Metal flow takes place within the plastic range of the metal,
so that the bend retains a permanent set after removal of the applied stress. The inner
surface of a bend is in compression; the outer surface is in tension. A pure bending action
does not reproduce the exact shape of the punch and die in the metal; such a reproduction
is one of forming.

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Bending Methods:
Two bending methods are commonly made use of in press tools. Metal sheet or
strip, supported by a V block (Fig. 6), is forced by a wedge-shaped punch into the block.
This method, termed V bending, produces a bend having an included angle which may be
acute, obtuse, or of 90. Friction between a spring-loaded knurled pin in the vee of a die
and the part will prevent or reduce side creep of the part during its bending.
Edge bending (Fig. 6) is cantilever loading of a beam. The bending punch, step1,
forces the metal against the supporting die, step 2 - The bend axis is parallel to the edge
of the die. The work piece is clamped to the die block by a spring-loaded pad, step3,
before the punch contacts the work piece to prevent its movement during downward
travel of the punch.

Figure 9: Methods of bending

Edge bend

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Calculations:
Bending pressure,
FB

0.33SuWt 2
L

Where W = Width of stock


L = Span = rd + rp + C
C = Die clearance
Su = Ultimate tensile strength (Kg/mm2)
rd = Die radius
rp = Punch radius
L= rd + rp + C
=5.5+ 3 +2.5
=11mm
FB

0.33 * 60 *103 * 2.5 2


11

FB

12746.25
11

=1158.75 kg
2.3.2.2 Springback considerations
Springback is the amount of elastic distortion a material has to go through before
it becomes permanently deformed, or formed. It is the amount of elastic tolerance, which
is to some extent present in every material, be it a ductile, annealed metal or a hard
-strength mar aging steel. In ductile materials, the springback is much lower than in hard

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metals, with dependence on the modulus of elasticity (also called Young Modulus) of a
particular material. The amount of springback increases with greater yield strength or
with the materials strain-hardening tendency.
Cold working and heat treatment both increase the amount of springback in the
material. Comparably, the springback of low-strength steel material will be smaller than
that of high-strength steel and springback of aluminum will be two or three times higher
yet. Springback occurs in all formed or bent-up parts on release of forming pressure and
withdrawal of the punch. The material, previously held in a predetermined arrangement
by the influence of these two elements, is suddenly free from outside restrictions and
immediately makes an attempt to return to its original shape and form.
Usually springback can be found between 0.9 and 1.0 for bends, using small bend
radii. Equation was proved true for bends with large bend radii or for those with small
bend angles. However, with small bend radii, it may be considered valid only if the bend
angle has a greater than 45 bending angle. For small bending angles and sharp bend
radii, the spring back is usually quite large.
Values of spring back for steel are shown in Table.
Table 2 Values of spring back for steel

The yield stress of material is exceeded at a certain point, at which moment the
whole deformation so far attained is elastic, or a springback. Should we release the
pressure at that moment, the material will return to its normal shape. However, we
continue to exceed the materials elastic limitations, as we arrive at a point A. A line
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parallel to the material forming line can be drawn from this point and its horizontal
difference from the point A is the value of springback. Additional forming causes the
material to become work-hardened, which moves us to the point B. Here, the materials
springback is greater, enhanced by work hardening qualities of the steel. The slope of the
materials forming line is dependent on the Young modulus. It is therefore pertinent to
always specify the steel (or any material for that purpose) to be ordered within the same
yield strength range. A difference in yield strength will definitely produce variations in
forming, in work hardening, and in the final outcome of metal stamping process.

Figure 10: Springback

Radius of forming tools:


The forming radius of punches and dies determines the size of the plasticized area
created by the bending process. Additionally, it influences the quality and cosmetic
appearance of the bend. For example, in wipe-bending or U-die bending, the sharper a
radius of the forming edge will be used, the more severely it will force the material to
flow, creating marks on its surface.
During the forming process, as the punch progresses down, the first minute radius
thus created is soon being tugged upon and re-formed, by the continuously descending
punch, and another radius is being formed in its stead. The sharper the bending radius,
the greater is the amount of such formations and reformations. If excessive, such process
results in greater springback, greater work hardening, with a possibility of tearing the
bend apart.

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The strain of bending operation, also called bending strain, is a function of the
bend radius and the thickness of formed material. With a smaller bend radius of the die,
the formed metal must stretch its outer layers much more severely, and compressing its
inner layers equally, while becoming formed. The proper die radius should also be
selected in proportion to material thickness, following R/t ratio guidelines.
The lower the R/t ratio, the more stress it generates in the formed material. With
more stress, the strain hardening becomes substantial and a demand for the forming force
increases.
Breakage of parts occurs where the forming force reaches the limits of the
material. The basic dimensional requirements for various types of bending tools are
shown in fig. These numbers are generally used for bending of material across the grain;
where bending along the grain line is unavoidable, an increase of approximately 20 to 25
percent in die radius is needed. In bending and forming, the cooperation between the
punch and die cannot be overemphasized.
Radius of the Forming Die:
The bottom corner die radii in a V-die and U-channel die have no use in metal
forming and should be left out completely. Actually, a sharp corner, or a milled relief slot
is quite okay there, as the material will not flow into this area anyway. In bending, as in
drawing, the material stays wrapped around the punch. It is the punch that needs to have
the tip rounded, so that it does not break through the tensed material.
Radius of the Forming Punch:
Advices on the forming punch radius vary throughout the industry. Most often, in
U-die bending and V-bending, the parts drawing dictates the size of the bend radius. But
where not stated, manufacturers may use whatever suits them the best. Some recommend
to have the tip of the forming punch radii used to the tune of t to 1.5t, where t is the
material thickness. Elsewhere, especially in sheet-metal fabricating field, a habit of
bending everything with R 0.031 in. [0.75 mm] to R 0.062 in. [1.50 mm] prevails.
Perhaps this is due to the fact that press brakes used for such bending run usually at a
much slower rate than most progressive dies. However, where a 1/8 in. [3.25 mm] thick

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material will be bent with 0.5t radius tooling, the tensile strain of the upper layers of the
formed material will increase considerably and breakages may occur in many such cases.
This type of a punch is subject to similar rules like those pertaining to the bending radius
of the die.
Calculation:
Formula for radius of forming punch is,
Rp

1
1 / 3 ((3 * 30) /( 2.1 * 10^ 4))

Rp=2.98mm
Now,
Angle on punch= (component angle required angle on punch)
= (180 component angle) (inner radius / radius on tool 1)
(180116) (3 / 2.2 1) 2.201 = 116 angle of punch
Therefore,
Angle of punch = 115.6 degrees
= 116 degrees
2.3.2.3 Forming Dies with Pressure Pads
When the forming of stampings requires accuracy, dies employing pressure pads
are often designed. The pressure pad helps to hold the stock securely during the forming
and eliminates shifting of the blank. The pressure can be applied to the pad by springs or
by the use of an air cushion. When springs are used, they can be located directly under
the pad and confined in the die shoe. They may also be located in or under the press
bolster plate; and by the use of pressure pins, which are located under the pad, and
through the die shoe, pressure is applied to the pressure plate.
When springs are used to apply pressure to a pressure pad the spring pressure
increases (in pounds) with the pad travel. Each fraction of an inch of travel increases the
pressure on the pad. This could cause some trouble in stampings of light-gage material,
because too much pressure may cause the metal to stretch. When springs are used, a
certain amount of pressure is lost owing to the springs setting (losing height after being

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worked). When an air cushion is used, the proper amount of pressure on the pressure pad
is assured as long as air supply is set properly. It is important to have a set amount of
pressure on the pressure pad to control the quality of the stampings.
The pressure pad, the moving member of the die, must always be controlled in its
travel between the die blocks. This can be done by means of retaining shoulders or by
shoulder screws. When using the retainer shoulder construction, a recess is machined into
the form blocks, and a corresponding shoulder is machined on the pad. The retainer
shoulder should always be made strong enough to withstand the pressure applied by
either springs or air cushion. The size of the shoulder to be used varies according to the
size and metal thickness of the stamping. A good rule to employ is to have the height of
the shoulder one and one-half times the width. Always design the shoulders of the pad
with a radius in the corner. When the pad is made of hardened tool-steel, heat treatment
should specify a double draw of the shoulder section.
When using shoulder screws to control the travel of the pad, the die shoe must be
thick enough to permit sufficient travel.
The pressure pad should always travel so that it extends slightly above the die
blocks. This will insure uniform parts, because there will be pressure to lock the part
between the punch and pad faces, before the actual forming takes place.
The amount of travel the pad should have depends upon the height of the form
die. It is not always necessary to travel the full height; in many cases half the dies form
height is sufficient. When a blank is distorted, or has a tendency to curl, which may cause
the completed blank to be out of square, it may be necessary for the pad to travel the full
length. It is necessary for the pad to bottom on the die shoe, to allow the punch to give
the part a definite set at the bottom of the stroke. When a stamping must have sides that
are square with the bottom, after forming, the corner radius should be set. This is done by
designing the die blocks with the correct radius A. The pressure pad is made to match the
height of the die blocks radius edge. The punch radius C is made slightly smaller,
approximately 10 per cent less than the die block radius.

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Figure 11: Pressure pad

It may be necessary to machine a slight angle on the side of the punch to allow a
slight over bending of the side being formed. This ensures that the sides of the formed
part will be square with the base after forming.
Single and multiple pressure pads are used in die construction. The single pressure
pad is used when the forming is done in one direction. It is most commonly used for
forming short flanges, tabs, lugs, or ears at right angles to the base of the part. The
pressure pad is used to support the base of the part accurately, either by pilot pins or other
gages, and by it securing the part properly, the part is formed with great accuracy. The
side or tab to be formed may be bent downward as well as upward. When the side or tab
is being bent downward, the length may vary slightly, because the metal is stretched or
drawn more. Some of this may be overcome by having an angle and radius on the punch.
The greater the angle and radius, the less bending pressure is required. When a side is
bent down, a heel block is required to help support the punch before it starts to do any
forming. It should be at least two metal thicknesses higher than the die block. The
pressure pad must travel at least 3 mm. beyond the edge of the form punch. This is done
to assure holding pressure before any forming work is done. The punch should travel far
enough beyond the corner radius to smooth out the formed side.
Multiple pressure pads are used when a series of forms are necessary; they are
used mostly in progressive dies, when several bends are required on small precision parts.
A combination of stationary form blocks, supplied by pressure pads, helps lift the strip so
it can be advanced from one station to the next.

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Calculation:
Pad force = 0.5 * Bending force
= 0.5 *1.2 T
= 0.6 Tonnes
Therefore,
Total load required=Bending force + Pad force
=1.2 + 0.6
=1.8 Tonnes
Now,
Pressure tonnage=1.5 * 3 * Bending force
=1.5 * 3 * 1.2
=5.4 Tonnes.
The press having minimum pressure tonnage on production floor is of 200 tonnes.
Therefore, we select press of 200Tonnes.

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2.3.3 Operation2:- FORM-I


Bending force,
FB

0.33SuWt 2
L

FB

0.33 * 60 * 160 * 2.5 2


11

3. ASSIGNMENT 01
5S IMPROVEMENT MANAGEMENT
3.1 INTRODUCTION:A systematic & rational approach to a clutter free, safe workplace with the objective
of reducing waste & preparing the ground for further improvement.
3.2 BACKGROUND:

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Since the early 60sJapanese Industries widely practiced 5S As a powerful


Technique to improve productivity and quality Today, 5S Is used worldwide to prepare
the ground for improvement
3.3 THE CHANGING SCENARIO

Customer Expectations

Product Quality Perceptions

Employee & Employers expectations

Competition

Government Rules and Regulations Liberalization

IN THIS CHANGING SCENARIO WE MUST CHANGE

Our Way of thinking

Our Way of working

3.4 PURPOSE OF 5S IMPROVEMENT MANAGEMENT

To discipline ourselves

To conduct daily audits and take corrective actions i.e. find non-conformity,
abnormality, deviation, discrepancies and take immediate Corrective action by
self.

3.5 UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS 5S


1S - SEIRI

: SORTING OUT

2S - SEITON

: SET LIMITS & SYSTEMIZE

3S SEISO

: SHINE EQUIPMENT

4S - SEIKETSU : SEARCH TIME ELIMINATION


5S - SHITSUKE : SET STANDARDS, PRACTICE & DISCIPLINE

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3.5.1 1S - SEIRI SORTING OUT

Segregating necessary from unnecessary.

Discarding what is not required.

Deciding on a frequency of sorting

1S METHODOLOGY

CHANE FROM WET TO DRY


Nothing on the floor, table, top of racks, cup-boards, gangways, roadways etc. If
no

water, oil, dust, paper, litter, potholes etc are found then it is called Dry

KEEP ONLY WANTED ITEMS :


The days requirement and remove unwanted items to the designated areas such
as stores, Filing cabinet, suppliers as the case maybe

KEEP ONLY USEFUL ITEMS :


Remove all, not useful items to designated areas such as Red-tag area, scrap yard

NO MIX UP :
Of parts and products in pallets, in racks, in drawers, bins etc. Segregating
necessary from unnecessary and throwing away what is not required at all. (Done
with the objective of saving and recovering space)

1S SORTING AND BENIFITS :


Good house keeping

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Pleasant and conducive atmosphere


Facilitates thinking and idea generation for improvement
Keeping all things in order
Facilitates visual control and corrective action

1S SORTING OUT.Eg REMOVAL OF UNWANTED ITEMS

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Figure 12: Before sorting

BEFORE

Figure 13: After sorting

AFTER

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3.5.2 2S - SEITON SET LIMITS & SYSTEMIZE


SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT:

Having a place for every thing and every thing in its place.

Putting things in order after analyzing why getting things back and putting them
back takes so long. (Done with the objective of minimizing search time and
errors)

A rational, orderly and methodical arrangement of all items we use, re-work or


write off.

Prevent floppy disks from getting bent.

Categorization of files, mails, papers etc.

Binder placed vertically not laid out.

Compartmentalization of desk, drawers/shelves/cabinets.

Designating responsibilities for files in shared use.

Prioritizing the thing to do planning a sequence.

Labeling/identifying drawers.

Color coding.

Decide How much of what is needed i.e. prefixed quantity.

2S - METHODOLOGY

A place for everything: every useful thing has a place

To discipline and work within marked boundaries

Prefixed locations/markings

2S - SET LIMITS & SYSTEMIZE EXAMPLES


Gang-Way marking in shop floor
Curb stones in roadway

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Dedicated containers - easy for identification, traceability and counting


Containers with separators - No parts touching each other to prevent
dents/damages
Pre fixed location in shop floor/office (tools, fixtures, gauges etc)
X R Chart for quality
Fixed number of strokes between die-servicing
2S - SET LIMITS & SYSTEMIZE BENEFITS
Prevents accidents, improves safety
Helps to optimize and achieve best in quality, cost and delivery
Facilitates clear cut visual controls
Easy to observe and take corrective / preventive actions
Lead time reduction
Good discipline
2S SEITON E.g. SET LIMITS AND SYSTEMIZE
DIE STORAGE

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Figure 14: Die storage

R.M. STORAGE

Figure 15: R.M Storage

3.5.3 3S - SEISO SHINE EQUIPMENT :


3S METHODOLOGY:

Refurbishing of facilities, systems to ensure continuous improvement.

Revising product, processes, methods for enhancing life cycle.

Audits for correction and prevention.

3S - SHINE EQUIPMENT EXAMPLES :


Cleaning of machines. Equipment cleaning is checking.

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Preventive maintenance activities.


Poka yoke implementation.
Oil reclamation from wet swarf.
Replacement of spares/ machinery.
Revisiting tools, methods, processes and cells for implementation and
improvement.
Refurbishing of old files, painted walls, printer cartridges, uniforms, shoes
etc.
Reconditioning of machines.
Doing things differently.
3S -Shine Equipment. E.g. :Clean Machines and Clean surroundings

Figure 16: Press machines

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Figure 17: Clean surrounding

3S - SHINE EQUIPMENT BENEFITS :


o Facilitates preventive measures
o Reduces downtime
o Increases flow of equipment effectiveness
o Improves productivity
o Reduces cost
3.5.4 4S - SEIKETSU

SEARCH TIME ELIMINATION

4S - METHODOLOGY

Transparent storage systems with nomenclature/coding

Well established visual controls

Maximum 2 minute for part/document retrieval

Set up time reduction

Tool change time reduction

4S - SEARCH TIME ELIMINATION EXAMPLES

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Open filing system


Transparent storage cupboards
Tool cupboards in shop floor
Fixture stand in the shop floor
Color codification for electrical lines, water lines, air lines etc
Live documents in filing and not records
Parts identification, fixture identification in the shop floor

4S - SEARCH TIME ELIMINATION BENEFITS :


Search time reduced to less than 2 minutes
Increase in productivity
Cost reduction
Eliminates Non Value added (NVA) activities
Reduces mental agony
4S - SEARCH TIME ELIMINATION
Example: Open filing system Quick retrieval

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Figure 18: Filling system

Example: Transparent storage cupboards

3.5.5 5S - SHITSUKE SET STANDARDS, PRACTICE & DISCIPLINE


5S - METHODOLOGY

Standardizing the 4S practices

Continuous audit and revision of standards

Training of concerned in the revised standards

Abolishing unwanted standards

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5S-SET STANDARD, PRACTICE AND DISCIPLINE EXAMPLES


Operation Standards ,Limit samples, Quality Control Process Charts etc
Horizontal deployment of standards
Quality system manual
Gauge calibration standards
3.6 PROCESS OF HOLDING GAINS:

Daily monitoring through audit scores

Communicating visually through fixed point photographs

Using red tag campaigns

Improving ownership by allocating areas

Structured communication

Continuous training of all employees

Periodic audits at all levels

3.7 RESULTS OF 5S MANAGEMENT


5S MANAGEMENT HELPS TO ACHIEVE:
Reduction in warranty claims
Reduction in assembly rework in-house
Improvement in inventory turn ratio
Reduction in customer end line stoppers

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4. ASSIGNMENT 02
Hemming operation by IRC5 controller robot
4.1 Introduction:

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Figure 19: IRC5 Controller

High performance robot controller IRC5 is ABBs fifth generation robot controller. It sets
new standards with its modular concept, a completely new ergonomically designed
portable interface unit, the FlexPendant and fully synchronous multiple (up to four) robot
control through the MultiMove function.
The new controller is focused directly at the customer with greatly simplified application
planning, set-up, operation and serviceability of single and multiple robot cells .A key
element in this superior customer friendliness is the new class-leading portable interface
unit, the FlexPendant, with its intuitive Windows layout and touch-screen operation. The
modular concept also means every system is a cost-efficient investment, designed to
match the exact needs of the user, and yet is readily expandable to meet future demands.
It is a true lean solution that will lead to increased customer life-time profitability.
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The modularity of the IRC5 is a major step forward in robot control with a logical
split of functions into control, axis drives and process. Each module is housed in its own
cabinet with an identical footprint so they may be stacked for minimal floor occupancy or
distributed depending on the users need. There is minimum dependency between the
modules, each having its own computer power and supervision and linked to the others
by Ethernet. This flexibility makes it possible to optimize cell layouts and to upgrade or
replace one module with minimal interference to the others. A single cabinet version,
with control and drive functions combined in one compact cabinet, is also available.
MultiMove IRC5 has the ability to control multiple robots with the potential to reduce
costs, improve quality, increase productivity and expand robot applications. MultiMove
allows applications that were previously impossible all thanks to the perfect
coordination of complex motion patterns.
4.2 Face competition with fexible six-axis robots:
The metal fabrication industry is working under increasing cost pressures.
Manufacturers are forced to find new and innovative ways to increase production
effciency while maintaining a high parts quality. More and more manufacturers are
turning to six-axis robots to face these challenges. As the leading robot
supplier since 30 years, ABB is capable of providing robotics solutions that help you stay
competitive today and tomorrow.

4.3 Meeting demands of rapid changeovers:


Not only does a robot automate processes such as cutting and arc welding, it also
performs post-process applications such as quality control, assembly, packaging and
palletizing. All integrated in a single operation that requires minimum operator
intervention.
Robots used to be reserved for advanced assembly lines and long-series
production. Due to their ever-increasing flexibility, resulting mainly from the intelli-

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gent use of office programming and other software solutions, robots can today be
economically viable even for smaller enterprises producing short series or even for onepiece production.
ABB robots come with advanced, yet easy-to-use software solutions. Operators
can easily change between ready-made robotic schemes, reducing changeover times.
ABB six-axis robots give you a unique advantage total fexibility. As standard
products, robots can be implemented with a minimum of prior engineering work to
automate practically any processing and post-processing task in your plant.
4.4 Flexible and cost-effective production:
By using robots to carry out post-processing tasks while the next part is being
produced, you can do more in the same amount of time. For example, the robot
can inspect and place a bended tube on a conveyor belt while the next tube is being
processed in the tube-bending machine. Combining the work of two robots,
one can be used to arc weld while the other is loading the next part on a positioner.
This improved productivity comes with the fexibility to compete with increased agility,
enabling you to cope with shorter product life cycles and tighter operating margins.
Catering to every conceivable need, our robots perform a variety of tasks during the
production cycle. This means you can look forward to a far more fexible and cost-effcient
operation.

4.5 The trend points to six axes:


Six-axis robots are today more accessible to manufacturers than ever before
which is reflected in increasingly advanced plant automation solutions around the
world. Easy-to-use software and man-machine interfaces are important explanations to
the current trend towards using six-axis robots. Programming used to be a timeconsuming task.

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Today, offine programming lets engineers optimize process operation and


eliminate errors before going into production. ABBs FlexPendant interface helps
operators take on more tasks themselves, including changing between ready-made
welding schemes and performing fault management, speeding up changeovers while
reducing operational disturbances.

4.6 Hemming:
A bending operation that bends and folds an edge of sheet metal back upon itself.
Hemming conceals the sharp edge of sheet metal.
Hemming is a well-known technology used by the automotive industry to join
inner and outer door panels. The accuracy of the operation affects significantly the
appearance of the cars outer surfaces. Any defects such as surface deflection or twist

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may result in costly decisions; for example, the product may be rejected during the final
stage of production.
4.6.1 Hemming perfection:

Figure 20:Hemming operation

ABB has developed and patented a unique hemming tool suited to the robotic
process which easily provides very high hemming quality.
It includes:
Programmable adjustment of hemming force during the process, guaranteeing
high hemming quality.
A business software program enabling minimum programming time and rapid
adjustment of hemming parameters. Quality is obtained in record time, significantly
reducing set-up times.
The possibility of changing the tool automatically, depending on the
process.
Pre-hemming operations in the corners of the part are eliminated. The continuous
action of the roller on the part ensures reliable hemming, perfectly closed along the full
length, with no contour discontinuity. The surface quality and regularity of the hemming
radius are guaranteed by the principle of the hemming tool.

Figure 21: Hemming Robot

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ABB designs and manufactures its own industrial robots for installation in a wide
range of applications. The efficiency of these robots, both as regards to movement
precision and process control are especially suited to hemming applications.
In addition, the IRC5, the latest ABB robot controller, can be used to coordinate
the control of up to 4 robots at the same time, using only one control cabinet.
This capability reduces cycle time, in particular when the robots are working within the
same zone, what is the case for hemming solutions using 2 or 3 robots.
4.6.2 Standard solutions for all your hemming projects:
ABB has developed easily adaptable, modular closure hemming systems at a
highly competitive price. The solutions offered represent an investment in capacity that
can be used for various product types. They are based on proven and tested standard
equipment, which are easy to maintain, quick to install and offer the following benefits:
Production of different types of parts. The solution chosen for the tools
a rotating table enables different types of closures to be made by using
the 2 or 4 table positions.
Large production runs, prototypes or spare parts. You choose the solution
that best suits your output and flexibility requirements from the range of options
available.
High hemming quality thanks to force control, a special feature of the hemming tool
developed and patented by ABB.
Ease of maintenance. The use of standard equipment and its modular design enable
maintenance operations to be significantly reduced.
Transport from one site to another. All equipment is mounted on a metal platform. This
enables the production system to be moved easily, but above all, allows it to be put into
production quickly thanks to the plug and produce modules or cells.
ABB engineering can provide support to the stamping process to get a high
quality of hemming.

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4.6.3 Parts produced:


Hemmed parts are mainly vehicle closures. The technique selected for this
process is roller hemming, using a tool carried by the robot.

Figure 22: Part produced

Part produced at RTTEC:


1) Front door SUMO GRANDE
2) Rear door SUMO GRANDE
3) Bonnet center hood SUMO GRANDE
4.6.4 Technical Data, IRC5 Industrial Robot Controller:
PERFORMANCE:
1) Control hardware:
Multi-processor system

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PCI bus
Flash disk or hard disk for mass memory
Energy back-up for power failure handling
USB memory interface
2) Control software:
Object-oriented design
High-level RAPID robot programming language
Portable, open, expandable
PC-DOS file format
RobotWare software products
Pre-loaded software. Also available on CD-ROM
3) Electrical connections:
Supply voltage 200-600 V, 50-60 Hz
Integrated transformer or direct mains connection
4) PHYSICAL Size H x W x D Weight:
Single cabinet 970 x 725 x 710 mm 150 kg
Dual cabinet 1370 x 725 x 710 mm 180 kg
Control module 720 x 725 x 710 mm 50 kg
Drive module 720 x 725 x 710 mm 130 kg
Wheels Available as option
5) Environment:
Ambient temperature -045C (32113 F) option 052C
Relative humidity Max. -95 %
Level of protection IP -54
Fulfilment of Machine regulations -directive 98/37/EC Annex II
ISO 10218, EN 775
ANSI/RIA 15.06/1999
ANSI/UL1740-1998

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6) User Interfaces:
Control panel

-On cabinet or remote

FlexPendant Weight

-1.3 kg
Graphical colour touch screen
Joystick Emergency stop
8 hard keys only
Hot plug

7) Maintenance:
Status LEDs
Diagnostic software
Recovery procedures
Logging with time stamp
8) Safety:
Safety and emergency stops
2-channel safety circuits with supervision
3-position enabling device
9) Machine Interfaces:
Inputs/outputs

-Up to 2048 signals

Digital

-24V DC or relay signals

Analogue

-2 x 0-10V, 3 x 10V, 1 x 4-20mA

Serial channel

-RS 232/RS 422

Network

-Ethernet(10/100 Mbits per second)

Two channels

Service and LAN

Fieldbus scanners -DeviceNet


and gateways

Interbus
Profibus DP
Allen-Bradley Remote I/O

Process encoder -Up to 6 channels

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and interfaces

Connections for signals to manipulator


Space in controller for extra equipment

10) Sensor Interfaces:


Search stop with automatic program shift
Seam tracking
Contour tracking
Conveyor tracking
11) Roller pressure:
5-6 bar.

4.6.5 Complete setup:

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Figure 23: Setup for Hemming

4.6.6 Steps or operations required:


1) Switch ON air dryer. (Maintain at 5-8C)
2) Release pneumatic valves for FRL unit.
3) Open FRL unit. (Maintain at 5-6 bar)
4) Check out emergency safety stops.
5) Switc ON power conditioner by pressing GREEN colour button.
6) Check out following conditions voltage 230-240 V, alarm ON, Trin ON for
power conditioner.
7) Turn ON MCCB. (located in PLC panel)
8) Turn ON IRC5 controller.
9) Wait for 2 minutes till teach pendent screen on and ready for further instruction.
10) Tap ACK. on teach pendent screen. (if service message will display on screen)
11) Press Fault Reset. (located on PLC panel)
12) To start robot in auto-mode
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a) Tap ABB on screen to open windows.


b) Tap Program Editor.
c) Tap Debug.
d) Tap PP to Main.
e) Turn keys (IRC5 controller) in auto-mode.
f) Tap OK on teach pendent screen.
g) Press ACK. and Fault Reset.
13) Load inner and outer sub-assemblies together on hemming bed.
14) Clamp manually (front door =56 and 58
rear door =80 and 85
bonnet

=25 and 26)

15) Check out proximity-1 and proximity-2 LEDs (located on table 1 and 2) for
proper clamping.
16) Press start- if green light flashing.

Figure 24: Sensor

17) Press start- if turn table rotates and green light continues flashing.
18) Wait for operation to be finished.
19) To shut down robot
a) Turn key (IRC5 controller) in manual mode.
b) Close all windows.
c) Tap ABB on screen to open window.
d) Tap Restart on screen.

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e) Tap Advance.
f) Tap Shut down.
g) Tap OK.
h) Tap Shut down.
i) Wait for 12 sec for reboot purpose.
20)Turn off IRC5 controller.
21)Turn off MCCB. (located on PLC cell)
22)Press stop of power conditioner.
23)Turn off FRL unit.
24)Close pneumatic valves.
25)Turn off air dryer.

4.6.7 Cycle timings:


1) Front door: (completed in 3 pass)
a) clamping time

-2sec

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b) fis clamp time

-2sec

c) turn table rotate forward time -6sec


d) turn table rotate reverse time -6sec
e) hemming time

-1 minute 33 sec

f) 50 max. cycle time

-1 minute 47sec.

2) Rear door: (completed in 3 pass)


a) clamping time

-2sec

b) fis clamp time

-2sec

c) turn table rotate forward time -6sec


d) turn table rotate reverse time -6sec
e) hemming time
f) 50 max. cycle time

-2 minute 5 sec
-2 minute 27sec.

3) Bonnet center hood: (completed in 4 pass)


a) clamping time

-2sec

b) fis clamp time

-2sec

c) turn table rotate forward time -6sec


d) turn table rotate reverse time -6sec
e) hemming time
f) 50 max. cycle time

-3 minute 30 sec
-3 minute 44sec

4.6.8 Dos and Donts:


Donts:

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1) Do not restore the program unless consulting supervisor.


2) Do not change pipe clamp positions.
3) Always do marking off clamp.
4) Do not change login password.\

Dos:
1) Always take back-up after change in the teaching or programming.
2) Clean hemming roller regularly.
3) Change hemming roller after every 1000 operations.
4) Always check working pressure is within limit of 5-6 bar.
4.6.9 Fault and solution:
Pipe locked in clamps:
Take robot to manual mode. Open clamps manually by operating
valves through Juke box.
Then release the pipe and take robot to auto mode.

Figure 25: Juke box

5. ASSIGNMENT 03
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Ramping the production rate of the assembly line


(Phoenix Line) by reducing the operation time
5.1 WELD LINE:
The body side outer of vehicle model TATA SUMO GRANDE

Figure 26: Weld Line

This is a line where spot welding operation takes place. Here Body side front is joined
with Body side rear component along with some other components to make Body Side
Outer assembled component, which is output of the line. There two weld lines for LH
and RH components (we can see this in photograph above)

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5.2 ASSEMBLY BODY SIDE OUTER-LH


This is outer body part of SUMO GRANDE vehicle which is situated on the left hand
side of the vehicle, called as Body Side Outer-LH. Similar component is placed on the
vehicle on the right hand side. That component is called as Body Side Outer-RH

This assembly of Body Side Outer is offloaded to GPPL (Ganage Pressings Private
Limited) as current market demand of SUMO GRANDE vehicle is 110 components/day,
it is obvious that required assembly rate of Body Side Outer must be 110 components/
day. In fact it should be more than that (considering rejection rate)

Figure 27: Assembly outer SH

5.2.1 Body Side Outer-Details:

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Table 3 Body side outer details

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Bodyside outer rear LH


Bodyside outer front LH
Assembly Reinforcement door stop x2
Assembly Reinforcement striker Rear
Bodyside Connection Panel
Assembly D Post Closing Panel
Wheelarch Outer Rear

5.3 Station map for weld line:

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Figure 28: Map for weld line

Layout of GPPL assembly line of body side outer- PHOENIX

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Figure 29: Layout of station

The daily demand for SUMO GRANDE as calculated by APL is 110 numbers per day.
So the weld line is supposed to produce 110pieces of Body Side Outer per day.
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5.4 Definitions of some of the related terms:


5.4.1 Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to the end of your process, as
defined by you and your customer. Cycle time includes process time, during which a unit
is acted upon to bring it closer to an output, and delay time, during which a unit of work
is spent waiting to take the next action. In a nutshell - Cycle Time is the total elapsed time
to move a unit of work from the beginning to the end of a physical process. (Note: Cycle
Time is not the same as Lead Time).
5.4.2 Lead time: the amount of time, defined by the supplier, that is required to meet a
customer request or demand. (Note, Lead Time is not the same as Cycle Time).
5.4.3 Takt time can be defined as the maximum time allowed to produce a product in
order to meet demand. Takt Time as the rate that a completed product needs to be finished
in order to meet customer demand. If you have a Takt Time of two minutes that means
every two minutes a complete product, assembly or machine is produced off the line.
Every two hours, two days or two weeks, whatever your sell rate is your Takt Time.
How is Takt Time established?
The customers buying rate establishes Takt Time. It's the rate at which the customer buys
your product. So this means that over the course of a day, week, month, or year the
customers you sell to are buying at a rate of one every two minutes
Following are the Takt time calculations for the weld line:
Operating time available per Shift:
Hours per shift= 8hrs =480min
Total Time lost = Lunch Time + Shift change over time + time for initial setup and
machine checks = 30 + 15 + 10 = 55 min
Operating time available per shift = Time per shift - Total Time lost
=

480

= 425 min

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Figure 30: Daily Storage Monitor

Expected Takt Time :


Takt time = Time available per Shift
Demand per shift
Demand per day = 110 numbers
Demand per shift (considering two shifts per day as happening in GPPL) = 55 nos.

Takt time =

425

= 7.72 min/unit

55

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Status of production in the month of February:


The Production rate in the month of February was not 110 nos/ day as required.
It was miserably less to around 60 nos. / day. If we were to improve this production rate,
it was imperative for us to know the actual takt time in details so that it could be brought
closer to the expected rate of 7.7 min/ unit.
So with the objective to know the nature and location of the bottleneck station, we carried
out the time measurement of the weld line. As it was evident that once the bootleneck
were sighted, it would be easier to ramp up the production rate from current 60 to the
required target of 110nos/ day.

Figure 31: Daily Storage Monitor

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Time Measurement for the month of February:


Procedure adopted for time measurement:
i.

Cycle time at each station was calculated as Station cycle time.

ii.

The overall time was categorized into four types viz.,


1. LT loading time: time to load the loose parts onto the fixture and clamp it
2. SAT- Sealant application Time : when assy. is made, the loose parts of body side
are glued together using a sealent.
3. OT- time to do operation like spotting, brazing, grinding etc. at a station
4. TT- Transfer time to move job from one station to another

iii. For each station 5 readings were taken and average of them would give the final
value.
RH
Table 4 Time measurement for RH
LT
SAT

OT

TT

total time

STN 1

1m

30s

4m30s

40s

6m 40s

STN 2

20s

2m

20s

2m 40s

STN 3

2m

40s

4m45s

40s

8m 5s

STN 4

30s

6m

40s

7m 10s

STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

12s

21m

17s

21m 29s

STN 7

15s

14m

40s

14m 55s

STN 8

15s

2m30s

3m20s

30s

6m 20s

STN 9

15s

3m

3m 15s

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Table
5 Various Time at stations

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Conclusions:
Station 6 was found out as the bottle-neck with the maximum station cycle time as 21min
29sec. The other station varying drastically from the expected was station 7 with cycle
time of 15 min.
So we had to focus all our time and attention towards these two stations so as to attain the
required daily

Similarly for LH, following are the results:


Table 6 Time measurement for LH
LT

SAT

OT

TT

total time

STN 1

1m4s

30s

2m

40s

4m10s

STN 2

30s

2m 35s

40s

3m 45s

STN 3

3m

1m

7m50s

20s

12m 10s

STN 4

30s

4m

20s

4m 50s

STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

30s

19m

20s

19m 50s

STN 7

15s

10m 50s

20s

11m 25s

STN 8

35s

1m

4m

30s

6m 5s

STN 9

30s

1m 30s

2m

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TRAINING
Table 7 Various
time atREPORT
different stations
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Conclusions:
Station 6 was found out as the bottle-neck with the maximum station cycle time as 20
min whereas other station varying drastically from the expected was station 3 with cycle
time of 12 min 10sec.
So we had to focus all our time and attention towards these two stations so as to attain the
required daily production.

Daily Production in February:


FOR RH:
Operating Time = 425 minutes per shift
Current Takt time = 21.48 minutes
Production /shift = 425 / 21.48 = 19.78 nos. per shift
Production /day (on 3 shift basis) = 19.78 x 3 = 59.35 or 59 nos. per day
(So as to get closer to the required production target, GPPL worked in 3shifts per day for
Project Pheonix)

FOR LH:
Operating Time = 425 minutes per shift
Current Takt time = 19.83 minutes
Production /shift = 425 / 19.83 = 21.43 nos. per shift
Production /day (on 3 shift basis) = 21.43 x 3 = 64.35 or 64 nos. per day

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5.5 OBJECTIVE: To ramp up the current production rate to the expected of 110 by
reduction of takt time.
Thus it was found that the station 6 was the bottleneck for both RH and LH. The main
reason for this delay was due to the nature of operations that occurred at stations 5, 6 and
7 of both the lines.
The operation at station 5 was to join the two main parts of the body side viz.
body side outer front and the rear by the operation of brazing. These two parts
were brazed at two distinct places.
Then at station 6 the brazen joint was grinded first by 80grit sandering machine
and then further grinded by Orbital sander of 160grit to smoothen the external
surface of the joint visible on the outer body of the vehicle.
At station 7, first denting operation was done on the inner and outer surface of the
joint to make it flat and straight. As denting was done using a hammer and dolly,
it produced scratches on the surface. These scratches were smoothened out by
finishing operation using 240grit sandering wheel.

The operations performed at these three stations were very critical because:

As the joint was on the external surface of the body side outer, it was
visible from outside. So the entire aesthetic quality was depending on the
finish of this joint.

In addition to this, the straightness, flatness and finish of the joint are
extremely essential with respect to the fitment of the outer body with the
interiors.

Moreover these operations were to be performed with due care as dents


and scratches on the external surface of the body were strictly not
permitted.

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LH:
Table 8 Tkt time at LH
STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

30s

19m

20s

19m 50s

STN 7

15s

10m 50s

20s

11m 25s

RH:
Table 9 Tkt time for RH
STN 5
12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

12s

21m

17s

21m 29s

STN 7

15s

14m

40s

14m 55s

Finished main joint

Finished minor joint

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5.5.1 Work done and Implementation:


When station no.6 was detected as a bottleneck station, it was observed that the major
part of time on the station was operation time. It was taking lot of time to remove
deposits of brazed joint by grinding operation. Thus focus was shifted to reduce the
Operation Time of station no. 6 for both LH and RH.

Figure 32: Brazing Operation

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5.6 Nature of operations after brazing operation:


5.6.1 Grinding Operation:
Deposits, which remain after brazing
operation (like that of welding) is to be
removed to get a finished job. This is done
by manual grinding operation with the help
of hand grinder (grit size 80 & 150). This
operation is also called as Sandering
Operation.

5.6.2 Tinkering Operation:

Figure 33: Grinding operation

Enormous heat gets generated during Brazing operation. Due to this, metal at that
particular area expands inwards, which in
turn results in loss of level of the job at
both joints. To regain the level, tinkering
operation is performed.

Tinkering is

nothing but hammering operation on the


back side of the job, exactly opposite to
joints to regain the level.
5.6.3 Buffing operation:
To finish the joint, Buffing Operation is Figure 34: Tinkering Operation
used. It is done using hand buffing wheel (Also called as Orbital grinder) Buffing wheel
having paper of grit size 150 grit is used to perform Buffing Operation.
Thus, the operation sequence was:
BRAZING

GRINDING

TINKERING

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5.7WORK DONE TO REMOVE THE BOTTLENECK STATION:


5.7.1 Change of Operation Sequence:
In the trial process to reduce the operation time, it was observed that, if tinkering
operation could be performed before grinding operation, time required to perform
grinding operation gets reduced. This is because hammering at the backside of brazed
joint results in loosening of bonds between brazed deposits and sheetmetal (job) or in
other words deposits of brazing operation become loose and thus become easily
removable by grinding operation.
When readings were taken, it was observed that, the combined operation time on
station no. 6 and 7 was reduced substantially and it was possible to divide the work on
station no.6 and 7 equally.
Also, it was observed that, operator fatigue reduces, as it becomes easy to remove
brazing deposits when tinkering operation loosens it. This resulted in operator satisfaction
and he was ready to implement the new change in the operation.

New Operation Sequence:

BRAZING

TINKERING

GRINDING

BENEFITS FROM CHANGE:


1. Reduction of operation time by about 4 minutes
2. Reduction of operator fatigue
3. Operator satisfaction

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After changing operation sequence readings were as follows:


LH:
Table 10 Change times for LH
STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

30s

15m

20s

15m 50s

STN 7

15s

10m 50s

20s

11m 25s

RH:
Table 11 Change times for RH
STN 5
12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

12s

17m

17s

17m 29s

STN 7

15s

14m

40s

14m 55s

5.7.2 ADDITION OF GRINDING AND BUFFING WHEELS TO MAKE


OPERATIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY:
There are two joints on a job (Body Side Outer) where brazing operation is
performed. When operation on station no. 6 was studied, it was observed that there was
only one grinding wheel. First operator had been passing the grinding wheel to the
second operator on the same station to grind on minor joint. Grinding of this minor or
small joint takes about 2 minutes. So if one grinding wheel could be added on the station,
2 minutes of operation time could be reduced. We did the same thing which resulted into
reduction of operation time by 2 minutes.
Same was implemented on station no. 7 in case of buffing wheel. There was only one
buffing wheel and 2 operators were performing operations in series. One more buffing
wheel was added to make the operation in parallel. This reduces 45 seconds of buffing
operation.

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Price of a single grinding or buffing machine is in range of around Rs. 25,000.


Whereas the loss incurred due to loss of takt time was enormously high. So, a decision
was made to add one grinding and one buffing machine extra at stations 6, 7 and 8 for
both LH/RH.
PRICE OF ONE GRINDING OR BUFFING MACHINE = Rs. 25,000
COST OF INSTALLING TWO MACHINES = Rs. 50,000

Whereas it caused a following savings in the Takt Time:


LH: 4 min which helps make 10 more vehicles per day
RH: 3 min which helps make 6 more vehicles per day
In monetary terms,
Assuming Rs. 40,000 Profit per vehicle, the total profit adds up to Rs.
640,000 per day.
Results of addition of extra machines and simultaneous operation:
LH:
Operations individually took:
STN 5: brazing

4min 30s

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STN 6: Grinding+ Tinkering

15min

STN 7: Buffing+ Tinkering

10min 50 sec

When these operations were done in parallel:


STN 5: brazing

4min 30s

STN 6: Grinding+ Tinkering

11min

STN 7: Buffing+ Tinkering

7 min

RH:
Operations individually took:
STN 5: brazing

4min 30s

STN 6: Grinding+ Tinkering

17min

STN 7: Buffing+ Tinkering

14 min

When these operations were done in parallel:


STN 5: brazing

4min 30s

STN 6: Grinding+ Tinkering

13min 40s

STN 7: Buffing+ Tinkering

10 min

LH:
Table 12 Parellel operations time for LH
STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

30s

11m

20s

11m 50s

STN 7

15s

7m

20s

7m35s

RH:
Table 13 Parellel operations time for RH
STN 5
12s
0

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

12s

13m40s

17s

14m 09s

STN 7

15s

10m

40s

10m 55s

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BENEFITS FROM CHANGE:


1. Reduction of operation time by about 4 minutes on station no. 6
2. Reduction of operation time by about 3 minutes on station no. 7
5.7.3 DUPLICATION OF FIXTURE:
Even after changing operation sequence and adding extra grinder and buffer,
desired takt time (7.72 min) was not achieved. Still station no. 6 was a bottleneck station.
When observed carefully, it was observed that the major of operation time is because of
the grinding operation. Also, job (Body Side Outer) waits on station no. 5 after brazing
operation for job on station no.6 (grinding operation)
Operators placed some of the jobs on ground after brazing operation and did part
of the grinding with the help of extra workers on trial basis. It was observed that
somehow if part of grinding operation could be done before station no.6, (where actual
grinding operation takes place), we could able to meet the desired takt time. We took
similar trials for 10 jobs. After confirmation of the idea, with the help of project guide,
proposal was made to P.E (Production Engineering) department to add a fixture similar to
that of station no. 6 after brazing station. This is done after consulting vice president of
GPPL, Mr. Chakraborthy.
It took around 25 days to duplicate the fixture. After arrival of the fixture,
distribution the work on station no. 6 (new) to station no. 9 (new) was done equally. Also
instructions of new work on each station were given to operators on respected stations.
When readings were taken, it was observed that the desired takt time has been achieved!
And with this rate it was possible to meet the market demand of 110 components/ day.

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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Duplication of fixtures at STN 6 for both LH and RH:


RH:
Time for brazing operation at STN 5 = 4 min 30 sec
Time for grinding + tinkering at STN 6 = 13 min 40 sec
Time for tinkering + buffing at STN 7 = 10 min
Operations individually took:
Grinding time: 9min 10 sec
Buffing time: 7min
Tinkering time (STN 6): 4min 30sec
Tinkering time (STN 7): 3 min
So to relieve these two stations, it was thought to split the bottleneck and install a new
fixture as station.
New arrangement:
STN 5: brazing

4min 30s

STN 6: Grinding

7min

NEW STN: Grinding+ Tinkering

7min 10sec

STN 7: Tinkering+ Buffing

7 min

This would reduce maximum cycle time at STN6 from 13min 10 sec to 7 min. This
makes the NEW STN, the station with highest station cycle time of 7 min 10sec but it lies
below the needed Takt time of 7.76 min.

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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LH:
Time for brazing operation at STN 5 = 4 min 30s
Time for grinding + tinkering at STN 6 = 11 min
Time for tinkering + buffing at STN 7 = 7 min
Operations individually took:
Grinding time: 8min
Buffing time: 6min
Tinkering time (STN 6): 3 min
Tinkering time (STN 7): 1 min
So to relieve these two stations, it was thought to split the bottleneck and install a new
fixture as station.
New arrangement:
STN 5: brazing

4min 30s

STN 6: Grinding

6min 40sec

NEW STN: Grinding+ Tinkering 7 min


STN 8: Tinkering+ Buffing

7 min

This would reduce maximum cycle time at STN6 from 11min to 6 min 40sec. This makes
the NEW STN, the station with highest station cycle time of 7 min but it lies below the
needed Takt time of 7.76 min.
Change in readings after duplication of fixture:
LH:

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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Table 14 Reading at LH after duplication


STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

30s

7min

20s

7m 50s

STN 7

15s

7m

20s

7m35s

RH:
Table 15Reading at RH after duplication
STN 5
12s
0

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6(old)

12s

7m10s

17s

7m 39s

STN 7(old)

15s

7m

40s

7m 55s

Time measured after installation of new fixture for both LH & RH and performing
operation at both the joints simultaneously and by changing operation sequence was less
than the target takt time of 7.72min.
Results of this time measurement for the month of June:
RH:
Table 16 Result time of June RH
LT

SAT

OT

TT

total time

STN 1

1m

30s

4m30s

40s

6m 40s

STN 2

20s

2m

20s

2m 40s

STN 3

2m

40s

4m45s

40s

8m 5s

STN 4

30s

6m

40s

7m 10s

STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

10s

7m

17s

7m 40s

STN 7

12s

7m10s

17s

7m 39s

STN 8

15s

6m10s

40s

7m 5s

STN 9

15s

2m30s

3m20s

30s

6m 20s

STN 10

15s

3m

3m 15s

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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LH:
Table 17 Result time of June LH
LT

SAT

OT

TT

total time

STN 1

1m4s

30s

2m

40s

4m10s

STN 2

30s

2m 35s

40s

3m 45s

STN 3

2m

45s

7m

20s

10m 5s

STN 4

30s

4m

20s

4m 50s

STN 5

12s

4m30s

45s

5m 27s

STN 6

20s

6m40s

20s

7m 20s

STN 7

30s

7m

20s

7m 50s

STN 8

15s

6m 50s

20s

7m 25s

STN 9

35s

1m

4m

30s

6m 5s

STN 10

30s

1m 30s

2m

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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N.B. The Fixture at STN 3 of LH met with an unprecedented fault which made the
loading and unloading of the components time-consuming. This fixture is supposed to be
repaired and if it still poses the problem, it will be replaced.

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT


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PICK AND PLACE ARRANGEMENT:


In addition to this it was observed that excess time is spent in transferring the assy. From
one STN to other which currently is done manually. Four operators are specially engaged
to lift the assembly and transfer it to the next STN.
With an intent to make this shifting operation more safe and fast with lower chances of
damage to the outer body, installation of a semi-automated lift and shift mechanism is on
cards. It is supposed to be implemented by the month of august

Figure 35: Pick and place arrangement

124