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EW COLUMBIA JOIST COMPANY ,
P.O. Box 31 New Columbia, PA 17856 - 0031
(717) 568 - 6761 (717) 568 - 1001 (FAX)


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Now, tables for new KCS joists can be used to
find a joist with sufficient moment and shear values. The new KCS joists
have constant moment and shear streniths -- in the case of the illustrated
example a 16KCS2 joist is found to resist a moment of 349 inch kips and a
shear of 4000 pounds. By specifying this joist it is no longer necessary to call
for a SP joist or show the diagram.
In addition to the tables on the new K Series KCS joists the new
specification contains other important revisions:

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I. New bridging requirements for K,
LH , and DLH joists.
2. Metric load tables.
3. Revised joisl girder bearing seat
depths.
The latest SJI mfonnauon " now available .

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~~m :'iICIIOLAS J. BOl RAS, 1:'iC.
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415
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"...,. . &.invnft, NJ r
07902-0ee2
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Tailor- Made

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Beams speed repairs of
nation's oldest steel bridge.

Gateway Western Railway's bridge at
Glasgow, MO. after the flood of July 1993.

Constr. Mgr.: Design Nine, Inc. St. Lou is, MO.
Photography: Dale Graha m, Fayette, MO.

60 days after award; thanks to 140 tons of
ARBED W44x335 Tailor-Made Beaml.

Fabri ator : Phoenix Steel, Inc., Eau C1aire,WI.
Erector: St. Lou is Bridge Co., Arnold, MO.

Consulting Engineers: Modjeski & Masters, New Orleans, LA .
Steel supplier: 140 tons of ARBED W44x16x335 rolled WTM (Tailor-Made) beams in ASTM A572JGr50,
f rom the TradeARBED stock in Blytheville, AR.

When you need Big B~s, Service and Quality;
The name IS ARBED.
WfM (Tailor-Made) rolled beams are available in 24" through 44" and from 129 Ibs/ft through 798 Ibs/ft; in
ASTM A36, A572, A709 with most sections available in ARBED's new H ISTAR® Grade 65 (ASTM A9 13),
Sectional properties are avai lable on a free floppy disc (Lotus 1-2-3, Quamo Pro and AS II versions for IBM ,
Excel for Macintosh) and the complete ARBED database is ready to u e in the design softwares
GTSTRUDL, ETABS, SAP90 and STAAD-III.
IIiSTARfa is a ll."Sislcrec:i trade-mark of ARBl<.I)

For complete information, availability, literature and floppy disc,
contact one of our TradeARBED offices at the following locations:
. 825 Third Ave., New York. NY 10022. (212) 486-9890. Fax (212) 355-2159.
· 60 E. Sir Francis Drake Blvd .• Suite 202. Larkspur. CA 94939 (415) 925-0100. Fax (415) 461 -1624 / 8257.
· 390 Brant Street. Suite 300. Burlington. Ontario. Canada L7R 4J4. (90S) 634-1400, Fax (905) 634-3536.
Please circle # 35

MODERN STEEL
CONSTRUCTION
Volume 34, Number 10


October 1994

F EATURES

22

D ESIGNING B UILDINGS T HAT W ORK

Developers and architects appreciate Eli Cohen's
ability to design economical~nd functionalbuildings
32

THE LRFD (R )EVOLUTION
In addition to providing more uniform reliability,
analysis shows LRFD can save an average of 5%
of total steel tonnage on mid- and high-rise
buildings
l.221 T.R Higgins Lecture

36

COMPOSITE F RAME C ONSTRUCTION

In high-rise building design, the synergism
between steel and concrete allows for rapid
construction at a lower cost

Eli Cohen is Chicago's foremo st
practictioner of structural engineering today. It 's hard to walk along
any downtown street in Chicago
without seeing one of his numerous
projects.
D EPARTMENTS
6

EDITORIAL

9

STEEL INTERCHANGE

- Creating Composite
Action By Adding
Studs
- Weep Hol es And
Tubula r Columns
- Erecting Steel
Beams On A Brick
Wall
- Defl ection Limits
For Crane Runway
Systems

M(xlern SI('CI ConSlrUdion (Voll/mt' 34,

Numlx~r 101. ISSN 0026-8445. Published

monthly by the American Institute of Steel
(onstrullion, Inc., {A lSO. Onc Easl Wackl'f
Dr., SUI'cj 100, ChIcago, IL 6060. ·2001

Advertlc;ing o((ice: The Ramage Group,
O'Hare LaKe Office Plaza, 2400 E. Devon
Avo., Des PlaInes, IL 60618 (7081 699-6049,
5ul)s(rlpllOn price:

3

Within the U.S.-single issues 51.
S85.

)0."

Outside the U.S.--sing le issues 55 ;
1 year $36;) years $100.
Postmaster: Please send addrcc;s changes to
Modern Steel Construcllon, One Eelsl
Wacker Dr., Su ite 3100, Chicago, Il60601 ·
2001.
$('{oncl dass postage paid at Chicago, Il and
ill addltlon')l mailing offices.

4 1 Modern tee! Construction I October 1994

13

18

STEEL NEWS

- Two New LRFD
Textbooks
- Quick Steel Survey
- Geerhard Haaijer
- Upcoming Events

48

COMPUTER PRODUCT
PERIPHERALS

50

STEEL MARKETPLACE

50

AD INDEX

STEEL COUNSEL

- Avoiding
Professional Liability
Traps

•••

in Computerized Structural Engineering

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dge design. he would illustrate a point . Wylie. Free la nd. Ir a rew of us were discussing sometning a t lunch . I ca me to respect not only hi s brillia nce. Cha irma n Robert E. h e s pe n t 27 yea r s wit h U. Tech nical Advisor Editorial Offices Modern Steel Cons truction One East Wacker Dr. Secreta ry & Ge nera I Counsel Geerhard Haaijer. A memoria l schola rship fund has been establi shed in J erry's name a t Le hi gh Uni versity. Devon Ave.with t he loss of Gee rh a rd (J erry) Haaijer. Ofte n. Technology & Research Morris Ca miner. For the past 11 years. Le hi g h U ni ve r s ity. Des Pla ines. Fina nce/Administration GEERHARD HAAIJER T ragedy recently be/e ll the s teel indus try. Hi s ma ny pa pers includ ed s uch topi cs as a utostress br. Vice President. He a lso served a n adjunct proressor at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pitts burgh.vith a story. PA 18010. Beth lehem. Senior Technica l Advisor Cha rlie Carter. but a lso the accomplishments of hi s many students a nd othe rs to whom he gave a professiona l boost. wh en I had probl e ms u nde rs tanding on e topi c or a nother th at [ was wl. In the fi vea nd-a-ha lf yea rs I was pri vileged to have known a nd wor ked with J erry. Sometimes just a few words would suffi ce. he'd put pen to pa per and dra w me a clear and concise answer.vi II be forever grateful for hi s mentoring skill s. But more often. J erry was AlSC's Vice President of Technology a nd Research a nd a driving force in ma ny or t he progressive design cha nges occurring in the fabricated structura l steel industry. West. He was a lso re ma rkabl e for how much e ffort he was willing to ma ke to help others no ma tte r how busy he was with hi s own wor k.E. IL 6001 8 (708) 699-6049 Fax 708/699-6031 AISC Officers Frank B. he will also be missed for hi s rema rka ble persona li ty. Suite 3100 Chi cago. he could ta ke even t he most complica ted s ubjects a nd explain them so clearly tha t eve n the poorest stude nt unde rstood . 2 07 Memori a l Dr. Second Vi ce Chairman Robert D. including 17 as chier of t he Design Technology Division. Newman . Like a favori te uncle. 8M • 6 / Modern StcC'1 Cons truction I Octboer 1994 .a nd the entire struct ura l e ngin ee r'in g co mmunity. ED ITO R I A L • Editorial Staff Scott Melnick. a nd hybrid girder design.S. Be for e t h at . Contributi ons can be sent to: The Geerh a rd Haa ij e r Me mori a l S ch ola rs hip Fund . he was able to extend tha t calmness to others. Louis Gurthet. plastic design theory. Tl'easurel" Neil W. Senior Technica l Advisor J acq ues Cattan . Owen. President Da vid Ra tte rma n. it was not unus ua l for J erry to drop by my offi ce a couple or days la ter wi t h a copy of a pa per he had dug out or his huge fil es that he th ought might be helpful. J erry's legacy won't just be his own accompli shments.. Ill. but a lso hi s ability to re ma in unfl a ppabl e des pi te t he t urmoil aro und him ..viII be remembered a nd honored ror his ma ny professiona l accompli shm ents. IL 60601-2001 (312) 670-5407 Fax 3121670-5403 Advertising Sales The Ra mage Group O'Ha re Lake Office Pl aza 2400 E. Stee l's Researc h La boratory. First Vice Cha irman H. 1 found myself in J erry's • offi ce.ting about. Vi ce President. And many in t he industry . And like a !:l'eat teacher. Zundel. E ve n more impressive ly. No one was better a t diffusing a tonse meeting or situation. Whil e J erry . Edito r a nd Publi sher Pa trick M. P.

Engineering.. -- Production Control Module • Detailing Module • to here. So whether you need one SDS/ 2 software module or all these tools working together. For more information about SDS/ 2. service" Please circle # 32 402-476-8278 or 1-800-443-0782 . Each module by itself will save you time and money and by combining products to implement Information Management you receive more than twice the benefit in savings and productivity.How to get • from here ! j' ~ . " i~ _ . Analysis and Design Module Eslimllting Module I-.. __.• :t _ _ if .. DESIGN DATA II "First in . That concept is called Information Management. solutions. • SDS/2 gives you the flexibility to integrate all aspects of your business with one software system. CNC Interrace Module Design Data's SDS/2 Steel Fabrication System.software. information management in the steel industry or future product demonstrations call 800-443-0782. Design Data can provide the most productive system for you..

To order or for more Information: Phone: 312-676-2400 or Information Fax Une: 800-644-2400 . Or click on any of the more than one thousand items that are electronically cross-referenced throughout the manual. 2. LRFD on CD follows the exact format.. Engineering Journal --..... ~ •- ..-"--~"" LOAD & RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIG .OOO-page LRFD Manual of Steel Construction.dxf files) taken right from the manual that can be quickly copied to your AutoCAD or other CAD program And best of all. Click on "connections" in one part of the manual and quickly and easily find other sections dealing with that same topic. as the Manual. ".-... the identical page is reproduced on the CD. . The Manual includes a 45-page introduction to LRFD electronically linked to the Specification and Commentary.-'-=""- --:--- • . on a compact disk. LRFD on CD is available for $1 .-..~ .. . ----~~..000 (or $750 for AISC members) . page-by-page. The CD also includes: • Complete copies of every issue of Engineering Journal published in 1992 & 1993 • Nearly 100 drawings (. 2nd Edition. This electronic manual makes extensive use of the latest hypertext technology to automatically link related sections of the manual together. If you're looking at nominal strength parameters on page 6-115 of the Manual.LRFD on CD is more than just the entire two-volume.

._ . P. Water can also enter a column through the ends of slots which are not totally covered by washer..E.::. 433.. Or may be subject to hidden corrosion..:.E.. Please send them to: Steel Interchange Modern Steel Construction One East Wacker Dr... (b ) the bearing surface and bearing plate (or nangeJ will have zones of excessive stress if the loading not uniform .T x e For Crack Control.. a column is protected from the elements and is not subject to drastic changes of tem· perat. Submittals that have bccn prepared by word-proces!\mg are appreciated on computer diskette (either 8M a Wordp<'rfect file or In ASCII format)..'onsfer of load from one member to another since the model calcu· I Modem Stee l Construction 1 October 1994 19 .. Needless to say.'.ure. plea!'lc forward It to Modern Stefl Construction.:. should weep holes be added at the bottom of the columns in order to drain any water in the column? £. Some engineering judgement is required... could the non·shrink g"out be omitted under a proper bearing plate.. Vijay P.. weep hol es may not be necessa ry .. Can an existing steel beam and concrete slab be made to work together in composite action by adding studs to the steel through cored holes? Are there any special considera· tions? In a structure that has tubular columns. however. Opinions and suggestions are welcome on any subject covered in this magazme.• S TEE L NTERCHANGE Steel Interchange is an open forum for Modenl Steel Construction readers I. David T. The ten· sion in the cable can be developed to counteract the dead load moment. and have not been reviewed It is recognized that the design of st ructures is Within the scope and expertise of a competent li ceos('d 8trucLuI'01 cnb~necr.( IS T/fY T f S T£~L 6 •• ~ ~ 1-. feel free to respond to any of the questions that you have read here. if the surface of the brick is smooth. tee) bUilding and bridge construction. or to temperature change which can cause interior condensatio n . s hould have weep holes even if the column s a re capped. P. 'nformation on ordering AfSC publications mentioned In this article can be obtained by calling AIS(..o:"". u bular columns which arc exposed to t h e weather. we do not be li eve the omiss ion of grout under a potentially rough bearing s urface (or even a smooth s urface ) is wise si nce : (a) unanticipated or unaccounted for torsional strain and translation can result if t he bearing su rface plane is not normal to the loading plane. The consequences of water e ntering a tubu la r column are that the column may freeze and burst.AZ Whe n erecting steel beams on a brick wall. Inc. Suite 3100 Chicago.. Ricker.. Khasat.... or an overly humid environment..'•... If you have a question or problem that your fellow readers might help you to solve. A steel cable can be installed to create negative moment in the center of the beam to counteract the positive moment from the gravity loads. (c) a failure can resu lt in one or more of the mech a ni s ms involved in the t.i Mo = Dead Load Moment ML = Live Load Moment N et Moment = Mo + D1• . at 312670·2·100 ext.() exchange useful and practical profcssionalldeas and information on all phases of. :. One option that does not involve composite action is presented in the figure . If.. T x e s hould not exceed MD since that may render the concrete I • Answers and/or questions should be typcWTillen nnd doublespaced... Mo <: T x e t is presumed that the intent here is to enhance the capacity of an existing beam .. IL 60601-2001 • The {ollowing responses from previous Steel Interchange columns have been received: slab s usceptible to cracking. At the same time. clean of any and all dehris and leveled? n practice . Payson. The opinions expressed in Slrrllnlerchaflge do not neecssarily represent an official position of the Amencan I n8tltut<' of Steel Construction. architect or other licensed professiona l for the appliclitlon of principals to a particular structu re..._• .

Wbat value of MI / M. If you h ave an answer or s uggestion pl ease send it to the Steel Interchange Editor'.5 in LRFD (or a factor of safety of 3 in ASD)? • What is the most efficient way to enlarge an existing footing..u. P. Serviceability and defection limits are treated in great detail in these documents: ' American National Sta nd ards In stitute B30. George R. Ultd. Chicago. except that statements are made in the text that cover the case of a simply supported beam. e.E. Stephen K. send these to the Steel Inte rch ange Editor. MauLer Wilson & Co.!. Mobil Producing Nigeria. P. Qu estio n s a nd res pon ses will be printed in future editions of Steel Interchange . Finney Mason & Hanger . we set back the grouted leveling bed and the bearing plate 1/. NM T New Questions Listed below are questions that we would like the readers to answer or discuss. Joe S. Crockett. Amarillo.XX series of standa rds. Needham. should be used in the case of a simply supported beam.. Also. Th ese considerations are amplified when the base surface is non-uniform as in the case of ma so nry construction (brick or c.E. which is mathematically undefined" 'Note that similar situations occur in the equations for bending coefficients C b and C m in the bending and combined axial and bending equations. "nonshrink grout" is a misnomer) grout in the 5 to 10 ksi ultimate compression strength range as determined by ASTM ClO19 depending on the bearing str esses with a minimum thickness of 1/. Modern Steel Construction.g. We specify shrinkage-compensating (the term. Morgan City. LA In what instances. is it justified to u se a of 0. Wichita . The Manual indicates that this conservative reduction is used because these devices are most often used for temporary rigging which may be subjected to dynamic and impact loading. Santa Fe. Brooklyn. TX In addition to the requirement of Section B5. as part of the permanent bracing system. One Eas t Wack er Dr. Garcia. Inc.MA SeJ'viceability is a particular concern fot· crane systems in industrial buildings but is not clearly covered in the standard code Iiteratut·e.3 in LRFD (or a factor of safety of 5 in ASD). Inc. Jr.m. inch to minimize this potential failure mode. KS • • . Berg Associates. the laterally unsupported length Lb of a box member is based on the ratio MI / M..S TEE L NTERCHANGE lation s mi ght not match the real loading and boundary conditions. NY The bending resistance for square and rectangular sections is doubled when bent about the edge instead of the neutral axis. if any..E. IL 60601-2001. Without the use of a grouted leve ling bed . if you h ave a question or problem that read e rs mig ht he lp solve . As such . Suite 3100. What are deflection limits for crane runway systems? he following n ationa l publications dea l ex press ly with the des ign concern s of all types of hoi s ting eq uipm ent. P. Lang. where MI / M = 0/0. the edge of the base will a lso be loaded which can result in a premature shear/tension failure at the edge (popping of the corner). Wben these devices are used in permanent applications and not subject to these considerations. Inc. ' C r ane Ma nufa ct urers Association of Am erica Specifications 70 and 71. and under what criteria can the attachment of grating with mechanical fasteners be used to provide lateral bracing to the compression flange of the members supporting the grating in applications such as walkways and catwalks? Curt E. inch. when new loading conditions are applied? Jake Roth Roth Metal Works.. The AISC Manual indicates that design strengths tabulate d for clevises and turn - 10 1 Modem Steel Construction I October 1994 + buckles are calculated using = 0. David M.Silas Mason Co. When is it appropriate to use bending across the edge of the section? Don A.

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Wasser Coatings Aren't Just Better. 'Wasse(s system outperformed every high performance coating system even when applied on poorly prepared surfaces ..• Bridge Engineer "Our tank painting project was delayed for months because of the humidity. We'll never use epoxy again . we would stili be out there trying to get that darn inorganic ZinC to work ." • Highway Official HIGH· TECH COATINGS World leader in Single-Component.er tanks. the coating IS slill perfect on these pilings " • Alaska Contractor "We coated the Intenor areas in 99°0 humidity "This IS Alaska paint. We would stili be palnling with the epoxy " • Paper Mill Engineer "Wasser beat every other coating In our tests. It has solved our state's bndge painting problems" • State Highway Report "We used the ice as scaffolding In 22' tide and painted down to Within four Inches of low IIde ..They're ALot Better Look What Experts Are Saying . we "nlshed In three days.. Moisture-Cure Urethane Call 800-MC-PAYNT The Best Coatings in the Industry are also the Easiest to Apply! CIRCLE #50 ON SERVICE CARD .• Alaska Coating Inspector and the performance IS perfect after five years. Everyone IS calling It 'steel on steel' Wasser solved our overcoat problems. With Wasser. We'll never use anything else ..' • Waste Water Engineer "We can 't say enough about the Me-Tar It saved our tall on our clanf." • Hawaiian Contractor ' Wasser IS the answer to all our field palnllng problems." • Army Corps Locks "If It wasn't for Wasser.. and contractors love them.' • Paper Mill Engineer "We are very pleased with Wasser for lead overcoallng. It would be crazy to use anything else but Wasser In thiS envlronment . Four years later.

Please circle # 43 .

.... )1 .. • I ' PH.." TL ..00 ~. ~ '... ..---_ 01 ." n.....00 '.00 64." TL ..U " .. . -....1. •• " .."" " IL n " .Accurate Steel Costs Bay Sizes from 20 x 20 It to 40 x PraUoUl'I&ry eo.lta .. Lll.-. Dit n' I a ]0' .l. _." .nlhl w." " "" "" ". o'/ol/n I 0115 4 PM ••••••••••••• • • ••••••••••••••• 20· ...." ._ '". .10 U..GO .00 )0... - 0:.00 <-do 12.~ S6 .'0 24. --. 17TL_ DL . " ..rfo.00 ." " .U '" ......... "".17 TL Ddl ..--. .. ..00 l ' . (kipI' 1 ft ·k) .GO • • • • _ . ."". DIIte. " ---. _..po.. ... lOCAl t.._.00 40.. • ".. ..00 .1JlP1) 0 ft .-.19O nata 2' MT.--_ ."" """ '"" ... . _. 11...10 IKiPl'i Ht-kl n.61) 2 •. .. .actored 4. ..'0 ". __ .00 10.. Doo... . 00 1. 'xlCanler IXI "'rpe." .-0' .n Den '"'01 .:Heubr '." . . -..P1).00 1. ." "• ...00 'IS. btiG «Detl :tn) ul U TL o... .'0 12..-....• __ • • 40...00 5.OO 11." . - . ) ' ilWC.." u "" .

s- ~1Jolutlon. is l'cretary and General Counsel (or A1 C.trlf'nt law.·monthl. but also to w h om the duty is owed .duck: contract prot'/· OSfiA statldaNia.. However. Th e relnain ing states. on t he other ha nd . But what about where an individua l doesn't suffer inj ury or property loss due to negligence by a design professiona l. but instead suffe rs a n economic loss either th rough a delay or t he need for extra work? Or . t he highest courts in a bout two dozen sta tes have considered t he quest ion. arising {roln their Ileglige. the de ign engineer was not liable to t hose patrons inj ured or t heir he irs beca use there was no lega l cont ractua l relatio nsh ip between t he patrons a nd t he design professiona ls./ your comments.t:- . but neither wa nts to s ue the deve loper and risk souring a future rela ti onship. . empIO). Gold/xorg & Stmpson.s firm . Esq .s.. a nd even in those that have. Of course. which find s its origin in the la w of products li a bility.. alternatIVe d. h olcling tha.t licellsecl professionals are resp on sible for all damage.U.. Earlier t his century. Oh io recently has a ppa rently reversed itself. H owever . today t he law is different. We 8OI. if the roof of a theater collapsed.. P. the courts have held t hat professiona l engineers have a d u ty to exercise t h at degree of care norma ll y e xe rcised by design professiona ls under like or simila r circumstances. t he law is not necessarily clear .c.. t his question is still bei ng hotly debated. These s uits a lso a re a ttract ive when one group is contractua lly limited . A bout half have adopted the so·called llecollolnic loss" rule. Third pa rty s ui ts over economic loss a re att mctivc because each group has a contractua l relations hip with the project's developer. Some of the issues that COt~ring In the futu~ ". has issued a ser ies of decis ions whi ch say th at a first-t ime homeowner has a right to s ue a designer hired by the home's developer for purely economic loss caused by design defects. concentrates In the area of conslruc:lioll law. Under t he economi c loss ru le. then later issuing a contra ry decis ion rescinding the economi c loss rule. Further complicating the issue. ca n a potential plaintiff essentia lly disregard the written cont ract a nd sue a party wi th whom it has no cont ract? Un fortunately. Ul Louisv"I" KY. should bf! Mitt and df'oling wIth the EPA Comment. t he issue has bee n furt her muddied . economic or otherwise. putt' UI lOUt'S and qUf'S/loml. South Carolina. If. that's a pretty nebulous sta nda rd. both oa to Ind/t'/dual IlkI' to I#t't' tTWJtrd u:t' plan on SWn8. Unde r t hese circumstances.. a nd the a nswers differ from sta te to state..ce.v rolumn dt'o/lJ u'ah legal matters of ". Modern Steel ConstructIOn I October 1994 13 .J. and sub. A designer is res pons ibl e to a third party if the designer's negligence caused eit her inj ury or property da mage to t hat person-regardless of whether t here is a ny contractual relationship between the designer and t he third party.. During the past decade. For example. courts ruled t ha t design professiona ls did not owe a du ty of care to an individua l unless the design professional had a direct contract ual relationship with t hat indivi dual.. Sulte 3100. t hough. h owever. initi a lly adopting t he economic loss ru le. IL 6()6()1·2001 W • • HAT IS THE LIMIT OF PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY fo r design profes- sionals? Traditiona ll y. s . have rendered a n opposite opinion.61 to dt'ltllflt'rs.JHts that )'041 II:OUI<l lIugges tlorl ll thIs rolumn . Now lawyers a re a rguing not just w h a t du ty is owed. to: Modern Steel Construct lOri.Who gets to decide what's a "norma l" standa rd of care? Today. concern. One East \Vot'kt'r Dr . not a ll states ha ve cons idered th e issue. there is some question as to whether that rule a lso a pplies to a battle-ha rdened subcontractor on a n industria l projec!'-an issue our offi ce is curre ntly a ppealing to that E L AVOIDIN G PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY TRAPS David B. j ust as commonl y.Thus. one design professional suffers economic loss due to t he negligence of a nother design professional working on t he sa me c o u N s project? In neither case is t here norma lIya cont ractua l relations hip between the two pa rties. a design professiona l is not respons ible for purely economi c loss ca used to a third pa rty by his or h I' negligence if the re is no contract between the thi rd party and the design professiona l a nd there has been no persona l inj ury or property da mage. • T E E L Thill b. Ratterman. Chu'Qjlo. {obncaton and rontrodon..

or s hould be implied.om. communication is the best preventive medicine to avoid litigation.ic loss . ECONOMIC AND OTHERWISE. In the meantime.m or her harmless from any difficulti es which may arise. And. ultimately.ally design professionals will be responsible l'or all losses. In recent years "partnering" (a new term for the old-fashioned idea of teamwork) has gained great favor on construction projects and is heralded by I1lany in the insurance industry as being the single most effective way to avoid litigation on today's complex construction projects. • • • . would a design professional owe the same duty to construction contractors who don't receive final payment from an insolvent owner? Fortunately. most jurisdictions will reject the ecoll.. should attempt to have the owner agree to hold h. You can be a lmost certain that insurance carriers will raise the economic loss rule in every instance where a third party negligence suit is brought. design professionals should J 4 Modern Steel Construction I October 1994 N s E L not accept jobs where the project owner is not providing sufficient time or "emuneration to properly discharge his or her professional responsibilities.s EVENTUAllV. design professionals should seek the advice of counsel and the consent of ins urance ca rriers before entering into any agreement to settle a dispute on a construction project where issues related to professionalliability have been raised . design professionals should be certain that their contracts clearly define the scope of their work on each particular job and that project documents clearly establish that no contractual relationship (or third party beneficiary relationship) is being established. Any contract language that would limit the measure of damages recoverable by a contr actor should apply to both t he design professional and the owner. The design professional should be remunerated for the impact of these changing ground rules and. Maine recently issued a thought-provoking (to say the least) expansion ofthe law in th. after a project is underway. As the saying goes. RESUlTING FROM BREACH OF THE PROFESSIONAL LEVEL OF CARE T E E L c o u state's supreme COUl't. even in those jurisdictions where the economic loss rule appears to have been abolished. I do believe that. and such a nationwide evolution may take a generation or longer. economic and otherwise. DESIGN PROFESSIONALS Will BE RESPONSIBLE FOR All LOSSES. in extreme cases. though. To add even more fuel to the fire. what can designers and contractors do to protect themselves? • First. engineers and contl'actors should utilize the contract chain-of-command in attempting to resolve disputes of this nature.ch raises an interesting follow-up question: Under that same standard. • Third. an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. • Fourth . resulting from breach of the professional level of care. it is unlikely that many states wi ll adopt a standard requiring design professionals to be the watchdog of an owner's financial solvency. between the design professional and anyone other than the party directly engaging the design professional. However. then the design professional should either resign the commission or be certain that the record is clear as to the owner's action."le Clnd eventu. an owner changes the ground rules under which the design professional is to perform and those changes are detrimental to the project. Wh.s area when it held that a design professional who attended a preliminary meeting between an owner and a financial institution at which a construction loan was being negotiated was liable to the financial institution for not advising it that the owner's budget was insufficient to build the project. when litigation seems inevitable. If. of course. The law does not move rapidly. Contractors s hould not accept contracts or submit competitive bids on projects where the design documents are clearly deficient. • Second (and this is easier said than done). where litigation appears inevitable.

c because the engineer follows the same logic and process as when designing a bridgc manually.S. ti ffener. • Performance ratios computcd for each limit state at the cri tica l cross section .. y.load momcnts and shean.eld strengths. Steel's SIMON mainfran1e program for the design of straight steel plate-girder bridges. During the subscription period. Licensing of SIMON System. S IMO produces complete designs in accordancc with the latest AAS HTO Standard Specification for Hi ghway Bridges. • S IM ON is ea. weights. widths and thi c ~ ­ nesses of all webs. Fax: 312. • A complete bill of material. I-shaped and multiple sing le-cell boxshaped girders. of the girder along with a complete printout of all AAS HTO ' pecification checks. flanges and . lengths.s enhanccd and updated version of SIMO has undergone extensive verification by several state DOTs and consultants. The entire system runs in MS -DOS and occu pi es less than 1MB of hard-disk . with up to 12 continuous span. I~ . Output from the SIMO program inc ludes: Dead-load and maximum and minimum live. Setting Standards for over 70 Years Please circle # 6 . S IM ON design.. for usc on a personal computer is avai lable for an an nual sub"ription fee of $300.y to u. for variablc-ax le H o r HS truck loading or for vari'lble-whecl loading with up to 20 ax les. • An opt imum design of the girder elemcnt. many state DOTs and consu ltants have utilized U. To order or for more infommion: Phone: 3 12. AISC wi ll furnish program updates and enhancement'> alo ng with telephone suppon on the use of the software at no additional charge.'' I • F or more than 20 years.. based on control parameters selected by the u'er.pace .{i702400. Th. the American Institute of Steel Construction is offering thi s powerfu l program on a PC platform.{i70-5403. Now. including locations." .

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continuous beam blank casting and high performance more structural steel than any mill in rolling mills designed to produce the Western Hemisphere .6 million tons for some of the most competitive behind us.. including electric arc and ladle metallurgy furnaces. of . of products. MC 800/2B9-6977.the . H-Piling rangingfromHP8X36toHPI4XII7 write to us at PO QUA LIT Y N u cor - Crades include A8S Crades A. All our steel is low carbon steel . And if you're in availability and on-tim e delivery by the construction business these days. In fact. of all.9-50. With an expanded mill that can supply • THIS IS GDInG TO BE THE mOST POPULRR COnSTRUCTIOn SIGHT In RmERICR.21 Grade 44W S TEE L COMPANY . ASTM AS72 Crade so. rail or truck or barge on a wide range that's a sight for sore eyes . FAX than standard ASTM 12 X 31-50.9 107. Perhaps and surface quality that otters both best of all. weldability and improved cOrTosion It all adds up to just one thing : talk resistance . MC 13 X31.7-58 501/763 .8-50 and MC 18 X 42. 72316 . ("weathering steel"). 8. sto c k and other lengths for all our THE BIGGEST MILL And not only more customers. Box 1228. AH36. Blytheville. we are a low cost producer.. as well as CSA • NUCOR-YAMATO 4.art mill. 0 r A36 beams . but a broader product line with and fine grain with superior toughness beams up to 40 inches deep . • Nucor-Yamato Steel is reshaping the way America sees constructi on . ASTM A709 (AASHTO M270 equivalents). Yamato is a state- ASTM A36. ASTM A588 Arkansas. AH32. nothing can stop our prices you'll ever see. to Nucor-Yamato before you decide LOW COST PRODUCER Perhaps best to build your next project . it ' s produced cost effectively AVAILABILITY With 1.0. we can offer high s tre n gth s tee I at Contact Nucor-Yamato Steel early in Structural shapes from W6 X 15 to W40 X 397 your next project at little or no more cost Standard sections including CIS X 33.

is the set of problems following each chapter. Boston. compress ion. If you're a practicing structural engineer who has heard enough LRFD theory and needs a deep resource of worked-out design examples. steel grades. Consequently. a textbook on Allowable Stress Design methods. weld CONTINUED ON " AGE 20 • • . discuss design considerations and ofTers real-world applications. a discussion of load and resistance factors. The author suggests this much for a basic undergraduate course. the text provides an excellent discussion of the structural reliability benefit LRFD ofTers and promotes an understanding of how LRFD grew out of ASD. Chapter 9 (composite constl'Uction) and Chapter 10 (plate girders). is the AISC Director of Education and Training. a faculty member in the Civil Engineering Department at Memphis State University and author of Fundamentals of Structural Steel Design . Like most current textbooks.E. which many perceive as a complex subject. P.STEEL Two NEW NEWS LRFD TEXTBOOKS • SEGUI LRFD TEXTBOOK OUT IN RECORD TIME By Robert F. Each technical chapter has a dozen or so example problems that are truly updated and con- lS I tain quite detailed explanations. this textbook may bejust the thing. and is conducive to enlightened reading. the book fi rst presents basic principles and simplified cases. and bolt. such as the new Ch formula or the upper bound on shape factor are clearly delineated in these examples. the text is loaded with references to other sources of supplementary information-a n indis- Rleel Construction October 1994 pensable benefit for those readers interested in more detailed discussions and/or the pioneering source of certain infol·mation. the solutions manual is expected to summarize the efTects of the subtle and substantive changes made in the 1993 LRFD Specification and the 1994 LRFD Manual. For those steel design educators who want to jump start their courses with a text that has ~Iodern already incorporated the new 1993 AISC LRFD Specification and the 1994 LRFD Manual of Steel Construction. M 0f)f. Load and R esistance Factor Design of Steel Structures. beam-columns.. LRFD of Steel Structllres is based upon the 1986 LRFD Specification and the 1986 LRFD Manual. the next five chapters cover tension. The first th"ee chapters ofthis textbook provide a tho rough discussion of the LRFD method . and simple connections. Lorenz.. The layout is generous and flowing. In all cases. including the undedying philosophy and principles of LRFD. P. and straightforward. Answers to more than half these exercises are li sted at the end of the book . 48 on eccentric connections alone. The heart of the book . even by students. this book is for you. However. many of these are too complex for students and novice engineers. seems to have been written with the student or novice engineer in mind. That textbook. Above all. MA 02116. Furthermore. However. The same month that AISC introduced it's new manual on Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). Segui's latest book contains a lucid text and well-explained example problems that should help the understanding ofLRFD. it provides a firm ba sis for understanding and continued learning in steel design . completely understandable. though . and then builds up to more complex discussions. bending. Lorenz. Segui. the authors review the underlying theory. The greatest strength of'this textbook is that its topics are covered in a manner that is well organized. a textbook on the new Specification landed on my desk . More information on LRFD Steel Design can be obtained from PWS Publishing Co. is authored by William T.RN ADVANCES IN PUBLISHING TECHNOLOGY are catching up tu the speed of television.E. LRFD Steel Design. Advanced topics are found in Chapter 8 (eccentric connections). GESCHWINDNER AND COMPANY INTRODUCE LRFD To ASD LOYALISTS W HILE EXPERIF:NCED DESIGN PROFES SIONALS HAVF: A WIDE VAIlIF:TY OF DETAJLED TEXTBOOKS from which to choose. Subtle changes to the Specification. In addition. The fourth chapter covers materials for steel structures: properties and characteristics of steel. provide practical examples. This text has more than 300 problems for solution. Robert F. fax: 617/338-6134. 20 Park Plaza. a new textbook. Plastic design and ASD are subjects of brief and concise appendices. and loads and load combinations. After two rather short introductory chapters.

It o ffcr.t . .page introdu ction. LOAD &: RESISTA 'CE FACTOR Dt:SIG . 4.ional .{'h'. and singlr angle struts.ction at 312/670-24. o:.1 a(harw{'d design nH'thod a"..\I C rrcollllllrnd cd llI ethod of strut'tural sted dt'sign! 2.' mo . \5 profes.t's an t' ngince r' intr rnati ona l ('() mp('ljli\ {' n ('s~-a ln. nll. T Il(' 2 nd Edit io n is a co mplctc illlprO\ r lll c nt o\(' r a n ~ pn' \ iou. LHFI) is TIlE .ign. phone th e Amc "iea n Ins titute of ' tet'l Co nstl'l.\) t' ...ti o n. ign. trc mc nd ow.-ea. 9. \I S \Ianual . h{'ar lah \\Ork and Thornton '.00 or fax an order to 3121670-5·W:3 (includt· yo u. S BCC I's and BO CA's se isllli c provi siolls an' based on LH I'D. 7. . 6.. Fort". 5..' VI A o r ~las te" ('a l'(l numbe . i\{' editori al ('hanges mak c this lh t' ('a"i c. as an a\t cnl ati H'. LHFD in c. \\ ilh co ncrr te dr" igns because th t' n(" t \ CI 3 18 pecili eali on is (" pectcd to in co rporatc th e \ CE 7 load fa ('to r. TIlt' 2 nd Edition includ es a 4 5. it i ~ in ('ullIlH' lIlupon e ngin e('r. Setting Standards For Over 70 years . tar. tri alizcd countr) has mlopwd limil statt' de . '\nd. Two-volume set only $132 ($99 for AISC members) To or'de. t steel r{'s('arch. as \\ (' 11 as cov('rag(' of fram t' s tahi l il~ and leaning column s.H's a nd updales four prc\i ous AI C publi cati ons inl o a single t\\ o-\ olum f' set. nOI just sa mpl (' ca l(' ul al ions for a states.' or fo.'c info"mation.. lnifol'n.. Th e 2 nd 1'( '\\ 12. inc illd ing \ . II. SU'e l Des ign.t-to-US(' \Ianual in ·\1 5C's hiotor). .' plus expi"atio n date). a nd n(' \\ a pproa ch 10 I CC connection d". all thl' late.Why should I use the new 2nd Edition LRFD Manual of Steel Construction? Here are a dozen good reasons: 1. ] O. ft \\ill be easir r to dir('cti) co mpare LHFD .\ S I) or LH I'D .t (' \ e r) • Olltcr indu. I. 8.Ioado-it olTers the mo. Essentials of LHFI).tee l design llI ethod.LHFIl .t uniform rr li abilil) of a ny . lru cturcs. All design problem s ar(' ('o mpl('((' soluti on .. 11 00r (/t'l1e('lions a" d \ ihratio ns. \I ethod for bracing ('onn(. Th e 2 nd Editi on \1 anua l rombi. Since LHFD direcI" accounts for th e mosl \ ariab le aspccI of s[('el dcs ign.il"hl{'.(. It a lso includes th e \I SC Se ismi c PrOlision s. LH I'D is more ('('oJ1 omi ('a l. limit or Ed iti on in('o rpora(('. \EIIHI" s. 3. to utili z{' till' h" . In mo.pand ed cOlc rage of cOIllH'cli ons and fa ctored uniform load labl cs. that makcs it ('as) for r ngin e(' rs 10 upgrad e to LHFD. ['tcn.

Design of Steel and Composite Beams with Web Openings.... Components to ..... Bui ldings G ESCHWI N D NER. Serviceabi lity Design Considerations for Low-Rise Buildings... and his doctorate in civil engineering in 1956 from Lehigh University. On what other subjects should AISC consider producing design guides or aids (circle the appropriate numbers on the reader response card near the back of this magazine .. Extended End-Plate Moment Connections. Economical Bridge . Steel Pipe a nd .. 20 I Modern Steel Construction I Oclobcr 1994 Geerhard Haaijer • (1929-1994) EERHARD HAAIJER.steel Systems 117 . Exposed Structural ... Load & Resistance Factor Design of W-shapes Encased in Concrete....E.. During his tenure.... Building Details 106 ... Chapters 10 and 11 cover composite construction and connections.. Before joining AlSC in 1983..... Haaijer was actively involved as a leader in the steel industry both nationally and internationally. Additionally .... the Structural Stability Research Council....... Metrication 109 ..... and the former Director of Building Design Technology with AlSC. braced and unbraced frames.. Connections for ........ Chapters 5 through 8 cover tension members.. P.. Louis F... Dr... teach- G ing courses in structural engi- • • . Economical .. Ph. .. electrode and shear stud steels..E...... PA..... . and Column Base Plates.Parking Structures 103 ... including 17 as chief of the Design Technology Division. Primer 108 ...... Braced Frames 115. Semi-Rigid (PR) .. he se rved as adjunct professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh . Commercial ... Additionally...... Detai ls 107 .. The authors are eminently qualified . .... Office Buildings 102 . .. Seismic Design 114 ............... .Ing.. Dr.. Arch itectu rally . Carter is Staff Engineer tructures with AlSC and a former student of Louis Geschwindner at Penn State........ . Bridges 110 ..STEEL NEWS QUICK STEEL SURVEY 104 ...D.... and Concrete .. Disque.. Dr.........E... Short-Span Steel ... Delft..... the Research Council on Structural Connections.... .......... Dr.. Stub Girders 112 ... the American Society of Civil Engineers... He published numerous professional papers and served actively in many professional organizations in civil engineering.... Buildings 101.......... the Netherlands... Systems 118 .... Practical LRFD .... the European Convention for Construction Steelwork . Geschwindner.. Inc. columns.. P.'...... Haaijer was employed by United States Steel Corporation's Research Laboratory for 27 years.D. is a professor of civil engineering at the University of Pittsburgh .. Eccentrically .. Structura l .... This textbook provides an excellent resource for students.. Chapter 9 examines beamcolumns and frame behavior i ncl udi ng second-order effects interaction......... 100 ... fully restrained frames (with leaning columns).. is a consultant with Besier Gibble Norden Consulting Engineers...... Steel 116 .... Connecting Steel . the discussion of the LRFD method and strong coverage of applied LRFD design examples would be of great benefit to the novice engineer or the experienced engineer unfamiliar with LRFD.. PROMINENT STRU TURAL ENGINEER AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCII AT THE AMERI CAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION (AlSC) has passed away at the age of 65.. Robert O.. . the American Welding Society. Frames 113 ....and Med ium Rise Steel Buildings....... partially res trained frames and bracing design..... A native of the Netherlands .. . the I nternational Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering...... ....... he expanded this division from three engineers to an effective research group of 55. Connecting Non.. Medical Faci Hties 105 .. . Reidar Bjorhovde...... Criteria 111... is a professor of architectural engineering at Pennsylvania State University...... Structural Tubing TilE PAST FEW AISC has prod uced a selies of design guides on such subjects as: Industrial Buildings.. ...... and the Royal (Netherlands) Institute of Engineers.. Floor Vibration .. P.. Low. you may circle as many as you wou ld be interested in): D lnlSG HAn.. Haaijer received his professional degree in civil engineering in 1952 at the Technical University...... CONT. Bethlehem.. Ph.... During his 11 years as Vice President of AISC ... Charles J ... bending members and plate girders. Residential ...

11 Indiana polis ........... 17 T illS YEAR' S T.. Bethlehem . contact AI SC Marketing r egional engi neer Dave Magee at 4041642-9707. S T HE STEEL STRUCTURE S RESEAR CII COUNCIL IS ACCEPTING PAPERS for its "Stabi lity Problems Related to Aging.. O H .... One-page abstracts on solutions to stability prob lems in bui ldings . 1 Orlando . . PA 18015...R.. currency) for International shipments Number at Copies _ _ _ __ Total enclosed _ _ _ _ __ Name Firm Address Crty State Sendla: Managing Director ~ Steel JOist InstJlUle Modem Steel Const DIY. .. For information on the Austin lecture.... contact A1SC Ma r keting reglOnal engi neer Jim Ande rs at 2141369-0664... and slip critical joints at factored loads... . .. Od ... . O CI.... • Also included is a one· page method lor converting load tables for LRFD deSign........ ORDER TODAY! Just S20... bridges.. The technical progr am inc lu d es 12 seminars and 17 tuto rials. . 3 Portland.. UPCOMING EVENTS A • ISC MARKETING'S POPULAR FOUR-PART EMINAR ERIES "I nnovative Practices In' Structura l Steel .• neering and mathematics. TX.. ... . ..... PA 18010. The seminal' also includes a session on s tate-of-the-art design software .. For more information.. Pittsburgh ...00 per copy In the U. SC 29577 . 4 Philade lphia .. and a review of s emi-rigid composite connections. 207 Memorial Drive West ....." is quick ly winding down with on ly 13 more seminars sceduled.... Fritz Engineering Laboratory .. ...... Lehigh University... .ety of handouts.. O CI..... . 4516 Henry St.... 18 Phoeni x . O CI.. the latest NEHRP Seismic Regulations. . .. The seven-hour seminar costs $90 ($75 for A I SC members) including dinner and a val... is scheduled to give two lectures in November (for a condensed version of his lecture....O CI..... For information on the Atlanta lecture. contact: SSPC... Beth lehe m. OR .... . The Geerhard Haaijer Memorial Scholarship Fund has been established at Lehigh University. Damaged & Deteriorated Structures" conference to be held March 28-29 1995 in Kansas City.. 20 Cle ve land . O CI.. an extension of the K·Senes JOISt. Nov.. inlcuding such topICS as the stability of unbraced frames .S.S. 14 at the Annual Convention of the Structural Engineers Association of Texas and in Atlanta on Nov...... NEW SPECS AND LOAD TABLES FOR STEEL JOISTS AND GIRDERS 40TH EDITION INCLUDES METRIC AND STANDARD UNITS • Includes specs and load table on the ali·new KCS Joist..... Seminar Da tes & l ocatio ns • Edison .. 13 Me mphis . cold-formed steel framing for residential structures finite element analysis and autos tress design of steel bridges. For more information ... new fire-protection methods... . ......... ...4. KCS Joists are useful in deSIgning for concentrated loads and other non·unitorm loads.... . 27 M 'laml.... 26 Cincinnati . and its possessions (payment Includes first class postage and handling and must accompany orderl $30.. • Covers new K and LH Senes erection stability requirements derived from over two years of study and field research by the Institute. call 3121670-5400. Nov. His background in research includes the areas of plastic de ign. O CI...... SPC'S 1994 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND EXHIBIT ION on paintings and coatings for structu ral steel will be held Nov..00 (U .. 15 1994 to: SSRC.. The lecture has a CEU value of 0. . offs h ore structures or lifeline structures should be submitted by Oct. on Oct.. see pages 36-47 of this iss ue).. . Nov...... Griffis sen ior vice president of Wa lter P: Moore and Associates in Houston. OCI... .... He'll be in Austin ..... 25 Columbus.. O ct.. Nov. Contributions can be sent to Lehigh University.. 15 las Vegas ... Suite 301... • Fire resistance portion has been updated and revised. 15.... ... 13 E.... PA 15213-3728 or call 4121687-1113. A-1 1205 49th Avenue North Myrtle Beach. 6 Delroit . HIGGINS AWARD LECTURES on composite design are currently underway.. web crippling equations..... development of hybrid girders... Packer Ave. 11-17 in Atlanta. Lawrence G. . NJ . The lecture includes information on the new LRFD Manual of Steel Construction.

which merge d with CBM la s t year. he prefers sim pl er solutions to cutting edge design. ." says Charles Thornton . diplomacy to obstinacy. Cohen loves his work.E. a solution that helped wi II Cohen the 1987 Most Inllovative Structure Award from SEAD/. • • .s affections accent the Chicago skyline with impressive e difice s that. and John Buck. were built to last. With almost 40 years of structural engineering experience. economical structural solutions. and h.Eli Cohen's design for 10 South LaSalle St. Leo Burnett advertising agency. DESIGNING BUILDINGS THAT WORK 22 1 Modern Steel Construction I October 1994 Developers and architects apprec iate EI i Cohen's ability to desi gn economi ca l-and fun ction albuildings • By Cindi Cran e C HICAGO'S LEADING STRUCTURAL ENGINEER DOESN'T WORK FOR ITS BIGGEST FIRM or its mo st publicized. was the /irst Chicago structure to preserve a significant portion of the facade of the building it replaced. The /irst four stories of the new 37-story office tower feature the granite and terra cotta facade of a 16story office bu ild. But Eli Cohen wouldn't have it any other way. Cohen is admired a nd appreciated by developers. architects and contractors for his deftness as a team playe r. and for consistently offering functional . P . "He's a fabulou s e ngin ee r. and reliability above all e lse. The preservation inu· oled keeping the first bay of the old steelframed structure intact." as several of hi s colleagues put it. ng designed by Hola bird and Roche in 1911. His clients read like a player roster for a building Dream Tea mclients such as the American Medical Association . Hi s st ructural solutions are "not too exotic. the 67-year-old principal of Thor n to n -To m a se tti / Co henBarreto-Marchertas structural engineers (TT/CBM) is as much a fixture in Chicago as the many celebrated bUildings h e ha s designed. Mi g linBeitl er. In h is approach to structural engineering. of Thornton-Tom asetti structural engineers in New York . like him .

It's an art to take something complicated and make it simple. one of Chicago's largest developers . Paul Beitler of Miglin-Beitler." Bill Moody. 15. "They're very creative people.ces. he says. "Eli works very hard to think about the future. the interior. Kenzo Tange. and it gives people the maximum flexibility for laying out their space in the building. Cesar Pel Ii." Cohen says. Eli has done that. gels most of the at/enlioll. practically sings Cohen 's praises. Patrick Shaw ."' . 'I did that one. When you walk around town with him. I did that one.ibility in terms of floor loading and the way in which the beams are designed so we can have multiple floor penetrations. Harry Weese.and 20·ft. Modern Steel Construction I October 1994 123 . -wide offi. CBM has engineered a number of these type of systems for such renowned architects as Helmut Jahn. 1111111 1111111 III III III 1111111 1111111 1111111 While Ihe exleriO/' of 190 Soulh DaSalle St. a principal with Chicago-based developer John Buck. Every floor features 9-ft. there isn't much he hasn't touched in Chicago.' I mean. I did that one. "It's challenging working with their ideas. with its clean rectan - gular shape and excellent window placement. ceili IIgs and can be easily divided into 10." However ." Although CBM's work spans from cooling towers to high rises. Cohen has a well deserved reputation of pleasing both architects and developers." Beitler says. Philip Johnson & John Burgee..t· . the majority of Cohen's buildings in Chicago are currently more than 80% leased-despite Chicago's continuing abundance of office space. I did this one . is a key leasing point." he says. Dirk Lohan. agrees: "Eli's buildings are economical enough that they can lease because they can be financially competitive. Ricardo Bofill and Kevin Roche. it is most noted as a pioneer in the use of composite construction in Chicago. "It's easy to take something complicated and keep it complicated. Cohen keeps the leasing objective paramount and is a master at satisfying developers' immediate as well as longterm needs. "He allows maximum flex. • • • "Anybody that could be responsible for the number of major projects in Chicago that a relatively small firm has accomplished is unbelievable ." In fact.

............ Includes all of the features of FAAME30 (Version 4.." he says tactfully.........a\iOI\........ Model........ FRAME30 (Version 3......) and aXisymmetric SQJids USH19 the finite element method The user's manual lor each program contains lheorehcal background............. SHORE ........... according to long-tim e friend and admirer Bill Liddy.. The principals at CBM "are masters at composite buildings... 16100 Chesterfield Parkway.... INC...... Inc.. 5195....... input on constructibility issues-whatever was r equired-very. general purpose programs.. "He was always able to come up with a solution.. $99 . and he stays involved from start to end..... STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SOFTWARE developed by COMPU....... $149... When Rogers stepped down in 1969 .......... Plates may rost on an elastic subgrade and edges may be free..00 Produces load ................... $149.... a regional engineer with AISC Marketing....TEC ENGINEERING BEAMS AND FR AMES . etc.E....... the firm became an associated partnership as RogersCohen-Barreto-Marchertas..." says Robert P.............. COHEN what he wanted to be when he grew up..... $295. ...... Prying action is included using a nonlinear fin~e element approach... Model. $195 .................0). "He walks the tightrope" of satisfying all of the involved parties. Within a year.Managing the balancing act between architecture and engineering is perhaps Cohen's greatest skill............ curved beam elements and a library o f AISC section propenies FlATPLATE ..... simply supported......... practical concepts of how to so lve problems and come up with new ideas")............" One of Cohen's greatest inspirations was Thomas Edison ("he was a very creative person who had a vision...... In 1965........ Plots may be viewed on a monitor or pnnled........................ to earn his civil engineering degree from the University of Illinois . "You have to put all the brains together to come up with the best solution . Cohen began his career in 1955 with the Illinois Division of Highways... but I preferred buildings............ BASEPLATE ....................................00 Provides model.. which involves numerous erection and trade coordination headaches...............................00 Interactively performs analyses 01 continuous beams and selected 2-D frames quickly and accurately........ Inc..........00 Includes aU of the features of FAAME30 (Version 3.... truss and spring elements..0 ~\ac\' • • . $149......." Moody says..1\ for ".... These pfets may be viewed on a computer monilor or printed ..00 Performs structural analyses of space frame structures (2000 nodes maximum) for a variety of loadIng and support conditIOns.... "E li is wonderful at being available and being responsive to recognizing that time is money..00 Calculates bolt loads and the maximum stress in flexible. planar isoparametric elements and solid elements............ Inc..... particularly in the field..................0) ............... disloned shape and stress contour plot files are generated..." ALWAYS AN E NGINEER R AISED IN I SIlAEL. "I liked it.... displacement.... .... $149............. BMPlOT ..00 Transforms data 'lIes generated by FA A ME3D into plots of 3·0 structural models or deformed shapes............................................0) .......... deformed shape..... Suite 246 • Chesterfield. ThorntonTomasetti's transplant from New York who will eventually take over the TT/CBM Chicago office.......... Cohen recognizes that the most important component of any structure is the human element...................... distonion and cofer contour plots for FEM30 and FEHEAT analysis programs... P ...... he joined Paul Ro ge rs and Associates in Chicago as chief engineer.00 Perlorms stress analyses of shells of revolution (pressure vessels.............. PlOTIT .. MO 63017 (314) 532-4062 • FAX: (314) 536-2154 Please circle # 85 24 1 Modern Steel Construction 1 October 1994 • FEHEAT ........... Convenient to use instead of larger... FRAME30 (Version 4...... $395 ..... shear and bending moment plot lites are generated.. These plots may be viewed on a computer monitor or printed in color or black and white........ very quickly. "[Cobenl knows the whole process... e CO" ~\ea............ and examples............... descriplions of input and output. an answer. piping elements for piping analysIs... "Anybody can design a column and a beam. roctangular baseplates. Later......... FEM30 ........ Cohen would be encouraged by the innovations of his good friend Fazlur Khan .............." Many times. "I knew I wanted to be in the field of archiALWAYS KNEW tectural engineering......................... shear and bending moment plots lor beam elements and load cases selected by the FAA ME3D user... DeScenza ............... Element library includes plate bending elements. After coming to the U....... Bolts (preloaded) and loads may be placed anywhere on the plale................." Cohen says...... 'Ixed or spring supported.............00 Calculates the temperature distribution in flat plates and 3-D solid structures using the finite element method.........." he reflects..e .............. $99 .........0) plus tension only elements for diagonal bracing... FRPlOT ....00 Calculates displacements and stresses In flat (rectangular or circular) plates with concentrated or distributed loads..... COMPU-TEC ENGINEERING.S...... \O........00 Perlorms finite oloment stress analyses of 2-D and 3-D structures for thermal and mechanical loading conditions......... Deve lopers and architects alike credit Cohen's deep involvement in projects-from his practical designs to his timely solutionswith the success of his many structures.... "Somehow I always liked putting things together.. but it's a team that puts it together and works together... his name was dropped from the letterhead and Cohen became president and principal ofCBM.. Cohen's best solution is a composite structure....... $495. Planing programs support HP Laser Jel and Desk Jol prlnlors....... Element library Includes beam." he notes......... In uniting the two disciplines.......

CBM got out from under 40 years of liabibty. "We've tried to maintain the staff through good times and bad. CBM can claim credit for such prestigious add res es in as 35 and 77 W. rated higher than most of the 3 dimensional programs currenlly available! See the Jan." Marchertas says. manufacturing plants. neither CBM or Thornton-Tomasetti hire lind fire staff as projects commence and finish. CBM has completed a diverse array of structures. and specialty structures. once explained to him the gravity of liability." Over the last four decades . CA 92630 V"". For both companies.' Zetlin sajd. P-Della effects. schools . the firm . it is the high-rise office towers that garner the most attention. But more importantly. Adds Thornton: "We as people and we as two companies were completely compatible.• All the partners at CBM are about the same age-we're just about to retire. had undergone little change in personnel-until last September." • • Since 1969. Unlike some structural engineering firms. the new standard for structural analysis and design software.. r etirement housing. dynamiCs. 10 and 190 S. all in Chicago. hotels. which was widely hailed by many in the industry." The deal between Thornton-Tomasetti and CBM didn't involve a lot of money. StatiCS. We are pleased to announce that RISA-2D has finally been surpassed! Introducing RISA-3D. very hard to start a successful engineering company.including office towers. BM's payoff is in the form of freedom from future liability concerns. steel design and many other features are incorporated into this powerful new program. there is a comfort level in knowing that they each conduct their business with the same philosophy.. respected Chicago partners hip merged with the much larger Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers of New York.. while Thornton-Tomasetti secur d a better hold in the midwest . rn fact. LaSalle St. There were a number of reasons for the merger. for example.. ·We used to. 800-332-7472 FAX 714·951·5848 Please circle # 40 Mod rn Steel Cons truction I clOber 1994/25 . Thornton says Lev Zetlin. The small . warehouses. RISA-2D IS. Cohen.' RISA. in Des Moines. RISA-3D provides a fast. Wacker Dr." explained Tony Marchertas. ·'It's very. now numbering 16 employees. Almost 20 years of collaboration between the two firms had resulted in a great familiarity between the principals. who is one year the junior of his longtime friend and partner. because we would hate to hil'e people and then lay them off. 181 Madison St. Thornton says. However. hospitals. Give RISA-3D a try and see for yourself! • I I RISA TECHNOLOGIES 26212 DlmenslOfl Or SUite 200 Lake Forest. turn jobs down if we saw that we couldn't handle them with our people.3 For the last 5 years our RISA-2D program has been selting the standard for 2 dimensional structural analysis and deSign. '94 issue of Modern Steel Construction. and several utilize composite design. but it's even harder to stop one. the founding father of what is now Thorn ton-Tomasetti. The edifices have been acclaimed for their functionalism and have been rewarded with Continued on page 26 . ·We felt it was a good opportunity for the people who are going to stay on to have good continuity. and 801 Grand Ave. intuitive problem solving environment absolutely unmatched by any other program. Most rise more than 40 stories. But we found that Thornton-Tomasetti's philosophy was very similar to ours" on that front .

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. •. 401/b44-85lXJ. Lit. \r.)"".UCl'cunmlQ. . SC: 19.Vl>"'mlnUl (J. 1'080. omething smaller joi t suppliers ju t can't do. service and N.".5. expertise that we'd offer on a million square -\rduf. We have the experience and the ~lUllon K.000 a year.!<.1(100. J6.J.J"..mlllkJn( I foot pro)' ect. IIEIl.·dE. AL .~I/E" ("T11'T.rrjolk.u. 1'0 Box 169.OOO 114./j...i~'1l R..q.1411 Please circle # 37 .."..will' Etkn Prturit'. ''I.. tn. All of which means ' horter lead times and cheaoer freight for you... " l ". ft. 8ri~ham C"" UT 8411'2."hCa.. t the next time you've got a little something in the works.205/845-2460.~. N.''''''''' "" . Day in and day out." l~lrr<ll ~F. fl . the average Vulcraft project is relatively small. give us a call. about 15. T1 l "tul Fktu. we've pulled off ome pretty big productions in our time. I"" '.dl .\ IAlt1\Lon... As such.'"1'""''''" ". But that' actually a small part of what we do. 4N/6Il7-4M5 . Florenn'. 1'0/3ox 1(\152. And we take on more than 30 ' uch projects a daYi that's more than 1.Jl "1/""'. S" E."'-'J/662-0JHI.II>. In short....\{ k'W'ljI\\h Jo.. 0 WlCRAFT 1'0 Box 6.\ 186.. 1'08<1. or consult Sweet's 051 OO/VUL and 05300/VUL.'. ZS.OOO sq.. TX 75H44 .a..~.. Ump"kmJ...:rrlll' \IIJ..1. 1'0 I~IX 59. joist girdel" and steel deck.1.15967. Ctlll{onIlU.J".uoJf \1<'.n".kU..000 each month. Becau e no one else brings such vast experience and superior re ources to the party. !'/t' I.. .. That' . "J \ /l.• As the country's large t supplier of steel joists. Extremely efficient manufacturing means that Vulcraft is uniquely able to re pond to the tighte ·t delivery schedules. Vulcraft is incredibly convenient. J"e.. N£ 6Il702..tlClllltrlk1J1I' /) .:r<JuJ. I 467H5. .'n.'fW" (.(Jlllk'f (hn"l. \nlur.. And with six joist plants across the country. .\. small projects are a very big part of our bu ine!>:>.17.. /I. 8 \. FOrll'". .J( mlt.11..\ /)'''''''" "I '·"""(. ~ Faf.. {Ji'nc'T.~.000 'quare feet. ..'..( .ol . £.ru{. we treat each and everyone of them to the same quality product:. more than 12..000.·• ""ml... M""U'sOIt/..n. RD I/7J4-94 l3.'T.. . E"~ .. & .17.\~p · n.m I t personnel to solve de ' ign problems that might otherwise tand in your way.219/337.

war} n. structu re was completed four months early and came in 5'k under budget at $225 million. The designs are not provocative. "You get the best of both worlds/' notes Bei lIer . 606J2 fOR INQUIRIES. COMPOSITE DESIGNS COMBINE TIlE ADVANTAGES of steel and con- COMPUTER DETAILING CORPORATION )k:=<1t=:clt-T A ... Approximately 25% of the caissons were pre -existing and transfer grade beams between the new and existing caissons were used to take the towers wind and gravity loads . designed by Cesar Pelli in his Chicago debut in collaboration with the local firm Pat Shaw & Associates. Chanotll IrT_ St. . Madison St.. this 50-story.. The structure at 181 W. Cohen's ability to coordinate the steel and concrete contractors has proven a benefit on many projects.o. according to Beitler. they simply work. fobricol . since the concrete core is going up at the same time as the steel superstructure. in Chicago. being a pragmatist.lf Fla18a:1 CD flat(tb. being flexi ble.. Beam Largest Angle Roll In the Western HemISphere CAPAClTltsmE A·3I sn:n 111 I 1(7' I r AIIgII boll Leg Out and Lev IzI . And even more impressively.-ft. tben you should look at one that does in English or Vetric... and engineered by Cohen. Sobd !bhI Bar 'Sobd"". Madison in record time. A pointed tower with multiple setbacks and a distinctive crown. it was 40% leased upon completion and more than 97% lea sed todaydespite Chicago's sluggish market. However. Eli.. Beitler gives Cohen much of the cred it for the building'S success.mplon. Developed by Miglin-Beitler. PA 16966 215-355-6003 Fax 215-355-6210 Is a 36-lnch ioU. Version 5. round and rKtangularl :I)" 8eaIIl5.3 COMPOSITE D ES IGN If your present CAD system doesn't detail everything you fabricate.... was able to put that together..SHOP DETAILS with AutoCAD. 4'.. • The foundation wall on the east side of the building required .Suile 10 Southa.l Dol." ta and StemOul CHICAGO METAL ROLLED PRODUCTS COMPANY Sou~ R_n Ch-.ee1 Construction October 1994 • crete.If» bard ~j 16" Pipt and Tubuag ttqucne. "Eli's very efficie nt design enab led uS to build 181 W.. high occupancy rates . while composite construction can be quite efficient. it a lso can be very complicated.. 1. which won the 1991 Best Structure Award from the Structural Engineers Association of nlinois (SEAOI).• sq. ~ for Ste.1 million. being a very savvy team player. and 80 Second Slreet Pike . ORDERS CALL 312-523-5757 FAX 312·650·1439 Please circle # 66 28 Modern S1..' l' 11' f'bt liar IX! CdgI . is an exemplary example of a composite design ..." The building utilized some of the foundation of a previous structure. lIh ..

04 million-sq. "The noors were very efficient for them to use. 10 . 190 S.. North Caro/f/lo 28202 704 . ~s). Major tenants include R. ft. checks for logical Input and more. bujlding has a light steel frame. The Prime Group." says Shaw. StudIo A ChClr/O/ll'. ohen designed an efficient composite structure for renowned architects P h ilip THE CAoVANTAGE AILING srEM ONT DRNE You INSANE. LaSalle St. The building also features a magnificent five-story entrance lobby.. matches connections and fi~urcs member clearances automatically.-ft. Cohen drove a concrete shaft through a thick layer of relatively soft clay and delivered the building loads to hardpan about 70 ft. the 50·story 181 W. Wacker Dr. working for DeStefano & Partners. "Eli was very helpful in the process of checking the shop drawings . • • To help the developer's leasing efforts.344-9644 Modern Steel ('olllltnacllOll I October 1994 / 29 . otTering a completely unobstructed 45-ft. applies "ISC weld sYmbols. A bridge extends across the alley to the south to connect 181 West Madison to the Northern Trust Building.O. La aile St. building was built in near· record time. Madison St. 1111. The column-free interior space provided 43-ft. and he took the time to do it right. CadVantage ID 0' 'I South Ct:dur Street . There. another CBM project. The SEAOI also took notice . In addition. The compos· ite building won the 1991 Best Structure Award from SEAOI. CndV. creates title "blocks. The structure was 92q leased upon completion. The foundation utilizes composite 0001' decking throughout.-high space. Even with these complications.mtngo: Stru<tural perfonns all G. even though the 50-story (6 65 -ft . in hicago .lcul:llions. coffered ceiling.: progr.R.J. total steel weight was less than 12 lbs. At the base of the building on the north side is a four-story loggia that leads to the five-story lobby with a vaulted. "li e always put in all his etTort. ' Zl .. \\'TII~s bills of materials. spans for maximum user nexibility.000 kjps. 1." Another award-winning CBM composite structure is 77 W. the columns on either side of the loading dock at ground level also were transferred to increase clearance for trucks. per sq.and your job produclt"ty and profits will never get the ax." says Jim Runnion of The Prime Group ." At another Chicago site. which was completed in June 1992 . r. since it shares a • common wall with its neighbor. The many s tbacks at the top of the building required all the perimeter columns to be transferred several times. The building features 45-ft. column-free spans and a facade free of cross beams. Donnelley & Sons and the building's developer . teamed with Cohen on the project. the local geological deposits made the project especially challenging. it awarded the building its 1992 Best Structure Award . As a result. it is able to sustain lateral wind forces of as much as 2. below the ground surface. "Eli is a big part of why the building was so attractive to tenants. underpinning.lm prcp:ucs ad\'ancc material lists (and applks M.. I!"s easy . Architect Ricardo Bofill .

very gregarious person. The 900. FAX or write Dept. The steel erection started in August 1985 and was topped out in just eight months-a then record for a building of that size.tv.. chances ore. which was able to put the $1 million in structural savings into architectural features." says Bill Moody of the John Buck Company." says John Zils . "Eli strove to make the detailing lin the designsl simple so that it could be executed correctly and quickly in the field. located two f1. Concrete pouring commenced in June 1985 and was completed in March 1986. of unobstructed office space around the central concrete core. M93 for a soutlon.. "And he's willing to share his knowledge with • other professionals. inside the tower. 190 S. INC.. despite difficult market conditions. 8625 W BrodIey Rood M. Featuring 41-ft. Starting with the fifth Ooor. he answers: "You have to spend more time in the conceptual design because with the first 10'k of your time. "He's a very congenial. Wacker won all SEAOI award in 1992. 30 I Modern Steel ConslrucllOn I Oclober 1994 • 77 W.-high lobby with a gold leaf barrel-vaulted ceiling and mosaic marble Ooor. • F UTURE P LANS ELI COHEN'S REPUTATION IS AS SOLIDLY GROUNDED IN illS RELIABILITY and practicality as his buildings are in the hard rock of Chicago. Toronto architect Moriyama & Teshima (in a joint venture with Chicago-based Holabird & Root) wanted to preserve and incorporate the former Otis Building's 55-ft.-ft . Cohen came up with a solution that earned the SEAO I 1987 Most Innovative Design Award. However.000-sq. LaSalle St. Asked what lessons he's learned over the yea rs. Cohen served as presi- . but occupancy reached 88'k by the end of 1988. MAX WEISS CO. was left in place for the first five Ooors to support the original wall and c1addingwhich also saved considerab le time and money in building foundations and subgrade construction.-high) pink granite tower fcatures a 55-ft.ookee. the facade could not be economically saved if the structure was taken down or the cladding moved and rebuilt." Several yea rs ago. clear spans. the new tower provides 40 ft. TAKE IT TO THE MAX. you can save 25'« of the cost of the building. one bay deep. 40-story (575-ft. Cohen's steel and concrete solution rctained the existing basement of the previous building." Aside from engineering highly successful buildings . CD . eliminating the need for sheet piling and bracing at the busy. This emphasis on ornamental features put additjonal budget pressures on the structural design . in Chicago. for mojor architectural projects or for unique applicaflons. Max Weiss bends It If you hove a question or problem In bencing. the largest law firm in Chicago). LaSalle was only 27'k pre leased (including tenant Mayer Brown & Platt.UNUSUAL SHAPES AREN'T UNUSUAL AT MAX WEISS. they were utilized to support transfer girders for the new exterior stee l columns. elaborately sculptured terra cotta cladding. II) Q) WUlJONG & ~ MACHtNlOO '0 Q) U) a:'" SlJ'PUES Q) SEGlJENTS WITH ()l WITHOUT TANGENTS If Ws structural steel thot needs to be bent. congested site. At 10 S. After tests confirmed the integrity of the original rock caissons. Cohen is actively involved in his professional community. Owings & Merrill. The existing exterior steel frame. a leading structural engineer at Skidmore. call. WI 53224 USA Tel<ipt<JI1e 414355·8220 MAX FAA 414355·4686 Johnson and John Burgee that saved developer John Buck about $1 million in time and construction costs.

all over the world . he received an AISC Special Citation. CHANNELS. Section modulus capacities over 1000 in'. the (Chicago) Mayor's Advisory Commission on Building Code Amendments. 11:\'. ~.10[. We work for so many different architects all over the country. IL. 13 JI] ~ 1'1(.. "I've cut my hours back from 60 to 40 per week.] . including at Northwestern University .1" . What's next for Eli Cohen? He says he's not ready to retire." (. Cilldi Cralle is a freelallce writer formerly based til Evallstoll. J:II iI Please circle # 46 FOR BEAMS. MD 21203 Fax: (410) 325·1025 Please circle # 68 . He also has appeared numerous times as a guest lecturer on college campuses.. Phone: (410) 325·7900 P_O_ Box 2193 Balto.11lil. These contributions were recognized by the University of Illinoi s at Champaign-Urbana when it extended to him its 1990 Distinguished Alumni Award in Civil Engineering and invited him to join the Board of Directors of the Alumni Assoc. Capacities ranging up to 44" WF beam on X-X axis. PIPE & OTHER SYMMETRICAL SECTIONS Ideal for beams and channel both the "hard way" and the "easy way". including the Chicago Committee on HighRise Buildings.I!i'. which recognizes individuals who have made a lasting contribution to the structural steel industry. ASCE and AlSC. This has been a good year for honors for Cohen . that's all." Cohen muses. And in October . the University of Illinoi s at Chicago and Iow a State University in funes . Cohen a lso enjoys teaching. I j • • • dent of SEAOI and is currently on its board of directors. For six years he taught the structural portion of the refresher course for the architectural registration exam." Cohen is sure to be included . Earlier this year he won the Parmer Award from SEAOI. He also is an active member of several prominent committees and professional associations. I'll write a book: ' My Experience with the World's Leading Architects." And if one of those architects wants to write a book on "My Experience with the World's Greatest Engineers . COmEQ. which is awarded to an individual whose career has been acknowledged by his peers an example of excellence in the field of structural engineering. "One of these days I'll write a book.

When the ACI strength approach was introduced.STEEL STANDS FOR THE FUTURE THE LRFD (R)EVOLUTION In addition to providing more uniform reliability. the release of the First Edition of the Load and Resistance Factor Design {LRFD} Manual of Steel Construction in 19 6 was expect· ed to signal a revolution. Miscommunication has been a serious problem .E. computer routines were in the infancy. mOre than eight years after the introduction of LRFD . provide uniform reliability for the various loading conditions that a steel structure would experience in its lifetime. And since LRFD offered little or no savings-and in some • • • . bad timing. P. Many engineers employed by steel fabricators had codified their connection design approach through the use of proprietary programs that incorporated the working stress design. analysis shows LRFD can save an average of 5% of total steel tonnage on mid. However. IKE PAl L REVERE'S FAMOUS RIDF. So why then. signaling the widespread acceptance of and preference for the strength method by the engineering community. And given that engi neers were already comfortable with the strength design method through ACI 318. most offices had already invested considerable time and money in either inhouse and/or off-the-shelf steel design programs . P. are not the whole story. technological advances. and Thomas Scarangelio. The problem was even worse on the fabrication side. When AISC released the 9th Edition of the ASD Manual of Steel Construction.and high-rise projects L Aine Brazil. Unfortunately. and improve overall economyall laudable goals." Poor timing and the growth of computer technology also had a negative innuence on the adoption of LRFD. Indeed . in just a short time. when the LRFD Specification was introduced. " And it wasn't until 32 / Modern Sleel Conslruction I October 1994 1977 that the working stress was placed in an appendix. the changes shou ld have been painless. The updating of the 8th Edition to include the latest research reinforced many engineers justification for not "retooling. it sent a signal to many engineers that the ASD approach was not being phased out. many leading engineers believed that the new LRFD Manual would. however. A look at the history of the ACI strength approach reveals that it took 15 years (from 1956 until 1971) for the worki ng stress method to be relegated to an "alternate method. The intent of the new specification was to simplify the design of structures. Human nature and historical parallels.E. and the confusion caused by LRFD's different load factors. Many other elements have contributed to the slow acceptance of LRFD by the engineering design communitymiscommunication. it hasn't qwte happened that way. are senior asso· ciates with Thornton· Tomasetti Engineers in New York City.. is the engineering community still struggling with the schizophrenic approach to steel design? A portion of the blame can be placed on human nature: People resist change and are slow to adapt to change. . Many in the engineering community braced themselves for a remarkable change in the way steel structures would be designed . relegate allowable stress design to the dusty shelf of the reference library along with the Three Moment Equation and the Williot-Mohr Method.

(left). Almost universally. the good news is that these problems are being overcome. The LRFD Manual has been adopted by most loca I governing agencies as an alternate to ASD. spall composite steel girders. LRFD arrived just when design engineers were beginning to reap the benefits in savings of time and money from working stress programs-programs with which they had grown comfortable and confident in their day-to-day design process and u e. Most seismic source 420 Fifth Aue. their experience with-and knowledge of-LRFD will ease the transition to LRFDbased designs in offices around the country. Acceptance of LRFD is now the rule. LRFD is the exclusive steel design method taught to undergraduates. The use of LRFD results in saui ngs in steel weight ill the gravity controlled columns. the LRFD load factors have been met with confusion and skepticism by both engineers and code authorities. the baseplates and the 30-ft. academia has wholeheartedly embraced it. Another factor that bodes will for the eventual universal adoption of LRFD is the widespread recognition of LRFD for seismic design in codes throughout the country. The Allied Junctionl Secaucus Transfer Station (aboue) includes four 20. a 30-stDlY steel-framed office building desiglled in 1988. rather than the exception. Modern Steel Construction I October 1994 / 33 . the difference between the ACI 318 and LRFD Specifications have negated the benefit of consistent and easily translatable design forces from concrete to steel (and vice versa) in a strength design approach to a given structure. Another perceived obstacle to the widespread acceptance of LRFD is the different load factors between ACI 318 and the LRFD Specification. was aile of the first buildings in New York City to utilize LRFD. Regardless of their basis in solid research. While these problems continue to slow the transition to LRFD design .AND THE FUTURE IS NOW • • • cases actually increased connection requirements-there was little incentive to switch. As these students graduate and enter the workforce . Further. In many cases. In one of the most promising trends towards acceptance of LRFD as the preferred design standard.to 40story office tow· ers. engineering colleges and universities teach LRFD in their steel design course.

to 45 ft. a 30-story steelframed office building . ThorntonTomnsl'tti Eng in eers cvaluah. will consist of fou. wi II consist of composite beam construction with concrete slab -an-metal deck. CAS.buildings. wh. it was one of the first buildings in New York City to utilize LRFD.2'k and 4.. Also studied was 546 Fifth Ave . while the use of the LRFD Specification for the typical office floor construction (30 fl. The structu ral system for the office buildings and basic station concourse will be steel framed. providing a more uniform level ofr liability.-by-l00-ft. leads to favorable dead load to live load ratios. has a number of projects • currently underway. The basic need to understand the behavior of systems and elements in their ultimate state of deformation makes the LRFD approach the logical choice when designing for seismic forces . Lateral load resistance will primarily be provided by braced cores with outriggers. The use of LRFD-based design for these two buildings resulted in savings for gravity columns and base plates since the New York City building code. LRFDTOOAY hornton -Tomas(. since the nature of seismic design requires quantifying and enhancing the ratio of ultimate strength to elastic strength or ductility of structures . the use of LRFD is efTect.-wide L-shaped. Floor framing with a typical bay size of 45-ft. the incorporation of LRFD in the design of these two buildings resulted in a savings in total steel tonnage of between 4.000 sq. T1!OIF$ ack in 199 1. vibrations and other service related criteria tend to minimize or eliminate any savings in typical floor beam design. in New Yor" City resulted in a reduction o( approximately 15'!c o( total steel tonnage (or the building's cDiun111s. utilizing LRFD for lateral load resisting systems provided benefits.to 40story office towers . This. and thereby resulting in girders with large t "ibutary areas. and a 4. Exterior moment frames will be used to supplement the cores. Representative of our larger commercial high-rise projects is the Allied Junction/Secaucus Tran fer Station.-by-50ft. a 600-room hotel. with an additional 25'1 savings in base plate tonnage.6 million sq . a mixed-use commercial development above a rail transfer station located in the Hackensack Meadowlands. the T • .4'k when compared to an equivalent ASD design. The building is comprised of 170. ft. recognizes significant live load reductions for columns supporting multiple stories .000 sq. Designed in 1988. retail concourse. at the uppermost floor . currently under design. a lthough most of the lateral load resisting system elements were governed by drift control. albeit minimally. Also. NJ . A reduction of approxi- 34 / Mod('rrl Sleel Construction I OclOher 1994 mately 10'k in transfer girder weights resulted from the use of an LRFD design...000 sq. The complex of 3.d the impact of havi ng uti lized LRFD in the design of two New York City mid-rise B economies while. at the same time..ch now rout inl'ly uscs LRFD. . bay sizes I results in economies when the design is based only upon strength considerations.-by-30-ft. 23-story office building. Savings for columns were approximately 15<. ft.400-car parking garage.• ing savings in steel weight in the gravity controlled columns. with floor plates that step back every few levels and vary from 10. live load reduction again is a factor for girders and especially for transfer girder design. The first was 420 Fifth Ave.' 20. Given the ability of steel to span long distances. like most building codes. ft. a 150ft.1 of the total column tonnage. in turn . ft. deflections. In the office building structures. • I n what has proven to be the case for most typical mid-rise office buildings. Overall.tti. these designs illustrated that utilizing LRFD results in significant Utilizing LRFD (or 546 Fifth Ave. documents have adopted (or will soon adopt) the strength design approach. at the lower levels to 6. However.

. l!1 COST. 1\ > rently undergoing a major expan.000 sq.ncased steel columns to satisfy strength. which will double the retail COST. it was possibl' to reduce was an open-air design.) • \ COHC.C tion of this expansion will result from the addition of a new retail floor at the level of the existing The lise of LRFD for Ihe Roosel'eit F. First. fireproofing and finish requirements . COllstruction un stores operations..5 led to a significant advantage existIng buildings conltnue to of LRFD over A D. The provisions in the LRFD pecification greatly simplified the implementation of these components in the design....• • baseplates and the 30-ft.:. Since the retail spaces of the ty. in diameter. With these types of projects. . utilizing this feature of the LRFD manual helped satisfy specific requirements driven by the platform deSIgn constraints: high headroom in the track area mandates noor-to-noor heights of up to 25 ft.' enl(tnCl'nng comimplemented: When space conunity hu:-. " 1 • R. Owners and developers of load ratios of between 1. But as its utilizaand use of LRFD eliminated the tion on mor and more proJ 'cts need for intricate "watch. Overall evaluation of current high-ris projects shows that LRFO continues to yield average savings of 5'1 of the total steel tonnage.<'id roof. and the overall finished column dimensions are limited to 36 in.. For the Secaucus Transfer Station.iow. span composIte steel girders.continues to confi rm LRFD's advantages of unirorm reliabiliing" type field work..tool that engineers can USt' to ity under the LRFD Specification effectively cut the costs of major provided sufficient additional structural renovations. Shopptrlg Mall expall. rt l- (u. Floor construction in of the existing columns unci in the existing mall was very developing the reinforcing heavy. Built in 1955 as an open air mall of approximately 650.. extin ction of the ASO during the expansion. the two-story steel frame construction is cur- 2-HEW W 4 . wIth some columns unbraced for 45-ft..0 and 2. I lowe vel'. will continue to erode resistance the columns were made compos. sion. The d sign solution utilizes concrete. one of the thOUl(h udopt"''' uf LRFD following two methods was hy th. the existing ants and to aUract new tenants. the existing W column sections were are confident that recognition of reinforced by cover-p lating to the advantages of this approach form a box section..VI t -H£W f1.. stifTness.. imperative to minimize the - M Mod('rn Sl("('f ConMlruClion ()CLOht'r J99·' 35 .This evolutionary process is far umn-to-noor joints was critical from complete. Load transfer through the col. since the original ma ll details. bel'n :-..Nr«i( """ (M'... the preferred design approach. I' suIting In efficient column sections and minimizing design effort. it was method is only a matter of time...mak. Th e the impact of the construction resultant high dead load to live work on the retail spaces.extent and complexity of the forcing of existing columns for structural reinforcing. is representative of this type of project. . [X!5l 'I '" space in the a rea under renovation.. the design of the 45-f1.oll . The Phase III renovation and vertical expansion of the Roosevelt Field hopping Mall in Garden ity.and promote its acceptance as ite by encasement in concrete. we straints were a factor.. By using the additional loads of the added LRFO in evaluating the capacity retail level. load-ca rrying capacity. the vertical expansion result· ed In the evaluation and rein ... IIfICMO[ J/~ • It r lOHO DBA A significant porrT 0'" O."OVAflOS ACTIVITY the currt'nt market econom~ Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers has seen a marked increase in renovation and the expansIOn of existing buildings. v. The introduction of composite design guidelines and design aids has simplified the design effort required when incorporating composite columns in a building system. In addition. consistency and improved mall continue in full ope ration economy.duced Ihe Impacl of I n this project. If reinCONCLUSION forcing was required. span floor beams in the office arcas will bc controlled by vibration considerations. otherwise. design of both the columns and braces in the lateral system will be controlled by drift limitations and will not yield savings in steel weight. LRFO is an indispensable tool in maximizing the existing structure's capacity and minimizing the extent and cost ofthe design. Three basic look for ways to expand and categories of column treatment modify their properties in an were developed for this project effort to retain their eXIsting tenusing LRFD. columns were investigated to The use or the LRFD method is a determine if the increased capac. NY.. I'll. ft . IIX' I CONe.

Methodist Building. An early record of composite construction appearing in a U. it actually began just While the contents were prior to the start of the twentieth destroyed . Shear connectors also were recognized in this early composite construction as an effective means to enhance the natural bond between steel and concrete.S. welded headed metal studs were first tested at the • • .S. In 1903. a fire in a nearby Figure 1: The Methodist Building ill Pittsburgh was building spread to the all early example of composite cOlls/ructioll. demonstrating one of the advanIn the U. The composite building COnstructed the same year was the Methodist Building in Pittsbu"gh .. In 1954. a Viennese engineer named Joseph Mel a n obtained a patent for bending 1beams to the curvature of an arch and then casU ng them in concrete. building code is found in the 1930 New York City Building Code.E. This was followed by tests of composite beams in the Dominion Bridge Company's fabrication shop in Canada by Professor H. a need for research testing arose to better understand the behavior. Different types of shear connectors have been proposed over the ensuing 90 years. which was built using concreteencased steel noor beams . in the year 1894 when both a As additional buildings and 36 J Modem Sleel ConfOlruction I October 1994 bridges were constructed using steel wrapped in concrete toward the end of the nineteenth century. including some types still documented in AlSe's Manual of Steel Construction. the frame was notcentury. McKay of McGill University in 1922-24. Hi ggin s Lectu re: COMPOSITE FRAME CONSTRUCTION By Lawrence G. The bridge was the Rock Rapids Bridge in Rock Rapids.M. patent on composite beams where shear tabs in the beam flanges were bent upward to project into the slab.R. In 1897.S. Al "TIIOUGIl MANY MODERN AND PRA TITION· ' RS OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING tend to think that com~TUDENTS posite construction is a product of recent design and construction bridge and a building were constructed. A set of syste matic tests for composite columns was begun at Columbia University's Civil Engineering Laboratories in 1908. Griffis. some early uses of tages of composite frame concomposite construction appeared struction. which allowed extreme fiber stresses of 138 MPa (20 ksi ) rather than the 124 MPa (18 ksi) value traditionally allowed for noncomposite beams. P. lAo After submitting calculations to verify his composite design. practice. Julius Kahn received a U.• 1994 T.

Also in 1956. in the 1920s and 1930s when high-rise structures such as the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building were constructed. The second floor was formed with a 38 mm-deep..6 mm-thick composite deck. Many of these eady vintage steel frames utilized the protection that the concrete afforded the frame when it was cast around it for resistance against fire and corrosion.•••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••• . The welded headed metal stud has now become the dominant method of transferring shear between steel and concrete. using wires welded to the top nutes of the deck to achieve composite action between the metal deck and the hardened concrete. The standard today. thus reducing concrete Figure 2 (left): Fazlur Kahn's 1970 Control Data.. a formula for the design capacity of these connectors was published.. Figure 3 (above): Composite Frame Construction Sequence. NY. 0. The deck was shaped in such a manner as to ensure composite action so that it could serve as the positive oneway reinforcement for the final hardened concrete slab.. The late Fazlur Kahn. Since that time.S. in 1956.. NY.. The noor number refers to the number of levels above which concrete has encased the erection columns . is through embossments manufactured into the deck. SD.. Not until the 1960s with the advent of modern composite frame construction have engineers actively sought rational methods to take advantage of the stiffening and strengthening effects of reinforcing bars and concrete on the capacity of the embedded steel frame. The composite metal deck and welded headed stud have gained such widespread popularity in modern building construction that it has become virtually the only floor system for steel and composite frame buildings during the past 25 years. is well documented in th work of the Council on Tall Modern Steel Construction I October 1994 / 37 . The metal deck acted as a form for the wet concrete. which was built in 1956. became one of the first buildings to use headed stud connectors.. with a composite column as the key lement. The widespread use of composite metal decks began to flourish in the 1950s in building construction. which was designed in 1960. in his early discussion of structural systems for tall buildings. The first tall building boom occurred in the U. One of the first modern buildings using this technique of construction was the Federal Court House in Brooklyn. however. Composite action was first achieved through the use of wires welded to the deck... . The first bridge to use these con nectors was the Bad River Bridge in Pierre. Building used composite constructioll .. composite frame construction has been utilized on many high-rise buildings all over the world and its usage. first proposed the concept of a composite frame system in the Control Data Building in Houston in 1970. ••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• •••••••••• •• ~-- • • University of Illinois. IBM's Education Building in Poughkeepsie.. At the completion of the tests. form work costs.

Output Devices : ExtenSive printer and plotter support. • Bcam. true AutoCAD® compatibility.lnc. 508-794-1487 FAX 508-685-7230 Please circle # 82 38 Modem Steel ConstructIOn I October 1994 Figure 4 (a bove ): Com· posite Column & Wall Shapes. and quick speed of construction. BullHn editor. • PC-Based. • Far exceeds the capabilitl of all othcr noor. WHY COM POS ITE? Composite frame construction is a marriage of steel and concrete. . PostSCript file generation. On linc CIPCrt ad"icc.O.·cloped by Thomas M.~ 865 TurnPIke Street. PE Souhail Elhouar. ibration soft. or crcdit card information for S250 + S10 S&H to: Structural Engineers. longspan capability. Chl". VA 24141 Fax 703-639-07 13 Voice 703-73 1-3J30 I](DOO'· Structural AnalysislDeslgn Software Analys is: Sophisticated 20130 Static analysIs Including P-Delta.. Murra" Ph. Jlh.d ~'" 04 Aurodesk. 537 Wistcria Oril·e Radford.S call toll free 1-800-322-1487 1DA5 1-Das Consulting. Buildings and nume. Structural steel provides high strength. As in any successful marriage.D. each partner must contribute to its success.l3mplcs and tutorial. Documenialion/ Support: Industry's most comprehenSive user's manual.' arc. bending moment/shear Iorce dfagrams. Interactive Input generator. allowing work to • proceed faster and more economically.• Dc. Features: Integrated Menu System. free hfetlme techOical support. SeismIC.k. • Choose from si. Stress Contours. display of Local axes. light weight. Response Spectra and more. DynamiC analysIs wnh Time History. joist or built-up mcmber framing. stiffness fire resistance and damping. IDC. . No copy protectlOllln USAlCanada AutoCAD IS. • Completc uscr's manual" ith c.D. MA 01845 USA TEL. tolcrancc criteria including onc for rhythmic actil'itrcs. In high-rise building design . Inc Inside the U.'ous • other publications. thi s synergism is particularly beneficial because composite frame construction has allowed for rapid construction by spreading construction activity over many noors. Figu re 5 lIef/): The Ba Ilk o{China in Hong Kong. tefJlSl-. Conforms to strulgenf nuclear regulatory reqUirements Vlrtua/Iy un/lmltled problem Size CompHJIO packages starting from $495. axial. North Andover. advanced graphics. To ordcr send P. HPGL. Design: Sleef and concrete deSIgn uSing American and many InternatIOnal codes and tables. Concrete provides economy in carrying large vertical loads. to A wnmltrrk"n' Uullt'tk. plots 01 original and displaced structures.

With the erection guy derrick or crane positioned on the 10th level. Obv. box girders. I girders. the floor number refers to the number of levels above which concrete has encased the erection column~.ously. concrete is being poured for the floor.• • In Figure 3. • If the gap becomes too close. rolled shapes • Influence surface (grid) or influence line approach (grid or line girder) • Powerful nonprismatic girder optimization processmg (curved and straight) • 1992 AASHTO Spec. wi 1993 interims & 1993 Curved Girder GUide Spec. composite column loeinforcing cages are being erected and tied. then construction activity becomes congested with a resulting loss of construction time and efficiency. Experience gained from this type of construction indicates that. On levels 7 and 8.c is being laid on the floor deck. On levels 3 and 4. there exists an optimum construction sequence and spread in the various construction activities. At levels 5 and 6. On levels 1 and 2. column forms are being placed and concrete is being poured for the composite column. then problems can occur. If this relative staging is not maintained. the moldability of concrete has allowed structural steel erection shapes to be Please circle # 88 Modern SlCel COOioilrucllon OClOber 199·1 39 . when the gap between setting steel and placing concrete beams becomes too wide. Finished concrete floors are needed ahead of composite column and shear wall pouring in order to have a finished surface for stacking tieing reinforcing steel and setting the column forms. On levels 9 and 10. For instance. an overload of the erection columns can occur since they have been designed for a certain number of floors of construction loading or have been sized to limit column shortening to a predetermined amount. studs are being welded to the top of composite beams and welded wire fabl. Also. Furthermore. close coordination and control of the construction process is required for this type of construction . 30-day trials available Call for Free Demo Version MDX software Phone (314) 446-3221 Fax (314) 446-3278 cern. steel for levels 11 and 12 is being set. depending on the individual contractor. the frame is being welded or final bolt tightening is occurring and metal deck is being placed. frame stability can start to be of con- Curved & Straight Steel Bridge Design English & Metric Serious Design Power on Your PC • Complex grid and roadway geometries.

co lumn and brace elements. Also. WHEN YOU BUY ST. This building. while at the same time greatly simplifying connections of beam . YOU BUY AMERICAN! AND YOU GET: • FULL TRACEABILITY • LOT CONTROL • CERTIFICATIONS Products from '12 "-3" diameter include: Registered Head Markings on all structural and machine bolts: 17 COUNTERSUNK A-325 lYpe1 o A-325 lYpe3 SQUARE MACHINE ST. There can be constructibility problems at complex joints where structural steel. hampering its use particularly in seismic zones. Erection constraints are somet imes forced on t he contractor when he is required to erect the steel frame within a predetermined number of floors behind which concreting of the composite elements is taking place. LOUIS SCREW & BOLT COMPANY 6900 N. The contractor and engineer must work as a team to ensure stability in the erection frame until final concreting takes place. Broadway • St. designers must be cogunique and important feature nizant of differential column and wall shortening that can lead to problems in noor levelness. Because of the use of within variable and complex steel and composite vertical carcomposite column and wall rying elements in the same shapes (see Figure 4) . And finally. until recently. MO 63147 (314) 389-7500 • 1-800-237-7059 • Fax (314) 389-7510 40 I Modem Steel Conslruclion I October 1994 Please circle # 36 BUTTON HEAD • . reinforcing steel and concrete must a ll fit together. a general lack of research has contributed to many engineers' re luctance to embrace the concept of composite frame construction. there has been no widespread building code acceptance of this form of construction. Louis. composite frame conFigure 6: Moffitt HospItal in San Francisco struction has not been without its embedded at strategic locations problems.accommodates the free form arc h itectu r a l designs common in ta ll bui ldings today . LOUIS. However.

they build with composite. and transmittals SSC's integrated family of computer programs includes: Estimating Ask for a free demo disk Production Control Inventory Purchase Orders Combining P. Wouldn't you like to realize the benefits that our existing 400 customers have been enjoying over the past 10 years? Perhaps the most spectacular example of composite frame c nstruction that exists today can be found in the Bank of China Building in lIong Kong (see Figure 5). slender buildings. In looking at most of the super-toll buildings being considered around the world today. New Automated Drawing Log Tracks draWings. Pei and enginHred by Leslie Robertson.>: (Period)1 • . as measured by building acceleration of the top most occupied floor.0) when comparing strength and an eight-fold advantage when com- paring axial stiffness. The general contractor will oftentimes figure the total cost of concrete. Its five composite columns form a megastructure of concrete filled steel tubes that together provide the lateral load resisting frame in one of the windiest cities in the world-all for n mere 23 psf of structural steel. it is not uncommon to see a 10'k to 20~ reduction in steel weight with composite construction.• E CONOMIC Co S lln:RATIONS The economy of composite frame construction in practical cases of high-rise building design is often made apparent in the value engineering phase. Crosswind acceleration is oftentimes the most predominant component of acceleration and its relationship to the building properties can be defined by the following proportionality: design in tall buildings. of all-steel building accelerations. it is not uncommon for composite building accelerations to be as little as 50<7.O. this sleek and graceful tower exhibits all the attributes of composite frame construction. Roanoke. oftentimes controls the design of lateral load resisting frames in tall. revisions. Part of this economy can be attributed to the fact that composite vertical load carrying elements typically realize an ll-fold cost advantage (steel/composite cost approximately equal to 11." Cross Wind Acceleration: a (Wind Velocity)'" .M. there is a very powerful incentive for engineers to use composite frames . Indeed. VA 24019 (703)362-9118 Automated Beam & Column Detailing Please circle # 42 Modern Steel Con!ltructwn I Oc11J:H-'r J994 1 4J . Design d by architect I. it can readily be said that "When engineers build tall. forms and steel frame. reinforcing steel. Perception to motion. as it often does. When compared to the unit weight of an all-steel building. When building motion controls the offers a full line of computer programs specifically for the steel fabrication industry. Box 19220. t )~ (Dampwg) x Mass Because of the inherent advantages of composit frames over all-steel frames as shown above. This total frame cost is then divided by the building square footage and the erected structural steel price to determine "equivalent" structural steel unit weight.

Additional wind bracing can be added between the new composite co lumns to strengthen t h e late r a l load resisting system in o r der to bring it under compliance with modern wind codes (see Figure 7).ion for rei 100 677-4474 high-rise buildings. can be upgraded by wrapping eXlstlllg steel columns in reinforced concrete and we lding headed stud shear connectors to the columns ./ . Dept A. High-rise buildings. easy to read reports II)( .S. The Moffitt Hospital PO B019097.y Road P. .''911 • Alllly. As seiso MSHTO · l/NI New 15th Ed a ConMuous "6sp". items and assembled un~L Also Ir3Cks shop and field ~bor. Box 431 Kelso.. its use has Fax 20tI 577. has flourished in the area of new construct. . There is a move to stano Lease or License Free Trial .. WA 98626 iii . can it be very o friendly · Menu-Driven Input a AASHTO and Ll long before the federa l governo GraphICS DIsplay of Output Vehicles to 20 Axles ment and thus the private sector Output Report Selection :J Au10 arnplbtlOl1 lnv o Quality and Performance Opetitirwjl & Poshng lea:! requires (demands) seismic safely in bui lding design? AvaJiabio ExclUSIVely Thru: Composite shear walls have been used in California in hospital design. o Mesh Generation . Research has been completed . t2 precise. Although the steel plate shear walls were used in this hospital as part of the or iginal construction..I Figure 7: Renouation of a high-rise building frame detailing software.. "Test Drive" our fully lunctional demo !or 30 days and stan saving today.u:.-PLUS OPTI-MATE INC.I A "Competitive Upgrade" Is available..- DES\.nd paper. the stee l p lates were designed to • carrya ll the latera l loads a nd the concrete was used for fire resistance.. In this case.O.I Produce.Automatic H is very l ike ly that this ORating . Bethletem. now require seismic o Uses AASHTO 15th Edition design. Interlaces with the St~Cad T III International use by the snop and office ...I Accomplish In 3 hours time what usod to take 8 hours with pencll . the application is well suited to retrofit. . Composi te shear wa ll s can be an excellent method for retrofitting older structures because of t h e h igh -strength high-ductility." 01 TN" Rating Illd I IM I ahdl r l ndljle' Au ".Auto Rating Factors usage of composite frame struco Influence Line Output t ures will ex pand in the future.. designed fo r older wind code 1)l'Ovisions. and the limited space requirement withi n existing cavities and in h e r ent fi re resistance.".I Keep malerlal waste to the absolute minimum using our un~ue length optimizing process• .. is an IS-story building that utilized steel plate shear walls wrapped In concrete (see Figure 6). COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR SUCCESSFUL STEEL FABRICATORS Recent expe r ience has shown Please circle # 83 that various combinations of stee l and composite elementsFor the BEST in Bridge w h et h e r steel ang le bracing. R~:NOVATt ON/ST R ENGTlt ENt NG Whi le composite construction in the U.@~~ • t<\@{§ SOFTWARE COMPANY MATERIAL ESTIMATING FOR STEEL FABRICATORS ... (From Influence Surfaces) All t hree mode l bui lding codes in o Metric Conversion the U .S.14 also grown in the area of retrofitting of existing structures.I Handles Iorrous and non-lerTO<Is me"'.1 mic awa reness spreads eastward o FHWA · Endorsedlnd Used by 0 Prestressed Trusses from Ca l ifornia and seismic a oorS' Used by 35 Slall!l 0 Cable Members des ign is required by national o Design · ColI Opt l ~ed a Design & Rehab a nd local codes.. Software . composite columns (concrete fi ll ed tubes or concrete encased roll ed shapes). at the University of Texas at Austin under the di r ection of . fasteners. The 1994 NE H RP provisions will permit designing thIS type of frame as a composite system. Degenko lb Associates. P'O!I"-'" new ASCE 7 document. des igned by J. ""dware.J. PA 18018 (6101867-4077 1774 ROM V.. . Please circle # 53 42 1 MOOt'rn Sw(·J ('onst"uclion 1 O<:tobet 199·1 in San Francisco. stee l plate composite shear walls or concrete Design of CutVed Girder Bridges encased steel beams-are ideal NEW FEA TURES: for bringing older structUl'es in o live Load Distribution· Automatic conformance with modern build(Longitudinal & Transverse) ing codes. ' dardization of seismic requireO T Imesharing FUll. ProgTam! ments by incorporation of NEHRP seismic provisions in TRAP MERLIN DASH the model codes as well as in the 0.

. •b 4.tonf\o Indu.IFf' •h ONl. h 10 Modern . o!Iwn . IL 60605-9960 or fax it to: 312/922-3165..' o~lVn'. and either mail it to: Modern Steel Construction.)! lurt f ""I.....If)' R Mulhl.·P. '\lrutluf.... 01 "IJrt .(.I).1I "N"" f'It.(M Inquirv f'I\". ."(.lt(1f d OthH 1•• I"lt... .... Alit ." M...1ppropriJle number below: ..k tuft'r k f m " (.. (nit O'l.. Oille (> BUlld.(tuff'( 1/ I f)c.Wh..ltlal 1. Reason for ~Iall AI(hll(.1 FREE· \ UNnphOn to Modern .(it! ON'Y...11"{ V I PftI...<:-... In111)('(I.)lIlngl~J 4.H low R. ..l y .t\oh . Inll)l'mallOI1 lilt' Imn'M.." - ( heel-.IJr1 D cl '" "' . Simply circle the numbers referenced in the advertisement or article.. 650 South Clark St.... . ..1I0f1.. K Muhlf."\\..-....I .'WOC"t" •b (..llf lnKUl('(" -' ~IJtlAr(hll('(tI (.lt Low R. 0 .1 h In..lllullon.11'(" prodw I m. ".. t' IOOu\I"...ll g BUlld'"R o ..)hH I SchuIII ~ [.• 11 th.<-V Con\lrut lion d C( . • "'lV ~.. 2. Bndlo(.. • . I..lldry Arrl'ul('t I ~ ""Itdln" C... (JI' ()w'l('riVrt"olcfc'nl ( hll'l [nglnt't'r ( hwl An h.'f Idhn(. For free information on <ldvertisers and other compa· nies mentioned in this issue...M<nf'1'/dt . ror free. a b "f.. ". Type of work 3..I"I('(·! ('n~JI'j(.10..(' Ihfoth RtW' [rf"(lo.1 .\teel Constru(ttOll ·n..ll1n'l('nl Ilt'ad ~I...dt..kK... Creative Data Center. Manattt" Olh..N' run '" W CO 0 t.. circle the Jppropriate number below: I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 JJ 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102103104 lOS 106 107 108 109110111112113114115116117118119120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130131 132 FR EE- ~Ubscnpll()n .III' hi f UIUft' h. Your .all' Of r ulu't' Purl h....fucl tn.h(· L _______ • • ________________ • • _______________________________________________________ • Use these cards to request information from manufacturers and other companies mentioned in this issue..• 2 13 14 25 26 37 38 49 50 61 62 73 74 85 86 97 98 109 110 121122 3 15 27 39 51 63 75 87 99 111 123 4 16 28 40 52 64 76 88 100 112 124 5 17 29 41 53 65 77 89 101 113 125 6 7 18 19 30 31 42 43 54 55 66 67 78 79 90 91 102 103 114 115 126127 8 20 32 44 56 68 80 92 104 116 128 9 10 11 21 22 23 33 34 35 45 46 47 57 58 59 69 70 71 81 82 83 93 94 95 105 106 107 117 118 119 129130131 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 1..- '..\ a So\."Il1 ~ h Chlt'l [1~1nt'f'f ('hlt'i A.'IItutluO.. {)\·p. Type of work . ONlV"".In"g('f ri (}Ih('f .I. OIho.w Ih~h R'!Ie 3..l" I A"h.'( M "udo-n. ~... Type of business ... Brld~j.lll'rlPr~..t foo\u''''n' m Olh... Your position 1'1.. m. ...at .t.OK" tl(".- D (h<"<...""'IMh.b t ".. Reason for Inquirl. . •f rclut alotll.'d.." ' .1 •f School.( tllQl ~"lt'(y h OllieI:' BUlldmJt'> b (1\</1 f'Ogll"M'I"f ( Ho--p. Type of business f'ko .. (N. (·utpt'f h ~1('I·lmlll ( fl'(IOf position . l S p 1. k Ihl ....:U1mt'fl1 . ( 'l1fU(tur....I"I~ d Rt1.information on advertisers and other companies mentioned in this issue.. Chicago.muf..pltdl~ d Rt1. . . Ihl\ box 10 r('n('w or .I. nt·. hox 10 n'rM.. ...I...lmll.l'o.2.'tlff'1 ('omtru(llon ~"""pIII...)1 d Olh('f lahflt . circle the .ul IJbtK all..... U..".Inul. Ininmldllf)(l hit. fIll out the rest of the information requested on the card. ("./(k'\'t·I(~·r h SIt"t'lm.

IL POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION c/o CREATIVE DATA SERVICES 650 S CLARK ST CHICAGO.NO POSTAGE NECESSARY If MAilED IN THE UN lTE0 5TAm BUSINESS REPLY MAIL FIRST CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO 12522 CHICAGO.1.1 . Chicago. Creative Data Center. . II.11.1 •• 1 Use these cards to request information from manufacturers and other companies mentioned in this issue.1 •• 1. IL 60605-9960 or fax it to: 312/922-3165. IL 60605-9960 I. IL POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE MODERN STEEL CONSTRUCTION c/o CREATIVE DATA SERVICES 650 S CLARK ST CHICAGO. fill out the rest of the information requested on the card. I••• 11 •• 11 ••• 1.11 •••• 11. NO POSTAGE NECfSSARY If MAilED IN TH E UNIU O STATES BUSINESS REPLY MAIL FIRST CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO 12522 CHICAGO..11 •••• 11..1 ••• 11 •• 11.1. Simply circle the numbers referenced in the advertisement or article..1. and either mail it to: Modern Steel Construction. .1" I . .11 •••• 1..1. 650 South Clark St. ••• 1..1.1. IL 60605-9960 1. II.

If you answered TRUE to ony of the obove. the TRUE FALSE better it is. trusses.-- --- . has provided new insight for engineer's using co mpos ite fr a m e con st ru ction.- COMPUTBR DBTAILING • Ask Those Who've Been There Figure 8: ATLSS connector / semi-rigid composite joint detail • J a m es Jirsa an d M ich ae l En gle h a rd t to stre ngthe n nondu ctil e reinfo r ce d co n cre t e fra mes with a steel bracing syst e m. or you would like to know more obout 0 truly innovative software progrom. SUite 200 Lake Forest. recent research in t his area should help cha nge thi s situation. Thi s wo rk in vo l ve d t h e j ack eti ng of concre te co lumn s with steel plates a nd developing existing bottom reinforci ng ba rs t hrough t he bea m column joi nt with t hrough bolts. th e lack of e xp erim e n ta l r esearc h requ ire d to develop accurate s trength mode ls for th e transfe r of forces be tween stee l a nd co ncre t e at co mp os ite fr a m e j oin ts in one obs tacle t hat h as de te rred t h e use of composi te fra me construct ion..- Your complete solution for frames... /. Deierle in . CA 92630 1-800-332 -7472 Please cIrcle # 40 Modern Steel Construction I October 1994 / 4:) ..-.... difficult TRUE FALSE problems must be complex ond difficult to use.. B a hr a m S h a hrooz at th e U niversity of Cin cinnati has perform ed experimental research on coupling of concrete s hea r wa lls with steel coupling bea ms. • COMPOSITE JOINTS C lea rl y. Thj s reinforcing provi des a mea ns fo r r et rofit t ing existing con cr ete build in gs w i t h stee l to form a composite fr a me. Thi s research s hould a id pra cticin g 1-800-458-7875 Please ci rcle # 84 A Quick Quiz For Structural Engineers The more 0 computer progrom costs. shear walls and much more! 26212 Dimension Drive. beams. A progrom thot solves complex.. - - _..-. first at the Un iversity of Texas at Austin a nd now a t Corne ll Uru versity. Resea rch on the desig n a nd be hav ior of co mpos ite mome n t fr a m e joints by G r ego r y G. Structurol engineering software can never TRUE FALSE be fun to use.. call us! RISA·2D . However.~ L RISA .

IT'S HERE! ABrand NEW Publication For Safe Construction Practice in SteelAoor and Roof Deck Installation lFi.. Research at Le h ig h U n ive r s i ty u nd e r J a mes M. Unloading.1 Oul 01 COntinental U S Add IS.. Eree· lOB. EnQtneer5 and Inspectors who are responSible lor safe and proper fie4d InstallatIOn 01 Steel Deck PRACTICAL. ...S.nt 01 ConstructJOl1 Loads tt serves as a safety pnrner for Contractors.. This new chapter is pa rt icul a rl y important beca use the NEHRP provi sions serve as a resource document to the model building codes.N• •MCOI Qulftllty S11151ICft ~ US Currency To. EASYTO REAO ... One version of this connection is a pplicable to semiri g id mome nt co nn ection s as shown in Figure 8. Ot her resear ch at Lehigh includes the development of the ATLS Connector (see December 1993 MSC).. . Architects. CODEs!SPECIFlCATlONs! LITERATURE Th e 1994 e di t io n of th e NEHRP (Nationa l Ea rthqua ke H aza rd Redu ction Pro g r a m ) "Reco mm e nde d Provisions for t h e Dev e lop me nt of Se i smi c Re g ula tion s for Ne w Buildings" has completed final ballotin g a nd will be published soon.. The ASCE Committee on Composite Co n st ru ction h as bee n ve r y active in preparing design guidelin es in t he fi e ld of compos ite con stru ction . It is hoped th at t hi s wides prea d cove rage will encourage the use of composite construction a nd serve as a catalys t for ne w r esea r ch in thi s a rea. aOl9506 Conlon. Thi s a nd oth e r resea rch ex pecte d t o co me ou t of th e Phase 5 U. Atorod Aziz in a mini h as pe rform e d e xp e rim e nta l r esea rch and developed design cri teri a for the use of steel wide fl a nge beams moment connected through large di a mete r steel pipes fill ed with high-strength concrete. 5TATE _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ ZIP _ _ _ _ L J STEEL DECK INSTITUTE p. This cha pter is cl early a milestone in the evolution of composite fr a me stru ctures . tiM SOt IOf SDecaaI ShlpPlOO such as Air Mall . etc . Placing. ~ tOtAL ENCLOSED N~E _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ * ADDRESS _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ ·u CITY _ _ _ __ _ G> 11 ::as ~ .·p " SOl MANUAL OF CONSTRUCTION WITH STEEL DECK" IS a new and comprete guide 10 safe constructIOn h covers responSlbllllles lor DesIon. r----------.. For the first time ever.fiRST PRINTING g SOl MAlUAl Of CONSTRUCTION WITH STEEl DECK. For th e fir s t tim e g uid e lin es will be a va il able to the practicing engi neer to uti li ze composite fram e construction .ng PI"". . HOIsting. SpeCIfication. pr epa r e d by th e Buildin g Se is mic Safety Coun c il . loadIng. thi s important docum e nt .lJ a pa n Cooperative R esea r ch Progr a m d isc u sse d la te r in t hi s a rt icle should provi d e n ee d e d inform ati on t o enha nce the usage of composite fra me construction in the years a head . I BUND NEW.Ohlo44111 (216) 493-7186 --------ALlOWJIO.. . EASY TO TAKE TO THE JOBSITE ..D. Includ ed are th e following: • Guidelines for Design of J oints Between Steel Beams and Reinforced Concrete Colum ns • Specification for Composite J oists and Trusses • Guidelines for Design of Composite Semi -Rigid Connections These documents will soon be a va ila ble to the profession . EASY TO FOLLOW•. There have been other importa nt developments as well . AI SC has publi shed a noth e r • • • .. Anach.. Bundling. will con t ain a n ew ch a pter devot ed strictly to composite elements structura l syste ms a nd connections.iCIOtlOn~ Express~ . Motivated by the use of large scal e th in wa lled circul a r com po s ite co lumn s in hi g h -ri se bu ildin gs in Sea ttl e. Rickles has provided new in sigh t on t he be havior of high -str ength concrete encased s t eel H s h a pes und e r s ei s mic loads.WEEKSfORDElMRY 9: S teel in construction e ngineers in designing for this pradical co ndi t ion und er both wind a nd seismic loads...

published by Thomas Telford Services Ltd. Allows for depth restrictions. graphical DESCON DESIGNS AND DETAILS STEEL CONNECTIONS interface. MO. vibralton analysis."".. It contains much practical information.• • • in it series of design guidesthis one dealing with composite columns. conference in 1987 and the Potosi. Please circle # 55 ~ RAMSBEAM <II Guaranl('('d to be the BEST beam program eveT or your money back! RAMSBEAM .P. including construction details. BOX 7581 BERKELEY.o .. cantile\cr beams. The U . FREE DEMO! FOR A FREE DEMO DI SK CALL OR WRITE TO OMNITECH ASSOCIATES P. Subash Goe l has recently tested steel joist encased in plain and fiber reinforced concrete." circle # 52 Modern tee! ConstructIOn J OClob(lT 1994 / 45 . NH.ll Limited Time Offer $150 Some of the recent research on composite joints and columns was briefly described earlier. A recently pub lis h d text describing European practice as defined in the new Eurocode 4 is entitled "Designers Guide to Eurocode 4" by R. Anderson. is now available . A third international conference is planned.. cht'Cks existing framing or Orhmiz~ nt" . SUile 220 Carlsbad.•. includes Sl / Metnc unit<. John Harding and Reidar Bjorhovde and published by Elsevier Applied Science contains several chapter on t h e subject of composite co nstructio n. This work could offer a practical composite system applicable not on ly to new construction but also to retrofit existing structures.-. partial or full composite and unbra cd nangc conditions. A comprehensive new text entitled "Constructional Steel Design-An International Guide... Perhaps the most significant work in the field of composite construction is yet to come. Two recent international conferences.. Other important work has been done or i now ongoing. ASD or LRfD. Feat\lrt:'s. Entitled "Load and Resistance Factor Des ign of WS hapes Encased in Concrete. An accompanying computer program also is available.. CA 92008 Tel 800-726-7789 · Fax 619-431·5214 _~A _C S B E A 11T+'l"!If •••••••••••• ~ . CA 94707 658-8328 Please circle # 81 . conference in 1992 are available from ASCE. EF M ." edited by Patrick Dowling. sponsored b the Engineering Foundation.-J apan Cooperati ve Ram Analysis 5315 Avenida EnCinas. Othe r publications a lso are avail able. have been held recently. Most readers are aware of the pioneeri ng work done by Rob rto Leon (see March MSC).S. Proceedings from both the Henniker. and design tables. Johnson and D. R ESEARCH Spt'Ci." it is based on the new AlSC LRFD provIsIons for com posi te columns. a single steel / steel com~lt(' beam progrilm utilizing a Window ..

ductility and fire resistance is important. Low-RISE CON TIWCTIO In comparing U. can also learn from the Japanese experience in high seismic zones. New materials. Reinforced concrete (RC )/stee l reinforced concrete (SRC) systems 4. In the U. Inc. It is envisioned that five years will be needed to fulfill the major objectives of this research program. A1SC Marketing. As a result.S. This phase deals with Composite and Hybrid Structures and promises to provide insight into the b havior of composite elements. Complete structure 4. can learn from the Japanese experience in low-rise construction. and connections. Systems with longspan steel beams conn cting to concrete filled steel tubes or to steel reinforced concrete columns or walls are very common in Japan. but the volume is in low-rise. However.S. elements and systems 2. building construction (see Figure 9)..S. In Japan. Analytical studies 5. reports that for calendar year 1992. and less than 2lf in highrise buildings over 20 stories. the emphasis has been on high-rise construction where composite construction has allowed economy of materials. Also. • however. Applications leel Con~truction I October 199·1 have been mostly in non-seismic zones where wind loads have controlled the design. Component and subassemblage studies will probably preceded testing work on full sys tems. systems. however . Clever connection details have been developed to make these systems practical (Figures 10 through 14). Subassemblages 3. This leads to a significant conclusion for the future of composite frame construction: "The glamour is in high-rise. however. many of the new components and systems developed are not covered by the existing standards and so the composite . it is interesting to see the difference in focus. the U. and Japanese practice in composite construction. Reinforced concrete ( RC I/s teel reinforced concrete (SR I wall systems Research in these four areas will include the following topics: 1. nearly 90lf in buildings less than or equal to four stories. Concrete filled steel tube (CFT) systems 3. compo ite construction has expanded because of the perceived advantages it has in high seismic zones where the increase in stiffness. and maximum utilization of labor trades. Perhaps. In Japan. most of the Japanese applications are in low-risc and mid-rise construction. Design studies A common theme structure for the joint research effort in the 46 1 Modern two countries will be used to facilitate comparisons between various system types identified for research and to derive structural elements and subassemblages for detailed studies. the U. The focus of this research effort will be in the following areas: 1. numerous proprietary components and systems have bee developed . more than 60'"f of the steel volume is contained in one-story buildings.S.Figures 10 & 11 (ief/I: Fujita System from Japan Figure 12 (top right!: Shimizu System from Japall Figure 13 (""delLe right): Kojima System from Japall Figure 14 (bOll om right): Taisei System from Japan Research Program is now about to enter Phase 5. research on the Japanese side is motivated to develop new stan- . It is interesting to examine the usage of structural steel in U.S. speed of construction." • Perhaps. Physical research specimens will be not less than one-half full size. the numerous large construction companies are well equipped and funded for research in structural components and systems. emphasis and thrust of research and applications. Material and component studies 2. These systems are designed according to structural standards published by the Architectural Institute of Japan and the Building Research Institute of Japan.

The challenge for U. it is borne out of necessity and ce r tain ly worked we ll for U. with high -rise composite construction.1101.<. systems and connections will likely take advantage of the ductility.S.". .~: • ~. We must develop new composite frame systems for low-rise construction.. New composite materials..-.. See I"y_.-.dlng.. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Ivan Viest . Lawrence G.rnished much of the early history of composite construction usage in the U."""''' SlfI. rrr ~rr ---~ . high-rise development.E.. composite and concrete systems in the marketplace.... P..S... Griffis.ed in the article. Please circle # 51 . we need the researchers to conduct physical and analytical tests to enhance our underslanding of the behavior of such systems and to refine the simplified theories used in the early development...1 Pulf"""' '' '' I RWIIH'"... be<. III '" III ii: ROBOTV6 THE FINEST IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN SOFTWARE r rT rlT-r. 20/-431 ms 0.! UI • DEMO AVAIlABLE (WORKING VERSION Of PROGWI AND PRE RECORDED EXAIrIPlEJ) Off.. • . . Mortl" -.tiaMH.n-. and the researchers nam. .. sho1ens!he (OIIIepllhr"". _ .. Japan.. t .tugII • rrant• • Irm • LIIl.. Isao Nishiyama of Ihe Building Research Institute in Tsukuba .S ..<""/iT". phase (ansIlu<1ians. suitable also for seismic zones. we must develop new low-rise systems.. """ Iron yOflion · ISO nodt/3D plus plate elements • easy paymenI plans 101 1500 . r. designers and bui lders should collaborate on the development of practical. I1ere. ' I ' I' ~.131500 node venions • no ri5k. Hov. we are in a position to apply these systems to high seismic zones. .-rr ~ rrr rc-rrr rr rrrrr-r r rT r r r /) ~"... 30 day """'Y bad. builders and researchers is clear.. . This procedure will allow new composite systems to successfu lly compete with existing stee l. (ado! • buy !he "'"" yau need. Then.fun. Although this may seem a somewhat backwards approach.. ~adudive user ~ jW one day ex~""'" 1asI.. • hafy • ~ . we must codify the practice. fAX TO 101-4311051 r. Moore and Associates in Houston. starting in non-seismic zones. 1100 USUS WORLDWlDf. design <ydt • mas! ~ '" P( piatfOl1l1 3ll ~ bo.lVfi 11. And lastly. 3ll moving look.-. I _ROIOT · sm 9'*"'''' metro. . NJ //Jol. First.. . As we look back on our experience in the U. with the experience of practical applications in low and moderate seismic zones and a newly refined design theory....• • • dards.. Aoy.r.h . toughness and redundancy that are inherent in stee l and concrete composites . P-deba.J. U\ .IeI_ . the road to successful applications is evident. is senior vice president of structural engineering with Walter P. . '01 MORC INfORMATION CALl.S. designers. who li.\" IN 1994 STRUCTURAL ENGINIERING SOfTWARE SURVEY MODERN STEEl CONSTRUCTION JANUAIT " 4 • "'Y easy ~ learn. economical systems. '""*' III 1! -0 .. elements .l use. dynon... Subsequently. as in the high-rise arena.

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