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Physiology of VISION

Sinan Canan, PhD
sinancanan@gmail.com
www.sinancanan.net

Vision: A visual representation of reality

Optics of vision – Refraction

•  Refractive power – dioptre
•  1/(focal length; f)
•  f = 1 m; 1 dioptre
•  f = 0.5 m; 2 dioptres
•  f = 5 m; 0.2 dioptres
•  Negative power for concave lensest

Optics of vision
•  Path of light in the eye:
•  Cornea (2/3 of the refractive power!)
•  Aqueous humor
•  Lens
•  Vitrous humor
•  Retina

Eye as a “camera”

•  “Reduced eye” (accomodated for distant vision)
•  Total refractive power = 59 dioptres
•  Lens – 20-34 dioptres (accomodation)

Aqueous humor and the lens .

Aköz (aqueous) Humor ve Mercek .

Fluid system of the eye •  Intraocular pressure •  12-20 (mean: 15) mmHg •  Pathological increase (glucome) – loss of sight – blindness! .

Accomodation .

Accomodation (video) .

....Physical imperfections of lenses •  Chromatic abberation – Blue-purple lights are refracted more. •  Spherical abberation – edges of the lenses are more refractive..

Muscles of the pupil .

Pupillary reactions •  Radius of the pupil – 1.8mm •  Adjustment of light intensity •  “Depth of field” •  Pupil radius ↓ → depth of field ↑ .5 .

ciliare → Ciliary muscles + M.Pupillary Reflex Light → CN II → Pons → Pretectal area → Edinger-Westphal nucleus (sensory nuc of CN III) → CN III → Ciliary ganglion → N. constrictor iridis → Pupillary constriction (Miozis) .

T1-2) → Symp.dilatator iridis → Pupillary dilatation (Mydriasis) .Pupillary Reflex Darkness → LGN → → Edinger-Westphal inhibition → → → stimulation of the ciliospinal center (C8. Nerves of the neck → G. cervicale sup. → Plexus caroticus → N.ciliares → M.

Refraction defects •  Miopia •  Hypermetropia •  Astigmatism .

Presbyopia .

Perception of depth •  Dimensions of known objects •  Moving paralax •  Stereopsis .

Eye movements .

Vision: Retina and Photoreceptors •  Converting the light into a mental image •  Photoreceptor cells: “Rods” and “Cones” .

Retina .

Retina .

Retina – Optik Disk (Kör Nokta) .

GREEN ve BLUE •  Intracellular discs: Visual pigments •  Pigmented epithlial layer •  Melanine granules •  Prevents reflection .Retina •  Rods: Monochromatic •  Cones: RED.

Retina .

Retina .

Retina Pigment layer Photoreceptor layerı (“cones” and “rods”) External limiting lamina Outer nuclear layer Outer pelxiform layer Inner nuclear layer Inner plexiform layer Ganglion layer Inner limiting lamina Light .

Retina: Detaylar Pigment layer Photoreceptor layer Outer limiting lamina Outer nuclear layer Outer plexiform layer Inner nuclear layer Innr plexiform layer Ganglion layer Light Inner limiting lamina .

Retina: Photoreceptors .

Retina: Photoreceptors .

Phototransduction (conversion of light to nerve signal) Na+ .

Phototransduction (conversion of light to nerve signal) .

Phototransduction (conversion of light to nerve signal) •  Rhodopsin .

decreased release of NTs Action potential… .Phototransduction (conversion of light to nerve signal) Light Change in photopigment Metarodhopsin II Activation of transducin ( g-protein) Activation of phosphdiestrases Decreased cGMP Closure of Na channels Hyperpolarization.

Phototransduction (conversion of light to nerve signal) .

Retinal receptor density .

Fovea •  “Cones only” •  High color sensitivity •  Low light sensitivity •  Area of the sharpest image formation •  High receptor density .

Color vision Scyanolab Chlorolab Erythrolab .

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Color vision Sunlight Rain drops .

Other cells .Visual processing in retina .

Retinada Görüntünün İşlenmesi Peripheral retina Fovea .

Horizontal Cells •  Inhibitory cells •  “Lateral inhibition” •  Provides “contrast” .

Horizontal Cells .

Bipolar Cells •  Inhibitory or excitatory •  Additional contrast •  “Sharpening” of the retinal image .

Amacrine Cells •  Interneurons •  Different cell types. •  Begining or end of the stimulus •  Movement •  Direct connection with rods •  First analysis of visual data .

6 million ganglion cells (convergence) •  1 to 1 in fovea (sharp vision) •  200 to 1 in peripheral retina (light sensitivity) •  Types of ganglion cells: •  W: 40%. detection of movement direction] •  X: 55%.Ganglion Cells •  100 million rods + 3 million cones → 1. 50m/sec. 8m/sec. large reseptive areas [coarse vision. small receptive areas [sharp vision. 14m/sec. color vision] •  Y: 5%. large receptive areas [detection of rapid changes in viasual field] .

Ganglion Cells .

Color perception – Color consistency .

Color perception – Color consistency .

Renk Algılanması – Renk Tutarlılığı mavi kırmızı sarı kırmızı .

Renk Algılanması – Renk Tutarlılığı mavi kırmızı sarı kırmızı .

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Vision pathways .

Vision pathways – Visual cortex .

Comp. Provencio I. M. (2003) Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells receive bipolar and amacrine cell synapses. 460... .. J. Neurol.A.A.J. Smeraski. Sollars. 380-393.E. C. P.Light and Biorhythms – Melanopsin Cells Belenky.. G. and Pickard.

.  ..Finished.