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Flare Gas Recovery Using Innovative Unconventional Technology,
Avoiding the use of Compressors
Syed M Peeran, and Dr N. Beg, Caltec Ltd

Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Kuwait Oil & Gas Show and Conference held in Mishref, Kuwait, 11–14 October 2015.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents
of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect
any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written
consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may
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Legislation, the environment, economic and corporate social responsibility are some of the key factors that
are governing the recovery of flared gas worldwide. There is growing awareness of the issues associated
with flaring and efforts are being made globally by operators and governments to minimise it. There are
several technologies for reducing flaring at source or in a processing plant. The choice of technology
depends on the economics of the project, frequency of flaring, infrastructure available and location of the
producing facility. This paper covers innovative Flare Gas Recovery Systems using Surface jet Pumps and
avoiding the use of compressors.
Conventional Flare gas Recovery systems usually comprise of one or more compressors, which
compress the collected flare gas and route it for further processing. The compressor design is critical and
determines the system’s capacity and turndown capability. However compressor based solutions can be
quite large, complex and have high capital and operating costs. They are also very sensitive to changes
in gas composition and MW.
Surface jet pumps (SJPs) are simple, low cost passive devices that can also be used to recover flare gas.
They use a high pressure (HP) fluid as the motive force to boost the pressure of the LP or LLP flare gas
and deliver it for processing. The high pressure fluid that is needed as the source of energy or motive flow
is usually gas taken from the discharge of a compressor or from the export gas line. However HP liquids,
such as oil or injection water can also be used. Advantages of using SJPs include low cost, no moving
parts, zero maintenance, zero power or fuel gas usage, small footprint and varying layout configurations.
SJPs are well suited to liquid ingestion and to changes in process conditions (without affecting performance).
This paper discusses the use of Surface Jet Pumps as an alternative to compressors for flare gas
recovery and cites several case studies of where this technology has been successfully utilised. The design
and operational criteria of SJPs, as well as the economics is also highlighted.

Flaring is the controlled burning of low pressure natural gas produced in the course of routine oil and gas
production operations. Currently there is no legal or environmental definition of flaring.

Governments and state authorities are increasingly introducing tougher legislation to limit discharges to the atmosphere. onshore and offshore. natural gas can have a much lower relative value than oil. For others the trigger is much higher and is influenced by local regulations. In certain areas of the world. chemical plants. natural gas processing facilities as well as oil & gas production sites. lacking pipeline. A large differential between the prices for oil and gas acts as a deterrent for developers in natural gas utilisation.) normally occurs via a vertical stack. Reasons to Recover Flare Gas There are several important reasons why flared gas should be recovered. The trigger points for implementing flaring solutions also differ from operator to operator. Early oil production facilities will tend to flare associated gas for up to two years until compressors or gas recovery methods can be realised (production has outpaced infrastructure investment). Flaring will also occur during unplanned process unit trips. During oil production there may be variability of the gas produced with the oil and the gas may have impurities which may make the gas difficult to use. For this reason flare gas recovery at remote locations is difficult. burning off flammable gas released during unplanned (emergency) over-pressuring of plant equipment or during plant start-ups and shut-downs. and extend flare tip life. Depending on the economic climate. Both these will be temporary and short-term in nature. Some flared gas may also contain significant amounts of valuable NGLs. such as refineries. The following are usually the main drivers for flare gas reduction: ● ● ● ● ● Environmental – reduce emission of gases (including CO2/NOx/ SOx) and carbon footprint. . Reduce Fuel gas consumption. The flaring of associated gas may occur at the top of a vertical flare stack or it may occur in a ground-level flare in a burn pit. The flaring in industrial plants (refineries. However flaring is also carried out on a continuous basis for burning purge. chemical plants etc. the recovered flare gas may have to be re-treated due to the impurities. vast amounts of such associated gas are commonly flared as waste or unusable gas. Others are looking at minimisation or to reduce flaring to as low as reasonably practicable and not at total elimination. Challenges with Recovering Flare gas Gas reserves are often located far from existing pipeline and process infrastructure and there may be low volumes of gas produced at low pressure. pilot and leakage gases or on an operational basis during process unit trips or maintenance.2 SPE-175250-MS A great deal of gas flaring is done at many oil and gas production sites. when crude oil and associated gas are extracted. expensive compressors and other gas transportation infrastructure. In industrial plants. reduce steam consumption. flaring is primarily carried out on a temporary basis for safety reasons – i. noise and odour. Flaring will always occur during emergency scenarios for safety reasons. Short cycle investment process of the oil industry is at odds with the long-cycle nature of the gas business. reduce visual image of flaring Economic – loss and waste of a valuable resource.e. Companies with limited working capital have a strong incentive to put their money into oil production. Legislation. Some operators will consider flare gas recovery when more than 1MMscfd is being discharged. Corporate Social Responsibility – improved PR and company image No impact on existing relief system Zero Flaring Vs Flaring Minimisation Some operators and governing authorities have started to implement zero flaring initiatives with the aim of eliminating flaring completely. reduce flaring light. Good payback.

the large volumes of gas involved and infrequency of operation. Flare Gas Recovery Systems (FGRS) or Vapour Recover Units (VRUs) are normally provided to recover gas from continuous or operational flaring. purging of flare headers and cold venting from storage tanks. although VRUs are normally associated with recovering gas in locations where no proper flare systems exist. These include: ● ● ● ● ● Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Gas Re-injection LNG Power Generation Flare Gas Recovery Systems (FGRS)/Vapour Recovery Units (VRUs) The choice of technology depends on the economics of the project. Released gases and liquids are quickly and safely evacuated to the flare system. Continuous or Operational flaring occurs due to planned shutdown of process units. Locations upstream of process unit tie-ins should be carefully examined because of the potential for back flow and high oxygen . Emergency versus Continuous Flaring in a Processing Plant Emergency Flaring can occur during plant upset conditions when equipment is over-pressurised. Of the gas that is flared. offloading facilities etc. In countries with weak environmental regulations companies are likely to flare large amounts of gas. storage tanks. e. Technology for Flare Reduction There are several technologies for reducing flaring at source or in a processing plant. infrastructure available and location of the producing facility. purge gas amounts to 40% and pilot gas is 1%. Normally it is uneconomic to provide FGRS or VRUs to recover gas from emergency flaring due to the rapid response required. The problem is made worse by inadequate enforcement measures. FGRS and VRUs are often used to mean the same thing. frequency of flaring.SPE-175250-MS 3 Governments or state authorities need to invest in gas infrastructure but often there are insufficient resources and expertise to launch capital and technology intensive gas projects.g. This occurs infrequently and may involve discharging the full throughput of the plant to flare. although this may vary widely depending on the operator and location. Continuous or operational flaring can occur in a processing plant due to gas releases from the following sources: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Flare Header Purge gas Pilot gas Passing control valves or gas traps Passing relief valves Passing compressor casing vents Compressor stuffing box lines Compressor suction knock-out drum drain Sudden Perturbations in flow or pressure Cold venting from storage tanks Planned shutdown or maintenance of process units Location of Flare Recovery Systems in a Processing Plant Typically. flare-gas recovery systems are located on the main flare header downstream of all unit header tie-ins and at a point where header pressure does not vary substantially with load. the proportion of operational flaring is approximately 57%. leakage of valves.

. Some method of ensuring a positive pressure on the flare header is also required. The free path to flare should be maintained by having a relief valve or rupture pin valve in parallel to the fast opening control valve.. According to the standard ⬙a major consideration in flare-recovery-system design is preservation of a path to the flare for emergency releases. Overview of Flare Gas Recovery Systems Typically. The compressed gas is usually routed to some type of treating system appropriate for the gas composition. Typically. Figure 1—Location of FGRS in a Processing Plant Flare systems are used for both normal process releases and emergency releases. depressuring systems. oxygen content of the flare gas stream is measured and provisions made to shut down the FGRS if potentially dangerous conditions exist. Some Flare gas Recovery Systems are located upstream of the flare knock-out drum although in many cases they are located downstream of the knock-out drum and upstream of the water seal drum (or rupture pin device). The main flare flow should not be through any flare gas recovery system and the tie-in line to the flare gas recovery system should come off the top of the flare line to minimize the possibility of liquid entrance. the potential for back flow of air from the flare into the recovery system at low flare-gas loads should be considered. The flare gas recovery system shall be designed as a side stream from the flare header⬙. This is usually achieved by a seal drum or fast opening control valve situated on the main flare line downstream of the FGRS. etc. need to have flow paths to the flare available at all times. below. Flare-gas recovery systems are seldom sized for emergency flare loads The design of FGRS/VRUs is usually done in accordance with API standard 521 (ISO 23251). extremely reliable and have a minimum SIL 3 classification. Because flare-gas recovery systems usually take their suction directly from the flare header. See Figure 1 below. The advantage of using a seal drum is that it provides a positive pressure and avoids air ingress but can have complications associated with the water system maintaining the seal. Emergency streams. Several methods of accomplishing this are available.4 SPE-175250-MS concentrations. the system consists of one or more devices (compressors or Surface Jet Pumps) to compress the flare gas and whose suction is connected directly to the flare header or venting system. The fast opening control valve has to be ‘fail-open’. then to fuel-gas or processing systems. whilst maintaining the free path to flare. The design of flare-gas recovery systems should not compromise this path. such as those from pressure-relief valves. Refer to Figure 2.

Flare systems may have significant liquids that are discharged from process units. The compressor design is critical and determines the system’s capacity and turndown capability. Liquid knock-out drums are usually provided upstream of the compressors with automatic compressor shutdown on high liquid levels in the drums.SPE-175250-MS 5 Figure 2—Maintaining Positive Pressure in Flare Headers Flare Gas Recovery Using Compressor Technology Conventional Flare gas Recovery systems usually comprise of one or more compressors. . The compressors are usually equipped with several stages of unloaders and a recycle valve. Refer to Figure 3 below for a typical FGRS using reciprocating compressors. Suction pressure is maintained by pressure control of the recycle valve with additional loading and unloading of the compressors when limits of valve opening/closing or suction pressure are reached. which compress the collected flare gas and route it for further processing. API standard 618 gives guidance on compressor protection.

6 SPE-175250-MS Figure 3—FGRS Using Reciprocating Compressors Liquid ring compressors are commonly used as the preferred mode of compression within the recovery systems. low cost passive devices that can also be used to recover flare gas. The high pressure fluid that is needed as the source of energy or motive flow is usually gas taken from the discharge of an existing compressor or from the export gas line. See below typical schematic Figure 4 —FGRS Using Liquid Ring Compressors Flare Gas Recovery Using Surface Jet Pumps (SJPs) Surface jet pumps (or eductors/ejectors) are simple. They use a high pressure (HP) fluid as the motive force to boost the pressure of the LP or LLP flare gas and deliver it for processing. .

it is preferred to refer to them as surface jet pump or ⬙SJP⬙ for short. Figure 6 —Key Components of Surface Jet Pump . Horizontal or Angled) Designed around available footprint and plant requirements Designed to Pipe Codes (ANSI B31. (Vertical. In oil and gas production applications. onshore or offshore. ejectors or gas jet compressors.SPE-175250-MS 7 Figure 5—FGRS Using Surface Jet Pumps (ejectors) and HP Gas as Motive Force Advantages of using Surface Jet pumps include: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● No moving parts Zero fuel gas & power consumption Use energy readily available within the process Minimum or zero maintenance Internals can be changed easily to suit changing process conditions Varying layout configurations. depending on their application in various industries. and use this abbreviation for simplicity.3) Surface Jet Pump Operation Figure 6 shows the general configuration of the surface jet pump and key components of the system. Surface Jet pumps are also known as eductors.

As a result. The level of boost in the pressure of the LP fluids depends on a number of factors which include: ● ● HP/LP flow ratio and pressure ratio Density or molecular weight of the HP and LP fluids Figure 7—SJP Principle of Operation There are also secondary factors such as the operating temperature and whether the jet pump is operating under its optimum design conditions. The mixture finally passes through the diffuser where the velocity of fluids is gradually reduced and further recovery of pressure takes place.8 SPE-175250-MS The HP fluid passes through the nozzle of the surface jet pump (SJP) where part of potential energy (pressure) is converted to kinetic energy (high velocity). The pressure at the outlet of the jet pump will be at an intermediate value between the pressure of the HP and LP fluids. The mixture then passes through the mixing tube where transfer of energy and momentum takes place between the HP and LP fluids. the pressure of the HP fluid drops in front of the nozzle. . It is at this point where the LP flow is introduced. Figure 8 shows the performance of the SJP in gas/gas applications at different HP/LP pressure ratios.

could be significant.LP pressure. requiring the LP liquids to be separated upstream of the SJP and be boosted separately. Alternatively.e. the effect on the achieved boost i. The main reason in this case is that the performance and sizing of the nozzle is affected based on whether the HP flow is liquid or gas phase. A further point is that if the HP flow is multiphase (a mixture of gas and liquids) the fluctuating flow regime associated with multiphase flow reduces further the efficiency of the SJP significantly as the mixture is not usually homogeneous. the LP liquids can be sent to a part of the process system which operates at a lower pressure. if such a source is available. If no HP gas is unavailable.SPE-175250-MS 9 Figure 8 —Typical Performance Curves for Surface Jet Pumps-Gas/Gas application In the case of gas/applications. the presence of liquids in the LP flow can be tolerated so long as the volumetric flow rate of liquids is below 1% to 2% of the volumetric flow rate of the LP gas at the operating pressure and temperature. The SJP recovers quickly in such cases. The exceptions in these cases are transient conditions such as start-up. discharge pressure . the HP source can be a high pressure liquid (oil or water). In this case the solution is viable and economical mainly when the LP gas flow rate is small and is limited to a few MMscfd (refer to Figure 9).The reason for this limitation is the relatively high volumetric flow rate of liquids needed for each MMscfd of the LP gas. Presence of liquids in the HP gas also has a similar limitation. when the system may be subjected to a high flow rate of liquids passing through the SJP. as soon as the liquids pass through it without causing any mechanical damage to it. Beyond these values. beyond which the liquids need to be separated upstream of the SJP. .

Figure 10 —Using Liquid as the Motive Fluid for SJP in Recovering Flare Gas Figure 10 illustrates a process where a small slipstream of injection water is taken from the discharge of the HP injection pumps and is routed to the SJP as the motive fluid. In all cases involving HP liquid. . a gas/liquid separator is required for the mixed liquid/gas stream from the SJP discharge. The SJP recovers the flare gas and the combined gas/liquid is routed to the water/oil/gas separator where gas & liquid are separated. the gas is sent for further processing and the water is recycled and becomes the source for the injection pumps.10 SPE-175250-MS Figure 9 —Typical Performance Curves for Surface Jet Pumps-Gas/Gas application Figure 10 shows a typical example of using liquid as the HP source for the SJP.

been cases when this ratio has exceeded 4 for cases where HP/LP pressure ratios are very high and the Qlp/Qhp ratio is low.5. Qlp/Qhp. Where Qlp and Qhp are the mass flow rates of LP and HP gas. gas specific heat ratio (Cp/Cv value) and the operating temperature of LP and HP gas could also affect the performance. Figure 8 shows the relationships between the above said factors for jet pumps operating at their optimum efficiency. In applications where a pressure boost ratio of 5 or above is needed. There have. . These graphs are a good help for the initial review of applications.SPE-175250-MS 11 Using Two SJPs in series to Achieve a Higher Boost The performance of the jet pump can be presented by the level of boost achieved for the LP pressure. The level of boost in the LP pressure or the achievable value of Pd/Plp is mainly dependent on the following factors. These graphs also indicate that in most cases the Pd / Plp ratio does not exceed 2 to 2. In this case the total amount of HP gas needed will be quite significant and the viability of the solution will depend mainly on the amount of HP gas available for this purpose. be used for the final design purposes as in any application other factors such as the Z factor. two jet pumps in series may be used as shown in Figure 11. ● ● Php/Plp. Surface Jet pumps operating in sonic mode can generate noise in excess of levels allowed by operators. however. Silencers are not required for liquid/gas applications. The graphs should not. The said boost in pressure is usually presented by the pressure ratio of the discharge (Pd) and the LP pressure (Pd/Plp). Figure 11—Two SJPs in Series Noise Generation In gas/gas applications. Where Php and Plp are the HP and LP pressures respectively. however. The Surface jet pumps can be acoustically lagged or in-line silencers can be provided on the LP and discharge side to reduce noise levels to 85 dbA or below.

12 SPE-175250-MS In gas production applications. which affect the resultant temperature. Noise also travels through the LP and the discharge lines of the SJP. Silencers can be designed to limit the noise to lower than the quoted 85 dBA in cases where the SJP is close to populated onshore areas Hydrate Formation & Joule-Thompson Cooling A significant drop in the HP gas pressure at the outlet of the nozzle of the SJP could cause a drop in the temperature of gas at the outlet of the SJP. LP gas is combined with HP gas. In exceptional cases where the temperature at the outlet of the SJP is expected to be within the hydrate formation band. Presence of liquids in the HP or LP gas also reduces the cooling effect. generally two issues are checked and are considered in the design of the system. neither noise. nor temperature. If the motive force is liquid. Silencers are flanged spool pieces which are installed at the LP inlet and the discharge line of the SJP. In oil production application cases where HP liquid is the motive flow. including the start up. . In general. At high HP/LP pressure ratios above 2. Note not all methods shown are required for control at the same time. Control of Surface Jet Pumps Surface Jet Pumps require very little control and are self-adjusting to varying pressures and flowrates. the temperature of the gas at the outlet of the SJP is well above that calculated by considering only the Joule-Thomson cooling effect as a result of HP pressure dropping to the LP pressure in front of the nozzle. These issues are usually site specific and are addressed in detail during the design stage and are fully reviewed as part of the HAZOP study carried out in each case. as immediately after the nozzle. This is a complex phenomenon beyond that expected under pure Joule-Thomson cooling principle. Silencers are therefore needed to prevent noise travelling beyond the SJP along these lines. In some cases the noise emitting through the body of the SJP may be beyond the permitted limit. poses any problems. This is usually catered for by a pressure control valve connecting Surface |Jet Pump’s discharge to its LP with a small re-cycle line. or equivalent will be advised upstream of the SJP. Analytical tools are available to predict the temperature at the outlet of the SJP at each stage of operation. introduction of hydrate suppressant such as Glycol or MEG. and further recovery of the pressure takes place. Noise is measured at one meter away from the axis of the SJP. In this case the body of the SJP can be acoustically lagged. Refer to Figure 11 for the range of control schemes that can be used. There are also other simple solutions if for any reason further control of the operation is needed. There is also the generation of shock waves within the SJP in most cases. vacuum in the headers is prevented by controlling the pressure/flow of the HP fluid. Silencers are therefore not required in such cases. noise generated by the SJP could exceed 85 dBA. which is generally the acceptable level onshore and offshore. The main concern when recovering LP/LLP gas from flare headers or storage tanks is the creation of a vacuum in the flare headers or tanks if the flare gas pressure or flow drops significantly and the high pressure motive fluid keeps flowing through the Surface Jet Pump.

the total HP and LP flow rate changes beyond 20% to 25%. flanges. or ceramic lining is added which has the highest level of resistance to erosion. If the HP pressure or flow rate changes significantly. The modularization of the SJP allows easy modification and the change-out of the key components. Change-out of the internals is a relatively simple operation and can be carried out by platform crew within a matter of a few hours. The SJP system is initially designed for a base case agreed with the client. a change of the mixing tube may become necessary to optimise the performance of the system.5 and the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) are used. forgings and fittings normally meet the standards of the oil and gas industry such as ASME/ANSI codes. normally ASME/ANSI B31. parts of the internals which are subject to high velocities and erosion. such as the nozzle or the mixing tube. The SJPs supplied can be of flexible design allowing changes of HP nozzle and the mixing tube sections if needed. only the nozzle of the SJP needs changing. ● ● Suitability based on the nature and composition of produced fluids Compatibility with the existing equipment and pipe work on the platform or fields. MOC (Material of Construction) The SJP can be supplied in a variety of materials as required by the specific applications. If. ASME B16. Figures 6 & 7 shows the key features of the replaceable internals. can be coated with hard wearing materials such as tungsten carbide. The materials covering pipe work. The selected materials need to meet two basic requirements. This condition often relates to the operating conditions within the initial life of the SJP. The selected materials could therefore range from simple carbon steel to high grade duplex. however.3. It is worth noting that in practically all cases experienced so far. In exceptional cases and at the request of the clients other codes such as Stoomwezen (Netherlands) or the pressure vessel code ASME VIII or BS 5500 have been used. In case of sand production. Detailed procedures are available for change-out operation. the cost of replacing the internals has been recovered over a few weeks from the enhanced production achieved by optimising the design of the SJP. There is . For the design of the system.SPE-175250-MS 13 Figure 12—SJP Control Schemes Changing operating conditions The operating conditions of both the HP and LP sources may change during the service life of the SJP.

make them one of the safest equipment used in the oil and gas industry. they are costs which need to be considered for economic assessment. These relate to cases when the HP motive flow is not sustainable and their pressure may drop rapidly over a short period. The simplest way to assess the economics of using a SJP system is to compute the payback period needed to recover the capital costs. together with the simple and robust design of these units. The many field applications so far have proven that the economics are very attractive and in practically all cases the payback period has been a matter of a few weeks to a few months. The payback period for the recovery of the capital has in many cases been a matter of a few weeks to a few months. In many cases these costs are more than the cost of the SJP. There are also the costs of the additional interconnection piping. In addition to the economic benefits related to increased production. The capital cost includes the cost of the SJP and the silencers. Conclusion The use of Surface Jet Pumps does not usually involve the major capital and operating expenditures which many compressor based FGR systems require. So long as a high pressure motive source is available. Past field experiences have proved that even in such cases the jet pump would be an economical solution despite the fact that both the nozzle and the mixing tube may need to be modified more than once within a short period such as four to six months. valves. This is in response to changes in the pressure and flow rates of the HP and LP gas as described in the field example below. and bear in mind that in practically all cases. particularly in the case of the prevention of flaring should be taken into account. responds to changes in the parameters which affect its performance by adjusting the LP pressure which it generates. . with a short delivery period. SJP Performance The performance of the SJP is assessed simply by noting the pressure boost the difference between the discharge and the LP pressure of the SJP. The costs of the total system may increase significantly if for any reason high grade materials and high pressure rating are required. SJPs can also work effectively combined with other compressor based techniques and compliment these techniques to achieve the flare gas recovery. It has no moving parts and consumes zero fuel gas/electric power. Operators often require measurement of both the motive gas flow and the flow of the LP recovered gas. Flowmeters are therefore installed on the HP and LP lines to the SJP.5 times their design pressure. The SJP. All units are normally tested to 1. The discharge pressure is not controlled by the SJP and is mainly dictated by the downstream pipeline and production system. but at a fraction of the cost. The field examples and the applications discussed in this paper show that jet pumps complement what the compressors can do. Economics/Payback The use of any boosting system requires sufficient economic justification. even deferring the adoption of high cost solutions such as the upgrading of the existing compression system have economic benefits. other issues such as environmental benefits. These. if needed.14 SPE-175250-MS no specific limit for the design pressure which is usually dictated by the operating conditions and safety considerations. but. this simple device offers very cost effective solutions to boost LP/LLP gas on many onshore and offshore processing facilities. never the less. Fabrication and welding is carried out to the high standard of the oil and gas industry meeting all the requirements of the codes and specific company regulations. The economics are so attractive that in many cases even using the SJP for a few months could be economical. instrumentation and the installation of the system. there is little to no operation cost. In scenarios when the de-bottlenecking of the compressors or similar are involved. however.

Chapter 13 section Jet Pump (13–46) Beg.S. GPSA Engineering Data Book. 3.Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum. www. API RP 521 . and Gas Industry Services Information on Surface Jet Pumps can be obtained via Caltec web site.caltec.pdf) .worldbank. Rev 1. World Bank Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR). GGFR_NewBrochure%28Oct2011%29. 2.Guide for Pressure Relieving and Depressuring Systems API STD 618 . First Edition Chemical.SPE-175250-MS 15 REFERENCES 1. 2014. N and Sarshar. 13th edition. A Public-private partnership ( http://siteresources. Surface Jet Pumps (SJPs) for Enhanced Oil & Gas Production— Engineers Handbook.1 (ISBN 978 09571821 0 3) 6. 5.

16 SPE-175250-MS Appendix Case Study 1 .Mexico .

SPE-175250-MS Case Study 2 – UK North Sea Case Study 3 – Nigeria 17 .