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Le Corbusier
Charles-douard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier (French: [l
kbyzje]; October 6, 1887 August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer,
painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five
.decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India, and theAmericas
Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier
was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrs international
d'architecture moderne (CIAM). Corbusier prepared the master plan for the planned city
.of Chandigarh in India, and contributed specific designs for several buildings there

Five points of architecture[edit]

Main article: Le Corbusier's Five Points of Architecture

Villa Savoye

It was Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye (192931) that most succinctly summed up the five points of
architecture that he had elucidated in L'Esprit Nouveau and the book Vers une architecture,
which he had been developing throughout the 1920s. First, Le Corbusier lifted the bulk of the
structure off the ground, supporting it by pilotis, reinforced concrete stilts. These pilotis, in
providing the structural support for the house, allowed
him to elucidate his next two points: a free facade,

meaning non-supporting walls that could be designed

the architect wished, and an open floor plan, meaning
that the floor space was free to be configured into
rooms without concern for supporting walls. The
second floor of the Villa Savoye includes long strips of

ribbon windows that allow unencumbered views of the large surrounding garden, and which
constitute the fourth point of his system. The fifth point was the roof garden to compensate for
the green area consumed by the building and replacing it on the roof. A ramp rising from ground
level to the third-floor roof terrace allows for an architectural promenade through the structure.
The white tubular railing recalls the industrial "ocean-liner" aesthetic that Le Corbusier much

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to an overarching movement,

with its exact definition and scope varying widely.[1] The term is often applied to modernist
movements at the turn of the 20th century, with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying
architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. It
would take the form of numerous movements, schools of design, and architectural styles, some
in tension with one another, and often equally defying such classification. [1] The term Modern
architecture may be used to differentiate from Classical architecturefollowing Vitruvian ideals,
while it is also applied to various contemporary architecture styles such as Postmodern, Hightech or even New Classical, depending on the context. In art history,
.the revolutionary andneoclassical styles that evolved around 1800 are also called modern
The concept of modernism is a central theme in the efforts of 20th century modern architecture.
Gaining global popularity especially after the Second World War, architectural modernism was
adopted by many architects and architectural educators, and continued as a dominant
architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism
eventually generated reactions, most notablyPostmodernism which sought to preserve pre.modern elements, while "Neo-modernism" has emerged as a reaction to Post-modernism
Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement
include Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn, Frank
Lloyd Wright, Joseph Eichler,Richard Neutra, Louis Sullivan, Gerrit Rietveld, Bruno Taut, Arne
.Jacobsen, Oscar Niemeyer and Alvar Aalto

Common themes of modern architecture include:

the notion that "Form follows function", a dictum originally expressed by Frank Lloyd
Wright's early mentor Louis Sullivan, meaning that the result of design should derive directly
from its purpose

simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail"

materials at 90 degrees to each other

visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements)

the related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural
appearance of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent
something else

use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic

particularly in International Style modernism, a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical


Henry-Russell Hitchcock
Henry-Russell Hitchcock was born in Boston and educated at Middlesex School and Harvard
.University, receiving his A.B. in 1924 and his M.A. in 1927
In the early 1930s, at the request of Alfred Barr, Hitchcock collaborated with Philip
Johnson (and Lewis Mumford) on "Modern Architecture: International Exhibition" at the Museum
of Modern Art (1932), the exhibition that presented the new "International Style" architecture of
Europe to an American audience. Hitchcock and Johnson's co-authored book The International
.Style: Architecture Since 1922 was published simultaneously with the MoMA exhibit
Four years later Hitchcock's book, The Architecture of H. H. Richardson and His Times (1936)
brought the career of American architect Henry Hobson Richardson out of obscurity while also
arguing that the distant roots of European Modernism were actually to be found in the United
States. Hitchcock's In the Nature of Materials (1942) continued to emphasize the American roots
.of Modern architecture, in this case by focusing on the career of Frank Lloyd Wright
Hitchcock taught at a number of colleges and universities, but primarily at Smith College (where
he was also Director of the Smith College Museum of Art from 1949 to 1955). In 1968 he moved
to New York City and thereafter taught at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. He also
taught at Wesleyan University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, Harvard
University, and Cambridge University.[1][2]
Over the course of Hitchock's career, he produced more than a dozen books on architecture.
His Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1958) is an exhaustive study of more than
150 years of architecture that was widely used as a textbook in architectural history courses from
.the 1960s to the 1980s, and is still a useful reference today

He was also a founding member of The Victorian Society in Great Britain and an early president
of the Victorian Society in America. One of that Society's book awards is the "Henry-Russell
Hitchcock Award." An "Alice Davis Hitchcock Award" is awarded by both theSociety of
Architectural Historians and the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain (SAHGB)
.[3] and named after Hitchcock's mother
Hitchcock was gay, one of several gay men in the arts and humanities to emerge from Harvard.
.[4] Hitchcock died of cancer at age 83
Hitchcock focused primarily on the formal aspects of design and he regarded the individual
architect as the chief determinant in architectural history. Hitchcock's work tended to diminish the
role of broader social forces. He has sometimes been criticised for this "great man" or
."genealogical" approach

International Style
The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that is said to have emerged in
the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of modern architecture, as first defined by
Americans Henry-Russell Hitchcock andPhilip Johnson in 1932, with an emphasis more on
architectural style, form and aesthetics than the social aspects of the modern movement as
emphasised in Europe. The term "International Style" first came into use via a 1932 exhibition
curated by Hitchcock and Johnson, Modern Architecture: International Exhibition, which declared
and labelled the architecture of the early 20th century as the International Style. The most
common characteristics of International Style buildings are said to be: i. rectilinear forms; ii. light,
taut plane surfaces that have been completely stripped of applied ornamentation and decoration;
iii. open interior spaces; iv. a visually weightless quality engendered by the use of cantilever
construction. Glass and steel, in combination with usually less visible reinforced concrete, are the
characteristic materials of the construction.[1]
With the surge in the growth in cities in the first half of the twentieth century, particularly
after World War II, the International Style provided an easily achievable style option for vast-scale

urban development projects, "cities within cities", intended to maximise the amount of floor space
for a given site, while attempting to convince local planners, politicians and the general public
that the development would bring much-needed wealth to the city while, on the other hand,
rejecting the proposal would lead to the development being taken to a different, competing city.[2]

Postmodern architecture
Modern architecture met with some criticism, which began in the 1960s on the
grounds that it seemed universal, elitist, and lacked meaning. Siegfried Giedion in
the 1961 introduction to his evolving text, Space, Time and Architecture (first written
in 1941), began "At the moment a certain confusion exists in contemporary
architecture, as in painting; a kind of pause, even a kind of exhaustion." At the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, a 1961 symposium discussed the question "Modern
"?Architecture: Death or Metamorphosis

The Kaleida Health Gates Vascular Institute in Buffalo, New York, illustrates a cube
like design wrapped with modern accents.
The loss of traditionalist structures to make way for new modernist construction,
especially via the Urban Renewal movement, led to further criticism, particularly
the demolition of New York Penn Station in 1963. That same year, controversy

materialized around the Pan Am Building that loomed over Grand Central Terminal,
taking advantage of the modernist real estate concept of "air rights",[24] In criticism
by Ada Louise Huxtable and Douglass Haskell it was seen to "sever" the Park
Avenue streetscape and "tarnish" the reputations of its consortium of
architects: Walter Gropius, Pietro Belluschi and the builders Emery Roth & Sons.
The proposal for a tower over the terminal itself resulted in the landmark U.S.
Supreme Court case Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City, upholding
the city's landmark laws. Alongside these preservation efforts came the increasing
.respectability and fashionability of more traditional styles
Architects explored Postmodern architecture which offered a blend of some premodern elements, and deliberately sought to move away from rectilinear designs,
towards more eclectic styles. Even Philip Johnson came to admit that he was "bored
with the box." By the 1980s, postmodern architecture appeared to trend over
High Postmodern aesthetics lacked traction and by the mid-1990s, a new surge of
modern architecture once again established international pre-eminence. As part of
this revival, much of the criticism of the modernists was re-evaluated; and a
modernistic style once again dominates in institutional and commercial contemporary
practice. Although modern and postmodern design compete with a revival of
traditional architectural design in commercial and institutional architecture; residential
.design continues to be dominated by a traditional aesthetic

Neomodern architecture[edit]
Further information: Neomodern
Neomodernism is a reaction to Postmodernism and its embrace of pre-modern elements of
design. Examples of modern architecture in the 21st century include One World Trade
Center (2013) in New York City and Tour First(2011), the tallest office building in
the Paris metropolitan area. Emporis named Chicago's Modern Aqua Tower (2009) its skyscraper
of the year.[25]

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau (French pronunciation: [a nuvo], Anglicised to /rt nu

vo /; at. Sezession or Secessionsstil, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern
Style, Ger. Jugendstil or Reformstil, Ital. also Stile
Floreale or Liberty, Slovak.Secesia, Russ. Modern) or Jugendstil is an
international philosophy[1] and style of art, architecture and applied art especially the decorative
arts that was most popular during 18901910.[2] English uses the French name Art
Nouveau ("new art"), but the style has many different names in other countries. A reaction
to academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in
flowers and plants, but also in curved lines. Architects tried to harmonize with the natural
Art Nouveau is considered a "total" art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design,
and most of the decorative arts including jewellery, furniture, textiles, household silver and other
utensils and lighting, as well as the fine arts. According to the philosophy of the style, art should
be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired
house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, jewellery,
cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian
Although Art Nouveau was replaced by 20th-century Modernist styles,[4] it is now considered as
an important transition between the eclectic historic revival styles of the 19th century and

Arts and Crafts movement

The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts
that flourished in Europe and North America between 1880 and 1910,[1] emerging in Japan in the
1920s. It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms and it often used medieval,
romantic or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and has been said
to be essentially anti-industrial.[2][3][4] Its influence was felt in Europe until it was displaced
by Modernism in the 1930s[5] and continued among craft makers, designers and town planners
long afterwards.[6]
The term was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition
Society in 1887.[7] although the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in
England for at least twenty years. It was inspired by the writings of the architect Augustus
Pugin (18121852), the writer John Ruskin (18191900) and the artist William Morris (1834
The movement developed earliest and most fully in the British Isles [5] and spread across the
British Empire and to the rest of Europe and North America.[8] It was largely a reaction against the
perceived impoverished state of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they

Deconstructivist architecture
econstructivism in architecture is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the
late 1980s. It is characterized by ideas of fragmentation, non-linear processes of design, an
interest in manipulating ideas of a structure's surface or skin, and apparent non-Euclidean
geometry,[21] (i.e., non-rectilinear shapes) which serve to distort and dislocate some of
the elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of
buildings that exhibit the many deconstructivist "styles" is characterised by a stimulating
.unpredictability and a controlled chaos
Important events in the history of the deconstructivist movement include the 1982 Parc de la
Villette architectural design competition (especially the entry from Jacques Derrida and Peter
Eisenman[22] and Bernard Tschumi's winning entry), the Museum of Modern Art's
1988 Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition in New York, organized by Philip Johnson and Mark
Wigley, and the 1989 opening of the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, designed by Peter
Eisenman. The New York exhibition featured works by Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Rem
Koolhaas, Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelblau, and Bernard Tschumi. Since the
exhibition, many of the architects who were associated with Deconstructivism have distanced
themselves from the term. Nonetheless, the term has stuck and has now, in fact, come to
.embrace a general trend within contemporary architecture