You are on page 1of 417

w

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the June 2005 question paper

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (Structured Questions A2 Core), maximum raw mark 60

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the
examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were initially instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began. Any
substantial changes to the mark scheme that arose from these discussions will be recorded in the published
Report on the Examination.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in candidates
scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the Report on the Examination.

CIE will not enter into discussion or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the June 2005 question papers for most IGCSE and GCE Advanced
Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

Grade thresholds for Syllabus 9701 (Chemistry) in the June 2005 examination.
maximum
mark
available
Component 4

60

minimum mark required for grade:


A

45

40

22

The thresholds (minimum marks) for Grades C and D are normally set by dividing the mark
range between the B and the E thresholds into three. For example, if the difference between
the B and the E threshold is 24 marks, the C threshold is set 8 marks below the B threshold
and the D threshold is set another 8 marks down. If dividing the interval by three results in a
fraction of a mark, then the threshold is normally rounded down.

June 2005

GCE A LEVEL

MARK SCHEME
MAXIMUM MARK: 60

SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9701/04
CHEMISTRY
Paper 4 (Structured Questions A2 Core)

Page 1

(a)

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL JUNE 2005

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

Ammeter/galvanometer

[1]

Clock/watch/timer (or rheostat)


(For items above 2 in number, e.g. voltmeter, penalise [1])

[1]

Diagram to show ammeter (allow symbol) in circuit, and


complete circuit with  terminal of power pack connected to LH
electrode

[1]

Volume/amount of hydrogen/gas

[1]

Time

[1]

Current/amps/ammeter reading
(ignore extra measurements)

[1]

[1]

Part (a): [7]


(b)

(i)

F=Lxe

[1]

(ii)

L = 9.63 x 104/1.6 x 10-19 = 6.02 x 1023 (must show working)

[1]

Allow 6.0 but not 6 or 6.01

Part (b): [2]


Total: [9]

(a)

The power/index/exponent to which a concentration term is raised in


a rate equation
or a in rate = k[A]a (k is needed or can use rate [A]a)

[1]
Part (a): [1]

(b)

(i)

1st order w.r.t. propanone

[1]

Zero order w.r.t. H+ ions

[1]

1st order w.r.t. CN- ions

[1]

(ii)

Rate = k [propanone][CN-]

(iii)

Mechanism B (or A see grid below), with the first (or second
see grid below) step being the slow step,

[1]

(since H+ does not appear in rate equation) it must be involved


after the slow step or [H+] is not involved in slow step

[1]

(e.c.f. from (i))

[1]

Grid for e.c.f. in first mark of (iii)


Deductions in (i) or (ii)
[Propanone] [CN-]
[H+]
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
Any other

E.C.F. deductions in (iii)


Mechanism
Slow step
B
1st
A
1st
A or B
2nd
No e.c.f. mark can be awarded
Part (b): [6]
Total: [7]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 2

(a)

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL JUNE 2005

(i)

(ii)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

It is an endothermic reaction, or taking in heat

[1]

It has a high activation energy/Ea

[1]

MgCO3 will decompose at a lower temperature/needs less energy [1]


Mg2+ is a smaller (ion) than Ca2+ or Mg2+ has high charge density

[1]

So polarises/distorts the anion CO32- ion more easily


[or LE(MgO) > LE(CaO)]

[1]
Part (a): [5]

(b)

H = 82 178 = -96 (kJ mol-1)

[1]
Part (b): [1]

(c)

[CaMg(CO3)2 CaO + MgO + 2CO2]


Mr(CaMg(CO3)2) = 40.1 + 24.3 + 24 + 96 = 184.4

[1]

Mr(2CO2) = 2 x 44 = 88

88
= 47.7%
184.4
Allow 48%. Also allow 48.8% if Mr = 184
% loss in mass = 100 x

(e.c.f. in 184.4)

[1]

Part (c): [2]


Total: [8]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 3

(a)

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL JUNE 2005

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

(i)

1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 or [Ar] 3d64s2

(ii)

Coloured compounds/ions/solutions/ppts; paramagnetic; variable


oxidation state/valency/more than one ion; dense metals; high
melting point metals; are catalysts; form complexes (ANY 2) [1] + [1]

[1]

Part (a): [3]


(b)

(i)

(ii)

MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

[1]

Eo = 1.52 0.77 = 0.75V (allow e.c.f. 0.90V for MnO2

[1]

MnO4- is purple/highly coloured

[1]

End point is first (permanent) pink colour or colourless-to-pink


(Allow yellow-to-pink but not purple-to-pink)

[1]

Part (b): [4]


(c)

Water molecules are ligands, in that they coordinate/form dative bonds


(to the Fe ion) with their (lone) pairs of electrons or lone
pairs are donated.
[1]
A complex ion is an ion/Fe3+ surrounded by/joined to ligands or
[Fe(H2O)6]3+

[1]

Part (c): [2]


(d)

(i)

Haemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood or from lungs (to tissues)


[1]

(ii)

CO forms stronger bonds to Hb/Fe2+ than does O2 or CO has higher


affinity or bonds irreversibly or forms more stable complex
[1]
Part (d): [2]

(e)

Reagent: I2 + OH-

[1]

Observations - ethanol: yellow ppt./antiseptic smell; methanol: no


change
[1]
Part (e): [2]
Total: [13]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 4

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL JUNE 2005

Syllabus
9701

Ka = [RCO2-][H+]/[RCO2H]

(a)

Paper
4

[1]
Part (a): [1]

(b)

(i)

The more chlorine atoms in the molecule, the stronger the acid,

[1]

due to the electron-withdrawing (inductive) effect of Cl...


[1]
either...stabilising the anion, or spreading (-) charge more,
or...weakening the O-H bond in the acid, or...increasing ionisation,
orfacilitates H+ donation
orcausing the equilibrium RCO2H  RCO2- + H+ to lie further to
the right.
Mark is conditional on reference to the effect of presence of
chlorine.
[1]
(ii)

(iii)

[H+] = (0.1 x 1.4 x 10-3) =

0.0118 (mol dm-3) allow 0.012

[1]

pH = -log10(0.0118)

1.93

Allow 1.9 or 1.92

[1]

pKa = -log10(5.5 x 10-2)

1.26

Allow 1.3

e.c.f.

[1]
Part (b): [6]

(c)

(i)

Cl2(aq) AlCl3 or UV negates

[1]

(ii)

Electrophilic substitution or addition-elimination

[1]

Nucleophilic substitution or electrophilic substitution on OH group


If neither mark is awarded, could give salvage mark for
substitution x2
[1]
(iii)

Either:
or:
or:
or:
or:

add Br2(aq)
phenol decolourises it, or gives a white ppt.
add FeCl3(aq) phenol give a purple colour
add NaOH(aq) phenol dissolves
add UI solution phenol goes yellow/orange (A stays green)
add diazoniumto solution in OHphenol gives orange/red colour
(in each case, A give no reaction)
or:
or:
or:
or:

add Cr2O72-/H+/warm A changes colour from orange to green


add MnO4-/H+/warm A changes from purple to colourless
add PCl5/POCl3/PCl3/SOCl2
A gives fumes
A gives fruity smell
add CH3CO2H + conc. H2SO4

(in each case, no change with phenol)


Test + reagents [1] Both observations [1]
Part (c): [5]
Total: [12]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 5

(a)

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL JUNE 2005

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

(i)

Electrophilic substitution or nitration

[1]

(ii)

HNO3 + H2SO4

[1]

(both) conc., and at 50C T 60C

[1]

NO2+

[1]

(iii)

NO2

H
etc.

NO2

or

Any on NO2 or H negates

[1]

H+

[1]
Part (a): [6]

(b)

(i)

Reduction

[1]

(ii)

Sn/Fe/Zn/SnCl2 + HCl/H+/H2SO4 (but not conc. H2SO4)


or H2 + Ni/Pt (not LiAlH4)

[1]
Part (b): [2]

(c)

PCl5/PCll3/SOCll2/POCl3

(+ heat)

aq negates

[1]
Part (c): [1]

(d)

(i)

An amide, not peptide

(ii)

Heat with H3O+ or heat with OH-(aq)

[1]

Or warm (not heat/reflux) with aqueous amidase/peptidase/protease not


enzyme/trypsin/chymotrysin/pepsin/papain etc.
[1]
Part (d): [2]
Total: [11]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er

GCE Advanced Level and GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2006 question paper

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4

Maximum raw mark 60

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the
examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were initially instructed to award marks. It does
not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking
began. Any substantial changes to the mark scheme that arose from these discussions will be
recorded in the published Report on the Examination.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the Report on the
Examination.
The minimum marks in these components needed for various grades were previously published with
these mark schemes, but are now instead included in the Report on the Examination for this session.

CIE will not enter into discussion or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2006 question papers for most IGCSE and
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 1

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS Level May/June 2006

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) order w.r.t. NO = 2


order w.r.t.O2 = 1

[1]
[1]

(ii) rate = k[NO]2[O2]


taking the first row:

Paper
04

[1]
k

=
=
=
units =

rate/([NO]2[O2])
0.020/(0.0052 x 0.005)
1.6 x 105
mol-2dm6sec-1

ecf [1]
ecf [1]

(iii) rate = k[NO]2[O2]


= 1.6 x 105 x 0.00252 x 0.0025
= 2.5 x 10-3 (mol dm-3 s-1)

ecf [1]
[6]

(b) (i) homogeneous

[1]

(ii) NO + O2 NO2
SO2 + NO2 SO3 + NO
(SO3 + H2O H2SO4)

[2]
[3]
[Total: 9]

(a) (i) Ksp = [Ca2+][SO42-]

[1]

units are: mol2dm-6

ecf [1]

(ii) [CaSO4] = Ksp = 5.5 x 10-3 (5.477 x 10-3)(mol dm-3)


(iii) n(CaSO4) in 100 dm3 = 5.5 x 10-3 x 100 = 0.55 moles

ecf [1]
ecf from (ii) [1]

Mr(CaSO4) = 136.1
Thus mass(CaSO4) = 0.55 x 136.1 = 74.8g (0.55 x Mr)
(if the accurate [CaSO4] is held throughout the calculation, ans = 74.5g)

[1]
[5]

(b) (i) down the group: the Hsolution becomes more endothermic;
both lattice energy and Hhydration become less (exothermic);
due to ionic radius (of M2+) increasing;
but Hhydration changes more than lattice energy any three points
(ii) Ksp = [Ba2+][SO42-] = (9 x 10-6)2 = 8.1 x 10-11

[3]
NO ecf [1]
[4]

(c) (i) LE is the energy change when 1 mole of (ionic) solid

[1]

is formed from its gaseous ions


(ii) LE(BaSO4) < LE(MgSO4), due to larger radius of Ba2+

[1]
both points

[1]
[3]
[Total: 12]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS Level May/June 2006

(a) (i) +2, +3, +4, +5

(ignore 0 and +1)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

all four [1]

(ii) [Ar]3d2

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) take a fixed amount/aliquot/pipette-full of the Fe2+ solution

[1]

titrate with KMnO4 in the burette

[1]

until the first permanent pink colour (or change from colourless to pink) [1]
repeat until two titres are within 0.1 cm3

[1]

MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+


(or molecular equn.)

[1]

(ii) n(MnO4-) = 0.02 x 14/1000 = 2.8 x 10-4 moles

[1]

n(Fe2+) in 25 cm3 = 2.8 x 10-4 x 5


(x 5) [1]
(= 1.4 x 10-3 moles)
(x 4) [1]
n(Fe2+) in 100 cm3 = 1.4 x 10-3 x 4
(= 5.6 x 10-3 moles)
mass of Fe in 2.0 g ore = 5.6 x 10-3 x 55.8
= 0.31 g
percentage = 100 x 0.31/2 = 15.6%
(use of 55.8 or 56 and %)
[1]
[9]
(c) (i) Cu2+(aq) or [Cu(H2O)6]2+
(ii) pale blue ppt. (of Cu(OH)2(s))
(which dissolves to give....)
a deep blue solution
which contains [Cu(NH3)4]2+ ions

[1]
[ignore any refs. to iron hydroxides]

[1]
[1]

(can be read into equn, below)

formed by ligand displacement


or an equation such as
Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Cu(H2O)4]2+ + 2OHor [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(H2O)4]2+ + 6H2O

[1]
[1]

[5]
[Total: 16 max 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS Level May/June 2006

Syllabus
9701

(a) HCl or H2SO4 or H+ or acid

Paper
04
[1]

conc(if HCl only)/dilute/aqueous + heat

[1]
[2]

(b) two rings only (1 ring around the -C of tyrosine & 1 around the -C of lysine) [1]
[1]
(c)

NH3CH2CO2-

(or displayed formula)

[1]
[1]

(d) (i) NH2CH2CO2- (Na+)

(either -CO2-Na+ or -CO2Na but NOT CO-O-Na)

[1]

(ii) (Na+) O-C6H4-CH2CH(NH2)CO2- (Na+)

[1] + [1]

(iii) (Cl-)+NH3(CH2)4CH(NH3+)CO2H (Cl-)

[1] + [1]

(iv) HO-C6H2Br2-CH2CH(NH2)CO2H (if shown, Br at 2,6 to OH group)

[1]
[6]

(e)
O
H2N

CH2

O
NH

CH

NH

CH2

CH
CH2

CO2H

CH2
CH2
CH2

OH

NH2

structure [1]
at least one peptide group identified [1]
[2]
(f) (i) e.g.
CH2 NH

CO

CO NH CH2 CH2 NH

CO

CO NH CH2

CH2 NH

[1]
(ii)
HO2C

CO2H

H2N

CH2

CH2

NH2

or ClCO---------------COCl

[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 15 max 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006

Page 4

(a) I:

II:

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS Level May/June 2006

Syllabus
9701

HNO3 + H2SO4 (or names)

[1]

(both) conc. and at 50oC < T < 60oC 

[1]

KMnO4 (+OH-) + heat

[1]

III: Sn + (conc) HCl

[1]

IV: CH3CH2OH

[1]

(or name)

+ c. H2SO4 + heat

Paper
04

[1]
[6]

(b)

CH3

CH3

CH3

+
H
NO2+

NO2

H+

NO2

intermediate, including
[1]
NO2+ at start and H+ at finish
[1]
(no marks for curly arrows, but if present, they must be in correct direction)
[2]
(c) (i) ester and (primary) amine
(ii) more basic: amine group is not adjacent to benzene ring
(or lone pair (on N) is not delocalised)

[2]
both points [1]
[3]
[Total: 11]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2007 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2007 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a)

salt bridge + voltmeter


zinc metal + Zn2+
H2 (in, not out) + H+
Pt electrode
all solutions at 1 mol dm3
T = 298K or 25oC

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1] [6]

(b)
conditions
ZnCl2(l)
ZnCl2(conc aq)
ZnCl2(dil aq)

product at anode
(chlorine)
chlorine [1]
oxygen [1]

product at cathode
zinc [1]
(H2 or zinc) (ignore)
hydrogen [1]
[1] for each product in correct place [4] [4]

(c)

LE

=BA
= 415 (131 + 908 + 1730) {244 + 2(349)}
[1]
[1]
= 415 2315
= 2730 (kJ mol1)
[1]
(correct answer = [3]: deduct [1] for each error) [3]

(d) (i)
instrumental method (e.g. spectrophotometer/colorimeter/conductance meter)
what is measured (e.g. absorbance/transmission at a stated wavelength
or by use of a suitable (green) filter or conductance/resistance)
measurement of time
relation of time to rate (e.g. gradient of absorbance/time graph, or rate 1/t)
repeat with different [Zn2+], (but the same [PAR])
relation of rate to [Zn2+] (either by a plot or by simple proportion)
(all 6 points are unconditional on each other) any 5 points [5]
(ii) e.g. add Br2(aq)
decolourises or produces a white ppt.
or add FeCl3(aq or neutral); purple colour produced

[1]
[1]
[1] + [1] [2]
[Total: 20]

UCLES 2007

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

Syllabus
9701

(a) 2Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

Paper
04
(or x )

(b) more stable down the group (or higher temperature needed)
(cat)ionic size/radius increases down the group
(or ionic charge density decreases)
distortion/polarisation of anion/nitrate (ion) decreases
(c) (i) 16 = O+
14 = N+

17 = OH+
16 = O+

A = H2O

18 = H2O+
28 = N2+ 30 = NO+

44 = N2O+

and B = N2O

[1] [1]
[1]
[1]
[1] [3]

(ignore charges)

all 3
all 5
any 4
(ignore charges) any 3
(or in equation below)

(ii) NH4NO3 N2O + 2H2O

[1]
[3]
[2]
[1]
[1]
[1] [6]

[Total: 10 max. 9]

(a) (i) 2CO + O2 2CO2


2PbO2 2PbO + O2

(or x )

(ii) +4 state becomes less stable down the group


or +2 state becomes more stable down the group

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) (i) PbII : PbIV = 2:1

[1]

(ii) Pb3O4 3PbO + O2

[1]

(iii) Pb3O4 + 4HNO3 2Pb(NO3)2 + PbO2 + 2H2O

[1]

(iv) PbO/Pb(II) is more basic than PbO2/Pb(IV)


as PbO2 does not react /form a salt with HNO3
or PbO does react etc.

[1]
[1]

(c) SnO + 2NaOH Na2SnO2 + H2O


(NOT SnO2 or PbO)

[5]

(or Na2Sn(OH)4 etc.)

[1]
[1]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2007

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a)

(or d x 2 d y 2 i.e. along axes)

(between axes)
[1]

[1]

(b) ligands have (lone) pairs (of electrons)


(d)-electrons in orbitals pointing towards ligands are
repelled/have higher energy
so these electrons (i.e. the 2-orbital group, or those in d z2 or d x 2 d y 2
have higher energy (or in diagram)
[or the 3-orbital group has the lower energy]
(c) (i) C = red

[2]
[1]
[1]

[1] [3]

D = blue

[1] + [1]

(ii) C, because absorption is at lower wavelength/higher frequency

[1] [3]
[Total: 8]

(a) I:
II:
III:
IV:

(b) I:
III:

Cl2 + AlCl3/Fe/etc
Cl2 + hf
KMnO4 + H+
SOCl2 or PCl5/PCl3 or P + Cl2
(for I, II and IV, deduct a mark ([1] only) for one or more mentions of (aq))
(for I, mention of hf negates the mark)
(for I and II, if Cl2 is omitted in one or both, deduct [1] mark only)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

electrophilic substitution
oxidation or redox (NOT oxygenation)

[1]
[1] [2]

(c) H is C6H5-CH2CN
step V: NaCN/KCN
heat (or 50-80oC) + ethanol/alcohol
step VI: LiAlH4 or H2 + Ni/Pt/Pd/Rh or Na + ethanol
(d)

compound

cold water

[4]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1] [4]

reagent
hot NaOH(aq)

no reaction

no reaction

no reaction

C6H5CH2OH

C6H5CO2H

C6H5CO2Na+
6 x [1] [6]
[Total: 16]

UCLES 2007

Page 5
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

(a) (i) one correct atom circled

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(if >1 are circled, all must be correct)

(ii) 5 (chiral centres)

[1]
[1] [2]

(b) (i) sodium metal

O- Na+
CH3

H
H

H
Na+O

(charges not needed)


(ii) Br2(aq)

HO
CH3

[1] + [1]

Br

(1, 2 or 3 bromines)

HO
Br

[1]
(iii) NaOH(aq)

HO
CH3

H
H

H
Na+ O

(charges not needed)


(iv) CH3COCl
CH3

[1]

OCOCH3
H

H
H

H
CH3COO

[1]+ [1]
(v) hot acidified K2Cr2O7
CH3

H
H

HO

[1]
(if one or more OH groups have been omitted in (ii), (iii) or (v) deduct [1] mark) [7]
[Total: 9]
UCLES 2007

Page 6
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) (i)
addition requires an unsaturated/double bond or alkene/C=C
condensation produces a small molecule or water as well as the polymer
or loss of mass occurs on polymerisation
the empirical formula of an addition polymer is the same as that of the monomer
any two [1] + [1]
(ii) minimum is:

O
NH2CH(CH3) C

N CH2CO2H
H

peptide link shown


ala-gly NOT gly-ala

[1]
[1] [4]

(b) X = deoxyribose
Y = phosphate
Z = thymine

3 x [1] [3]

(c) (i) (met)- ser-arg-asp- gly (ignore leading met)


whole sequence
three in correct order = [1].
Deduct [1] mark if start or stop is included in the amino acid sequence
(ii) The amino acid gly (or the last amino acid) would be replaced by trp
(d) (i) e.g. Huntingtons, cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia
thalassemia, muscular dystrophy, Downs syndrome, phenylketonuria
(ii) Suitable explanation e.g. wrong amino acid coded or different aminoacid
sequence or incorrect protein produced or extra chromosome (for Downs)
...results in/change in 3D structure/change in active site/loss of enzyme
activity (or a specific description pertinent to the mentioned disease)

[2]

[1] [3]

[1]
[1]
[1] [3]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2007

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) NH2 (or CO2) group can be protonated and the molecule moves towards
the cathode/negative
CO2H (or NH3+) group can lose a proton and the molecule moves towards
the anode/positive

[1]
[1]

salvage: either: if H+ gain/loss is described but no direction of movement is given, award


[1] mark.
or:
if H+ gain/loss is not described but correct movement of ions with stated
charge (+/) is given, award [1] mark.
acidic/low pH will protonate the amino acid or basic/high pH will deprotonate
[1] [3]
(b) (i) Q forms mainly zwitterions, because it does not move or ends up
midway between (+) and ()

[1]

(ii) R is larger, since it travels more slowly/does not move as far as S

[1] [2]

(c) (i) Second phase is water/moisture (NOT aqueous, NOT stationary)

[1]

(ii)

all 5 positions correct


4 correct

[2]
[1]

(iii) D

[1]

(iv) C

[1] [5]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2007

Page 8
9

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) Three properties e.g.


graphite conducts electricity

layers in graphite slide over one another or is slippery or acts as a lubricant

buckyballs are more slippery or have lower coefficient of friction


due to their property of being molecular ball bearings

graphite has higher m.pt.

graphite has higher density

graphite has lower solubility

buckyballs can trap elements/atoms/particles within themselves

(Some comment about the strength in each of 3 dimensions)


(any three of the above) 3 x [1] [3]

(b) The (walls of) nano-sized test tubes consists of (rolled/single) sheets
of graphite
The ends are half a buckyball (buckminsterfullerene)
(c) Particles are similar in size to the wavelength of uv light
and reflect/deflect/scatter (NOT absorb) the harmful radiation

[1]
[1] [2]
[1]
[1] [2]
[Total: 7]

UCLES 2007

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2008 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2008 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) A is Cl2/chlorine

Paper
04
[1]

B is NaCl or HCl or Cl [or words], etc.

[1]

C is salt bridge or KCl/KNO3, etc.

[1]

D is platinum/Pt

[1]

E is Fe2+ + Fe3+ or mixture of Fe(II) + Fe(III) salts

[1]

mention of standard conditions ([Cl ] of 1 mol dm3 or Cl2 at 1 atmos


or T = 25C/298 K)

[1]

(ii) Eo = EoR EoL= 0.77 1.36 = ()0.59 (V) (ignore sign)

[1]

(since R.H. electrode is negative) electrons flow (from right) to left or to the chlorine
electrode or anticlockwise or from (beaker) E to (beaker) B
[1] [8]
(b) (i) H = 3 (167.2) + (48.5) (399.5)
= 150.6 or 151 (kJ mol1)
(correct ans [2])
(ii) 2Fe3+ + Cu 2Fe2+ + Cu2+
(or molecular: 2FeCl3 + Cu 2FeCl2 + CuCl2)
Eo = 0.77 0.34 = (+) 0.43 (V)
(no mark for 0.43V)

[1]
[1]

[1]

[1]
[4]
[Total: 12 max 11]

(a) (i) H = 4 278 244 2 496


= 124 (kJ mol1)
(correct ans [2])

[1]
[1]

(ii) shape is bent/V-shaped/non-linear (or diagram)


[1]
due to (one) lone pair and/or (1) odd/unpaired electron (or shown on diag)
[1]
(assume electrons are on chlorine unless explicitly stated otherwise, in which case
award no mark)
(iii) 3KClO3 + H2SO4 K2SO4 + KClO4 + H2O + 2ClO2

[1] [5]

(b) (i) coal-fired power stations; fuel in cars; car exhausts/gas emissions; other named use of a
fossil fuel; contact process; cement manufacture; brick manufacture; roasting of sulphide
ores; burning tyres
(any 2) [1]
(NOT volcanoes etc; NOT burning of natural gas)
(no marks for only 1 correct source)
(ii) causes acid rain
[1]
which lower pH of lakes; leaches aluminium from soils; kills fish/plants/rainforests;
dissolves/corrodes/damages buildings
(any 1) [1]
(NOT asthma etc since this is not environmental)
[3]

UCLES 2008

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

(c) (i) CO2: simple + molecular/covalent or weak intermolecular forces


SiO2: giant/macro + molecular/covalent
SnO2: ionic/electrovalent (ignore giant)
(2 correct = [1], 1 correct = [0])

Paper
04

(all 3 correct) [2]

(ii) SnO2 is stable, PbO2 is not or SnO2 is the more stable


PbO2 PbO + O2

[1]
[1]

(iii) H2O + CO2 () H+ + HCO3


Kc = [H+][HCO3]/[H2O][CO2] or = [H+][HCO3]/[CO2]

[1]
ecf [1]

(iv) HCO3 + H+ H2CO3 or H2O + CO2 (or equation with H3O+)


HCO3 + OH CO32- + H2O (NB NOT H2CO3 + OH )

[1]
[1]

(words can substitute for one of the equations but not both. If two correct word
descriptions are given, in the absence of at least one correct equation, award [1] mark
only)
[8]
[Total: 16 max 15]
3

(a) tetrahedral diagram (either dashed+wedge, or similar representation)


angles (all) 109 110
(award [0] for part (a) if an angle of 90 or 180 is mentioned)
(b) volatility decreases or boiling points increase
(allow b.pt. CCl4 > SiCl4 but b.pt. increases thereafter)
due to greater van der Waals/intermolecular forces or due to more electrons
(mention of ions negates this mark)
(c) (i) Pb4+/Pb2+: E o = +1.69V, Sn4+/Sn2+: E o = +0.15V,
a valid comment about relative redox power or stability, e.g.:
(hence) Sn2+ easily oxidised or Sn4+ is more stable than Sn2+ or
Pb4+ is easily reduced or Pb2+ is more stable than Pb4+ or
+2 oxidation state more stable down the group
(ii) Sn2+ + I2 Sn4+ + 2I
Pb4+ + SO2 + 2H2O 4H+ + SO42- + Pb2+
(N.B. no marks in (ii) for E o values)
(d) (i) for Si: H = 244 2(359) = 474 (kJ mol1)
for Sn: H = 244 2(315) = 386 (kJ mol1)
(allow [1] out of [2] salvage mark for 474 & 386; 962 & 874; or 962 & 874)
(ii) Yes: the +4 state becomes decreasingly stable the H is less exothermic
(mark is for relating Hs to stability: allow ecf from d(i) and also from c(i))

[1]
[1]
[2]

[1]
[1]
[2]
[both] [1]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]

[1]
[1]

[1]
[3]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2008

Page 4
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

(a) ester

Paper
04
[1] [1]

(b) reaction I: acid/H+/HCl/H2SO4 or alkali/OH/NaOH (followed by H+)


[1]
heat/reflux and aqueous (allow H3O+ to equal H+ + aq, also assume conc or
dil means aq (but NOT H2SO4) also allow aqueous ethanol)
[1]
(for heat: allow T 80C; not warm)
reaction II: methanol/CH3OH
heat with conc. H2SO4/H3PO4 or HCl(g) [NOT conc HCl]
(c) (i) BrCH2-CHBr-CH2Br

[1]
[1] [4]
[1]

(ii) HO2C-CO-CO2H

[1] [2]

(d) 890g of triglyceride produces 3 298 = 894g of biodiesel


500kg produces 500 894/890 = 502kg biodiesel
(correct ans [2])
(1004/1005kg or 167kg is worth [1]: 333kg is worth [0])
(e) (i) C17H35CO2CH3 + 27.5 O2 19CO2 + 19H2O
(or C19H38O2)
(ii) 10 44 19/298 = 28.(05)/28.1kg
(1 for each error)
some ecf values: n = 18 26.6kg
n = 17 25.1kg (allow [2] for each)
n = 16 23.6kg

[1]
ecf [1]
[2]

[1]
ecf from equ [2]

[3]

(f) any one of the following.


(saving) diminishing resources
economic argument (NOT just cheaper) e.g. oil will become increasingly more
expensive as it runs out
ref to CO2 cycle (e.g. no net increase in CO2, i.e. carbon neutral) or less global
warming (due to a smaller carbon footprint)
renewable/sustainable
the effect of biofuel cultivation on world food prices
[1] [1]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2008

Page 5
5

(a) reaction I

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

electrophilic addition

[1]

reaction II electrophilic substitution


(salvage: award [1] out of [2] for addition + substitution, even if nucleophilic)
(b) reaction I: intermediate

[1]
[2]
[1]

Br CH2

CH2

H2C

or

CH2
Br

second step, attack of Br on bromocation.


Br CH2

CH2

[1]

H2C

or

CH2
Br

Br
Br

reaction II: intermediate

[1]
H

Br

Br

or

(make sure is not at sp3 C-atom)

(or with in 2-position)

second step, loss of H+ from bromocation.


H

Br

[1]
H

Br

or

[4]
(c) Delocalised ring of electrons (in benzene) is stable, (so is re-formed in second step in
benzene.)
or electrons in the ethene bond are localised/more available for reaction with electrophiles
[1] [1]
[Total: 7]

UCLES 2008

Page 6

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

6
CH3

CO2H

Br
CO2H

Br

CO2H

CO2H

NO2

NH2

5 x [1]
[deduct [1] mark if ring circle omitted more than once]
[allow ecf for E from structure of D]
[allow ecf for B from structure of A]
[allow -CO2 for E]

[5]
[Total: 5]

7
polymer

addition/condensation?

condensation

formulae of monomers
HO2C-CO2H or ClCO-COCl
NH2-CH2-CH2-NH2

HO-CH2-CH(C2H5)-CO2H
2

condensation
HO-CH2-CH(CH3)-CO2H

CH2=CH-CH3
CH2=CH-CONH2
CH2=CH-C6H5

addition

[2]
(2 correct: [1])

[6]
(6 correct: [5])
etc

(2 correct: [1])
(C=C bonds not needed, but penalise [1] if C-C drawn instead of C=C)
(if more than 7 formulae drawn, then penalise [1] for each formula in excess of 7)

[8]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2008

Page 7
8

(a) primary:

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

covalent (ignore amide, peptide etc)


diagram showing peptide bond: (-CHR-)CONH(-CHR-)

[1]
[1]

secondary: hydrogen bonds (NOT ..between side chains)


diagram showing N-HO = C
tertiary:

[1]
[1]

two of the following:


hydrogen bonds (diag. must show H-bonds other than those in -helix or
-pleated sheet e.g. ser-ser)
electrostatic/ionic attraction,
van der Waals/hydrophobic forces/bonds,
(covalent) disulphide (links/bridges)
[1] + [1]
suitable diagram of one of the above
(for disulphide: S-S not S=S or SH-SH)

[1]
[7]

(b) met-ala-gly-ala-gly-arg-val-lys
[2]
any possible sequence with more than 8 residues, that uses all 6 tripeptides (overlapping
or not), and that starts with met and ends with lys is worth [1] mark
any sequence that does not start with met or end with lys gets zero.
[2]
(c) CARE this is not about DNA!
candidates should describe TWO potential effects on tertiary or quaternary structures caused
by amino acid sidechains...
these include:
disruption of H-bonding
disruption of disulphide bridges
disruption of electrostatic/ionic attraction
disruption of van der Waals forces
(only allow effects on the secondary structure if proline is specifically mentioned)
2 x [1]
then award [1] mark each for two of the following bullet points:
a description of the amino acids involved in the above, (or a labelled diagram)
(award [1] mark for each example)
a description of an effect of interchanging amino acids, such as the..
unfolding of tertiary structure/different folding/different shape (NOT denatured)
inactivity of an enzyme or changing the active site
causing of a protein to become less soluble/coagulate (e.g. sickle cells)
2 x [1]
[4]
[Total: 13 max 12]

UCLES 2008

Page 8
9

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) (i)+(ii) any two of:


molecular mass/size/Mr/shape
(overall electrical) charge (on the species)
voltage/size/P.D. (of applied electric field)
[1] + [1]
(salvage: if just mass & charge is mentioned, with no reference to species or molecule,
award [1])
[2]
(b) (i) CH3COCH3 would show
a single peak/no splitting since all the Hs are in the same chemical environment
or a peak at = 2.1 due to CH3CO group

[1]

CH3CH2CHO would show 3 (sets of) peaks since there are 3 different proton
environments
or there would be a peak at = 9.5 10.0 due to the CHO group
or a peak at = 0.9 due to CH3
or a peak at 1.3 due to CH2
[1]
(reasons needed for the marks. Salvage: if reasons are not given, but candidate states
that propanone will have one peak and propanal three, then award [1] mark)
(ii) different fragments:
CH3COCH3 would form fewer fragments (must be stated in words)
CH3COCH3 would form a fragment of CH3CO+ or at (m/e) 43
CH3CH2CHO would form a fragment of CH3CH2+ or CHO+ at (m/e) 29
CH3CH2CHO would form a fragment of CH3CH2CO+ or at (m/e) 57
[charges on fragments not required for mark]
any 3 points [3]
[5]
(c) (i) peaks at (m/e) 79 and 81 or at (m/e) 94 and 96
(ii) in chlorine the M and M+2 peaks are the ratio 3:1
whereas in bromine they are approx. 1:1

[1]
[1]
[1] [3]
[Total: 10 max 9]

UCLES 2008

Page 9

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

10 (a) any two of the following:


to speed delivery (of drug to target organ), i.e. faster response
to avoid the drug being hydrolysed/reacted/decomposed (NOT digested) in the stomach
to allow a smaller dose to be used or greater accuracy of dosage
patient does not have to be conscious

2 [1] [2]

(b) (i) spheres with a diameter of the order of nanometres/in the nanometre range/between 10
& 500 nm
[1]
(ii) it is (highly) acidic or low pH or contains HCl (NOT contains enzymes)

[1]

(iii) use hydrogels: of different (wall) thickness/strength (to release drug over time)
of different chemical composition (for different breakdown times)
incorporating pores/holes (in their walls)
(any two) [1] + [1]
[4]
(c) for the homopolymer, either using the amino acid the minimum is:
-CO-CHR-NH-CO-CHR-NH-CO-CHR-NHor using the hydroxyacid the minimum is:
CO2H

CO2H

CO2H O

or

O
CO2H

CO2H O

CO2H
O

([1] for each error) [2]


for the heteropolymer, either using the glycol compound and the di-acid the minimum is:
OH

O
O

O
O

(glycol)

O
O

or

(di-acid)

(glycol)

OH

OH
(glycol)

(di-acid)

(di-acid)

or using the amino acid and the di-acid, the minimum is:
(ester)
R
O

O
O

N
H

O
CO2H

R
or

N
H

(amide)
O
or

(ester)
O
O
CO2H

CO2H O
O

(amide)

(ester)

O
O
N
H
(amide)

H
N

N
H

O
or

CO2H

(amide)

CO2H O

H
N

O
(ester)

O
O

CO2H

(A heteropolymer incorporating all three monomers can also be drawn. This should include an ester
linkage between the glycol and one of the CO2H groups, and an amide linkage between the aminoacid and
another CO2H group. Deduct [1] mark from the whole of section (c) if complete compounds are shown
rather than sections of chains. Allow 4-monomer sections instead of 3. Allow [2] marks for a polymer
section even if one end is incomplete (e.g. is lacking an oxygen atom), but if both ends are incomplete
deduct [1])
([1] for each error) [2] [4]

[Total: 10 max 9]
UCLES 2008

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2009 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2009 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

Section A
1

(a)

(b)

acids are proton/H+ donors


bases are proton/H+ acceptors

[1]
[1]

[2]

(i) more Cl atoms produce a stronger acid or the larger the Ka the stronger the acid
(NOT just the more Cl atoms, the larger the Ka must refer to acid strength) [1]
because the anion/RCO2 is more stable or the O-H bond is weaker/polarised [1]
due to the electronegativity/electron-withdrawing effect of Cl
[1]
(ii) [H+] = (Ka.c) = 0.0114 (mol dm3)
pH
= 1.94 (allow 1.9)
ecf from [H+]
(correct answer = [2])

[1]
[1]

(iii)

start at pH = 1.94 (ecf from (ii) and goes up > 2 pH units before steep portion)
steep portion (over at least 3 pH units) at V = 10 cm3
flattens off at pH 1213

(c)

(i) CH3CO2H + OH CH3CO2 + H2O


CH3CO2 + H+ CH3CO2H
(ii) pKa = log10(1.7 x 105) = 4.77 or [H+] = 8.5 x 106 (mol dm3)
pH = pKa + log10(0.2/0.1) = 5.07 (allow 5.1)
(correct answer = [2])

[1]
[1]
[1]

[8]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]
[Total: 14]

UCLES 2009

Page 3
2

(a)

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

NaCl: steamy fumes


NaCl + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + HCl (or ionic, i.e. without the Na+)
or
2NaCl + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2HCl
NaBr: orange/brown fumes
2NaBr + 3H2SO4 2NaHSO4 + 2H2O + SO2 + Br2
or
2HBr + H2SO4 2H2O + SO2 + Br2
(ignore equations producing HBr)

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]

(b) relevant Eo quoted: Cl2/Cl , 1.36; Br2/Br , 1.07; (H2SO4/SO2, 0.17 not required)
Br is more easily oxidised because its Eo is more negative
or Cl2 is more oxidising because its Eo is more positive
(c)

Paper
04

[4]

[1]
[1]

[2]

Allow almost any reducing agent from the Data Booklet (see below) with Eo less than 1.07 V.
But do not allow reducing agents that require conditions that would react with Br2 in the
absence of the reducing agent (e.g. NH3 or OH), and also do not allow reducing agents
that could produce, or act as, oxidising agents (e.g. MnO42 and H2O2)
balanced equ. showing reduction of Br2 by the chosen reducing agent
(either ionic or molecular)
Eo = 1.07 (Eo of reductant) = x.xx (V) (see below)

[1]
[1]

[2]

[Total: 8]
List of acceptable reductants with resulting Eocell values
reductant
Ag
Al
Ba
Ca
Co
Cr Cr2+
Cr Cr3+
Cr2+
CuCu+
CuCu2+
Cu+

Eocell/V
0.27
2.73
3.97
3.94
1.35
1.98
1.81
1.48
0.55
0.73
0.92

reductant
FeFe2+
FeFe3+
Fe2+
H2
I
K
Li
Mg
Mn
NO2
HNO2
NH4+

Eocell/V
1.51
1.11
0.30
1.07
0.53
3.99
4.11
3.45
2.25
0.26
0.13
0.20

e.g. for Sn2+:

Sn2+ + Br2 Sn4+ + 2Br


Eo = 1.07 0.15 = 0.92 V
(or similarly for other suitable reagents)

UCLES 2009

reductant
Na
Ni
Pb
SO2
S2O32
Sn
Sn2+
V
V2+
V3+
VO2+
Zn

Eocell/V
3.78
1.32
1.20
0.90
0.98
1.21
0.92
2.27
1.33
0.73
0.07
1.83
[1]
[1]

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) a (d-block) element forming stable ions/compounds/oxidation states with incomplete/


partially filled [NOT empty] d-orbitals
[1]
(b)

(c)

(i) (1s2 2s2 2p6) 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2

[1]

(ii) (1s2 2s2 2p6) 3s2 3p6 3d9

[1]

[2]

(+)2, (+)3, (+)4, (+)5 or II, III, IV, V

[1]

[1]

(d) (pale blue solution ) blue/cyan solid/ppt.(or (s) in the formula)

(e)

[1]

[1]

(blue ppt. is) Cu(OH)2 or copper hydroxide

[1]

(then produces a) deep blue or purple solution

[1]

which contains [Cu(NH3)4]2+ or [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+

[1]

formed by ligand replacement

[1]

2VO3 + 8H+ + Cu 2VO2+ + 4H2O + Cu2+


or 2VO2+ + 4H+ + Cu 2VO2+ + 2H2O + Cu2+
correct species
balancing
(award only [1] for just the two half-equations)

[5]

[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 11]

(a)

(i) homogeneous

[1]

(ii) ions in 2 and 3 are oppositely charged ions (thus attract each other) or
ions in 1 are similarly charged ions (thus repel each other)

[1]

(iii)

two contiguous activation humps


both less than the original
starting and finishing at the same points as before
UCLES 2009

[1]
[1]
[1]

[5]

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(b) (i) SO3 produces acid rain or SO3 + H2O H2SO4 or a consequence of acid rain,
e.g. lower pH of lakes; leaches aluminium from soils; kills fish/plants/rainforests;
dissolves/corrodes/damages buildings (NOT global warming)
[1]
(NOT asthma etc since this is not environmental)
(ii) the burning of fossil fuels/coal/oil/petrol/gas/diesel/fuel or car exhausts or roasting of
sulphide ores or cement manufacture or volcanoes
[1]
(iii) SO2 + NO2 SO3 + NO

[1]

NO + O2 NO2

[1]
[4]
[Total: 9]

(a) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
A
all three (any order)
(2 only = [1])

CH3CH2CH2CH(OH)CH3
B

(b) B above (may be different letter)


(c)

CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3
C
[2]
[2]

([0] if more than one compound stated)

(i) B above (may be different letter)

([0] if more than one compound stated)

(ii) (pale) yellow ppt.

[1]

[1]

[1]
[1]

(iii) CHI3 + CH3CH2CH2CO2Na or anion (no credit for the acid, RCO2H)

[1] + [1]
[4]

(d) A CH3CH2CH2CH2CO2H

[1]

B CH3CH2CH2COCH3
C CH3CH2COCH2CH3

[1]
(letters may differ)

UCLES 2009

[1]

[3]

Page 6

(e)

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(i) (C6H10O5)n 5n H2 + 5n CO + n C correct species and the 5:5:1 ratio [1]


(allow n5 instead of 5n) balancing, i.e. multiplying by n
[1]
(ii) H = 7(1080) + 15(436) 6(350) 16(410) 14(460)
= 1000 kJ mol1
4 correct values from DB (in bold italics above)
correct multipliers
correct signs and arithmetic
(correct answer = [3])

[1]
[1]
[1]

Some ecf values for [2] marks (i.e. 1 error):


for [1] mark (i.e. 2 errors):
+1000 (signs reversed)
1350 (7 x (C-C) instead of 6)
+1350
+2220 (7 x O-H instead of 14)
2220
1410 (17 C-H instead of 16)
+1410
The omission of a type of bond (C-C is the most common one that is omitted) forfeits
2 marks, in addition to any other errors there may be.
[5]
[Total: 15]
6

(a)

(i) I:

II:

SOCl2 or PCl5 or HCl + ZnCl2 or PCl3 + heat or Cl2 + P + heat


[NOT NaCl + H2SO4]
(mention of aq negates mark)

[1]

NH3

[1]

(ignore any conditions stated)

(ii) nucleophilic substitution or SN or SN1 or SN2

[1]

(iii) delocalisation of lone pair on Cl over benzene ring produces a stronger C-Cl bond [1]
[4]
(b) (i) III: HNO3 + H2SO4

[1]

both conc., and at T < 60oC


IV: Sn + conc HCl

[NOT LiAlH4 or H2 + Ni]

[1]
[1]

(ii) III: electrophilic substitution

[1]

IV: reduction or redox

[1]
[5]

(c) e.g. add bromine water or Br2(aq) (a solvent is needed for the mark)
or add UI solution
phenylamine decolorises the bromine or gives a white ppt., hexylamine does not
or hexylamine turns UI blue, with phenylamine it stays green

UCLES 2009

[1]
[1]
[2]

Page 7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(d)
CH3
N

N N

Cl

OH

(allow + charge on either N)


(allow double or triple bond)

CH3
(phenylazo group must be at 4-position to -OH)
(N=N must be double bond, not triple)

[1]

[1]

[2]
[Total: 13]

Section B
7

(a) For each element, award [1] mark for each column in one particular line in the table below.
The [2] marks awardable for each element are not conditional on each other, but dont take
the location from one line and the role from another.

element

location
red blood cells/haemoglobin

to bind to/carry/transfer oxygen (to cells) or CO2 (away


from cells)

muscle (cells)/myoglobin

to bind to/carry/transfer oxygen (to muscles) or CO2


(away from muscles)

in mitochondria/cytochromes

to aid redox reactions or to help oxidise NADH etc

in iron-sulphide proteins

to aid redox reactions

in ferrodoxin

to aid redox reactions

in nerve cells/nerves/nervous
system/neurones or in cell
membranes/phospholipid
bilayers

Na+/K+ pump or ion pump or active transport or


transmission/regulation of nerve impulses

in kidneys

to help re-absorb glucose

in blood (cells not needed,


but plasma negates) or
carbonic anhydrase

as an enzyme co-factor/prosthetic group or to help the


hydration/removal of CO2 or production of H2CO3/HCO3

in the gut/carboxypeptidase

as an enzyme co-factor/prosthetic group or to help


hydrolyse polypeptides

iron

sodium

zinc

role

in the liver/alcohol
dehydrogenase
[1]

as an enzyme co-factor/prosthetic group or to help


oxidise/break down alcohol
+
[1] for each element

UCLES 2009

[6]

Page 8
(b)

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(i) manufacture of NaOH or manufacture of batteries or manufacture of felt or gold


extraction
or (mercury) fungicides or (mercury) compounds used in timber preservation
[1]
(ii) In each case below, a balanced equation is worth [2] marks
breaks disulphide bonds/linkages or Hg bonds to S-H groups (or in an unbalanced
equation)
[1]
CH2-S-S-CH2- + 4Hg+ 2 CH2-SHg + 2Hg2+
or R-S-S-R + 4Hg+ 2 R-S-Hg + 2Hg2+ or R-S-S-R + Hg+ 2 R-S-Hg+
or R-SH + Hg+ R-SHg + H+ or R-SH + Hg2+ R-S-Hg+ + H+
[1]
or 2 R-SH + Hg2+ (R-S)2Hg + 2 H+ etc
bonds to carboxyl side chains (in amino acids) (or in an unbalanced equation)

[1]

CO2H + Hg+ CO2Hg + H+ or 2 RCO2H + Hg2+ (RCO2)2Hg + 2H+ [1]


[5]
[11 max 10]
8

(a)

(i) Partition coefficient (PC) is an equilibrium constant representing the distribution of a


solute between two solvents.
or PC = ratio of the concentrations of the solute in the two solvents or PC = [X]a/[X]b
[1]
(ii) If 0.4 g has been extracted, 0.1 g remain in the aqueous layer.
the concentration in the hexane layer =

0.4

the concentration in the aqueous layer =

20

= 0.02 g cm3

0.1
100

= 0.001 g cm3
Kpc = 0.02/0.001 = 20

[1]

(iii) 1st extraction: hexane x/10 g cm3


water (0.50-x)/100 g cm3
x/10
Kpc =
= 20
(0.5 - x)/100
hence x/10 = (10 20x)/100
100x = 10(10 20x) or 100x = 100 200x
x = 0.33 g

[1]

2nd extraction: hexane y/10 g cm3


water (0.17 y)/100 g cm3
y/10
= 20
Kpc =
(0.17 - y)/100
hence y/10 = (3.4 20y)/100
100y = 10(3.4 20y) or 100y = 34 200y
y = 0.11 g

[1]

total extracted = 0.44 g, or difference = 0.04 g or 10% more (is extracted)


(correct answer = [3])
UCLES 2009

[1]
[5]

Page 9

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

(b) (i) berries are aqueous media


PCBs are insoluble/sparingly soluble in water or more fat-soluble
(ii) partition coefficient or [fat]/[water] is greater than 1

Paper
04
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(c)

(i) 4 (four)

[1]

(ii)

correct spot circled


correct spot squared
[in each case, more than one spot circled or squared negates the mark]

[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 11]

(a)

(i) correct diagram showing at least one monomer unit, and at least one N-H and C=O.
i.e. NH-C6H2-NH-CO or CO-C6H4-CO-NH
(no mark for this, but apply a penalty of [1] if candidates diagram does NOT show
these points correctly)
one H-bond between N-H of original chain and C=O group of new chain
[1]
one H-bond between C=O of original chain and N-H group of new chain
[1]
(ii) hydrogen bonds or H-bonds (in words; can be written on diagram)
(ignore ref to v d W)

[1]

(iii)
HO2C

or

CO2H

ClOC

allow HO2CHOOCHOCO-

COCl

[1]

allow ClCO-

H2N

NH2

[1]

allow NH2-

[5]

UCLES 2009

Page 10

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL May/June 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(b) (i) Water-hating/fearing/repelling/resistant or cant form bonds with water (molecules)


[1]
[NOT insoluble or does not dissolve in water, also NOT non-polar]
(ii) Fluorine-containing groups form van der Waals bonds (with the oil molecules)... [1]
but cannot form hydrogen bonds (with the water molecules)
[1]
(iii) Teflon/PTFE

[1]
[4]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2009

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2010 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2010 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) P: burns with white / yellow flame or copious white smoke / fumes produced
4P (or P4) + 5O2 P4O10

(1)
(1)

S: burns with blue flame / choking / pungent gas produced

(1)

S + O2 SO2
(b)

Paper
41

(1)

(i) 2 Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 SiO2 + 10 C 1 P4 + 6 CaSiO3 + 10 CO

[4]

(2)

(ii)
allotrope

type of structure

type of bonding

white

simple / molecular

covalent

red

giant / polymeric

covalent
(4)

(iii)

P
P

white P4 (1)

red Pn (1)

(in each case P has to be trivalent. Many alternatives allowable for the polymeric red P) (2)
(8 max 7)

[7]

[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

(a) coloured ions / compounds


variable oxidation states
formation of complexes
catalytic activity

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
(1)
(1)
(1)
(4 max 3)

(b) (green is [Ni(H2O)6]2+)


ppt is Ni(OH)2

[3]

(1)

blue solution is [Ni(NH3)6]2+ or [Ni(NH3)4]2+ or [Ni(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+

(1)

formed by ligand exchange

(1)

Ni2+ + 2OH Ni(OH)2

(1)

Ni(OH)2 + 6NH3 [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 2OH

(c) Mr = 58.7 + 48 + 6 + 28 + 32 = 172.7 (173)


n(Ni) = 4.00 / 172.7 = 0.0232 mol

(1)
(5 max 4)

[4]

(1)
(1)

mass(Ni) = 0.0232 58.7 = 1.36g


percentage = 100 1.36 / 3.4 = 40.0%

(1)

[3]

[Total: 10]

(a) PbO2 decomposed into PbO (and O2). (SnO2 is stable)


(b)

(i) PbCl4 dissociates into Cl2 and PbCl2 (white solid)


or PbCl4 PbCl2 + Cl2 or in words
(1)
(1)
Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I2
Eo(Cl2/Cl) is more positive than Eo(I2/I)
(ii) SnCl4 is more stable than PbCl4 / answers using Eo accepted

(c)

(i)

..
Cl:C:Cl
+

or

..
Cl=CCl

bent or non-linear or angle = 100140o


(ii) CCl2 + H2O CO + 2HCl

[1]

(1)
(1)
(1)
(5 max 4)

[4]

(1)
(1)
(1)

[3]

[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

Page 4
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) hydrogen bonding

Paper
41
(1)

diag: NH2CH2CH2OH---OHCH2CH2NH2 or NH2CH2CH2OH---NH2CH2CH2OH


(i.e. H-bond from OH group to either OH or NH2)

(1)

[2]

(b) propylamine is more basic than phenylamine


(1)
because lone pair on N is delocalised over ring in phenylamine (so less available for
protonation)
or the propyl group is electron-donating, so the lone pair is more available
(1)

[2]

(c) HOCH2CH2NH2 + H+ HOCH2CH2NH3+


or HOCH2CH2NH2 + HCl HOCH2CH2NH3+Cl
or HOCH2CH2NH2 + H2O HOCH2CH2NH3+OH
(reaction with any acceptable Bronsted acid accepted)

[1]

(d)

(i) X is CH3CH2CN

(1)

(ii) step 1 is KCN in ethanol, heat


[HCN negates]
step 2 is H2+Ni / Pt or LiAlH4 or Na in ethanol [NOT NaBH4 or Sn/HCl]

(1)
(1)

(e) ethanolamine:
Na
or Cr2O72 / H+
or MnO4 / H+
or PCl3 / PCl5 / SOCl2

[3]

effervescence / bubbles produced


colour turns from orange to green
purple colour disappears
(1) steamy fumes
(1)

phenylamine:
Br2(aq)
decolourises / white ppt formed
+
o
or HNO2 / H at T<10 C, then phenol in NaOH (1) coloured dye formed
(1)

[4]

[Total: 12]

UCLES 2010

Page 5
5

(a)

(b)

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(i) Eo = 0.40 (0.83) = 1.23V

(1)

(ii) 2H2 + O2 2H2O

(1)

(iii) LH electrode will become more negative


RH electrode will also become more negative / less positive

(1)
(1)

(iv) no change

(1)

ecf from (iii)

(v) increased conductance or lower cell resistance or increased rate of reaction

(1)

(i) Eo = 1.47 (0.13) = 1.60V


(ii) PbO2 + Pb + 4H+ 2Pb2+ + 2H2O

(1)
(1)

(iii) PbO2 + Pb + 4H+ + 2SO42 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O

(1)

(iv) Eocell will increase

(1)

as [Pb2+] decreases, Eelectrode(PbO2) will become more positive, but Eelectrode(Pb)


will become more negative
(1)

[6]

[5]

[Total: 11]
6

(a)

(i) SOCl2 or PCl5 or PCl3

(1)

(ii) CH3CO2H + SOCl2 CH3COCl + SO2 + HCl


or CH3CO2H + PCl5 CH3COCl + POCl3 + HCl
or 3CH3CO2H + PCl3 3CH3COCl + H3PO3

(1)
[2]

(b)

(c)

(i) A is C6H5CO2C2H5
B is C6H5CONH2

(1)
(1)

(ii) ester
amide

(1)
(1)

(iii) nucleophilic substitution / condensation

(1)

(i) C is ClCOCOCl
D is ClCOCOCOCl

(1)
(1)

(ii) hydrogen bonding

(1)

[5]

(iii) because its an amide or not an amine or its lone pair is delocalised (over C=O)
or less
available due to electronegative oxygen [NOT: E is neutral, but the diamine is
basic]
(1)
(iv) condensation (polymer) or polyester

(1)

[5]

[Total: 12]
UCLES 2010

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

7
CH 2 Cl

CH 2OH

Cl

Cl
NO 2

(ignore orientation)

(ignore orientation of both)

CO 2H

COOCH 3

HO 2C

H3COCO

[6]
[Total: 6]
8

(a)
Block letter

Identity of compound

Deoxyribose (NOT sugar or pentose)

Guanine

Phosphate

Thymine

All 4 correct score 3 marks, 3 score 2, 2 score 1

[3]

(b) hydrogen bonds (1) between the bases (1)


(c) 1
2
3
4

RNA is a single strand; DNA is double strand


RNA contains ribose; DNA contains deoxyribose
RNA contains uracil; DNA contains thymine
RNA is shorter than DNA

(d) mRNA copies the DNA gene sequence


or forms a template for a particular polypeptide / in protein synthesis
tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome

[2]
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(4 max 3)

[3]

(1)
(1)

[2]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 7
9

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) spinning proton produces two spin states / magnetic moments


these can align with or against an applied magnetic field

Paper
41
(1)
(1)

[2]

(b) field experienced by protons is influenced by adjacent atoms / protons are in two
different chemical environments
(1)
peaks are in the area ratio 3 : 1 (methyl to OH protons)
or are at 0.5 6.0 and 3.3 4.0
(1)

[2]

(c)

(i)
CH3CH2CO2H
propanoic acid

CH3CO2CH3
methyl ethanoate

HCO2CH2CH3
ethyl methanoate
all for (2) two for (1)

(ii) compound is CH3CO2CH3 or methyl ethanoate


the other two compounds each have 3 different proton environments, but the
spectrum shows only 2 peaks.
A is OCH3,

B is CH3CO

(iii) compound propanoic acid


the OH proton

(1)
(1)
(1)

or ethyl methanoate
or the HCO proton

(d) (i) distance between atoms / bond lengths / bond angles


(ii) hydrogen atoms

(1)

[6]

(1)
(1) [2]
[Total: 12 max 10]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

10 (a) ester or amide (allow nitrile)

[1]

(b)

amide (1) + any one ester (1)


allow whole groups circled
(c)

(d)

(i) hydrophilic drug at C


hydrophobic drug at B

[2]

both needed

(1)
(1)

(ii) (at A) the drug would be exposed to attack / breakdown / digestion

(1)

(i) at one of the OH groups

(1)

[3]

(ii) volume of sphere can be large or one PEG molecule can only carry 1 or 2 drug
molecules
(1)
or can carry different types of drug

[2]

(e) more economic


(1)
less chance of side-effects / side effects reduced / less chance of allergic reaction (1)
less risk of harming healthy tissue / organs / less chance of an overdose
(1)
(3 max 2)

[2]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2010 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2010 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) C6H5-COCH2OH or C8H8O2 and NaCl or Cl

(1) + (1)

(b) (i) the exponent / power to which a concentration is raised in the rate equation
(or in an equation, e.g. a in the equ: rate = k[A]a)

[2]

(1)

(ii) from 1 and 2: rate increases by 50% as does [RCl ], so rate [RCl ]1
from 1 and 3: rate [NaOH]1

(1)
(1)

(iii) (rate =) k[RCl ][OH ]

(1)

(iv)
(can be a solid line)

(-)
R

HO

(+)

Cl

HO
(H) (H)

C
(H) (H)

HO
Cl

R
C

+ Cl

(H)(H)

marking points:
(+) or + on C and () or on Cl
lone pair and charge on: OH
curly arrow from OH (lone pair) to (+)C, and either a curly arrow breaking
C-Cl bond or 5-valent transition state (ignore charge)
SN1 alternative for last mark (only award mark if candidates rate
equation shows first order reaction): curly arrow breaking C-Cl bond and
carbocation intermediate.

(1)
(1)
(1)

[7]

(c) (i) (add RCl / RCOCl to) (aq) Ag+ / AgNO3 or named indicator (e.g. MeOr) or
use pH probe

(1)

White ppt appears (faster with RCOCl) or turns acidic colour (e.g. red) or
shows pH decrease

(1)

if water is the only reagent, and no pH meter used: award only the second
mark, for steamy / white fumes
(ii) (C=O is polarised /) carbon is more + than in R-Cl or carbon is positive or
RCOCl can react via addition-elimination
(mention of electronegativity on its own is not enough for the mark)

(1)

[Total: 12]

UCLES 2010

[3]

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) less soluble down group

(1)

lattice energy and hydration energies both decrease (i.e. become less negative)

(1)

but H.E. decreases more (than L.E.) or change in H.E. outweighs L.E.

(1)

so Hsol becomes more endothermic / less exothermic

(1)

(b) (i) for Mg: H = 2993 1890 (2 550) = (+)3 (kJ mol1)

(1)

for Sr: H = 2467 1414 (2 550) = 47 (kJ mol1)

(1)

(ii) Sr(OH)2 should be more soluble in water, and H is more exothermic /


negative
Assuming other factors (e.g. S, or temperature etc.) are the same

(1)
(1)

(iii) Sr(OH)2 should be less soluble in hot water, because H is negative /


exothermic
(c) (i) Ksp = [Ca2+][OH ]2 (needs the charges) units: mol3dm9

[4]

(1)

[5]

(1) + (1)

(ii) n(H+) = n(OH) = 0.05 21/1000 = 1.05 103 mol in 25 cm3


[OH ] = 1.05 1000/25 = 4.2 102 (mol dm3)

(1)

[Ca2+] = 2.1 102 (mol dm3)

(1)

Ksp = 2.1 102 (4.2 102)2 = 3.7 105

(1)

(iii) less soluble in NaOH due to the common ion effect or equilibrium is shifted
to the l.h.s. by high [OH ] (NOT just a mention of Le Chatr on its own)

(1)

[6]

[Total: 15]

UCLES 2010

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) SiF4 is symmetrical or tetrahedral or bonds are at 109 or has no lone pair or
4 electron pairs shared equally or all Si-F dipoles cancel out, or SF4 has a lone
pair (on S).

Paper
42

(1)

[1]

(2)

[2]

(b)
compound

molecule has
an overall dipole

BCl 3
PCl 3
CCl 4
SF6
mark row-by-row,

molecule does not have


an overall dipole




(c) (i) Si and B have empty / available / low-lying orbitals or C does not have
available orbitals (allow B is electron deficient but not mention or implication
of d-orbital on B)
(ii) BCl 3 + 3H2O H3BO3 + 3HCl or 2BCl 3 + 3H2O B2O3 + 6HCl

(1)
(1)

SiCl 4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl etc., e.g. Si(OH)4, H2SiO3

(1)

(d) (i) Si3Cl 8O2 (this has Mr = 84 + 280 + 32 = 396) or Si4Cl 4O9 or Si8Cl 4O2

(1)

[3]

(ii)
mass number
133
247
263

structure
Cl 3Si
Cl 3Si-O-SiCl 2
Cl 3Si-O-SiCl 2-O
(3)

(if correct structures are not given for last 2 rows, you can award (1) mark for
two correct molecular formulae:
either Si2Cl 5O + Si2Cl 5O2 or Si3ClO8 + Si3ClO9 or Si7ClO + Si7ClO2)
(iii)

Cl

Si
Cl

Cl

Si
Cl

Cl

Si
Cl

Cl

Cl

allow ecf on the structure drawn in the third row of the table in (ii)
but any credited structure must show correct valencies for Si, Cl and O.

(1)

[5]

[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) Cr3+:
1s22s22p6... 3s23p63d3
2+
Mn : 1s22s22p6... 3s23p63d5
(allow (1) out of (2) for 3s23p64s23d1 and 3s23p64s23d3)

(1)
(1)
[2]

(b) (i) any three of the following points:


initial (pale) green (solution)
fades to (almost) colourless (allow yellow)
then (permanent faint) pink
finally (deep) purple

(3)

(ii) MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ (+ 5e) Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ (+ 5e)


(c) Eo values: O2 + 4H+/2H2O = +1.23V
O2 + 2H2O/4OH = +0.40V

Paper
42

(1)

Fe3+/Fe2+ = +0.77 V
Fe(OH)3/Fe(OH)2 = 0.56V

[4]

(2)

Eocell = +0.46V (allow 0.37) in acid, but +0.96V in alkali or Eo (OH) > Eo (H+)

(1)

If Ecell is more positive it means a greater likelihood of reaction

(1)

[4]

(d)
O

[1]
(1)

CH3CO2H

and

HO2C

CO2H

[1]
(1)

[1]
(1)

(or CO2H)
O

O
CO2H

H3C

or

CHO
H3C

[1]
(1)

[1]
(1)

[5]
(e) (i) (CH3)2C(OH)CH2OH

(1)

(ii) reaction I: (cold dilute) KMnO4 (cold not needed, but hot or warm negates)
reaction II: Cr2O72 + H+ + distil

(1)
(1)

[3]

[Total: 18 max 17]

UCLES 2010

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) because the carbons are sp2 / trigonal planar / bonded at 120 or are joined
by bonds / orbitals

(1)

(ii) because the electrons / double bonds are delocalised / in resonance or


electrons are evenly distributed / spread out

(1)

(b) (i) HNO3 + 2H2SO4 NO2+ + H3O+ + 2HSO4


or HNO3 + H2SO4 H2NO3+ + HSO4 or H2O + NO2+ + HSO4
(ii) electrophilic substitution
mechanism:
H

[2]

(1)

(1)
NO2

NO2

curly arrows from benzene to NO2+, and showing loss of H+


correct intermediate (with + in the horse-shoe)

(1)
(1)

[4]

(c) Cl 2 + AlCl3 / FeCl3 / Fe / Al / I2 (aq or light negates this mark)

(1)

[1]

(d) (i) Y is chlorobenzene (1) Z is 4-chloronitrobenzene (1)

(2)

(ii) Sn / Fe + (conc) HCl

(1)

HCl is conc, and second step is to add NaOH(aq)


(iii)
NH2

Br

Br

NHCOCH3

allow NHOCCH3, but not


NHCH3CO or NHCH3OC

N2 (Cl

Cl

Cl

only 2 x Br, but


ignore orientation

(1)

OH

or

B
Cl

no reaction

Cl

(4)

[8]

[Total: 15]

UCLES 2010

Page 7
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) Primary the amino acid sequence / order / chain


or diag. e.g. NH-C-CO-NH-C-CO
or amino acids bonded by covalent / amide / peptide bonds
(ii) Tertiary the coiling / folding of the protein / polypeptide chain due to
interactions between side-chains on the amino acids or the structure which
gives the protein its 3-D / globular shape
(b) (i) Diagram:
Minimum is CH2S-SCH2

Paper
42

(1)

(1)

[2]

(1)

(ii) Oxidation / dehydrogenation / redox

(1)

(iii) Hydrogen / H bonds; ionic interactions / bonds or ion-dipole or salt bridges;


van der Waals or id-id or induced / instantaneous dipole forces
(ignore hydrophobic interactions)

(2)

(c) (i) Hydrogen bonds

[4]

(1)

(ii) Correct new strand present (see below)


Diagram showing C=O bonding to N-H in new strand...
...and N-H bonding to C=O in new strand
e.g.

needed



R
N
O

N
R

New strand must contain a minimum of two amino acid residues in a single
chain. Deduct a penalty of (1) for any wrong H-bond only if (2) marks have
already been scored.

(2)

[3]

(d) There are bonds or S-S bridges / linkages between the layers / sheets
(in -keratin) (but only van der Waals interactions between the layers in silk)

(1)

[1]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 8
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) The amino acid is uncharged / neutral / a zwitterion or charges balance / are
equal (NOT is non-polar)
It is equally attracted by the anode / + and the cathode / or attracted by neither
The pH of the buffer is at the isoelectric point/IEP of the amino acid any two 
(b) (at pH 10), H2NCH2CO2 or NH2CH2COO

(2)

[2]

(1)

[1]

(3)

[3]

(c)
amino acid
relative size
A
small(est) (1)
B
large(st) (3)
C
middle
(2)
(numbers are OK to show relative sizes)
Mark each row
(d) (i) lys val ser ala gly ala gly asp

charge
ve
ve
+ve

(2)

(ii) gly ala gly

(1)

(iii) aspartic acid (or lysine)

(1)

[4]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 9
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) Reaction II since electrons are used up / required / gained / received (from
external circuit)
(b) (Pb2+ + 2e Pb)
(PbO2 + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O)

Eo = 0.13V
Eo = +1.47V
two correct Eo values

Cell voltage is 1.6(0) (V)

[1]

(1)
[2]

(1)

(ii) They are less heavy / poisonous / toxic / polluting or are safer due to no
(conc) H2SO4 within them
(d) (i) Platinum or graphite / carbon

(1)

[2]

(1)

(ii) They need large quantities of compressed gases which take up space or the
hydrogen would need to be liquefied or the reactant is (highly) flammable /
explosive / combustible

Steel:

(1)

(1)

(c) (i) 3(+)

(e) Glass:

Paper
42

saves energy the raw materials are easily accessible / cheap


or making glass is energy-intensive

(1)

[2]

(1)

saves energy extracting iron from the ore


or mining the ore is energy intensive
or saves a resource iron ore (NOT just iron) is becoming scarce
either one (1)

Plastics: saves a valuable / scarce resource: (crude) oil / petroleum

(1)

[3]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2010 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2010 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) C6H5-COCH2OH or C8H8O2 and NaCl or Cl

(1) + (1)

(b) (i) the exponent / power to which a concentration is raised in the rate equation
(or in an equation, e.g. a in the equ: rate = k[A]a)

[2]

(1)

(ii) from 1 and 2: rate increases by 50% as does [RCl ], so rate [RCl ]1
from 1 and 3: rate [NaOH]1

(1)
(1)

(iii) (rate =) k[RCl ][OH ]

(1)

(iv)
(can be a solid line)

(-)
R

HO

(+)

Cl

HO
(H) (H)

C
(H) (H)

HO
Cl

R
C

+ Cl

(H)(H)

marking points:
(+) or + on C and () or on Cl
lone pair and charge on: OH
curly arrow from OH (lone pair) to (+)C, and either a curly arrow breaking
C-Cl bond or 5-valent transition state (ignore charge)
SN1 alternative for last mark (only award mark if candidates rate
equation shows first order reaction): curly arrow breaking C-Cl bond and
carbocation intermediate.

(1)
(1)
(1)

[7]

(c) (i) (add RCl / RCOCl to) (aq) Ag+ / AgNO3 or named indicator (e.g. MeOr) or
use pH probe

(1)

White ppt appears (faster with RCOCl) or turns acidic colour (e.g. red) or
shows pH decrease

(1)

if water is the only reagent, and no pH meter used: award only the second
mark, for steamy / white fumes
(ii) (C=O is polarised /) carbon is more + than in R-Cl or carbon is positive or
RCOCl can react via addition-elimination
(mention of electronegativity on its own is not enough for the mark)

(1)

[Total: 12]

UCLES 2010

[3]

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) less soluble down group

(1)

lattice energy and hydration energies both decrease (i.e. become less negative)

(1)

but H.E. decreases more (than L.E.) or change in H.E. outweighs L.E.

(1)

so Hsol becomes more endothermic / less exothermic

(1)

(b) (i) for Mg: H = 2993 1890 (2 550) = (+)3 (kJ mol1)

(1)

for Sr: H = 2467 1414 (2 550) = 47 (kJ mol1)

(1)

(ii) Sr(OH)2 should be more soluble in water, and H is more exothermic /


negative
Assuming other factors (e.g. S, or temperature etc.) are the same

(1)
(1)

(iii) Sr(OH)2 should be less soluble in hot water, because H is negative /


exothermic
(c) (i) Ksp = [Ca2+][OH ]2 (needs the charges) units: mol3dm9

[4]

(1)

[5]

(1) + (1)

(ii) n(H+) = n(OH) = 0.05 21/1000 = 1.05 103 mol in 25 cm3


[OH ] = 1.05 1000/25 = 4.2 102 (mol dm3)

(1)

[Ca2+] = 2.1 102 (mol dm3)

(1)

Ksp = 2.1 102 (4.2 102)2 = 3.7 105

(1)

(iii) less soluble in NaOH due to the common ion effect or equilibrium is shifted
to the l.h.s. by high [OH ] (NOT just a mention of Le Chatr on its own)

(1)

[6]

[Total: 15]

UCLES 2010

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) SiF4 is symmetrical or tetrahedral or bonds are at 109 or has no lone pair or
4 electron pairs shared equally or all Si-F dipoles cancel out, or SF4 has a lone
pair (on S).

Paper
43

(1)

[1]

(2)

[2]

(b)
compound

molecule has
an overall dipole

BCl 3
PCl 3
CCl 4
SF6
mark row-by-row,

molecule does not have


an overall dipole




(c) (i) Si and B have empty / available / low-lying orbitals or C does not have
available orbitals (allow B is electron deficient but not mention or implication
of d-orbital on B)
(ii) BCl 3 + 3H2O H3BO3 + 3HCl or 2BCl 3 + 3H2O B2O3 + 6HCl

(1)
(1)

SiCl 4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl etc., e.g. Si(OH)4, H2SiO3

(1)

(d) (i) Si3Cl 8O2 (this has Mr = 84 + 280 + 32 = 396) or Si4Cl 4O9 or Si8Cl 4O2

(1)

[3]

(ii)
mass number
133
247
263

structure
Cl 3Si
Cl 3Si-O-SiCl 2
Cl 3Si-O-SiCl 2-O
(3)

(if correct structures are not given for last 2 rows, you can award (1) mark for
two correct molecular formulae:
either Si2Cl 5O + Si2Cl 5O2 or Si3ClO8 + Si3ClO9 or Si7ClO + Si7ClO2)
(iii)

Cl

Si
Cl

Cl

Si
Cl

Cl

Si
Cl

Cl

Cl

allow ecf on the structure drawn in the third row of the table in (ii)
but any credited structure must show correct valencies for Si, Cl and O.

(1)

[5]

[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) Cr3+:
1s22s22p6... 3s23p63d3
2+
Mn : 1s22s22p6... 3s23p63d5
(allow (1) out of (2) for 3s23p64s23d1 and 3s23p64s23d3)

(1)
(1)
[2]

(b) (i) any three of the following points:


initial (pale) green (solution)
fades to (almost) colourless (allow yellow)
then (permanent faint) pink
finally (deep) purple

(3)

(ii) MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ (+ 5e) Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ (+ 5e)


(c) Eo values: O2 + 4H+/2H2O = +1.23V
O2 + 2H2O/4OH = +0.40V

Paper
43

(1)

Fe3+/Fe2+ = +0.77 V
Fe(OH)3/Fe(OH)2 = 0.56V

[4]

(2)

Eocell = +0.46V (allow 0.37) in acid, but +0.96V in alkali or Eo (OH) > Eo (H+)

(1)

If Ecell is more positive it means a greater likelihood of reaction

(1)

[4]

(d)
O

[1]
(1)

CH3CO2H

and

HO2C

CO2H

[1]
(1)

[1]
(1)

(or CO2H)
O

O
CO2H

H3C

or

CHO
H3C

[1]
(1)

[1]
(1)

[5]
(e) (i) (CH3)2C(OH)CH2OH

(1)

(ii) reaction I: (cold dilute) KMnO4 (cold not needed, but hot or warm negates)
reaction II: Cr2O72 + H+ + distil

(1)
(1)

[3]

[Total: 18 max 17]

UCLES 2010

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) because the carbons are sp2 / trigonal planar / bonded at 120 or are joined
by bonds / orbitals

(1)

(ii) because the electrons / double bonds are delocalised / in resonance or


electrons are evenly distributed / spread out

(1)

(b) (i) HNO3 + 2H2SO4 NO2+ + H3O+ + 2HSO4


or HNO3 + H2SO4 H2NO3+ + HSO4 or H2O + NO2+ + HSO4
(ii) electrophilic substitution
mechanism:
H

[2]

(1)

(1)
NO2

NO2

curly arrows from benzene to NO2+, and showing loss of H+


correct intermediate (with + in the horse-shoe)

(1)
(1)

[4]

(c) Cl 2 + AlCl3 / FeCl3 / Fe / Al / I2 (aq or light negates this mark)

(1)

[1]

(d) (i) Y is chlorobenzene (1) Z is 4-chloronitrobenzene (1)

(2)

(ii) Sn / Fe + (conc) HCl

(1)

HCl is conc, and second step is to add NaOH(aq)


(iii)
NH2

Br

Br

NHCOCH3

allow NHOCCH3, but not


NHCH3CO or NHCH3OC

N2 (Cl

Cl

Cl

only 2 x Br, but


ignore orientation

(1)

OH

or

B
Cl

no reaction

Cl

(4)

[8]

[Total: 15]

UCLES 2010

Page 7
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) Primary the amino acid sequence / order / chain


or diag. e.g. NH-C-CO-NH-C-CO
or amino acids bonded by covalent / amide / peptide bonds
(ii) Tertiary the coiling / folding of the protein / polypeptide chain due to
interactions between side-chains on the amino acids or the structure which
gives the protein its 3-D / globular shape
(b) (i) Diagram:
Minimum is CH2S-SCH2

Paper
43

(1)

(1)

[2]

(1)

(ii) Oxidation / dehydrogenation / redox

(1)

(iii) Hydrogen / H bonds; ionic interactions / bonds or ion-dipole or salt bridges;


van der Waals or id-id or induced / instantaneous dipole forces
(ignore hydrophobic interactions)

(2)

(c) (i) Hydrogen bonds

[4]

(1)

(ii) Correct new strand present (see below)


Diagram showing C=O bonding to N-H in new strand...
...and N-H bonding to C=O in new strand
e.g.

needed



R
N
O

N
R

New strand must contain a minimum of two amino acid residues in a single
chain. Deduct a penalty of (1) for any wrong H-bond only if (2) marks have
already been scored.

(2)

[3]

(d) There are bonds or S-S bridges / linkages between the layers / sheets
(in -keratin) (but only van der Waals interactions between the layers in silk)

(1)

[1]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 8
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) The amino acid is uncharged / neutral / a zwitterion or charges balance / are
equal (NOT is non-polar)
It is equally attracted by the anode / + and the cathode / or attracted by neither
The pH of the buffer is at the isoelectric point/IEP of the amino acid any two 
(b) (at pH 10), H2NCH2CO2 or NH2CH2COO

(2)

[2]

(1)

[1]

(3)

[3]

(c)
amino acid
relative size
A
small(est) (1)
B
large(st) (3)
C
middle
(2)
(numbers are OK to show relative sizes)
Mark each row
(d) (i) lys val ser ala gly ala gly asp

charge
ve
ve
+ve

(2)

(ii) gly ala gly

(1)

(iii) aspartic acid (or lysine)

(1)

[4]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 9
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) Reaction II since electrons are used up / required / gained / received (from
external circuit)
(b) (Pb2+ + 2e Pb)
(PbO2 + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O)

Eo = 0.13V
Eo = +1.47V
two correct Eo values

Cell voltage is 1.6(0) (V)

[1]

(1)
[2]

(1)

(ii) They are less heavy / poisonous / toxic / polluting or are safer due to no
(conc) H2SO4 within them
(d) (i) Platinum or graphite / carbon

(1)

[2]

(1)

(ii) They need large quantities of compressed gases which take up space or the
hydrogen would need to be liquefied or the reactant is (highly) flammable /
explosive / combustible

Steel:

(1)

(1)

(c) (i) 3(+)

(e) Glass:

Paper
43

saves energy the raw materials are easily accessible / cheap


or making glass is energy-intensive

(1)

[2]

(1)

saves energy extracting iron from the ore


or mining the ore is energy intensive
or saves a resource iron ore (NOT just iron) is becoming scarce
either one (1)

Plastics: saves a valuable / scarce resource: (crude) oil / petroleum

(1)

[3]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2010

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2011 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2011 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) NN triple bond is (very) strong


or the N2 molecule has no polarity
(b) 3Mg(s) 3Mg2+(g)
N2(g) 2N3(g)

Paper
41
[1]

H1 = 3 148 + 3 2186 = 7002


H2 = 994 + 2 2148 = 5290

LE = H1 H2 461 = 12,753 (kJ mol1)


(c) (i) Li3N + 3H2O NH3 + 3LiOH (balanced equation)

([1] for each error) [3]

[1]

(ii) advantage:

no high pressure/temperature/catalyst needed/standard conditions used


[1]
disadvantage: Li is expensive
or Li would need to be recycled/removed
or LiOH by-product is corrosive/strongly basic
or this would be a batch, rather than continuous process
[1]

(d) (i) Li3N: 100 14/35 = 40% N


urea: 100 28/60 = 47% N

[1]
[1]

(ii) amide

[1]

(iii) NH2CONH2 + H2O 2NH3 + CO2


or NH2CO2H + NH3
or NH2CONH2 + 2H2O 2NH3 + H2CO3

[1]

(iv) The LiOH would be strongly alkaline


or would increase the pH of the soil
or would burn the crops/reduce plant growth/stunt plants
or would contaminate the environment

[1]
[Total: 12]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) One that can go in either direction.

[1]

(ii) both forward & reverse reactions are going on at the same time, but the concentrations
of all species do not change (owtte)
or rate of forward = rate of backward reaction
[1]
(b) (i) Kc = [H+][OH]/[H2O]

[1]

(ii) Kw = [H+][OH]
rearrangement of equation in (i) gives Kc[H2O] = [H+][OH] & Kw = Kc[H2O] (owtte)
or the [H2O] is contained within Kw

[1]

(iii) Kw will be higher in hot water because reaction is endothermic

[1]

(c) (i) [OH] = 5 102; [H+] = (1 1014)/ 5 102 = 2 1013


pH = log10[H+] = 12.7

[1]

[1]
(correct ans = [2]) ecf [1]

(ii) [NH4+] = [OH] (= x)


x2 = 1.8 105 0.05 x (= [OH]) = 9.49 104 (mol dm3)

[1]
(correct ans = [2]) [1]

(iii) [H+] = Kw/[OH] = (1 1014)/ 9.49 104 = 1.05 1011(mol dm3)

ecf [1]

(iv) pH = 11.0

ecf [1]
[Total: 12 max 11]

(a) (+)1; (+)2; (+)3; (+)4


O.N. corresponds to the no. of electrons in outer/valence shell/lost

[1]
[1]

(b) PCl5 fizzes or white/misty fumes or heat evolved


PCl5 + 4H2O H3PO4 + 5HCl or PCl5 + 3H2O HPO3 + 5HCl
(allow partial hydrolysis: PCl5 + H2O POCl3 + 2HCl)

[1]
[1]

(c) (i) P = 30.4/31 = 0.98 Cl = 69.6/35.5 = 1.96


Thus E.F = PCl2
Mr(PCl2) = 102, so 2 PCl2 = 204 200, so M.F. = P2Cl4

[1]
[1]
[1]

(ii)

Cl

Cl
P
Cl

[1]

(ignore lone pairs on Cl)

P
Cl

(iii) O.N. = (+)2


(iv) (HO)2P-P(OH)2 or H(HO)P(=O)-P(=O)(OH)H
Allow HO-P-OH or HO-P=O

[1]
ecf from structure in (ii) [1]

[Total: 10]
University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) N2 + 2O2 2NO2 (or via NO) or 2NO + O2 2NO2

[1]

(b) (i) catalytic converter and passing the exhaust gases over a catalyst/Pt/Rh

[1]

(ii) NO2 + 2CO N2 + 2CO2 or similar


Allow 2NO2 + CH4 CO2 + N2 + 2H2O

[1]

(c) No, it wouldnt be reduced. Because the reaction in (a) does not presuppose a particular fuel
(owtte)
[1]
Allow formed from N2 and O2 in air during combustion
(d) (i) SO3 produces acid rain

[1]

(ii) NO + O2 NO2

[1]

(iii) Kp = ( pNO .pSO3 )/( pNO 2 .pSO2 )

[1]

units: dimensionless/none (dont accept just a blank!)

[1]

(iv) Kp = 99.82/0.22 = 2.5 105

[1]

(v) It will shift to the right (owtte)


because the reaction is exothermic. NOT just Le Chatelier argument

[1]
[1]
[Total: 11]

(a)
transformation

reagent + conditions

C2H4 C2H5Cl

HCl, no light or catalyst

C2H5OH C2H5Cl

conc HCl + ZnCl2 or SOCl2 or PCl5 or PCl3 and heat

C2H6 C2H5Cl

Cl2 + light

C2H4 C2H4Cl2

Cl2, no light or catalyst

CH3CO2H CH3COCl

SOCl2 or PCl5 or PCl3 and heat

H 3C

H 3C

CH3

Cl

CH2Cl

Cl2 + AlCl3
Cl2 + light or heat
[6]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(b) (i) production of NO2+: 2H2SO4 + HNO3 2HSO4 + H3O+ + NO2+


(accept H2SO4 + HNO3 HSO4 + H2O + NO2+)
H

NO2

Paper
41
[1]

NO2

curly arrow from ring to NO2+ and from C-H bond to ring
correct intermediate, including charge in the right place
Note charge area must be more than half ring

[1]
[1]

(ii) C is C6H5CO2H

[1]

(iii) step 1: reagent is hot acidified or alkaline KMnO4


step 2: reagent is Br2 + FeBr3/AlCl3 etc. (H2O or light negates)

[1]
[1]

(If C is given as 3-bromotoluene, then allow the last [2] marks if steps 1 and 2 are
reversed.)
[Total: 12]
6

(a) (i) aqueous alkaline iodine or I2 + OH(aq) allow NaClO + KI

[1]

(ii) CH3CO- or CH3CH(OH)-

[1]

(iii) Pale yellow ppt. or antiseptic smell

[1]

(iv)
compound

result

CH3OH

CH3CH2OH

CH3CHO

CH3CO2H

CHO

COCH3


 [3]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(b) (allow displayed, skeletal or structural formulae)


O

CHO

CO2H
O

CO2H )

(no mark for

for D allow
CHO

(D + E + F): 3 [1]
(c) (allow displayed, skeletal and structural formulae)
Must be consistent with F
OH

G
allow for G

CO2H

CO2H

CO2H

CO2H

H
(only allow mark for H
if G is the 3-OH acid)

CO2H

OH

(N.B. letters H, J, K can be swapped around)


geometrical or cis-trans isomerism

(G + H + J + K): 4 [1]
[1]
[Total: 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 7
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) The tertiary/3-dimensional structure/shape is held together by hydrogen/ionic/van der Waals


bonds
[1]
These break (relatively) easily/are weak/break at/above 45 C
[1]
(b) (or similar diagrams)

Enzyme + substrate

Enzyme-substrate complex

Enzyme + products

3 [1]

(c) a competitive inhibitor combines with the enzymes active site (so preventing the substrate
from binding)
[1]
non-competitive inhibitor bonds with the enzyme away from the active site/at an allosteric site
[1]
this changes the shape of the active site

[1]

Also allow competitive inhibition can be overcome by increasing [substrate] or


non-competitive inhibition cannot be removed by increasing [substrate] for the 3rd mark
(d) (i)

Line must be of similar shape to original but level out below original line

[1]

(ii) Inhibitor reduces the number of enzymes with working active sites (owtte)

[1]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 8
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) partition separation due to the different solubilities of compounds in two solvents/phases
[1]
adsorption separation due to the different attractions between the compounds and the
stationary phase, relative to their solubility in the solvent
[1]
Note, if candidates do not refer to different solubilities and different attractions
max 1
(b)

X - sample

Ring:
A + B:

[1]
[1]

(c) (i) X is bromine M and (M+2) peaks almost same height


(ii)

M
100 9 100
=
=
M + 1 1.1 n 0.3
Hence n =

[1]

1.1 n

100 0.3
= 3.03
1.1 9

p = 3
(answer + working) [1]

(If the mass peak is at 122 and the compound contains Br and 3 C atoms then
Q = (122 79 36)) thus Q = 7
ecf from (ii) [1]
(The compound is C3H7Br)
(iii) (R is at m/e 43), hence C3H7+
(d) Any two from H2, H2O, CO, C2H4, C2H2, CH4

[1]
2 [1]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 9
9

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) One

[1]

(ii) Any alkene (or allow a cyclic amide, as in caprolactam)


(b) Any TWO from:

[1]

addition needs unsaturated/double bonds/alkene


condensation eliminates a small molecule
condensation needs a molecule other than a hydrocarbon
empirical formula of addition polymer is the same as that of its monomer
condensation needs two different functional groups
(NOT condensation needs two different monomers)

2 [1]

(c) (i) Water

[1]

(ii)
O
O

CH2
CH2 O

Correct ester bond


sticks to rest of molecule
Note : candidates need only show brackets if more than one repeat unit shown
(iii) Polyesters

[1]
[1]
[1]

(d) Monomers in Terylene have to alternate in order to condense out water (owtte)

[1]

Alkenes can link in any order (and still form a polyalkene) (or diagram showing this)

[1]

[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2011 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2011 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) [H+] = (0.05 5.6 104) = 5.29 103 mol dm3


pH = log10(5.29 103) = 2.3

(b) (i) (Brnsted-Lowry)


equilibrium

[1]
[1]
[2]

acid-base/proton transfer/neutralisation/exothermic/reversible/
[1]

(ii)
H
H

[1]

[1]

[1]

3 x [1]

(iii) (in NH4F):


covalent: between N & H
dative: between N & H
ionic: between NH4+ & F or N+ & F or ammonium and fluoride (i.e. in words)
or between (oppositely charge) ions

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iv) (reverse reaction, remember)


high temperature, because reverse reaction is endothermic
[1]
low pressure, because reverse reaction causes an increase in no. of gaseous molecules
or an increase in partial pressure/volume.
[1]
[9]
(c) (i) 4NH3 + CuS + 2O2 [Cu(NH3)4]SO4

[1]

(ii) deep/dark/royal blue or purple [NOT violet]

[1]

(iii) deep blue colour would change to light blue [NOT intensity of colour decreases]
hexaquocopper(II) ion or [Cu(H2O)6]2+ or [Cu(H2O)n(NH3)an]2+, where a = 4 or 6
or ligand exchange (of NH3) by H2O

[1]

(d) ligand exchange/substitution/displacement/replacement [IN WORDS]


(use of named ligands are OK instead of ligand. e.g. water is displaced by chloride)
formula of anion (see below for possibilities)
balanced equation. e.g.[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + nCl [Cu(H2O)6nCln]2n + nH2O

[1]
[4]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(Allow n=1 up to n=6. Also allow [CuCln]2n as product. Examples from many possible are:
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 2Cl [Cu(H2O)4Cl2] + 2H2O
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4Cl [CuCl4]2 + 6H2O
equation could include HCl on the LHS, for example:
[3]
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4HCl H2CuCl4 + 2H+ + 6H2O or CuCl42 + 4H+ + 6H2O
[Total: 18 max 17]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i)
high

electrical conductivity

high

medium

melting point

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

low

Si

Ge

Sn

Pb

medium

or

low

Si

Ge

Sn

Pb

[2] + [2]
(ii) m. pt. trend: (from) giant/macro molecular/covalent to metallic bonding
(or implied from at least two specific examples, e.g. diamond and tin)
(mention of simple covalent anywhere negates this mark)

[1]

conductivity trend: increasing delocalisation of electrons (down the group)


[1]
or e are more free-moving
(or implied from at least two examples, e.g. Si is semiconductor, lead has delocalised e)
[6]
(b) (i) heat PbO2, or T > 200C or on arrow: PbO2 PbO + O2 (N.B. O2 NOT [O])

[1]

(ii) (burning CO in air produces CO2):CO + O2 CO2


blue flame (ignore ref to limewater test)

[1]
[1]

(iii) e.g. SnCl2(aq) will turn KMnO4 from purple to colourless


5Sn2+ + 2MnO4 + 16H+ 5Sn4+ + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

[1]
[1]

or SnCl2(aq) will turn K2Cr2O7 from orange to green


3Sn2+ + Cr2O72 + 14H+ 3Sn4+ + 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

[1]
[1]

or SnCl2(aq) will turn Fe3+ from orange/brown/yellow to green/colourless


Sn2+ + 2Fe3+ Sn4+ + 2Fe2+

[1]
[1]

or SnCl2(aq) will turn Cu2+(aq) from blue to colourless or give a pink/brown/coppercoloured ppt.
[1]
Sn2+ + Cu2+ Sn4+ + Cu
[1]
Other possible oxidants (Eo must be > +0.2V) include: S2O82, H2O2, Cl2, Br2, I2 and Ag+.
No observations with the first three of these, but this should be stated explicitly, e.g. no
colour change.
[5]
[Total: 11 max 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) L = F/e or F = Le

Paper
42
[1]
[1]

(b) (i)
+

P .S .

a no d e

c a tho d e

C uS O 4 (a q )

allow the conventional symbol

to represent

(the "P.S." is not required)

correct cell (2 electrodes + PS circuit)


ammeter in series
anode and cathode of the right polarity [IN WORDS]
CuSO4(aq) or CuCl2(aq) or Cu2+(aq) or soln or 1 mol dm3
(ii) n(Cu) = (52.54252.243)/63.5 = 4.71 103 mol (4.67 103)
n(e) required = 4.71 103 2 = 9.42 103 mol (9.34 103)
amount of electricity passed = 0.5 30 60 = 900 C
no. of electrons passed = 900/1.6 1019 = 5.625 1021

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
ecf [1]
[1]
ecf [1]

no of electrons/n(e) = L = 5.625 1021/9.42 103 = 5.97 1023 mol1 (6.02 1023)


ecf [1]
(values in italics are if candidate has used Ar = 64, not 63.5. No last mark if not 3 s.f.:
correct ans = [5])
[9]
(c)
compound

product at anode

product at cathode

AgF

O2

Ag

FeSO4

O2

H2

MgBr2

Br2

H2
6 correct [5]
5 correct [4] etc.

Names can be used instead of symbols. If the atomic symbol (e.g. Br or H or O) is used
instead of the molecular formula (e.g. Br2 etc.) then deduct [1] mark only for the whole table.
[5]
[Total: 15]
University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) (allow displayed, structural or skeletal formula)


OCOCH3

OCOCH3

chain
repeat unit

[1]
[1]

(ii) C should be CH2=CHOH (or skeletal formula)

[1]

(iii) C is CH3CH=O (or skeletal formula)

[1]

(iv) e.g. add (2,4-)DNPH or DNP or Bradys reagent


orange or red ppt forms (NOT yellow)
(or could use Fehlings or Tollens,
or H+ + Cr2O72: orange to green, or H+ + MnO4: purple to colourless)

ecf [1]
ecf [1]
[6]

(b) (i) (allow displayed, structural or skeletal formula)

O
O

correct repeat unit bracketed (any 3 atoms in chain)

[1]

(ii) ester

[1]

(iii) E is CH3CH2CH(OH)CO2H (or skeletal structure etc.)(2-hydroxybutanoic acid)


allow ecf here from the formula of the repeat unit shown in (b)(i)

[1]

(iv) condensation (polymerisation)

[1]

(v) they have the same molecular formula or C4H6O2 (do NOT allow empirical formula) or
same no. and type of atoms or same functional group or both are esters or they are
isomers
[1]
[5]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(c) (i) optical isomerism (or chiral)

Paper
42
[1]

(ii)
CO2H
CO2H

(letters may be reversed)(allow ecf from E, also allow ecf for G from F)
cis-trans or geometrical isomerism

[1] + [1]
[1]
[4]
[Total: 15]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 7
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) acidity: ethanol < water


[1]
due to +ve inductive effect of C2H5 group or C2H5 gives e to oxygen or intensifies e (in O-H
bond)
[1]
acidity: phenol > water
[1]
due to stabilisation of the anion/anionic charge or makes the anion less basic
[1]
[4]
(b)
nothing special

OH

ONa

+ Na

OH

ONa

nothing special

+ NaOH

OH

[1]

H2

H2O

[1]

nothing special
NO REACTION

+ CH3CO2H

must be (aq)

OH

[1]

OH

[1]

Br

Br

[1]

+ Br2
Br

[5]
(c) H is
OH

NO2

[1]

reagents & conditions:


step 1 dilute HNO3 (dilute, not just aq. H2SO4 negates)

[1]

step 2 Sn/SnCl2/Fe + HCl or H2 + Ni/Pd (NOT H2 + Pt. NOT LiAlH4 or NaBH4)

[1]

step 3 CH3COCl or (CH3CO)2O (aq. negates)

[1]
[4]
[Total: 13]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 8
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) They are polar/ionic or can hydrogen-bond or are hydrophilic.


(NOT contain the OH group, on its own)

[1]
[1]

(b) (i) Primary structure is the sequence/order of amino acids


[1]
Secondary structure is the H-bonding between C=O & N-H or peptide group/bonds
[1]
Tertiary structure gives the (overall) 3D structure/shape/folding/globularity
(not coiling on its own)
or mention of at least one method of forming the 3 structure, e.g.; hydrogen bonding
between R-groups/side chains; S-S- bridges; van der Waals forces; ionic interactions
[1]
(ii) The 3 structure provides a complementary shape to that of the substrate
or it provides the right/specifically shaped cavity for the substrate. (NOT just a cleft)
or provides nearby groups to aid the reactions of the substrate (owtte)

[1]

(iii) Two conditions out of the following:


(a) Increased temperature
(b) Decreased temperature
(c) Change in pH
(d) Addition of heavy metals (or specified, e.g. Hg/Ag)
(e) Addition of inhibitors (competitive or non-competitive)
Suitable reasons:
(i) 3D structure changes shape/is deformed/is broken or R-R interactions (or a specific
example, e.g. H-bonding) are broken
(ii) inhibitor occupies active site.
(iii) either fewer substrate molecules with E > Ea or fewer successful collisions
[2]
[6]
(c) (i)
pepsin

trypsin
amylase

activity

10

pH

left hand peak labelled as pepsin


right hand peak labelled as trypsin
(Correct enzymes, but wrong way round, scores [1] only)
(ii) Peak between pH 6 and pH 8, and correct name (amylase)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a)
Number

Process

Correct sequence
(numbers)

Place samples on agarose gel

Use polymerase chain reaction

Label with radioactive isotope

Extract DNA

Use restriction enzyme

Carry out electrophoresis

mark as follows:

if A is just before F (i.e. A = 4, F = 5 or A = 5, F = 6)


if D = 1 and E = 2
if C = 6

[1] mark
[1] mark
[1] mark
[3]

(b) (i) P or phosphorus (NOT phosphate)

[1]

(ii) Phosphate groups are present in DNA or it makes the DNA fragments/bands etc. visible
or locates their position or identifies them on a photographic plate etc.
[1]
(NOT because its radioactive or makes the bands coloured)
[2]
(c) (i) Yes, all 4 children share one/some band (or match/gene/fragment/part/DNA/
amino acid) with the mothers (DNA) (NOT the general statement matches the
mothers DNA)

[1]

(ii) Child 2, since he/she shares none of the bands of fathers DNA/fingerprint or their
fingerprint/DNA does not match the fathers DNA (the general match is OK here)
[1]
[2]
(d) (i) Compare DNA fingerprint for each fragment (can be read into use of the word
same below)
Match the DNA patterns to determine which came from which skin

[1]
[1]

(ii) A named example of biological origin (N.B. a material, not a whole organism)
[1]
e.g. leather (= bull skin), pollen, fish scales, leaves, seeds, feathers, hair, blood, textiles
(or a named one like wool or silk or cotton or linen/flax), wood.
(N.B. NOT human or goat skin, also not metal, pottery or stone. If more than one
material is given, mark the first one)
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) Range should be from 106107 (the left hand arrow)


to 108109 (the right hand arrow)

Paper
42
[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) Forms of the same element (or of carbon, since carbon is the context of the question)
[1]
with different structures/arrangements of atoms
[1]
allow different molecular structure, but not structural formula. Any mention of compound
negates the mark.
[2]
(c) Nanoparticles are smaller than (animal) cells or they can pass through the cell membrane
or pass into/between cells
[1]
Drugs can be bound to/enclosed by the nanoparticle
[1]
[2]
(d) (i) Reduction/redox

[1]

(ii) Mr of chalcopyrite is 63.5 + 56 + 64 = 183.5


Mass of copper present is 63.5

63.5 100
= 34.6%
183.5
(if Ar(Cu) = 64 is used, ans = 34.8%. allow 3435%)
Hence percentage of copper present =

[1]

(iii) If the ore contains 2% of chalcopyrite by mass, calculate how much copper is produced
from each tonne of ore.
1 tonne = 1000 kg
1 tonne of chalcopyrite would produce 346 kg of copper
1 tonne of 2 % ore would produce 346 0.02 or 6.9 kg of copper ecf from (d)(ii)
[1]
(accept 7.0 or 7 kg)
answer may be given as 7000 g or 7 103 tonnes. If no units are given, assume they
are tonnes, and mark accordingly)
(iv) By displacement with a metal (the following specified metals higher than Cu in the ECS
may be used: Fe, Zn, Sn, Pb, Al, Mg. (NOT Ca, Li, Na. K etc.) or with a suitable nonmetallic reducing agent, e.g. SO2 or Sn2+, but not something that wouldnt react, like H2
or By electrolysis (with carefully controlled voltage)
[1]
[4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2011 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2011 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) [H+] = (0.05 5.6 104) = 5.29 103 mol dm3


pH = log10(5.29 103) = 2.3

(b) (i) (Brnsted-Lowry)


equilibrium

[1]
[1]
[2]

acid-base/proton transfer/neutralisation/exothermic/reversible/
[1]

(ii)
H
H

[1]

[1]

[1]

3 x [1]

(iii) (in NH4F):


covalent: between N & H
dative: between N & H
ionic: between NH4+ & F or N+ & F or ammonium and fluoride (i.e. in words)
or between (oppositely charge) ions

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iv) (reverse reaction, remember)


high temperature, because reverse reaction is endothermic
[1]
low pressure, because reverse reaction causes an increase in no. of gaseous molecules
or an increase in partial pressure/volume.
[1]
[9]
(c) (i) 4NH3 + CuS + 2O2 [Cu(NH3)4]SO4

[1]

(ii) deep/dark/royal blue or purple [NOT violet]

[1]

(iii) deep blue colour would change to light blue [NOT intensity of colour decreases]
hexaquocopper(II) ion or [Cu(H2O)6]2+ or [Cu(H2O)n(NH3)an]2+, where a = 4 or 6
or ligand exchange (of NH3) by H2O

[1]

(d) ligand exchange/substitution/displacement/replacement [IN WORDS]


(use of named ligands are OK instead of ligand. e.g. water is displaced by chloride)
formula of anion (see below for possibilities)
balanced equation. e.g.[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + nCl [Cu(H2O)6nCln]2n + nH2O

[1]
[4]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(Allow n=1 up to n=6. Also allow [CuCln]2n as product. Examples from many possible are:
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 2Cl [Cu(H2O)4Cl2] + 2H2O
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4Cl [CuCl4]2 + 6H2O
equation could include HCl on the LHS, for example:
[3]
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4HCl H2CuCl4 + 2H+ + 6H2O or CuCl42 + 4H+ + 6H2O
[Total: 18 max 17]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i)
high

electrical conductivity

high

medium

melting point

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

low

Si

Ge

Sn

Pb

medium

or

low

Si

Ge

Sn

Pb

[2] + [2]
(ii) m. pt. trend: (from) giant/macro molecular/covalent to metallic bonding
(or implied from at least two specific examples, e.g. diamond and tin)
(mention of simple covalent anywhere negates this mark)

[1]

conductivity trend: increasing delocalisation of electrons (down the group)


[1]
or e are more free-moving
(or implied from at least two examples, e.g. Si is semiconductor, lead has delocalised e)
[6]
(b) (i) heat PbO2, or T > 200C or on arrow: PbO2 PbO + O2 (N.B. O2 NOT [O])

[1]

(ii) (burning CO in air produces CO2):CO + O2 CO2


blue flame (ignore ref to limewater test)

[1]
[1]

(iii) e.g. SnCl2(aq) will turn KMnO4 from purple to colourless


5Sn2+ + 2MnO4 + 16H+ 5Sn4+ + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

[1]
[1]

or SnCl2(aq) will turn K2Cr2O7 from orange to green


3Sn2+ + Cr2O72 + 14H+ 3Sn4+ + 2Cr3+ + 7H2O

[1]
[1]

or SnCl2(aq) will turn Fe3+ from orange/brown/yellow to green/colourless


Sn2+ + 2Fe3+ Sn4+ + 2Fe2+

[1]
[1]

or SnCl2(aq) will turn Cu2+(aq) from blue to colourless or give a pink/brown/coppercoloured ppt.
[1]
Sn2+ + Cu2+ Sn4+ + Cu
[1]
Other possible oxidants (Eo must be > +0.2V) include: S2O82, H2O2, Cl2, Br2, I2 and Ag+.
No observations with the first three of these, but this should be stated explicitly, e.g. no
colour change.
[5]
[Total: 11 max 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) L = F/e or F = Le

Paper
43
[1]
[1]

(b) (i)
+

P .S .

a no d e

c a tho d e

C uS O 4 (a q )

allow the conventional symbol

to represent

(the "P.S." is not required)

correct cell (2 electrodes + PS circuit)


ammeter in series
anode and cathode of the right polarity [IN WORDS]
CuSO4(aq) or CuCl2(aq) or Cu2+(aq) or soln or 1 mol dm3
(ii) n(Cu) = (52.54252.243)/63.5 = 4.71 103 mol (4.67 103)
n(e) required = 4.71 103 2 = 9.42 103 mol (9.34 103)
amount of electricity passed = 0.5 30 60 = 900 C
no. of electrons passed = 900/1.6 1019 = 5.625 1021

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
ecf [1]
[1]
ecf [1]

no of electrons/n(e) = L = 5.625 1021/9.42 103 = 5.97 1023 mol1 (6.02 1023)


ecf [1]
(values in italics are if candidate has used Ar = 64, not 63.5. No last mark if not 3 s.f.:
correct ans = [5])
[9]
(c)
compound

product at anode

product at cathode

AgF

O2

Ag

FeSO4

O2

H2

MgBr2

Br2

H2
6 correct [5]
5 correct [4] etc.

Names can be used instead of symbols. If the atomic symbol (e.g. Br or H or O) is used
instead of the molecular formula (e.g. Br2 etc.) then deduct [1] mark only for the whole table.
[5]
[Total: 15]
University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) (allow displayed, structural or skeletal formula)


OCOCH3

OCOCH3

chain
repeat unit

[1]
[1]

(ii) C should be CH2=CHOH (or skeletal formula)

[1]

(iii) C is CH3CH=O (or skeletal formula)

[1]

(iv) e.g. add (2,4-)DNPH or DNP or Bradys reagent


orange or red ppt forms (NOT yellow)
(or could use Fehlings or Tollens,
or H+ + Cr2O72: orange to green, or H+ + MnO4: purple to colourless)

ecf [1]
ecf [1]
[6]

(b) (i) (allow displayed, structural or skeletal formula)

O
O

correct repeat unit bracketed (any 3 atoms in chain)

[1]

(ii) ester

[1]

(iii) E is CH3CH2CH(OH)CO2H (or skeletal structure etc.)(2-hydroxybutanoic acid)


allow ecf here from the formula of the repeat unit shown in (b)(i)

[1]

(iv) condensation (polymerisation)

[1]

(v) they have the same molecular formula or C4H6O2 (do NOT allow empirical formula) or
same no. and type of atoms or same functional group or both are esters or they are
isomers
[1]
[5]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(c) (i) optical isomerism (or chiral)

Paper
43
[1]

(ii)
CO2H
CO2H

(letters may be reversed)(allow ecf from E, also allow ecf for G from F)
cis-trans or geometrical isomerism

[1] + [1]
[1]
[4]
[Total: 15]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 7
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) acidity: ethanol < water


[1]
due to +ve inductive effect of C2H5 group or C2H5 gives e to oxygen or intensifies e (in O-H
bond)
[1]
acidity: phenol > water
[1]
due to stabilisation of the anion/anionic charge or makes the anion less basic
[1]
[4]
(b)
nothing special

OH

ONa

+ Na

OH

ONa

nothing special

+ NaOH

OH

[1]

H2

H2O

[1]

nothing special
NO REACTION

+ CH3CO2H

must be (aq)

OH

[1]

OH

[1]

Br

Br

[1]

+ Br2
Br

[5]
(c) H is
OH

NO2

[1]

reagents & conditions:


step 1 dilute HNO3 (dilute, not just aq. H2SO4 negates)

[1]

step 2 Sn/SnCl2/Fe + HCl or H2 + Ni/Pd (NOT H2 + Pt. NOT LiAlH4 or NaBH4)

[1]

step 3 CH3COCl or (CH3CO)2O (aq. negates)

[1]
[4]
[Total: 13]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 8
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) They are polar/ionic or can hydrogen-bond or are hydrophilic.


(NOT contain the OH group, on its own)

[1]
[1]

(b) (i) Primary structure is the sequence/order of amino acids


[1]
Secondary structure is the H-bonding between C=O & N-H or peptide group/bonds
[1]
Tertiary structure gives the (overall) 3D structure/shape/folding/globularity
(not coiling on its own)
or mention of at least one method of forming the 3 structure, e.g.; hydrogen bonding
between R-groups/side chains; S-S- bridges; van der Waals forces; ionic interactions
[1]
(ii) The 3 structure provides a complementary shape to that of the substrate
or it provides the right/specifically shaped cavity for the substrate. (NOT just a cleft)
or provides nearby groups to aid the reactions of the substrate (owtte)

[1]

(iii) Two conditions out of the following:


(a) Increased temperature
(b) Decreased temperature
(c) Change in pH
(d) Addition of heavy metals (or specified, e.g. Hg/Ag)
(e) Addition of inhibitors (competitive or non-competitive)
Suitable reasons:
(i) 3D structure changes shape/is deformed/is broken or R-R interactions (or a specific
example, e.g. H-bonding) are broken
(ii) inhibitor occupies active site.
(iii) either fewer substrate molecules with E > Ea or fewer successful collisions
[2]
[6]
(c) (i)
pepsin

trypsin
amylase

activity

10

pH

left hand peak labelled as pepsin


right hand peak labelled as trypsin
(Correct enzymes, but wrong way round, scores [1] only)
(ii) Peak between pH 6 and pH 8, and correct name (amylase)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)
Number

Process

Correct sequence
(numbers)

Place samples on agarose gel

Use polymerase chain reaction

Label with radioactive isotope

Extract DNA

Use restriction enzyme

Carry out electrophoresis

mark as follows:

if A is just before F (i.e. A = 4, F = 5 or A = 5, F = 6)


if D = 1 and E = 2
if C = 6

[1] mark
[1] mark
[1] mark
[3]

(b) (i) P or phosphorus (NOT phosphate)

[1]

(ii) Phosphate groups are present in DNA or it makes the DNA fragments/bands etc. visible
or locates their position or identifies them on a photographic plate etc.
[1]
(NOT because its radioactive or makes the bands coloured)
[2]
(c) (i) Yes, all 4 children share one/some band (or match/gene/fragment/part/DNA/
amino acid) with the mothers (DNA) (NOT the general statement matches the
mothers DNA)

[1]

(ii) Child 2, since he/she shares none of the bands of fathers DNA/fingerprint or their
fingerprint/DNA does not match the fathers DNA (the general match is OK here)
[1]
[2]
(d) (i) Compare DNA fingerprint for each fragment (can be read into use of the word
same below)
Match the DNA patterns to determine which came from which skin

[1]
[1]

(ii) A named example of biological origin (N.B. a material, not a whole organism)
[1]
e.g. leather (= bull skin), pollen, fish scales, leaves, seeds, feathers, hair, blood, textiles
(or a named one like wool or silk or cotton or linen/flax), wood.
(N.B. NOT human or goat skin, also not metal, pottery or stone. If more than one
material is given, mark the first one)
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) Range should be from 106107 (the left hand arrow)


to 108109 (the right hand arrow)

Paper
43
[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) Forms of the same element (or of carbon, since carbon is the context of the question)
[1]
with different structures/arrangements of atoms
[1]
allow different molecular structure, but not structural formula. Any mention of compound
negates the mark.
[2]
(c) Nanoparticles are smaller than (animal) cells or they can pass through the cell membrane
or pass into/between cells
[1]
Drugs can be bound to/enclosed by the nanoparticle
[1]
[2]
(d) (i) Reduction/redox

[1]

(ii) Mr of chalcopyrite is 63.5 + 56 + 64 = 183.5


Mass of copper present is 63.5

63.5 100
= 34.6%
183.5
(if Ar(Cu) = 64 is used, ans = 34.8%. allow 3435%)
Hence percentage of copper present =

[1]

(iii) If the ore contains 2% of chalcopyrite by mass, calculate how much copper is produced
from each tonne of ore.
1 tonne = 1000 kg
1 tonne of chalcopyrite would produce 346 kg of copper
1 tonne of 2 % ore would produce 346 0.02 or 6.9 kg of copper ecf from (d)(ii)
[1]
(accept 7.0 or 7 kg)
answer may be given as 7000 g or 7 103 tonnes. If no units are given, assume they
are tonnes, and mark accordingly)
(iv) By displacement with a metal (the following specified metals higher than Cu in the ECS
may be used: Fe, Zn, Sn, Pb, Al, Mg. (NOT Ca, Li, Na. K etc.) or with a suitable nonmetallic reducing agent, e.g. SO2 or Sn2+, but not something that wouldnt react, like H2
or By electrolysis (with carefully controlled voltage)
[1]
[4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2012 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2012 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) the enthalpy change/released when 1 mole is formed

[1]

of ionic lattice from the gas phase ions

[1]

(ii) Mg2+ + O2 MgO

[1]
[3]

(b) measurements needed:


volume/mass/weight of water (in calorimeter)
initial + final temperature/temperature change/temperature rise (of the water)
mass of Mg (used)/mass MgO
Not volume/moles/mass of oxygen used

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(c) H = 148 + 736 + 1450 + 496/2 - 141 + 798 3791


= 552 kJ mol1

[3]
[3]

(d) Na2O(s) + H2O(aq/l) 2NaOH(aq)


MgO(s) + H2O(aq/l) Mg(OH)2(s) or Mg(OH)2(aq)
pH 12.5-14 [NaOH] AND 8-10.5 [Mg(OH)2] respectively

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 12]

2.

(a) (i)
O

[1]
(ii) 180 kJ mol1

[1]

(iii) (formation of NO is endothermic) so high T and equilibrium pushed over to NO side.


or high T and needed to break N-N bond in N2

[1]

(iv) 180 = 2 E(NO) 994 496


E(NO) = +655 kJ mol1

(b) (i) (from 1 and 2:)


(from 1 and 3:)

as p(NO) halves, rate decreases to , so order = 2


as p(H2) halves, so does rate, so order = 1

(ii) rate = k pNO2.pH2


units (of k) are atm2 s1

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]
[5]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

Page 3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(iii) add all three equations:


NO + NO + H2 + O + H2 + N2O N2O + O + H2O + N2 + H2O
cross out all species common to both sides:
NO + NO + H2 + O + H2 + N2O N2O + O + H2O + N2 + H2O
( 2NO + 2H2 N2 + 2H2O)

[1]
[1]

(iv) either: step 2 since it involves H2


O formed from NO
or:
step 3 since it involves H2
N2O formed from NO

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[8]

(c) (i) NO
(ii)

[1]

3Fe2+ + 4H+ + NO3 3Fe3+ + NO + 2H2O


(allow Fe2+ + H+ + HNO2 Fe3+ + NO + H2O)

[1]

(iii) dative/coordinate bonding

[1]

(iv) [Fe(H2O)6-n(NO)n]2+

[1]
[4]

(n = 1-6)

[Total:17]
3.

(a) (i) C16H10N2O2

[1]

(ii) ketone, alkene, amine, aryl (benzene/arene/phenyl)

(any 3)

(b) (i) reduction or redox

[1]

(ii) NaBH4 or LiAlH4 (NOT H2 + Ni)

(c) 1.

[2]
[3]

[1]
[2]

2,4-DNPH [1]

red/yellow-orange/orange ppt. [1]

Na metal

[1]

no reaction

gas given off/fizzing

[1]

or PCl5/SOCl2 [1]
or PCl3 + warm

no reaction

steamy fumes/fizzing
misty/white fumes

[1]

must be linked to correct reagent

[1]
[5]

2.

2 x no reaction

no reaction

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

(d) (i)

OH

N
H

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

H
N

HO

[1]
(ii) Mr = 262, so 2.5 g = 2.5/262 = 9.54 103 mol
(1 mol indigo absorbs 9 mol of H2)
so volume of H2 = 9 24 9.54 103 = 2.06 dm3 (2060 cm3)

[1]

[1]
[3]
(e)

Br

Br

Br

N
H

Br

H
N
Br

Br

2 x Br on C=C
a Br on each ring
TWO non-adjacent Br on each ring

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

[Total: 16]
4

(a) (i) volatilities decrease down the group

[1]

due to greater van der Waals (VDW) forces (intermolecular is not sufficient)

[1]

due to larger no of electrons

[1]

(ii) CCl4 does not react with water

[1]

CCl4 unreactive due to no d-orbitals

[1]

GeCl4 and PbCl4 hydrolyse/react

[1]

MCl4 + 2H2O MO2 + 4HCl (M = Ge or Pb)

[1]
[7]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(b) (i) B is PbSO4 and C is PbCl2

[1]

(ii) SnO2 + 2H2SO4 Sn(SO4)2 + 2H2O

[1]

PbO2 + H2SO4 PbSO4 + H2O + O2

[1]

PbO2 + 6HCl H2PbCl6 + 2H2O

[1]

H2PbCl6 PbCl2 + 2HCl + Cl2

[1]
[5 max 4]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i)
OCH3
Br

Br

Br

[1]
(ii) Na metal
or
Fizzes/gas given off with phenol
or
C6H5OH + Na C6H5ONa + H2 or
OH
ONa
+ Na

1
+ /2 H2

NaOH
phenol dissolves (anisole doesnt)
C6H5OH + OH C6H5O + H2O
ONa
OH
+ NaOH

or

(neutral) iron(III) chloride


Solution goes purple/violet
3C6H5OH + FeCl3 Fe(OC6H5)3 + 3HCl

[1]
[1]
[1]

+ H2O

[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i)

(ii) step 2:

Sn + HCl
conc. + reflux

NO2

Cl

[1] + [1]
NOT LiAlH4, NaBH4
(warm is insufficient)

step 4 is conditional of structure E


step 4: warm + in H2O

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]
[1]
[5 max 4]

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

(c) (i)

H
N
OH

NH2
O

Syllabus
9701
O

HO2C

CN

OH

Paper
41

F must be an amide
[4]
(ii) reaction 1: H2 + Ni or LiAlH4
reaction 2: heat + aqueous HCl

[1]
[1]
[6]
[Total: 14]

(a) (i) Condensation


(ii) ala-ala, gly-gly, ala-gly

(b) (i) Correct sugar-phosphate backbones


(with two sugars and one phosphate attached)

[1]
[2]
[3]

[1]

C G pair correct or A T pair correct

[1]

deoxyribose label and all bases coming from sugars

[1]

(ii) Replication would be slower/difficult


because the DNA/strands could not be separated

(c) (i) Some amino acids have more than one (triplet) code

[1]
[4]
[1]

(ii) loss/disruption of ionic bonding/hydrogen bonding

[1]

(iii) There would be a potential loss of all tertiary structure


or
frameshift deletion of a base changes protein structure

[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 7
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)

Start point

Glutamic acid

Glycine

Lysine

Glutamic acid between + and start point


Lysine between and start point
Glycine at, or very close to, start point

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (i) Ratio of the concentration of a solute in each of two solvents


or equilibrium constant representing the distribution of a solute between two solvents. [1]
(ii) illustration of some method of getting into our body via the food chain
They dissolve preferentially in fats/oils

(c) (i) 156 = C3H635Cl 79Br +


158 = C3H637Cl 79Br +
158 =C3H635Cl 81Br +
160 = C3H637Cl 81Br +
(ii) m/e = 15 Species = CH3+

[1]
[1]
[3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[5 max 4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 8
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)

LDPE
HDPE
minimum of 2 chains suitable sketches
[1]
(The close packing of unbranched side chains means)
LDPE more space between the chains/polymers or HDPE less empty space between the
chains
[1]
[2]
(b) van der Waals (VDW) forces
are weaker

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c)
Addition OR

condensation

requires C=C/double bond

does not need C=C/double bond

uses the same functional group

needs two different functional groups

same general (empirical) formula as monomer

different formula

no loss of small molecule/H2O/HCl

small molecule /H2O/HCl is formed

Any two differences

(d) (i) (through its long chain of) delocalised electrons/mobile electrons
free electrons is not sufficient
(ii) planar

[1]
[2]
[1]
[1]

the bonds/p-orbitals overlap (with each other)


(iii) C8H6
C4H3

[1]
[2]
[5 max 4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2012 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2012 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) enthalpy/energy change/released when 1 mol of ions


in the gas phase (are dissolved in) water

[1]
[1]

(ii) Mg2+(g) + aq (or H2O) Mg2+(aq) or [Mg(H2O)6]2+

[1]

(iii) Mg2+ has a smaller radius/size or greater charge density than Ca2+ (ions required)

[1]

(iv) O2 reacts with water to give OH or equation: O2 + H2O 2OH

[1]
[5]

(b) (apparatus: insulated calorimeter, water and thermometer)

measure (known volume/mass of) water or stated volume of water (into calorimeter)

take the temperature (of the water NOT the MgCl 2)

weigh out known mass of MgCl 2 or stated mass of MgCl 2

take final/highest/constant temperature or record temperature change/rise


4 [1]
[4]
(c) (i) Hosol = 641 801 = 160 kJ mol1
(ii) Hohyd = (1890 2526 160)/2 = 398 kJ mol1

[1]
[2]
[3]

(d)

solubility: MgSO4 > BaSO4 or decreases down the group


because Hsol is more endothermic for BaSO4 or more exothermic for MgSO4
due to larger rion or smaller charge density of Ba2+ (ion has to be mentioned)
leading to smaller LE and HE or LE and HE decrease
but difference in HE (between Mg2+ and Ba2+) is larger than the difference in LE
(between MgSO4 and BaSO4)
or HE is dominant or HE decreases more than LE
any 4 points [4]
[4]
[Total: 16]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i)

or

[1]
(ii) incomplete combustion (of hydrocarbon fuels) or insufficient O2/air
(iii) NO + CO N2 + CO2
or CO + O2 CO2
equation needs to be balanced

[1]

[1]
[3]

(b) H = 394 2 111 = (+)172 kJ mol1

[2]
[2]

(c) (i) ligand exchange/displacement/replacement/substitution

[1]

(ii)

d-orbitals are split (by the ligand field) or orbitals near ligands are at higher energy
the splitting/energy gap depends on the ligands (surrounding the ion) or the metal
(ion)
when an electron moves from lower to higher orbital/energy level or is promoted/
excited
light/a photon is absorbed or colour seen/reflected/transmitted is complement of
colour absorbed (emitted contradicts this mark)
different energy gap means different frequency absorbed means different colour
5 [1]

(iii) from rows 1 and 3: rate3/rate1 = 2.0 which also equals [[complex]3]/[[complex]1]
[1]
(or this working mark can be awarded for any valid calculation that shows that order
w.r.t. complex is 1)
Thus order w.r.t. [complex] = 1 and order w.r.t. [CO] is zero
[1]
rate equation: rate = k[complex]
[1]
(iv) mechanism 2
[1]
its the only one that does not involve CO in the rate determining step or rate depends
on [complex] only.
[1]
[11 max 10]
[Total: 15]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) ketone, alcohol, alkene, arene/aryl/benzene/phenyl.


(if more than 3 are given, mark the first 3 the candidate has written)
(ii) (2,4-)DNPH/Bradys
or FeCl3 (aq or neutral)
Lawsone orange/red, or purple/violet with A,
(not yellow) ppt
and A nothing
or and nothing with Lawsone

Paper
42
any three

[2]

or Br2(aq)
or white ppt with A,

[1]

or and decolourises
with Lawsone

[1]

(iii) NaBH4 or LiAl H4 or SnCl 2 or Na + ethanol or any suitable reducing agents with
[1]
Eo < 0.2 V, e.g. SO2. NOT H2 + Ni etc.
(iv)
O

Br
H
O

OH

or

Br

O
H

Br

(One of the Br atoms in


either formula could be an
OH group instead.
Br on the benzene ring
negates this mark)

(b) (i) Ecell = 1.33 0.36 = (+)0.97 (V)

[1]
[6]
[1]

(ii) Cr2O72 + 8H+ + 3C10H8O3 2Cr3+ + 7H2O + 3C10H6O3


3:1 ratio [1]
balancing [1]
(iii) = 0.05 7.5/1000 = 3.75 104 mol
n(A) = 3 3.75 104
= 1.125 103 in 20 cm3
[A] = 5.63 102 mol dm3 (allow 5.6, 5.62, 5.625 etc.)

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]
[5]

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

(c) (i) compound C is

Paper
42
[1]

CH3

O
O

or -OCOCH3
or -OOCCH3

(ii) compound D is
O

[1]

CH 3

O
O

(iii) mechanism: 3 curly arrows in B or correct intermediate anion


[1]
a curly arrow from an O or an oxygen with a lone pair to the carbon of the C=O group in
CH3COCl, and a second curly arrow breaking the C-Cl bond
[1]
O

O
O

intermediate anion

Cl

CH3

[4 max 3]
[Total: 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) volatility: Cl 2 > Br2 > I2 or boiling points: Cl 2 < Br2 < I2 or Cl 2 is (g); Br2 is (l); I2 is (s)
[1]
more electrons in X2 down the group or more shells/bigger cloud of electrons
[1]
so theres greater van der Waals/dispersion/id-id/induced/temporary dipole force/attraction [1]
[3]
(b) (i) H2O > H2S (see * below for mark)
due to H-bonding in H2O (none in H2S)
diagram minimum is: H2O+H-OH or H2O:H-OH [allow (+) for +]

[1]
[1]

(ii) CH3-O-CH3 > CH3CH2CH3 (see * below for mark)


due to dipole in CH3-O-CH3 (O is not needed, but O is + negates) or CH3OCH3 is
polar
[1]
* correct comparison of boiling points for both
[1]
[4]
(c) SF6 has 6 bonding pairs/bonds and no lone pairs (bonds can be read into a diagram e.g. S-F,
but no lone pairs can only be read into a diagram showing 6 bonded pairs of electrons. [1]
clear diagram or shape is octahedral
[1]
[2]
[Total: 9]
5

(a) acidities: CHCl2CO2H > CH2ClCO2H > CH3CO2H


due to Cl being (more) electronegative/electron withdrawing (than H).
this stabilises the anion or weakens the O-H bond

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

Page 7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

(b)
first
compound

second
compound

NH2

NH2

Syllabus
9701

test

observation
with first
compound

Br2(aq) [not (l)]

none

NaNO2 + HCl or HNO2


followed by phenol (+ NaOH)

none

CH3CH2COCl

CH3CH2CHO

CH3COCH2Cl

(2,4-)DNPH
I2/OH

none

I2/OH

none

CH3COCH3

add H2O/ROH

Fehlings/Benedicts solution
+ warm
Tollens reagent + warm

observation
with second
compound
decolourises/
white ppt.
yellow/orange/red
ppt.

(immediate)
white ppt.
steamy/misty/
white fumes
none

AgNO3(aq)

Paper
42

none
none
orange ppt.
yellow ppt./
antiseptic smell
yellow ppt./
antiseptic smell

red ppt.

none

silver/black ppt.

none

Cr2O7 + H + warm

turns green

no change

MnO4 + H+ + warm

decolourises

no change

three correct reagents


three correct positive results
three none

[3]
[3]
[1]
[7]

(c) (i) condensation

[1]

(ii) (in parts (ii) and (iii), allow structural formulae instead of skeletal formulae)
or NaO
HO

and

or Cl

or Cl
OH

HO

OH
or ONa

[1] + [1]

(N.B. letters E and F may be reversed.)

(iii) make acyl chloride from F (if not already there)


add that to a solution of E in NaOH(aq)

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]

Page 8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(iv) F (or E, i.e. the alphatic di-acid) should be changed to something less flexible, e.g.
HO2C

HO2C

or

or

HO2C

CO2H

CO2H

HO2C-CO2H

HO2C

CO2H

CO2H

HO2C

CO2H

(but not HO2C(CH2)3CO2H or longer)


(any size ring with n < 6; any orientation)
(ignore side chains: length of chain is the important feature)

or allow a tri-carboxylic acid (or triphenol), i.e. one that will allow cross linking

[1]
[6]
[Total: 16]

(a)
amino acid

structure

type of interaction

alanine

H2NCH(CH3)CO2H

van der Waals


(NOT hydrophobic)

cysteine

H2NCH(CH2SH)CO2H

disulfide bonds
or S-S

lysine

H2NCH((CH2)4NH2)CO2H

ionic/electrovalent
hydrogen/H bonds

serine

H2NCH(CH2OH)CO2H

hydrogen/H bonds
[3]
[3]

(b) Iron in haemoglobin or red blood cells; transport of oxygen/CO2


or in myoglobin; transport of oxygen (in muscle)
or in cytochromes; cell respiration

[1]

Potassium in cell membranes/enzymes; controlling the flow of ions/water into or out of cells
or in nerves; controlling nerve impulses
or Na+ K+ pump; nerve impulses/control of cell volume/active transport
[1]
Zinc acting as a cofactor in enzymes (or a named one, e.g. carbonic anhydrase);
or in making of insulin

(c) (i) ATP + H2O ADP + Pi


(ii) Hydrolysis or nucleophilic substitution

[1]
[3]
[1]
[1]
[2]

(d) (i) Sodium or chloride (sweat is salty) and Potassium (water retention in cells)

[1]

(ii) Hydrogen bonding and reference to water or bonding in mucous molecules

[1]
[2]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) + (ii) any two from:

The nature/electronegativity of the atom the proton is attached to or is near or the


electronic/chemical environment of the proton

The number/spin states of adjacent protons or protons attached to adjacent atoms

The (strength of) the applied/external magnetic field


[1] + [1]
[2]

(b) (i) Peak at 1.26 = (3 ) CH3 or methyl and Peak at 2.0 = OH or alcohol

[1]

Structure:

[1]

CH3

CH3

OH

CH3

(ii)

Isomer

Isomer

Isomer

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

(CH3)2CHCH2OH

CH3CH2CH(CH3)OH

5 groups of peaks

4 groups of peaks

5 groups of peaks

structures of any two isomers (Also allow both stereoisomers of butan-2-ol)


correct assignation of no. of peaks

[1] + [1]
[1] + [1]
[6]

(c) (i) Phosphorus it has more electrons or high electron density (NOT phosphate)

[1]

(ii) H atoms dont have enough electron density to show up or they only contain one e

[1]
[2]

[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) hydrophilic in area C


fat-soluble in area B

[1]
[1]

(ii) A region would be exposed to the atmosphere/water/enzymes or nothing the molecule


can attach to at A
[1]
[3]
(b) (i) amide/peptide or ester

[1]

(ii) hydrolysis

[1]

(iii)

[1] + [1]
[4]
(c) (i) measured in nm, i.e. between 1 and 1000 nm (or 109 106 m). Any quoted value
or range between these limits is acceptable
(ii) One or both of the OH groups (NOT just oxygen or O)

[1]
[1]

(iii) PEG can H-bond (with water) because it is hydrophilic/contains an OH group/contains


lots of oxygen atoms
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2012 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2012 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) the enthalpy change/released when 1 mole is formed

[1]

of ionic lattice from the gas phase ions

[1]

(ii) Mg2+ + O2 MgO

[1]
[3]

(b) measurements needed:


volume/mass/weight of water (in calorimeter)
initial + final temperature/temperature change/temperature rise (of the water)
mass of Mg (used)/mass MgO
Not volume/moles/mass of oxygen used

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(c) H = 148 + 736 + 1450 + 496/2 - 141 + 798 3791


= 552 kJ mol1

[3]
[3]

(d) Na2O(s) + H2O(aq/l) 2NaOH(aq)


MgO(s) + H2O(aq/l) Mg(OH)2(s) or Mg(OH)2(aq)
pH 12.5-14 [NaOH] AND 8-10.5 [Mg(OH)2] respectively

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 12]

2.

(a) (i)
O

[1]
(ii) 180 kJ mol1

[1]

(iii) (formation of NO is endothermic) so high T and equilibrium pushed over to NO side.


or high T and needed to break N-N bond in N2

[1]

(iv) 180 = 2 E(NO) 994 496


E(NO) = +655 kJ mol1

(b) (i) (from 1 and 2:)


(from 1 and 3:)

as p(NO) halves, rate decreases to , so order = 2


as p(H2) halves, so does rate, so order = 1

(ii) rate = k pNO2.pH2


units (of k) are atm2 s1

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]
[5]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

Page 3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(iii) add all three equations:


NO + NO + H2 + O + H2 + N2O N2O + O + H2O + N2 + H2O
cross out all species common to both sides:
NO + NO + H2 + O + H2 + N2O N2O + O + H2O + N2 + H2O
( 2NO + 2H2 N2 + 2H2O)

[1]
[1]

(iv) either: step 2 since it involves H2


O formed from NO
or:
step 3 since it involves H2
N2O formed from NO

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[8]

(c) (i) NO
(ii)

[1]

3Fe2+ + 4H+ + NO3 3Fe3+ + NO + 2H2O


(allow Fe2+ + H+ + HNO2 Fe3+ + NO + H2O)

[1]

(iii) dative/coordinate bonding

[1]

(iv) [Fe(H2O)6-n(NO)n]2+

[1]
[4]

(n = 1-6)

[Total:17]
3.

(a) (i) C16H10N2O2

[1]

(ii) ketone, alkene, amine, aryl (benzene/arene/phenyl)

(any 3)

(b) (i) reduction or redox

[1]

(ii) NaBH4 or LiAlH4 (NOT H2 + Ni)

(c) 1.

[2]
[3]

[1]
[2]

2,4-DNPH [1]

red/yellow-orange/orange ppt. [1]

Na metal

[1]

no reaction

gas given off/fizzing

[1]

or PCl5/SOCl2 [1]
or PCl3 + warm

no reaction

steamy fumes/fizzing
misty/white fumes

[1]

must be linked to correct reagent

[1]
[5]

2.

2 x no reaction

no reaction

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

(d) (i)

OH

N
H

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

H
N

HO

[1]
(ii) Mr = 262, so 2.5 g = 2.5/262 = 9.54 103 mol
(1 mol indigo absorbs 9 mol of H2)
so volume of H2 = 9 24 9.54 103 = 2.06 dm3 (2060 cm3)

[1]

[1]
[3]
(e)

Br

Br

Br

N
H

Br

H
N
Br

Br

2 x Br on C=C
a Br on each ring
TWO non-adjacent Br on each ring

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

[Total: 16]
4

(a) (i) volatilities decrease down the group

[1]

due to greater van der Waals (VDW) forces (intermolecular is not sufficient)

[1]

due to larger no of electrons

[1]

(ii) CCl4 does not react with water

[1]

CCl4 unreactive due to no d-orbitals

[1]

GeCl4 and PbCl4 hydrolyse/react

[1]

MCl4 + 2H2O MO2 + 4HCl (M = Ge or Pb)

[1]
[7]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(b) (i) B is PbSO4 and C is PbCl2

[1]

(ii) SnO2 + 2H2SO4 Sn(SO4)2 + 2H2O

[1]

PbO2 + H2SO4 PbSO4 + H2O + O2

[1]

PbO2 + 6HCl H2PbCl6 + 2H2O

[1]

H2PbCl6 PbCl2 + 2HCl + Cl2

[1]
[5 max 4]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i)
OCH3
Br

Br

Br

[1]
(ii) Na metal
or
Fizzes/gas given off with phenol
or
C6H5OH + Na C6H5ONa + H2 or
OH
ONa
+ Na

1
+ /2 H2

NaOH
phenol dissolves (anisole doesnt)
C6H5OH + OH C6H5O + H2O
ONa
OH
+ NaOH

or

(neutral) iron(III) chloride


Solution goes purple/violet
3C6H5OH + FeCl3 Fe(OC6H5)3 + 3HCl

[1]
[1]
[1]

+ H2O

[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i)

(ii) step 2:

Sn + HCl
conc. + reflux

NO2

Cl

[1] + [1]
NOT LiAlH4, NaBH4
(warm is insufficient)

step 4 is conditional of structure E


step 4: warm + in H2O

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]
[1]
[5 max 4]

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

(c) (i)

H
N
OH

NH2
O

Syllabus
9701
O

HO2C

CN

OH

Paper
43

F must be an amide
[4]
(ii) reaction 1: H2 + Ni or LiAlH4
reaction 2: heat + aqueous HCl

[1]
[1]
[6]
[Total: 14]

(a) (i) Condensation


(ii) ala-ala, gly-gly, ala-gly

(b) (i) Correct sugar-phosphate backbones


(with two sugars and one phosphate attached)

[1]
[2]
[3]

[1]

C G pair correct or A T pair correct

[1]

deoxyribose label and all bases coming from sugars

[1]

(ii) Replication would be slower/difficult


because the DNA/strands could not be separated

(c) (i) Some amino acids have more than one (triplet) code

[1]
[4]
[1]

(ii) loss/disruption of ionic bonding/hydrogen bonding

[1]

(iii) There would be a potential loss of all tertiary structure


or
frameshift deletion of a base changes protein structure

[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 7
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)

Start point

Glutamic acid

Glycine

Lysine

Glutamic acid between + and start point


Lysine between and start point
Glycine at, or very close to, start point

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (i) Ratio of the concentration of a solute in each of two solvents


or equilibrium constant representing the distribution of a solute between two solvents. [1]
(ii) illustration of some method of getting into our body via the food chain
They dissolve preferentially in fats/oils

(c) (i) 156 = C3H635Cl 79Br +


158 = C3H637Cl 79Br +
158 =C3H635Cl 81Br +
160 = C3H637Cl 81Br +
(ii) m/e = 15 Species = CH3+

[1]
[1]
[3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[5 max 4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 8
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE AS/A LEVEL May/June 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)

LDPE
HDPE
minimum of 2 chains suitable sketches
[1]
(The close packing of unbranched side chains means)
LDPE more space between the chains/polymers or HDPE less empty space between the
chains
[1]
[2]
(b) van der Waals (VDW) forces
are weaker

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c)
Addition OR

condensation

requires C=C/double bond

does not need C=C/double bond

uses the same functional group

needs two different functional groups

same general (empirical) formula as monomer

different formula

no loss of small molecule/H2O/HCl

small molecule /H2O/HCl is formed

Any two differences

(d) (i) (through its long chain of) delocalised electrons/mobile electrons
free electrons is not sufficient
(ii) planar

[1]
[2]
[1]
[1]

the bonds/p-orbitals overlap (with each other)


(iii) C8H6
C4H3

[1]
[2]
[5 max 4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2012

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2013 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2013 series for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) The potential of an electrode compared to that of a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)
or
the EMF of a cell composed of the test electrode and the SHE
all measurement concentrations of 1 mol dm3 and 298 K / 1 atm pressure

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b)

H2 and good delivery system [1]


Fe2+/Fe3+ solution labelled [1]
platinum electrodes (both) [1]
salt bridge and voltmeter [1]
H+ or HCl or H2SO4 [1]
(acid is not sufficient)
[5]
(c) (i) E = 0.77 0.54 = 0.23 (V)

[1]

(ii) Since E is positive/ E >0


So more products / the equilibrium will be over to the right / forward reaction is favoured
ecf from (c)(i)
[1]
(iii) Kc = [Fe2+]2[I2] / [Fe3+]2[I]2
units are mol1 dm3 ecf on expression
(iv) ([Fe2+] must always be twice [I2], so) [Fe2+] = 0.02 (mol dm3)
([I] must always be equal to [Fe3+], so) [I] = 2 104 (mol dm3)
(v) Kc = {(0.02)2 0.01} / {(2 x 104)2 (2 104)2} correct expression
(allow ecf from incorrect expression in (c)(iii))
(allow ecf from (c)(iv))
= (4 106) / (1.6 101.5) = 2.5 109 (mol1 dm3)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]
[8]
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

100

120

(a) (i)
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.14
[CH3CO2CH2CH3]/mol dm-3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

0.12
0.1

0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

20

40

60

80

time/min

plotting of points (1 for any error plotted to within square) [1]


a good best fit curve [1]
(ii) construction lines for two half-lives and t 63 m or 32 m (3 min) / t is constant
or
construction lines for two tangents and mention of two values / concentration doubled,
rate doubled
[1]
(iii) either ratio of (initial) rates (slopes) or ratio of t = 2.0
so reaction is first order w.r.t. [HCl]
(iv) rate = k[CH3CO2CH2CH3][HCl] conditional on (a)(iii) and ecf from (a)(iii)
(initial) rate = 0.2/95 or 0.2/47
2.1 103 or 4.3 103 (mol dm3 min1)
k = 2.1 103 / (0.2 0.1) or 4.3 103 / (0.2 0.2)
0.11 (mol1 dm3 min1)

(b) (i) because H2O is the solvent or its concentration cannot change
(ii) because HCl is a catalyst

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]

[1]
[8 max 7]
[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) density = mass per unit volume

[1]

(ii) mass per atom or Ar is larger (for Fe)


Or
Fe 55.8 and Ca 40.1

[1]

Fe radii/volume of atom/ion is smaller


or
RFe = 0.116 nm whereas RCa = 0.197 nm

[1]
[3]

(b)
reaction

acidbase

ligand
exchange

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 6H2O

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4HCl [CuCl4]2 + 4H+ + 6H2O

precipitation

2FeCl2 + Cl2 2FeCl3


[Fe(H2O)6]2+ + 2OH Fe(OH)2 + 6H2O

redox




2Fe(OH)2 + O2 + H2O 2Fe(OH)3


CrO3 + 2HCl CrO2Cl2 + H2O

Cr(H2O)3(OH)3 + OH [Cr(H2O)2(OH)4] +
H2O

[Cr(OH)4] + 1H2O2 + OH CrO42 + 4H2O

(Where more than one tick appears on a line in the table above these are alternatives but allow the
mark if both are given).

[8]
(c) n(H2) = 8/24 = 0.33 mol
from equation, this is produced from 0.22 mol of Al ecf ( 2/3)
Ar(Al) = 27 thus mass of Al = 27 0.22 = 5.9 6 g hence 5.96.0% ecf ( 27)

[1]
[1]
[1]

[3]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

(a) (due to the) strong NN bond

(b) (i) Any balanced equation forming a stable nitrogen oxide


e.g. N2 + O2 2NO
or
N2 + 2O2 2NO2
(ii) in lightning

Paper
41
[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]

in an engine/combustion of fuels (or a specific example)


(iii) (NOx produces) acid rain or forms (photochemical) smog

(c) (base is a) proton acceptor

[1]
[1]
[4]
[1]

basicities: ethylamine > NH3 > phenylamine

[1]

ethylamine (more basic) due to electron donating ethyl group

[1]

phenylamine (less basic) due to lone pair being delocalised into the ring

[1]
[4]

(d) (i) step 1: nucleophilic substitution


step 2: hydrolysis

[1]

(ii) step 1: KCN (in ethanol) and reflux


step 2: H3O+ / aqueous acid and reflux
(iii) T is

[1]

[1]
[1]

NH2

[1]
W is

Cl
O

[1]
[6]
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)
OH

CO2H

OH

H2O

Na

H2

H2

H2

H2

KOH(aq)

Na2CO3(aq)

CO2

X
[5]

(b) (i) (CH3)3 CCl (any unambiguous structure or name)

[1]

(ii) reduction or hydrogenation

[1]

(iii) either CH3CO2H and heat with (conc) H2SO4


or
CH3COCl

[1]

(iv) reflux

[1]

dilute HCl

[1]
[5]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(c) (i)
reagent and conditions

product with A
Br

OH

product with B

Br

Br2(aq)

no reaction
C(CH3)3
Br

heat with HBr

no reaction
C(CH3)3

pass vapour over


heated Al2O3

no reaction
C(CH3)3
O

heat with acidified


K2Cr2O7

no reaction
C(CH3)3

[6]
(ii) either: Cr2O72/H+: no observation with A and goes from orange to green with B.
or:
Br2(aq): white ppt. with A and no observation/ppt with B

[1]
[7]

[Total: 17]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 8
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)
substance

protein synthesis

adenine

formation of DNA

alanine

aspartate

phosphate

[3]
[3]

(b) protein : hydrogen bonds

[1]

between NH and C=O groups on different (peptide) groups

[1]

hydrogen bonds

[1]

between bases / A & T / C & G on different chains

[1]
[4]

(c) primary: covalent bonds between (successive) amino acids

[1]

DNA :

tertiary :
hydrogen bonds

between COOH / OH and NH2 (in side chains)

ionic bonds

between NH3+ and CO2 (in side chains)

disulfide bonds

between cysteine molecules / residues / SH groups


(in side chains)

van der Waals/VDW


forces

between alkyl groups / non-polar residues (in side


chains)

any two rows

[2]
[3]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) Any four from:

extract DNA

use restriction enzymes (to break DNA into fragments)

use polymerase chain reaction (to increase concentration of fragments)

place samples on (agarose) gel

carry out electrophoresis

label fragments (transferred to a membrane) with radioactive isotope


[4 1]
[4]

(b)
item for testing

suitable for DNA fingerprinting

human hair

piece of a flint tool

piece of Iron Age pot

piece of Roman leather

[3]
[3]

(c) insecticides: gas-liquid or thin-layer chromatography


dyes

: paper or thin-layer chromatography

drugs:

gas-liquid
or
thin-layer chromatography

[1]
[1]

[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 10
8

(a) (i)

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

CO2H
CH

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

CO2H
CH2

CH

CH2

[1]

(ii) Addition

[1]

(iii) Hydrogen bonding

[1]
[3]

(b) (i) more / increase water absorbing properties (allow attracts water more)

[1]

more polar(ity)/more hydrophilic / has ionic side-chains (as well as hydrophilic ones)
(ii) It should be biodegradable/decompose

[1]
[1]
[3]

(c) idea of ion exchange / replacement of Na+ for Cd2+/Pb2+

[1]

(the metal ions) will be attracted to the carboxylate ions

[1]
[2]

(d) (i) condensation

[1]

(ii) OH/alcohol groups


so highly soluble / able to form hydrogen bonds

[1]
[2]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2013 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2013 series for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) RBr + OH ROH+ Br

Paper
42
[1]

(ii) nucleophilic substitution

[1]
[2]

(b) (i)

plotting of all points (plotted to within small square) [1]


good line of best fit [1]
(ii) t = 118 min or 79 min ( 5 min)
or
construction lines for two half-lives and mention that half-life is constant
or
calculate the ratio of two rates at two different concentrations

[1]

(iii) either ratio of initial rates (slopes)


or
ratio of t
or
ratio of times for [RBr] to fall to the same level: all should be = 1.5

[1]

therefore reaction is first order w.r.t. [OH]


(iv) rate = k [RBr] [OH]

[1]
[1]

initial rate = 0.01 / 185 = 5.4 105 (mol dm3 min1)

[1]

k = 5.4 x 10-5 / (0.01 0.1) = 0.054 (mol1 dm3 min1)

[1]
[8 max 7]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

energy/kJ moli1

(c)

+5.4

(2NO + Br2)

-23
2NOBr

extent of reaction

four marking points: one activation "hump"


2NOBr (not just NOBr)
H labelled correctly (arrow down, or double headed, or just a line)
Ea labelled correctly (arrow up, or double headed, or just a line)
all four points [2]
three or two points [1]
[2]
[Total: 11]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 4
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i)

hydrogen
gas at 1 atm

Pt
H+/HCl at 1 mol dm-3 and 298K
H2(g) going in (i.e. not being produced) [1]
platinum electrode in contact with solution, with H2 bubbling over it [1]
H+ or HCl or H2SO4 [1]
3
solution at 1 mol dm (or 0.5 M if H2SO4) and T=298 K, p=1 atm [1]
(ii) Eo = 1.33 (-0.41) = 1.74 V

[1]

Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6Cr2+ 8Cr3+ + 7H2O

[1]

(iii) Colour would change from orange

[1]

to green

[1]
[8]

(b) there are two ways of calculating the ratio:


pKa = log10(Ka) = log10(1.79 x 105) = 4.747 (4.75) or [H+] = 10-5.5 = 3.16 x 10-6
log10([B] / [A]) = pH pKa = 0.753 (0.75) or [salt] / [acid] = Ka / [H+]
[B] / [A] = 100.753 = 5.66
or = 1.79 x 105 / 3.16 x 106 = 5.66
(or [A] / [B] = 0.177)
since B + A = 100, (100A) / A = 5.66

[1]
[1]

[1]
(correct ratio = [3] marks)
vol of acid = 15 cm3
vol of salt = 85 cm3

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

[1]
[4]

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(c) (i) CH3CO2Na + HCl CH3CO2H + NaCl

[1]

(ii) CH3CO2H + NaOH CH3CO2Na + H2O

[1]
[2]

(d) e.g. hydrolysis of esters RCO2R' (+ H2O) RCO2H + R'OH or its reverse
or

hydrolysis of amides: RCONH2 (+ H3O+) RCO2H + NH4+


hydrolysis of nitriles: RCN (+ H3O+ + H2O) RCO2H + NH4+
nitration of benzene (or any arene): C6H6 + HNO3 C6H5NO2 (+ H2O)
dehydration of alcohols, e.g. : CH3CH(OH)CH3 CH3CH=CH2 + H2O
(or the reverse)
halogenation of ketones, e.g. : CH3COCH3 + X2 CH3COCH2X (+ HX)
[3]
[Total: 17]

(a) (i) HNO3 + H2SO4


conc (both acids) and 30oC < T < 60oC or warm
(ii) dilute HNO3 or HNO3(aq)
and room temp. (allow T 30oC)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (allow intermediate from methylbenzene)


H

NO2

[1]
[1]
(c) Sn/tin (or SnCl2, Fe) + HCl (NOT H2SO4 or H+, Zn, or LiAlH4.)

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

[1]
[1]

Page 6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

(d) (i)
Br

or NH3+
NH2

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Br
N
N

NOT -NaO

Br
A

OH
or -ONa or -O-

[1] + [1]

(ii) NaNO2 + HCl or H2SO4 or H+ or HNO2


T 10oC

[1]
[1]
[4 max 3]

(e) (i) amide

[1]

(ii) Mr = 108+11+14+16 = 149


%N = (14 x 100)/149 = 9.4%
(iii)

[1]

NHCOC2H5

[1]
[3]
[Total: 11]
4.

(a) (i) Many electrons of similar energy in a valence-shell orbital


or
successive ionisation energies rise steadily (no big jumps)
or
ability to form bonds with ligands can stabilise very low or very high oxidation states
or
4s + 3d orbitals/shells/energy levels have similar / same energies
[1]
(ii) VO2+: +5
CrF62: +4
MnO42: +6

[3 1]
[4]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(b)
(colour due to) absorption of light/photons/frequencies/wavelengths
or
colour seen is complement of colour absorbed.
d-orbitals/d-subshell split (by ligand field)
(when photon is absorbed), electron is promoted or moves (from lower) to higher
(d)orbital
energy difference/gap or E or splitting corresponds to photon/frequency/wavelength in
visible region
in s-block elements the energy gap is too large (to be able to absorb visible light)
[any four 4 1]
[4]
(c) (i) 2MnO4 + 2H2O + 5SO2 2Mn2+ + 5SO42 + 4H+
(ii) solution will go from purple
to colourless

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(d) (pale) blue solution

[1]

gives a (pale) blue ppt.

[1]

which re-dissolves, or forms a solution, which is dark/deep blue or purple

[1]
[3]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 8
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i)

OH

OH

O
*

OH

*
*

HO

HO

OH
two or three centres correctly identified [1]
four centres correctly identified [2]

(ii) C16H18O9

[1]

(iii)

[1]

3 moles of H2

(iv) in cold: 3 moles of NaOH

[1]

on heating: 4 moles of NaOH

[1]
[6]

(b) (i) hydrolysis


(ii)

[1]

alkene or C=C

[1]

(iii) with Na2CO3(aq): carboxylic acid


with Br2(aq): phenol

[1]
[1]

(iv)
Br(OH) Br
OH

OH

Br
(OH)
CO2H

HO2C
F
(OH can be at the 3, 4, or 5
positions, but not the 2 or 6
positions)
[1]

OH
Br

G (ring subst. allow 2 or 3 Br in ring)


(addition to C=C: allow one of the aliphatic Br
to be OH, but not both)

(v) geometrical or cis-trans or E-Z

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

[1]
[1]

[1]

Page 9

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

(vi)

HO2C

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

OH

OH

skeletal or structural [1]


[9 max 8]

(c) Mr(E) = 180, so 0.1 g = 1/1800 (5.56 x 10-4) mol

[1]

3 mol NaOH react with 1 mol of E, so n(NaOH) = 3/1800 = 1/600 mol = 1.67 10-3 mol

[1]

volume of 0.1M NaOH = 1000/(600 x 0.1) = 16.7 cm3

[1]
[3]
[Total: 17]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 10

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a)
substance

protein synthesis

formation of DNA

cysteine

cytosine


glutamine

guanine

[3]
[3]
(b) (i) Hydrogen bonding
Between bases or between A,T, C and G (all four needed)
(ii) Bonds are (relatively) weak or easily broken
This enables strands to separate or DNA to unzip/unwind/unravel.

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]

(c) changes / mutations in DNA


by the addition / insertion /deletion / substitution / replacement of a base
adds / deletes / replaces an amino acid or changes the amino acid sequence
this causes a loss of function or changes the shape / tertiary structure of the protein
any three points [3]
[3]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 11

7.

(a) (i)

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013
43.3
3.35
n=

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

= 100
1.1 x n
100 x 3.35
43.3 x 1.1

= 7.03 = 7 (calculation must be shown)

[1]

(ii) The M and M+2 peaks are in the ratio 3 : 1 hence the halogen is chlorine/Cl

[1]

(iii) L contains 7 hydrogen atoms or there are 3 types/environments of proton/H

[1]

(iv) The multiplet with 4 hydrogens or peaks at 7.3 suggests a benzene ring
The singlet with 2 hydrogens or peak at 4.7 suggests a CH2 group
The singlet with 1 hydrogen or peak at 2.3 suggests an OH group
or reaction with Na suggests an OH group
OH must be an alcohol, not a phenol (due to its value)
Since L also contains 7 carbon atoms and chlorine, this accounts for 126 of the 142
mass, the remaining atom must be oxygen
Thus L is

CH2OH
Cl
(allow the 2-, 3- or 4- isomer)
[6]
[9 max 7]
(b) (i) we expect propene to have a CH3 peak or a peak at m/e 15
or cyclopropane would have fewer peaks
[1]
(ii) cyclopropane would have 1 peak (ignore splitting)
propene would have 2 (or 3, or 4) peaks
(ignore splitting)
or propene would have peaks in the 4.5-6.0 (alkene) region
no splitting of cyclopropane peak
(any two points)

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

[2]
[3]
[Total: 10]

Page 12

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) CH2 = CHCO2H or CH2 = CHCO2R or CH2 = CHCOCl

[2]

(ii) addition (polymerisation)

[1]

(iii) C(CH2OH)4

[1]

(iv) water

[1]
[5]

(b) (water is bonded to the polymer by) hydrogen bonding


hydrogen bonds are weak or easily broken

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c) (i) cross-linking causes no reduction in the number of OH groups


or cross-linking molecules also have OH groups

[1]

(ii) property e.g. becomes harder / more rigid / less flexible / stronger / higher melting
point.
because the chains are more strongly / tightly held

[1]
[1]
[3]

[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2013 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2013 series for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) The potential of an electrode compared to that of a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)
or
the EMF of a cell composed of the test electrode and the SHE
all measurement concentrations of 1 mol dm3 and 298 K / 1 atm pressure

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b)

H2 and good delivery system [1]


Fe2+/Fe3+ solution labelled [1]
platinum electrodes (both) [1]
salt bridge and voltmeter [1]
H+ or HCl or H2SO4 [1]
(acid is not sufficient)
[5]
(c) (i) E = 0.77 0.54 = 0.23 (V)

[1]

(ii) Since E is positive/ E >0


So more products / the equilibrium will be over to the right / forward reaction is favoured
ecf from (c)(i)
[1]
(iii) Kc = [Fe2+]2[I2] / [Fe3+]2[I]2
units are mol1 dm3 ecf on expression
(iv) ([Fe2+] must always be twice [I2], so) [Fe2+] = 0.02 (mol dm3)
([I] must always be equal to [Fe3+], so) [I] = 2 104 (mol dm3)
(v) Kc = {(0.02)2 0.01} / {(2 x 104)2 (2 104)2} correct expression
(allow ecf from incorrect expression in (c)(iii))
(allow ecf from (c)(iv))
= (4 106) / (1.6 101.5) = 2.5 109 (mol1 dm3)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]
[8]
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

100

120

(a) (i)
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.14
[CH3CO2CH2CH3]/mol dm-3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

0.12
0.1

0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

20

40

60

80

time/min

plotting of points (1 for any error plotted to within square) [1]


a good best fit curve [1]
(ii) construction lines for two half-lives and t 63 m or 32 m (3 min) / t is constant
or
construction lines for two tangents and mention of two values / concentration doubled,
rate doubled
[1]
(iii) either ratio of (initial) rates (slopes) or ratio of t = 2.0
so reaction is first order w.r.t. [HCl]
(iv) rate = k[CH3CO2CH2CH3][HCl] conditional on (a)(iii) and ecf from (a)(iii)
(initial) rate = 0.2/95 or 0.2/47
2.1 103 or 4.3 103 (mol dm3 min1)
k = 2.1 103 / (0.2 0.1) or 4.3 103 / (0.2 0.2)
0.11 (mol1 dm3 min1)

(b) (i) because H2O is the solvent or its concentration cannot change
(ii) because HCl is a catalyst

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]

[1]
[8 max 7]
[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) density = mass per unit volume

[1]

(ii) mass per atom or Ar is larger (for Fe)


Or
Fe 55.8 and Ca 40.1

[1]

Fe radii/volume of atom/ion is smaller


or
RFe = 0.116 nm whereas RCa = 0.197 nm

[1]
[3]

(b)
reaction

acidbase

ligand
exchange

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 6H2O

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4HCl [CuCl4]2 + 4H+ + 6H2O

precipitation

2FeCl2 + Cl2 2FeCl3


[Fe(H2O)6]2+ + 2OH Fe(OH)2 + 6H2O

redox




2Fe(OH)2 + O2 + H2O 2Fe(OH)3


CrO3 + 2HCl CrO2Cl2 + H2O

Cr(H2O)3(OH)3 + OH [Cr(H2O)2(OH)4] +
H2O

[Cr(OH)4] + 1H2O2 + OH CrO42 + 4H2O

(Where more than one tick appears on a line in the table above these are alternatives but allow the
mark if both are given).

[8]
(c) n(H2) = 8/24 = 0.33 mol
from equation, this is produced from 0.22 mol of Al ecf ( 2/3)
Ar(Al) = 27 thus mass of Al = 27 0.22 = 5.9 6 g hence 5.96.0% ecf ( 27)

[1]
[1]
[1]

[3]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

(a) (due to the) strong NN bond

(b) (i) Any balanced equation forming a stable nitrogen oxide


e.g. N2 + O2 2NO
or
N2 + 2O2 2NO2
(ii) in lightning

Paper
43
[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]

in an engine/combustion of fuels (or a specific example)


(iii) (NOx produces) acid rain or forms (photochemical) smog

(c) (base is a) proton acceptor

[1]
[1]
[4]
[1]

basicities: ethylamine > NH3 > phenylamine

[1]

ethylamine (more basic) due to electron donating ethyl group

[1]

phenylamine (less basic) due to lone pair being delocalised into the ring

[1]
[4]

(d) (i) step 1: nucleophilic substitution


step 2: hydrolysis

[1]

(ii) step 1: KCN (in ethanol) and reflux


step 2: H3O+ / aqueous acid and reflux
(iii) T is

[1]

[1]
[1]

NH2

[1]
W is

Cl
O

[1]
[6]
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)
OH

CO2H

OH

H2O

Na

H2

H2

H2

H2

KOH(aq)

Na2CO3(aq)

CO2

X
[5]

(b) (i) (CH3)3 CCl (any unambiguous structure or name)

[1]

(ii) reduction or hydrogenation

[1]

(iii) either CH3CO2H and heat with (conc) H2SO4


or
CH3COCl

[1]

(iv) reflux

[1]

dilute HCl

[1]
[5]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(c) (i)
reagent and conditions

product with A
Br

OH

product with B

Br

Br2(aq)

no reaction
C(CH3)3
Br

heat with HBr

no reaction
C(CH3)3

pass vapour over


heated Al2O3

no reaction
C(CH3)3
O

heat with acidified


K2Cr2O7

no reaction
C(CH3)3

[6]
(ii) either: Cr2O72/H+: no observation with A and goes from orange to green with B.
or:
Br2(aq): white ppt. with A and no observation/ppt with B

[1]
[7]

[Total: 17]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 8
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)
substance

protein synthesis

adenine

formation of DNA

alanine

aspartate

phosphate

[3]
[3]

(b) protein : hydrogen bonds

[1]

between NH and C=O groups on different (peptide) groups

[1]

hydrogen bonds

[1]

between bases / A & T / C & G on different chains

[1]
[4]

(c) primary: covalent bonds between (successive) amino acids

[1]

DNA :

tertiary :
hydrogen bonds

between COOH / OH and NH2 (in side chains)

ionic bonds

between NH3+ and CO2 (in side chains)

disulfide bonds

between cysteine molecules / residues / SH groups


(in side chains)

van der Waals/VDW


forces

between alkyl groups / non-polar residues (in side


chains)

any two rows

[2]
[3]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) Any four from:

extract DNA

use restriction enzymes (to break DNA into fragments)

use polymerase chain reaction (to increase concentration of fragments)

place samples on (agarose) gel

carry out electrophoresis

label fragments (transferred to a membrane) with radioactive isotope


[4 1]
[4]

(b)
item for testing

suitable for DNA fingerprinting

human hair

piece of a flint tool

piece of Iron Age pot

piece of Roman leather

[3]
[3]

(c) insecticides: gas-liquid or thin-layer chromatography


dyes

: paper or thin-layer chromatography

drugs:

gas-liquid
or
thin-layer chromatography

[1]
[1]

[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 10
8

(a) (i)

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013

CO2H
CH

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

CO2H
CH2

CH

CH2

[1]

(ii) Addition

[1]

(iii) Hydrogen bonding

[1]
[3]

(b) (i) more / increase water absorbing properties (allow attracts water more)

[1]

more polar(ity)/more hydrophilic / has ionic side-chains (as well as hydrophilic ones)
(ii) It should be biodegradable/decompose

[1]
[1]
[3]

(c) idea of ion exchange / replacement of Na+ for Cd2+/Pb2+

[1]

(the metal ions) will be attracted to the carboxylate ions

[1]
[2]

(d) (i) condensation

[1]

(ii) OH/alcohol groups


so highly soluble / able to form hydrogen bonds

[1]
[2]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2014 series for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

Section A
1

(a) (i) m. pt. is high(er) / large(r) / greater (for iron)


density is high(er) / large(r) / greater (for iron)
(ii) (higher m. pt. due to)
strong attraction between cations and electrons or
more delocalised electrons
(higher density due to) greater Ar and smaller radius
(b) (i) components to be added: voltmeter or V
salt bridge [must be labelled]
(ii) M1:
M2:
M3

A and B
either C or D
C and D

copper (metal) or Cu and iron (metal) or Fe


as 1 mol dm3 / 1 M
Cu2+ or CuSO4 or CuCl2 or Cu (NO3)2 etc. and
Fe2+ or FeSO4 etc.

(iii) Eocell = 0.34 + 0.44 = 0.78 (V)

[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(iv) if C is Fe2+; (as [C] increases), the E of the Fe2+ / Fe increases / becomes more positive /
less negative
[1]
so the overall cell potential / Ecell would decrease / become less positive / more
negative
[1]
or
if C is Cu2+; (as [C] increases), the E of the Cu2+/Cu increases / becomes more
positive / less negative
[1]
so the overall cell potential / Ecell would increase / become more positive / less negative
[1]
(c) (i) (colour change is) colourless to pink/pale purple
or (end point is the first) permanent (pale) pink/pale purple colour
(ii) {n(MnO4) = 0.02 18.1/1000 = 3.62 10-4 mol}
n(Fe2+) = 5 n(MnO4) = 1.81 103 mol

[1]

[1]

mass of Fe = 55.8 x 1.81 103 = 0.101 g (M2 55.8) ecf

[1]

Mr = mass / moles = 0.500/1.81 103 = 276.2 ecf

[1]
[Total: 16]

(a) (i) A complex is a compound / molecule / species / ion formed by a central metal atom / ion
surrounded by / bonded to one or more ligands / groups/ molecules / anions
[1]
A ligand is a species that contains a lone pair of electrons that forms a dative bond to a
metal atom / ion / or a lone pair donor to metal atom / ion
[1]
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(ii)
2+
2-

H2O
H2O

Cl
OH2

and

Cu
H2O

Cl

OH2

Cu
Cl

Cl

H2O

correct 3D structures:
octahedral and tetrahedral

[1] + [1]
[1]

(iii)
Cl

Pt

H3N

Cl

Cl
or
NH3

H3N

Pt
NH3

Cl
Cl

Pt

H3N

NH3
Cl

both structures
geometric or cis-trans
(b) (i) Cu(II) is [Ar] 3d9
Cu(I) is [Ar] 3d10
(ii) Cu(II):

NH3
or

Cl

Pt

Cl

NH3

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

d orbitals / subshell are split (in ligand field) and


electron moves from lower to upper orbital or an electron is promoted / excited

Cu(I):

in doing so it absorbs a photon / light

[2]

no gap in upper orbital / all orbitals are full

[1]

(c) (i) Ho = +2 33.2 157.3 + 302.9 = (+) 212 kJ mol1 ecf


(ii) Ho = 168.6 + 2 157.3 = (+)146 kJ mol1 allow ecf from (c)(i)
high T / temperature since H is positive / endothermic

[2]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 16]

(a) heat in dilute HCl(aq) (or H2SO4(aq))

[1]

(b) (i) four isomers

[1]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

(ii) must be skeletal

OH

O
O

Paper
41

OH

trans-cis

Syllabus
9701

cis-trans

O
O

OH

cis-cis

[1]
(iii)

CO2H

+ CO2 or HO2C-CO2H

[1]

[1]

(c) (i) Kw = [H+][OH]

[1]

(ii) In 0.15 mol dm3 NaOH, [OH-] = 0.15 mol dm3


[H+] = Kw / [OH], so [H+] = 1 1014 / 0.15 = 6.67 1014 mol dm3
pH = -log10[H+] = 13.18 (13.2) ecf from [H+]

[1]
[1]

(iii) piperidine is a poorer proton acceptor


or piperidine is partially ionised

[1]

(iv) piperidine should be a stronger base/more basic than ammonia


because of the electron-donating (alkyl/CH2) groups

[1]

(d) (i) n(HCl) at start = 0.1 20/1000 = 2.0 103 mol


n(HCl) at finish = 2 103 1.5 103 = 0.0005/5 104 mol

[1]

(ii) this is in 30 cm3 of solution, so [HCl] at finish = 0.5 103/0.030 = 1.67 102 mol dm3
pH = log10(1.67 102) = 1.78 ecf from (d)(i)
[1]
(iii) pH / vol curve: start at pH 11.9
vertical portion at V = 15 cm3
levels off at pH 1.8

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iv) indicator is B

[1]
[Total: 16]

(a)

three from phenol


(secondary) alcohol
(primary) amine
arene / aryl / benzene

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

3 [1]

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(b) (i)
OH
HO

CH
CN

Compound Z is
HO

[1]
step 1: HCN + NaCN or HCN + base
step 2: H2 + Ni or LiAlH4 or Na + ethanol

[1]
[1]

(ii) bromine decolourises or goes from orange to colourless or white ppt. formed
Br
HO
CHO
e.g.

[1]

(2
or 3
3 xbromines
Br in ring)in ring
2 or
HO
Br

[1]
(c)
O
NaO

OH
NH2

(i)(i)
(or ionic)
NaO

[1]

[1]

[1]

[1]

OH
NH3Cl

HO

NH3

(ii)
(ii)

(or ionic)

HO
OCOCH3
NHCOCH3

CH3COO

(iii)
(iii)
CH3CO2

M1: amide
M2: alcoholic ester
M3: both phenolic esters
(d) amide
ester

[1]
[1]
[1]
[5] max [4]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

(a) (i) OH or hydroxyl groups (allow alcohol groups)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
[1]

(ii) alkenes or C=C (double) bonds or carbon double bonds

[1]

(iii) CH3CH(OH) or CH3CO- groups

[1]

(b) V is CH3CH(OH)CH=CH2

[1]

W is CH3CH=CHCH2OH

[1]

(c) compound V shows optical isomerism


(ecf for 'geometric(al)' if candidate's V is capable of cis-trans)
CH3
C
H2C

CH

[1]

CH3
HO

OH

C
H

CH

CH2

[1]
(d)

OH

OH

OH

or

CH3CH(OH)CH(OH)CH2OH

[1]
[Total: 8]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 7
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)
feature

level of bonding

formation of -helix

secondary

formation of disulfide bonds

tertiary

formation of ionic bonds

tertiary

linking amino acids

primary
[3]

(b)
block letter

name

Deoxyribose

Cytosine

Phosphate

Thymine
4 [1]

(c) (i) H/hydrogen (bonds between bases)

[1]

(ii) Bonds are weak and


so require relatively little energy to break / are easily broken

[1]

(d)
(sugar, J)

(base, M)

DNA

deoxyribose

thymine / T

RNA

ribose

uracil / U
[1]
[Total: 10]

100 2.5
or equivalent
1.1 74
n = 3.1 hence G has three carbon atoms

(a) Expression: n =

[1]
[1]

(b) (i) ( 1.1) RCH3 or RCH2R or methyl or CH3


( 2.2) (R)CH2CO(R) or CH3CO(R)
( 11.8) (R)COOH or (R)CONH(R)
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

3 [1]

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(ii) The (OH) peak at 11.8 (disappears)

[1]

because of (O)H-D exchange or equation showing this


(e.g. R-OH + D2O R-OD + HOD)

[1]

(iii) CH3CH2CO2H
(c) (i)

[1]

O
H3C

HO
O

N
H3C

or

or

H3C
or

CH3 or

OH

C
H
[1]

(ii) If methyl ethanoate: 2.02.1


3.34.0

[1]
[1]

Or if 1, 3-dioxolane: 3.34.0
3.35.0

[1]
[1]

Or if 1, 2-dioxolane: 0.91.4
3.34.0

[1]
[1]

Or if dihydroxycyclopropane: 0.91.4
0.56.0

[1]
[1]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i) Amide or ester or peptide

[1]

(ii) Hydrolysis

[1]

(iii) Drug B

[1]

(iv) two ester and one amide groups circled

[2]

(b) (i) At point Q because the hydrocarbon tails region is hydrophobic/non-polar/ form van der
Waals only
[1]
or can dissolve in the fat-soluble area
(ii) They all contain polar or hydrogen-bonding (groups)
(c) (i) range 1 109 to 1 107 m
(ii) (higher frequency radiation could) cause tissue/cell damage or mutation
or harmful to cells

[1]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2014 series for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2
1

(a) (i)

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

4s

3d
4s

4s

or

3d

4s

3d

Fe

Zn2+

Fe2+

[2]
(ii) (colour due to absorbance of visible light)
due to electron promoted (from lower) to upper orbital / energy level
in Zn2+ there's no space in higher orbital for the electron to go or completely
filled d-orbitals / shell

[1]
[1]
4

(b) (i) yellow is due to [CuCl4]2


reaction is ligand displacement / exchange
(ii) (solution goes blue)

due to [Cu(H2O)6]2+

[1]
[1]
[1]

blue ppt. or (s)


of Cu(OH)2 or [Cu(H2O)4(OH)2] etc.

[1]
[1]

purple or deep / dark blue solution or (aq)


due to [Cu(NH3)4]2+ or [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+

[1]
[1]
7

(c) (i) 2KI + K2S2O8 2K2SO4 + I2 or


ionic: 2I + S2O82 2SO42 + I2
(ii)

Fe2+ is a homogeneous catalyst

[1]
[1]

(iii) equations: 2Fe2+ + S2O82 2Fe3+ + 2SO42


2Fe3+ + 2I 2Fe2+ + I2
or verbal equivalent, e.g. reactants are both negative ions, so repel each
other or Fe2+ can be oxidised by S2O82 and Fe3+ can be reduced by I

[1]
3
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

(a) A: voltmeter or V or potentiometer

Paper
42
[1]

B: platinum or Pt

[1]

C: 1 mol dm3 and H+ or HCl (or 0.5 M H2SO4)

[1]

D: lead (metal) or Pb

[1]
4

(b) (i) a  in the box next to 0.17 V


a comment that the [Pb2+] has decreased plus a description of the outcome,
e.g. as [Pb2+] decreases (from 1 mol dm3), Pb2+(aq) + 2e Pb(s) goes
over to the left hand side, or as [Pb2+] decreases, Pb2+ is less likely to be
reduced
(ii) (Ksp =) [Pb2+][Cl ]2
(iii) if [PbCl2] = 3.5 102, [Pb2+] = 3.5 102 and [Cl ] = 7.0 102
so Ksp = (3.5 102) (7.0 102)2 = 1.715 (1.7) 104 mol3 dm9 ([2sf)

[1]

[1]
[1]

[1] +[1]
5

(c) (i) the (M2+ / M) Eo for the two elements are very similar or are 0.13 and 0.14 V

[1]

Eo (Sn4+ / Sn2+) = 0.15 V and Eo (Pb4+ / Pb2+) = 1.69 V

[1]

so Sn2+ is quite easily oxidised (to Sn4+) or is a stronger reductant or Pb2+ is


not easily oxidised (to Pb4+) or Pb4+ is a stronger oxidant or Pb4+ is easily
reduced

[1]

(ii) e.g. PbCl2 + Zn Pb + ZnCl2 (or ionic)


(other acceptable reductants: Fe, Mg, Ca but not Na or K)
Sn2+ + Br2 Sn4+ + 2Br(other acceptable oxidants: VO2+, Cr2O72, Ag+, Cl2, Br2, F2, Fe3+, MnO4)

[1]

[1]
5

(d) (i) Pb2+(g) + 2Cl (g) PbCl2(s)

[1]

(ii) Hf = Hat + E(Cl Cl) + 1st IE + 2nd IE + 2 EA(Cl) + LE


359 = 195 + 242 + 716 + 1450 2 349 + LE
LE = 2 349 359 195 242 716 1450
LE = 2264 (kJ mol1)

[3]

(iii) LE(PbCl2) > LE(PbBr2) or more exothermic or stronger lattice

[1]

because Cl / chloride anion has smaller radius / size than Br / bromide

[1]
6
[Total: 20]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) B and D

Paper
42
[1] + [1]

(ii) D

[1]
3

(b) heat with dilute H+(aq) or H2SO4(aq)

[1]
1

(c) (i) Ka larger than that for ethanol because


the ethanoate ion / CH3CO2 is stabilised by charge delocalisation
or
the OH bond is weakened due to its proximity to C=O / carbonyl group or
the second electronegative / oxygen atom

[1]

Ka smaller than that for chloroethanoic acid because


electron-withdrawing / electronegative chlorine (atom) makes the anion more
stable or OH bond weaker or H more easily lost

[1]

(ii) [H+] = ([CH3CO2H] Ka) = (0.1 1.75 105) = 1.32(3) 103 (mol dm3)
pH = log10[H+] = 2.88 (2.9)

[1]
[1]
4

(d) (i) n(NaOH) at start = 0.1 20/1000 = 2.0 103 mol


n(NaOH) at finish = 1.0 103 mol

[1]

(ii) this is in 30 cm3 of solution,


so [NaOH] at finish = 1.0 103 / 0.030 = 3.3(3) 102 mol dm3 ([2 s.f.) ecf
from (i)

[1]

(iii) [H+] = Kw / [OH] = 1 1014 / 3.33 102 = 3.0 1013 mol dm3
pH = log10[H+] = 12.5(2)

[1]

or pOH = log10(3.33 102) = 1.48


pH = pKw pOH = 14 1.48 = 12.5(2)
(iv) pH / vol curve: start at pH 2.88 (2.9) ecf

[1]
[1]

vertical (over at least 2 pH units) portion at V = 10 cm3

[1]

levels off at pH 12.5 0.3 ecf

[1]

(v) indicator is thymolphthalein

[1]
7
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 5
4.

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) addition


AND
(ii) substitution

[1]
1

(b) Br2 + Al Br3 Br+ + Al Br4 (or can use Al Cl3 or FeCl3 or FeBr3 etc.)

[1]
1

(c) (i) The two intermediate cations:


H

H
CH2

or

CH2

Br

Br

or

[1]

Br

or

Br

Br
etc

[1]

(ii) The ring (of electrons) in benzene is a stable configuration or is unchanged


after the reaction.

[1]
3

(d)

E is benzoic acid

[1]

reaction 1: heat with KMnO4 (+ OH or H+)

[1]

reaction 2: heat with Cl2 + Al Cl3 or FeCl3

[1]
3

(e)

G is

COCl

reaction 3: SOCl2 or PCl5

[1]

Cl

reaction 4: LiAlH4

[1]
[1]
3
[Total: 11]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 6
5.

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) Na reacts with OH or hydroxyl / alcohol groups

[1]

(ii) Fehling's solution reacts with CHO or aldehyde groups

[1]
2

(b) alkene or C=C or carbon double bond or phenol or phenylamine

[1]
1

(c)

CH3CH2CH(OH)CHO

CH3CH(OH)CH2CHO

HOCH2CH2CH2CHO

OH
CHO

CHO

HO

CHO

OH

[1] + [1] + [1]


3
(d) (i) the CH3CH(OH) group or the CH3CO group or methyl secondary alcohol or
methyl ketone
(ii) CH3CH(OH)CH2CHO

[1]
[1]
2

(e) (i) optical isomerism


(ii)
H

OH

CHO

[1]
HO

CHO

[1]
2
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Section B
6.

(a) (i)

OH
O
NH2

OH
NH
O

Peptide bond correct


Rest of structure correct (skeletal, displayed or structural formula, or a mix)

[1]

(ii) Condensation or nucleophilic substitution or addition-elimination

[1]

(iii) Water / H2O

[1]
4

(b)
DNA

RNA

Contains deoxyribose

Contains ribose

Contains thymine / T

Contains uracil / U

Double strand / chain / helix


or two strands

Single strand / chain


[3]
3

(c) (i) (met) - leu - thr - pro - glu

[1]

(ii) Mutations or addition / insertion / deletion / substitution / replacement (of a


base)

[1]

(iii) Changing A (or the 14th base) into U

[1]
3
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 8
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) (Electrophoresis): the size / shape / Mr of the amino acid or its charge
(ii) (Paper chromatography): the partition of the amino acid between, or the
relative solubility of the compound in, the 2 phases or solvent / water and
stationary phase / filter paper.

Paper
42
[1]

[1]
2

(b)

Use ninhydrin as a locating agent

[1]
1

(c)

The Rf value or retardation / retention factor or the distance travelled by the


acid compared to that travelled by a standard sample of the amino acid

[1]
1

(d)

3 [1]

R glutamic acid; S glycine; T lysine

3
(e)

U
3 [1]

3
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 9
8.

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) Any addition polymer (e.g. polyethene, polypropene, polystyrene, PVC,
PTFE, PVA, Teflon)

[1]

(ii) Any condensation polymer (e.g. polyamide, polyester, nylon, Terylene, PET,
PLA, Kevlar, Nomex)

[1]
2

(b)

Hydrolysis or nucleophilic substitution

[1]

Ester and amide / peptide or CO2 and CONH

[1]
2

(c)

O
O

or

O
CH3

CH3
O
O

Correct ester linkage

[1]

CH3 side chain on only one monomer unit

[1]
2

(d)

Plant materials do not generally contain unsaturated hydrocarbons / alkenes /


C=C

[1]
1

(e) (i) Y van der Waals forces


Z hydrogen bonding
(ii) Z, because it can form hydrogen bonds with water or it contains polar CO
and NH groups

[1]
[1]
[1]
3
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2014 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2014 series for most IGCSE, GCE
Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

Section A
1

(a) (i) m. pt. is high(er) / large(r) / greater (for iron)


density is high(er) / large(r) / greater (for iron)
(ii) (higher m. pt. due to)
strong attraction between cations and electrons or
more delocalised electrons
(higher density due to) greater Ar and smaller radius
(b) (i) components to be added: voltmeter or V
salt bridge [must be labelled]
(ii) M1:
M2:
M3

A and B
either C or D
C and D

copper (metal) or Cu and iron (metal) or Fe


as 1 mol dm3 / 1 M
Cu2+ or CuSO4 or CuCl2 or Cu (NO3)2 etc. and
Fe2+ or FeSO4 etc.

(iii) Eocell = 0.34 + 0.44 = 0.78 (V)

[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(iv) if C is Fe2+; (as [C] increases), the E of the Fe2+ / Fe increases / becomes more positive /
less negative
[1]
so the overall cell potential / Ecell would decrease / become less positive / more
negative
[1]
or
if C is Cu2+; (as [C] increases), the E of the Cu2+/Cu increases / becomes more
positive / less negative
[1]
so the overall cell potential / Ecell would increase / become more positive / less negative
[1]
(c) (i) (colour change is) colourless to pink/pale purple
or (end point is the first) permanent (pale) pink/pale purple colour
(ii) {n(MnO4) = 0.02 18.1/1000 = 3.62 10-4 mol}
n(Fe2+) = 5 n(MnO4) = 1.81 103 mol

[1]

[1]

mass of Fe = 55.8 x 1.81 103 = 0.101 g (M2 55.8) ecf

[1]

Mr = mass / moles = 0.500/1.81 103 = 276.2 ecf

[1]
[Total: 16]

(a) (i) A complex is a compound / molecule / species / ion formed by a central metal atom / ion
surrounded by / bonded to one or more ligands / groups/ molecules / anions
[1]
A ligand is a species that contains a lone pair of electrons that forms a dative bond to a
metal atom / ion / or a lone pair donor to metal atom / ion
[1]
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(ii)
2+
2-

H2O
H2O

Cl
OH2

and

Cu
H2O

Cl

OH2

Cu
Cl

Cl

H2O

correct 3D structures:
octahedral and tetrahedral

[1] + [1]
[1]

(iii)
Cl

Pt

H3N

Cl

Cl
or
NH3

H3N

Pt
NH3

Cl
Cl

Pt

H3N

NH3
Cl

both structures
geometric or cis-trans
(b) (i) Cu(II) is [Ar] 3d9
Cu(I) is [Ar] 3d10
(ii) Cu(II):

NH3
or

Cl

Pt

Cl

NH3

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

d orbitals / subshell are split (in ligand field) and


electron moves from lower to upper orbital or an electron is promoted / excited

Cu(I):

in doing so it absorbs a photon / light

[2]

no gap in upper orbital / all orbitals are full

[1]

(c) (i) Ho = +2 33.2 157.3 + 302.9 = (+) 212 kJ mol1 ecf


(ii) Ho = 168.6 + 2 157.3 = (+)146 kJ mol1 allow ecf from (c)(i)
high T / temperature since H is positive / endothermic

[2]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 16]

(a) heat in dilute HCl(aq) (or H2SO4(aq))

[1]

(b) (i) four isomers

[1]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

(ii) must be skeletal

OH

O
O

Paper
43

OH

trans-cis

Syllabus
9701

cis-trans

O
O

OH

cis-cis

[1]
(iii)

CO2H

+ CO2 or HO2C-CO2H

[1]

[1]

(c) (i) Kw = [H+][OH]

[1]

(ii) In 0.15 mol dm3 NaOH, [OH-] = 0.15 mol dm3


[H+] = Kw / [OH], so [H+] = 1 1014 / 0.15 = 6.67 1014 mol dm3
pH = -log10[H+] = 13.18 (13.2) ecf from [H+]

[1]
[1]

(iii) piperidine is a poorer proton acceptor


or piperidine is partially ionised

[1]

(iv) piperidine should be a stronger base/more basic than ammonia


because of the electron-donating (alkyl/CH2) groups

[1]

(d) (i) n(HCl) at start = 0.1 20/1000 = 2.0 103 mol


n(HCl) at finish = 2 103 1.5 103 = 0.0005/5 104 mol

[1]

(ii) this is in 30 cm3 of solution, so [HCl] at finish = 0.5 103/0.030 = 1.67 102 mol dm3
pH = log10(1.67 102) = 1.78 ecf from (d)(i)
[1]
(iii) pH / vol curve: start at pH 11.9
vertical portion at V = 15 cm3
levels off at pH 1.8

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iv) indicator is B

[1]
[Total: 16]

(a)

three from phenol


(secondary) alcohol
(primary) amine
arene / aryl / benzene

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

3 [1]

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(b) (i)
OH
HO

CH
CN

Compound Z is
HO

[1]
step 1: HCN + NaCN or HCN + base
step 2: H2 + Ni or LiAlH4 or Na + ethanol

[1]
[1]

(ii) bromine decolourises or goes from orange to colourless or white ppt. formed
Br
HO
CHO
e.g.

[1]

(2
or 3
3 xbromines
Br in ring)in ring
2 or
HO
Br

[1]
(c)
O
NaO

OH
NH2

(i)(i)
(or ionic)
NaO

[1]

[1]

[1]

[1]

OH
NH3Cl

HO

NH3

(ii)
(ii)

(or ionic)

HO
OCOCH3
NHCOCH3

CH3COO

(iii)
(iii)
CH3CO2

M1: amide
M2: alcoholic ester
M3: both phenolic esters
(d) amide
ester

[1]
[1]
[1]
[5] max [4]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

(a) (i) OH or hydroxyl groups (allow alcohol groups)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43
[1]

(ii) alkenes or C=C (double) bonds or carbon double bonds

[1]

(iii) CH3CH(OH) or CH3CO- groups

[1]

(b) V is CH3CH(OH)CH=CH2

[1]

W is CH3CH=CHCH2OH

[1]

(c) compound V shows optical isomerism


(ecf for 'geometric(al)' if candidate's V is capable of cis-trans)
CH3
C
H2C

CH

[1]

CH3
HO

OH

C
H

CH

CH2

[1]
(d)

OH

OH

OH

or

CH3CH(OH)CH(OH)CH2OH

[1]
[Total: 8]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 7
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)
feature

level of bonding

formation of -helix

secondary

formation of disulfide bonds

tertiary

formation of ionic bonds

tertiary

linking amino acids

primary
[3]

(b)
block letter

name

Deoxyribose

Cytosine

Phosphate

Thymine
4 [1]

(c) (i) H/hydrogen (bonds between bases)

[1]

(ii) Bonds are weak and


so require relatively little energy to break / are easily broken

[1]

(d)
(sugar, J)

(base, M)

DNA

deoxyribose

thymine / T

RNA

ribose

uracil / U
[1]
[Total: 10]

100 2.5
or equivalent
1.1 74
n = 3.1 hence G has three carbon atoms

(a) Expression: n =

[1]
[1]

(b) (i) ( 1.1) RCH3 or RCH2R or methyl or CH3


( 2.2) (R)CH2CO(R) or CH3CO(R)
( 11.8) (R)COOH or (R)CONH(R)
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

3 [1]

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(ii) The (OH) peak at 11.8 (disappears)

[1]

because of (O)H-D exchange or equation showing this


(e.g. R-OH + D2O R-OD + HOD)

[1]

(iii) CH3CH2CO2H
(c) (i)

[1]

O
H3C

HO
O

N
H3C

or

or

H3C
or

CH3 or

OH

C
H
[1]

(ii) If methyl ethanoate: 2.02.1


3.34.0

[1]
[1]

Or if 1, 3-dioxolane: 3.34.0
3.35.0

[1]
[1]

Or if 1, 2-dioxolane: 0.91.4
3.34.0

[1]
[1]

Or if dihydroxycyclopropane: 0.91.4
0.56.0

[1]
[1]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i) Amide or ester or peptide

[1]

(ii) Hydrolysis

[1]

(iii) Drug B

[1]

(iv) two ester and one amide groups circled

[2]

(b) (i) At point Q because the hydrocarbon tails region is hydrophobic/non-polar/ form van der
Waals only
[1]
or can dissolve in the fat-soluble area
(ii) They all contain polar or hydrogen-bonding (groups)
(c) (i) range 1 109 to 1 107 m
(ii) (higher frequency radiation could) cause tissue/cell damage or mutation
or harmful to cells

[1]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2015 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2015 series for most
Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Question
1

(a)
(b) (i)

Syllabus
9701

Marking point

Paper
41
Marks

oxygen: (1s2) 2s22p4


fluorine: (1s2) 2s22p5

F2O / OF2

(ii)

bent or non-linear

Eo values: F2 / F = 2.87 V and Cl2 / Cl = 1.36 V

fluorine (has the more positive Eo so) is more oxidising

(ii)

redox

(iii)

Cl F + 2KBr KCl + KF + Br2

(iii)
(c) (i)

[Total: 8]
2

(a) (i)
(ii)

hydrogen chloride or HCl

either (RCOCl) has two electron-withdrawing groups / atoms, making the


more + / electron deficient
or (RCOCl) has an oxygen, making the carbon more + / electron deficient
or (RCOCl) has two electron-withdrawing groups, weakening the CCl bond

(b) (i)

CH3

NCH2CH3
CH3

P
(ii)

step 1: heat with MnO4 / KMnO4 (+ acid or alkali)

step 2: PCl3 + heat or SOCl2 or PCl5

step 4: LiAlH4 (in dry ether)

1
[Total: 7]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 3

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

(a) (i)

Syllabus
9701

relative
abundance

isotope
24

7879

25

10

26

1211

Mg
Mg
Mg

Paper
41

(total must add up to 100 %)


(ii)

e.g. 0.78x24 + 0.10x25 + 0.12x26 = 24.34

nitrates become more stable (down the group)

as the ionic radius increases


or charge density on cation / ion decreases

decreasing its ability to distort / polarise the NO3 / nitrate ion

(ii)

4LiNO3 2Li2O + 4NO2 + O2

(iii)

the charge density of the other cations are too small (to polarise the anion
sufficiently so the anion is more stable)

(b) (i)

[Total: 7]
4

(a) (i)
(ii)

Ksp = [Ag+(aq)]2[SO42(aq)] and units: mol3dm9

Ksp = (2 x 0.025)2 x (0.025) = 6.25 x 105

(b)
2-

latt

Ag2SO4(s)

hyd

o
sol
2
+

(c) (i)
(ii)

or

2-

1
1
1
1

Eocell (= 0.80 0.77 =) (+)0.03V and Ag+ / Ag or Ag / silver or right

Ecell would be less positive / more negative

because the [Ag+(aq)] (in the Ag electrode) is less than 1.0 mol dm3
(iii)

no change
Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 4

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

(iv)

(d)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
1

more negative / less positive

the [Ag+(aq)] will decrease


Eelectrode becomes less positive or due to the common ion effect

[Fe3+(aq)] = 0.2 mol dm3

[H+] = (c.Ka) = (0.2 x 8.9 x 104) or 1.33 x 102 (mol dm3)


pH = log([H+]) = 1.9 (or 1.871.89)

1
[Total: 13]

(a)
14

C2

protons

electrons

neutrons

1
1

(b)

no reaction
CCl4:
GeCl4 and SnCl4: for each steamy fumes evolved or white solid produced
GeCl4 + 2H2O GeO2 + 4HCl
SnCl4 + 2H2O SnO2 + 4HCl

1
1
1
1

(c)

Ge / Sn use dorbitals
or Ge / Sn have low lying d orbitals
or carbon cannot expand its octet
or carbon cannot accommodate more than 4 bonded pairs

(d)

Sn4+ / Sn2+ = +0.15V and Pb4+ / Pb2+ = +1.69 V and Cl2 / Cl = + 1.36 V

Sn2+ is oxidised by Cl2 because its Eo is less positive / more negative


or Sn2+ is a good reducing agent due to its smaller E value than Cl2 ora
or Pb4+ is a stronger oxidising agent than Cl2 so Pb2+ with Cl2 reaction is not
feasible
or Sn4+ is a weaker oxidising agent than Cl2 so Sn2+ with Cl2 reaction is
feasible

SnCl2 + Cl2 SnCl4


or Sn2+ + Cl2 Sn4+ + 2Cl
or SnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O SnO2 + 4HCl

F = Le

moles of O2(g) = 130 / 24 000 = 5.417 x 103 mol

(e) (i)
(ii)

moles of electrons needed = 4 x 5.417 x 103 or 2.17 x 102 mol


no. of coulombs passed = 1.2 x 30 x 60 or 2160 C

no. of electrons passed = 2160 / 1.6 x 1019 or 1.35 x 1022

no. of electrons per mole = 1.35 x 1022 / 2.17 x 102 = 6.2 x 1023 (mol1)

1
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 5

(a) (i)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015
CH3COCl

Syllabus
9701

or ethanoyl chloride

Paper
41
1

(ii)

electrophilic substitution

(iii)

conc HNO3 and conc H2SO4

(iv)

CHI3

(b) (i)

(ii)

polyamide or condensation

(iii)

H2O / water

(iv)

Sn / Fe + HCl + conc / aq / heat/warm

(v)

harder or more dense or stronger or higher m.pt or tougher or more rigid


due to cross-linking or more H-bonding between the chains

1
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 6

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) heat with catalyst or heat with Al2O3 / SiO2

Paper
41
1

(ii) B is CH3CH2CH3

(iii) C is CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3

D and E are CH3CH=CHCH2CH3 (one shown as cis, the other as trans)

F is CH3CH2CH2CO2H

G is CH3CO2H
H is CH3CH2CO2H
(iv) geometrical or cis-trans or EZ

(b) (i) No particular conditions or in the dark

(ii) electrophilic addition


(iii) CH3

1
CH3

CH

CH2

CH3
CH

CH2

CH
Br

+ Br

CH2

Br

Br

- Br

Br

1
1
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) condensation

(ii)

(iii) any two side-chain interactions mentioned with group


Ionic attractions / bonds

between CO2 and NH3+

van der Waals

between alkyl / aryl / non-polar groups or valine

hydrogen(H) bonding

between OH, NH2, COOH, NH or serine

SS or disulfide bonds or
disulfur bond / bridge

between SH groups or cysteine

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 7

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(b) (i) labelled diagrams

or
in words
the enzyme has a specific shape or substrate shape is complementary to
active site
the substrate bonds / binds / fits to the active site or other substrates do not fit
into active site

1
1

(ii) labelled diagrams

or in words
inhibitor binds to enzyme away from the active site or inhibitor binds to
allosteric site
this changes the shape (or structure) of the active site
substrate no longer fits the active site

1
1
1
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) use restriction enzymes


or using an enzyme to break (the DNA) down into smaller fragments

(ii) use the polymerase chain reaction


or use DNA polymerase to replicate / copy (the sample of DNA)

(iii)

amino acids have different charges


due to their side-chain / R group / pH / CO2 and NH3+ groups
DNA fragments have negatively-charge phosphates(or PO4)
or DNA has PO43 groups

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 8

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

(iv)

Paper
41
1

A piece of leather from an Egyptian tomb


A sample of skin from a mummified body
A fragment of ancient pottery

A piece of wood from a Roman chariot

(b) (i) the electron density in the molecule


or positions of atoms
or interatomic distance / spacing between the atoms

(ii) phosphorus has the most electrons


or phosphorus has the highest electron density

(c) (i) equilibrium constant (for the solution) of a solute between two (immiscible)
solvents

or ratio of the concentration of the solute in (each of the) two solvents


or ratio of the solubility of the solute in (each of the) two solvents
(ii) x / (25 / 1000)
(0.0042x)/(25 / 1000)
x = 0.0252 6x
x = 0.0036g

1
1
[Total: 10]

10 (a) (i) any three of the following structures


CH3CH2CH3
CH3CH=CH2
CH3CCH
CH2=C=CH2

(ii) K
since it has the greatest % of hydrocarbons / carbon-containing compounds
or 99.6 % of it is burnt for energy
(iii) any two from
reacted with lime / CaO / soda lime / Ca(OH)2 / KOH / NaOH /
liquefied under pressure / 5 atm
dissolved in water under pressure / 5 atm
(b) (i) have a shorter carbon / hydrocarbon chain or shorter hydrocarbon
or fewer carbon atoms in its chain
or have high H / C ratio
(ii) Coal

1
Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 9

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

produces the largest amount of SO2


or largest combined amount of SO2 and NO2
(iii) they burn at higher temperatures
or release more heat on burning

(iv) CO the gas is toxic/poisonous or references to Hb and ability to carry oxygen

CO2 the gas contributes to global warming

1
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2015 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2015 series for most
Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) fluorine: 1s22s22p5

[1]

sulfur: 1s22s22p63s23p4
(b) (i) 2HCl H2 + Cl2

[1]

(ii) bond energies: HF (562) is stronger than HCl (431)


or F2 (158) is weaker than Cl2 (244)

[1]

(c) electronegativity:
The attraction by an atom / nucleus / element of the electrons in a bond or a shared
pair or a molecule
bond polarity:
..is due to atoms / elements of different electronegativities at each end of a bond

[2]

(d) (i)
F

(ii) Yes, it will have a dipole moment,


[3]
either because it has an uneven distribution of electrons or because it contains a lone
pair
or the SF dipoles don't cancel or molecule is not symmetrical or diagram of see-saw
shape.
(allow an ecf for "no dipole" if their structure in (d)(i) has no lone pair)
(e) Sulfur can use its d-orbitals or has low-lying / accessible / available d-orbitals or can
expand its octet.
(allow reverse argument for oxygen; do NOT allow just "sulfur has d-orbitals")

[1]

(f) (i) Burning of fossil fuels or coal / oil / petrol / natural gas (NOT methane or hydrocarbons)
or volcanoes or roasting / burning sulfide ores
(ii) Acid rain

[2]
[Total: 11]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 3

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) Ar = 204 0.019 + 206 0.248 + 207


[2]
= 207.21
(correct ans = [2])
The last answer written by the candidate needs to be written with 2 d.p. to get the last mark.
(b) (i) Tin(II) oxide is more basic than tin(IV) oxide
or tin(II) oxide is less acidic than tin (IV) oxide
(ii) e.g. SnO + 2HCl
SnO2 + 2NaOH

SnCl2 + H2O(or ionic or with H2SO4)


Na2SnO3 + H2O (or ionic or with KOH etc.)

(iii) SnO2 stays the same (white) or is stable or no reaction

[1]

[2]

[3]

PbO2 changes colour (from brown/black to yellow/orange/red)


PbO2 PbO +

1
O2
2

or

3PbO2 Pb3O4 + O2
[Total: 8]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 4

(a)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

33

Paper
42
[2]

(b) Solubility decreases (from Mg to Ba or down the group)

[4]

Both lattice energy / Hlatt and enthalpy change of hydration / Hhyd are involved
enthalpy change of hydration decreases more than lattice energy
So enthalpy change of solution / Hsol becomes more endothermic or more
positive or less exothermic or less negative (NOT Hsol decreases, or increases)
(c) precipitate / solid CaSO4 would form
due to the common ion effect or Ksp is exceeded or the following equilibrium
shifted over to the right
Ca2+(aq) + SO42(aq) CaSO4(s)
= 1.8 40 x 60

(= 4320 C)

n(e)

= 4320 / 96500

(= 4.477 102 mol) ecf

n(Cr)

= 0.776 / 52

(= 1.492 102 mol) ecf

= 4.477 102 / 1.492 102 = 3.00 (=3)

(d) charge passed

[2]

[4]

[Total: 12]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) a solution that resists / minimises a change in its pH or helps maintain its pH.....
(NOT any of: "maintains pH"; "keeps pH constant"; "no change in pH")
.....when small amounts of acid / H+ or base / OH are added (both acid and
base are needed)
(ii) HCO3 reacts with H+ ions as follows:
HCO3 + H+ H2CO3 (or H2O + CO2)

and with OH ions thus:


HCO3 + OH CO32 + H2O

[2]

[2]

(the equation arrows can be equilibrium arrows, as long as HCO3 is on the left)
(iii) (pKa = log(Ka) = 7.21)

[2]

pH = pKa + log([base] / [acid]

(b) (i) Ksp = [Ag+]3[PO43]

and

= 7.21 + log(0.5 / 0.3)


= 7.43 (7.4)
units: mol4dm12

(ii) call [PO43] = x, then [Ag+] = 3x, and Ksp = 27x4


x = (Ksp / 27)1/4

= (1.25 1020 / 27)1/4

[Ag+] = 3x = 1.39 105 (mol dm3)

(c)

H3PO3 + 2Fe3+ + H2O

[1]
[3]

= 4.64 106 mol dm3

(allow 1.4 105)

H3PO4 + 2Fe2+ + 2H+

[2]

Eocell = 0.77 (0.28) = (+)1.05 V


or 3H3PO3 + 3H2O + 2Fe3+

3H3PO4 + 6H+ + 2Fe

Eocell = 0.04 (0.28) = (+)0.24 V


[Total: 12]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) H2 + Pt or H2 + Ni / Pd + heat / warm or 50o < T < 500 oC

[1]

(ii)

OH

[1]
(iii) 22 = 4

[1]

(iv)
CH(CH3)2

H
CH(CH3)2

or

OH
OH

2 Hs have to be on the same side of the ring. Allow C3H7 or R for CH(CH3)2
(b) (i)

[1]
[1]

or
N
N

N2

or

N
N

(ignore additional Cl or Cl-, but don't allow covalent -N=N-Cl)

(ii) step 1: conc HNO3 + H2SO4 (@ 25 oC < T < 60 oC see below) ("aq" negates)
step 2: Sn / Fe + HCl
step 3: HNO2 or NaNO2 + HCl (@ T< 10 C see below)
both temperatures correct for steps 1 + 3 (temperature not required for step 2)
(inclusion of the word "heat" or "reflux" in step 3 negates the temperature mark)
(c)

[4]

[5]

HBr

no reaction
Br

Na
ONa

NaOH(aq)

ONa

no reaction
ONa

[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 7
6

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

(a)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

There are three acceptable alternatives follow each column down vertically:
(i) D is

RCOCl

RCOOCH2CH3

RCO2 NH4+

(ii) step 1

SOCl2 (or PCl3 or PCl5)

ethanol (e.g.) + conc H2SO4

NH3

(ii) step 2

NH3

(ii) step 3

LiAl H4 (aq) negates(NOT NaBH4; Sn + HCl etc.)

(NaOH negates this mark)

heat

(b) (i) amine (other groups negate)

[1]

(ii) phenol and carboxylic acid (both needed)

[1]

(iii)

[4]
compound

first functional group

second functional group

amide

alcohol

amine

carboxylic acid

amine

ester

amide

phenol

(iv) Mark this in the following way. For each structure of E, F, G and H:

[4]

check whether the structure fits the molecular formula C8H9NO2, i.e. that it has: one
nitrogen, two oxygens and eight carbons.

check that it contains the two groups that the candidate's answers to part (ii) says it
contains.
[Total: 13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 8

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

(a) L it is the only compound that is an amino acid or can form (NOT contain)
NHCO / amide / peptide linkages / bonds
or
it contains an N atom / NH2 group / CO2H group

Paper
42
[1]

(b) mark both parts of this together max [4] from the following six points
[4]
M1
mRNA is complementary to or a copy of (a portion of) DNA
M2
mRNA encodes the sequence of amino acids in proteins or each of its
codons (base triplets) codes for one amino acid
M3
mRNA binds to / associates with the ribosome
M4
tRNAs are specific to their amino acids
M5
tRNA contains an anticodon or bonds to the codon / mRNA through base pairing or
translates the RNA code into the amino acid sequence
M6
tRNA carries the amino acid to the ribosome/mRNA
(c) max [3] from the following six points.
M1
the pH of that area of the protein would change
M2
protein becomes less hydrophilic / soluble or more hydrophobic
M3
fewer hydrogen bonds or more van der Waals (idid) forces
M4
fewer ionic bonds form
M5
the tertiary structure / folding / (3D) shape (of the protein) would change
M6
the active site would be different / less efficient

[3]

[Total: 8]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 9
8

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) The nucleus / proton of a hydrogen atom has spin

Paper
42
[1]

(ii) Hydrogen doesn't have enough electrons / electron density

[1]

(iii) S / sulfur it has the greatest number of electrons or highest electron density

[1]

(b) (i) 12 protons (=9+2+1)

[1]

(ii) The group responsible for this peak is OH (allow NH)


The D in D2O exchanges with the H in OH or H is replaced by D
or "OH OD",

[2]

(iii) The adjacent carbon atom has no hydrogen atoms bonded to it

[1]

(iv) Methyl / CH3 group

[1]

(v) P is (CH3)3CCH2OH

[1]

(c) (i)

n=

100 (M + 1) 100 0.5


=
= 50/10.23
1.1 M
1.1 9.3
= 4.89 hence 5 carbons

[1]

(ii) (Ratio of 79Br:81Br is 1 : 1),


hence ratio of M : M+2 : M+4 is 1 : 2 : 1

[1]

(iii) Molecular formula of R is C5H10Br2

[1]
[Total: 12]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 10

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a)

[3]
monomer

addition

condensation

both

(b) polythene is non-polar or its bonds are non-polar


so not (easily) hydrolysed

[2]

(c) (i)

[1]
O

OH
OH

or

O
Cl

NOT

OH

OH
Cl

(Allow displayed, skeletal, part-skeletal, structural etc.)


(ii) The ester (or COO) linkage / bond is hydrolysed or reacts with water

(d) Polythene has (weak) van der Waals (or idid) forces
PVC has stronger van der Waals forces or additional dipole forces
Nylon has (strong) hydrogen bonding

[1]

[3]

[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2015 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2015 series for most
Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Question
1

(a)
(b) (i)

Syllabus
9701

Marking point

Paper
43
Marks

oxygen: (1s2) 2s22p4


fluorine: (1s2) 2s22p5

F2O / OF2

(ii)

bent or non-linear

Eo values: F2 / F = 2.87 V and Cl2 / Cl = 1.36 V

fluorine (has the more positive Eo so) is more oxidising

(ii)

redox

(iii)

Cl F + 2KBr KCl + KF + Br2

(iii)
(c) (i)

[Total: 8]
2

(a) (i)
(ii)

hydrogen chloride or HCl

either (RCOCl) has two electron-withdrawing groups / atoms, making the


more + / electron deficient
or (RCOCl) has an oxygen, making the carbon more + / electron deficient
or (RCOCl) has two electron-withdrawing groups, weakening the CCl bond

(b) (i)

CH3

NCH2CH3
CH3

P
(ii)

step 1: heat with MnO4 / KMnO4 (+ acid or alkali)

step 2: PCl3 + heat or SOCl2 or PCl5

step 4: LiAlH4 (in dry ether)

1
[Total: 7]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 3

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

(a) (i)

Syllabus
9701

relative
abundance

isotope
24

7879

25

10

26

1211

Mg
Mg
Mg

Paper
43

(total must add up to 100 %)


(ii)

e.g. 0.78x24 + 0.10x25 + 0.12x26 = 24.34

nitrates become more stable (down the group)

as the ionic radius increases


or charge density on cation / ion decreases

decreasing its ability to distort / polarise the NO3 / nitrate ion

(ii)

4LiNO3 2Li2O + 4NO2 + O2

(iii)

the charge density of the other cations are too small (to polarise the anion
sufficiently so the anion is more stable)

(b) (i)

[Total: 7]
4

(a) (i)
(ii)

Ksp = [Ag+(aq)]2[SO42(aq)] and units: mol3dm9

Ksp = (2 x 0.025)2 x (0.025) = 6.25 x 105

(b)
2-

latt

Ag2SO4(s)

hyd

o
sol
2
+

(c) (i)
(ii)

or

2-

1
1
1
1

Eocell (= 0.80 0.77 =) (+)0.03V and Ag+ / Ag or Ag / silver or right

Ecell would be less positive / more negative

because the [Ag+(aq)] (in the Ag electrode) is less than 1.0 mol dm3
(iii)

no change
Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 4

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

(iv)

(d)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43
1

more negative / less positive

the [Ag+(aq)] will decrease


Eelectrode becomes less positive or due to the common ion effect

[Fe3+(aq)] = 0.2 mol dm3

[H+] = (c.Ka) = (0.2 x 8.9 x 104) or 1.33 x 102 (mol dm3)


pH = log([H+]) = 1.9 (or 1.871.89)

1
[Total: 13]

(a)
14

C2

protons

electrons

neutrons

1
1

(b)

no reaction
CCl4:
GeCl4 and SnCl4: for each steamy fumes evolved or white solid produced
GeCl4 + 2H2O GeO2 + 4HCl
SnCl4 + 2H2O SnO2 + 4HCl

1
1
1
1

(c)

Ge / Sn use dorbitals
or Ge / Sn have low lying d orbitals
or carbon cannot expand its octet
or carbon cannot accommodate more than 4 bonded pairs

(d)

Sn4+ / Sn2+ = +0.15V and Pb4+ / Pb2+ = +1.69 V and Cl2 / Cl = + 1.36 V

Sn2+ is oxidised by Cl2 because its Eo is less positive / more negative


or Sn2+ is a good reducing agent due to its smaller E value than Cl2 ora
or Pb4+ is a stronger oxidising agent than Cl2 so Pb2+ with Cl2 reaction is not
feasible
or Sn4+ is a weaker oxidising agent than Cl2 so Sn2+ with Cl2 reaction is
feasible

SnCl2 + Cl2 SnCl4


or Sn2+ + Cl2 Sn4+ + 2Cl
or SnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O SnO2 + 4HCl

F = Le

moles of O2(g) = 130 / 24 000 = 5.417 x 103 mol

(e) (i)
(ii)

moles of electrons needed = 4 x 5.417 x 103 or 2.17 x 102 mol


no. of coulombs passed = 1.2 x 30 x 60 or 2160 C

no. of electrons passed = 2160 / 1.6 x 1019 or 1.35 x 1022

no. of electrons per mole = 1.35 x 1022 / 2.17 x 102 = 6.2 x 1023 (mol1)

1
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 5

(a) (i)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015
CH3COCl

Syllabus
9701

or ethanoyl chloride

Paper
43
1

(ii)

electrophilic substitution

(iii)

conc HNO3 and conc H2SO4

(iv)

CHI3

(b) (i)

(ii)

polyamide or condensation

(iii)

H2O / water

(iv)

Sn / Fe + HCl + conc / aq / heat/warm

(v)

harder or more dense or stronger or higher m.pt or tougher or more rigid


due to cross-linking or more H-bonding between the chains

1
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 6

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) heat with catalyst or heat with Al2O3 / SiO2

Paper
43
1

(ii) B is CH3CH2CH3

(iii) C is CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3

D and E are CH3CH=CHCH2CH3 (one shown as cis, the other as trans)

F is CH3CH2CH2CO2H

G is CH3CO2H
H is CH3CH2CO2H
(iv) geometrical or cis-trans or EZ

(b) (i) No particular conditions or in the dark

(ii) electrophilic addition


(iii) CH3

1
CH3

CH

CH2

CH3
CH

CH2

CH
Br

+ Br

CH2

Br

Br

- Br

Br

1
1
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) condensation

(ii)

(iii) any two side-chain interactions mentioned with group


Ionic attractions / bonds

between CO2 and NH3+

van der Waals

between alkyl / aryl / non-polar groups or valine

hydrogen(H) bonding

between OH, NH2, COOH, NH or serine

SS or disulfide bonds or
disulfur bond / bridge

between SH groups or cysteine

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 7

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(b) (i) labelled diagrams

or
in words
the enzyme has a specific shape or substrate shape is complementary to
active site
the substrate bonds / binds / fits to the active site or other substrates do not fit
into active site

1
1

(ii) labelled diagrams

or in words
inhibitor binds to enzyme away from the active site or inhibitor binds to
allosteric site
this changes the shape (or structure) of the active site
substrate no longer fits the active site

1
1
1
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) use restriction enzymes


or using an enzyme to break (the DNA) down into smaller fragments

(ii) use the polymerase chain reaction


or use DNA polymerase to replicate / copy (the sample of DNA)

(iii)

amino acids have different charges


due to their side-chain / R group / pH / CO2 and NH3+ groups
DNA fragments have negatively-charge phosphates(or PO4)
or DNA has PO43 groups

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 8

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

(iv)

Paper
43
1

A piece of leather from an Egyptian tomb


A sample of skin from a mummified body
A fragment of ancient pottery

A piece of wood from a Roman chariot

(b) (i) the electron density in the molecule


or positions of atoms
or interatomic distance / spacing between the atoms

(ii) phosphorus has the most electrons


or phosphorus has the highest electron density

(c) (i) equilibrium constant (for the solution) of a solute between two (immiscible)
solvents

or ratio of the concentration of the solute in (each of the) two solvents


or ratio of the solubility of the solute in (each of the) two solvents
(ii) x / (25 / 1000)
(0.0042x)/(25 / 1000)
x = 0.0252 6x
x = 0.0036g

1
1
[Total: 10]

10 (a) (i) any three of the following structures


CH3CH2CH3
CH3CH=CH2
CH3CCH
CH2=C=CH2

(ii) K
since it has the greatest % of hydrocarbons / carbon-containing compounds
or 99.6 % of it is burnt for energy
(iii) any two from
reacted with lime / CaO / soda lime / Ca(OH)2 / KOH / NaOH /
liquefied under pressure / 5 atm
dissolved in water under pressure / 5 atm
(b) (i) have a shorter carbon / hydrocarbon chain or shorter hydrocarbon
or fewer carbon atoms in its chain
or have high H / C ratio
(ii) Coal

1
Cambridge International Examinations 2015

Page 9

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level May/June 2015

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

produces the largest amount of SO2


or largest combined amount of SO2 and NO2
(iii) they burn at higher temperatures
or release more heat on burning

(iv) CO the gas is toxic/poisonous or references to Hb and ability to carry oxygen

CO2 the gas contributes to global warming

1
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2015

ap
eP

e
tr
.X

om
.c

s
er

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the November 2004 question paper

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (Structured Questions A2 Core), maximum raw mark 60

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the
examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were initially instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began. Any
substantial changes to the mark scheme that arose from these discussions will be recorded in the published
Report on the Examination.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in candidates
scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the Report on the Examination.

CIE will not enter into discussion or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the November 2004 question papers for most IGCSE and GCE
Advanced Level syllabuses.

Grade thresholds taken for Syllabus 9701 (Chemistry) in the November 2004 examination.
maximum
mark
available
Component 4

60

minimum mark required for grade:


A

44

39

22

The thresholds (minimum marks) for Grades C and D are normally set by dividing the mark
range between the B and the E thresholds into three. For example, if the difference between
the B and the E threshold is 24 marks, the C threshold is set 8 marks below the B threshold
and the D threshold is set another 8 marks down. If dividing the interval by three results in a
fraction of a mark, then the threshold is normally rounded down.

November 2004

GCE A LEVEL

MARK SCHEME
MAXIMUM MARK: 60

SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 9701/04
CHEMISTRY
Paper 4 (Structured Questions A2 Core)

Page 1

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL NOVEMBER 2004

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) strong, because final pH is about 14

[1]

(ii) (pH = 0.70) [H+] = 10-0.7 = 0.20 (mol dm-3)


[H2SO4]

Paper
4

[1]

= (0.10 mol dm-3)

ecf [1]

(iii) (end point is at 34.0 cm3 ( 0.5 cm3), so)

(iv)

amount of H+ used

= 0.2 x 25/1000

= 0.0050 mol

moles of guanidine

= moles of H+

= 0.0050 mol

[guanidine]

= 0.005 x 1000/34.0 = 0.147 (mol dm-3)

Mr = 8.68/0.147

(b) (i)

ecf from (ii) [1]

allow range: 0.145 0.149

ecf in 0.005 or 34.0 [1]

= 59 (allow range 58 60)

ecf from (iii) [1]

7 CaSO4 + 3 Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2 HF

(ii) Mr values:

[1]

[1]

Ca(H2PO4)2

= 234.1,

H2SO4 =

98.0

[1]

234.1 x 3

= 702.3

98 x 7 =

686

both [1]

ecf from ratios in equation, and from Mr values


mass of H2SO4 needed = 1.0 x 686/702.3 = 0.98 kg

[1]

(correct answer = [3] marks. accurate value is: 0.977 kg.


Allow ecf from incorrect Mr or incorrect multipliers)
(c) (i) A solution that resists changes in pH

[NOT: results in no pH change]

when small amounts of H+ or OH- are added


(ii) pH = -log10(6.3 x 10-8) + log10(0.1/0.2) = 6.9
or

4
[1]
[1]
[1]

[H+] = (6.3 x 10-8) x 0.2/0.1 = 1.26 x 10-7


pH = -log10(1.26 x 10-7)

= 6.9

3
Total 13

(a) O2 + 4H+ + 4e-

2H2O (or equation 2)

[1]

(b)

[1]

(c) 1.23 (V) (ignore sign)

[1]

[1]

(d) a better/larger salt bridge or a diaphragm or larger (area of) electrodes


or increase concentrations/pressure

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 2

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL NOVEMBER 2004

Syllabus
9701

(e) time = 400 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 34 560 000 seconds

[1]

charge = current x time = 0.01 x 34 560 000 = 345 600 C


moles of H = 345 600/96 500 = 3.6 mol
(f) advantages:

ecf [1]

mass of H = 3.6 g

ecf [1]

less pollution/CO2/NOx etc. or cleaner by-products


less dependence on fossil fuels/finite resources

disadvantages:

Paper
4

any one [1]

more expensive (to develop or to run)


takes up more space
poor power-to-volume ratio
hydrogen is difficult to store or to transport

any one [1]

NOT hydrogen is explosive/flammable

2
Total 9

solubilities decrease down the group

[1]

hydration energy of the cation decreases

[1]

lattice energy stays the same, or decreases less than H.E.

[1]

making Hsolution more endothermic or H.E. no longer able to overcome -L.E.

[1]

Total 4
4

(a) an element forming one or more ions with a partially filled/incomplete d-shell

[1]

(b) (i) almost no change (allow slight increase or slight decrease)

[1]

(ii) density should increase

[1]

because Ar is increasing but size/volume/radius stays the same

[1]

(allow partial ecf from b (i))

[1]

(c) ..3d9
(d) (i) an ion formed when a ligand (datively) bonds to a (central metal) cation

[1]

(ii)

[1]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 3

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL NOVEMBER 2004

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

(e) (i) dark/deep/navy/royal/Oxford blue or purple [NOT Prussian blue or lilac or mauve]
[1]
(ii) 4NH3 + [Cu(H2O)6]2+

[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ + 4H2O
[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 6H2O

or
(f) CuCl42- is produced

[1]

[1]

the equilibrium is reversible or in equation

[1]

Cl - ligands replace/exchange with H2O ligands (in words)

[1]

(the following equation is worth the first two marks)


[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4Cl - [CuCl4]2- + 6H2O

3
Total 12

(a) (i) AlCl3/FeCl3/Al/Fe/I2 (+ heat) [aq negates] (N.B. NOT AlBr3 etc.)

[1]

(or names)
(ii) (sun)light/hf/UV (aq negates)
(b) SOCl2/PCl3/PCl5 [aq negates]

[1]

[1]

(or names)

(c) (i) C > B > A (i.e. a mark in the penultimate box)

[1]

(ii) (acyl chloride fastest) highly + carbon atom joined to 2 electronegative atoms
or

addition-elimination mechanism is possible

[1]

(aryl chloride slowest) delocalisation of lone pair over ring stronger C-Cl bond
or

impossibility of backside attack on the C-Cl bond

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

[1]

Page 4

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL NOVEMBER 2004

(d)

C6H5-CO2C6H5

Syllabus
9701

C6H5-CONHCH3

[1]

Paper
4

C6H5-CO2H

[1]

[1]

OR

3
Total 9
6

(a) (i) E

[1]

(ii) CH3CH2CH2CO2-(Na+)

[NOT C3H7COO-Na or C3H7COOH]

[1]

[but allow CH3CH2CH2CO2Na]


CHl3 or name
(b) the alcohol from E has four different groups around a carbon atom
it is chiral/asymmetric or it is produced as a 50:50 mixture of mirror images

[1]

[1]
[1]

or its mirror images are non-superimposable

formulae:

[1]

the alcohol from D has 2 identical groups on its central carbon atom

[1]
4 max 3
Total 6

(a) orange colour disappears/bromine is decolourised (NOT discoloured, or goes clear)


[1]
(white) precipitate/solid/crystals is formed

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

[1]

Page 5

(b)

Mark Scheme
A LEVEL NOVEMBER 2004

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

e.g. add neutral FeCl3 (aq) violet colour with phenol


or

add universal indicator red/orange colour with phenol

or

add Na metal fizzing/H2 evolved with phenol

or

add NaOH(aq) to the pure compound phenol would dissolve

or

add H+ (aq) to the pure compound phenylamine would dissolve

or

add HNO2 at room temperature phenylamine would produce gaseous N2-

or

add HNO2 at 5 oC, followed by an alkaline solution of phenol phenylamine


would produce a coloured (orange) dye
[1]

(c) IV

KMnO4 + heat

[1]

HNO3 + H2SO4

VI

Sn + HCl (NOT LiAlH4)

[1]

(both) concd and at 50 oC < T < 60 oC

[1]
[1]

Total 7

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

w
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the November 2005 question paper

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (Structured Questions A2 Core), maximum raw mark 60

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the
examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were initially instructed to award marks. It does
not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking
began. Any substantial changes to the mark scheme that arose from these discussions will be
recorded in the published Report on the Examination.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the Report on the
Examination.

s
er

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

CIE will not enter into discussion or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the November 2005 question papers for most IGCSE and
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL November 2005

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

(a) Mr(AgBr) = 108 + 79.9 = 187.9

[1]

moles = 2.5 x 10-12/187.9 = 1.33 x 10-14


no. of ions = 1.33 x 10-14 x 6 x 1023 = 8.0 x 109 ions

(correct ans = [2])

[1]
2

(b) (i)

A: platinum
B: H+(aq) or HCl(aq) or H2SO4(aq)
(ignore concentration)

C: voltmeter
D: silver (wire)

4 x [1]

(ii) (As [Ag+] decreases), the potential will decrease/become more negative

[1]

(iii) Ksp = [Ag+][Br-]

[1]

= (7.1 x 10-7)2 = 5.0(41) x 10-13 mol2dm-6

units [1]
7
(c) (i)

Ag+(g) + Br-(g) AgBr(s)

(ii) LE

[1]

Hf - (all the rest)

-100 (731 + 285 + 112 325)

(=

-100 - 731 - 285 - 112 + 325)

-903 kJ mol-1

(-[1] for each error of sign or maths)

(iii) LE(AgCl) should be higher/more negative,


due to size/radius of Cl- being less than that of Br- (both)

[2]
[1]
4

(d) more energy needed, since rCl - < rBr- or ionised electron nearer to nucleus
or less shielding etc. or in terms of I.E.(Cl) > I.E.(Br)
1
total: 14

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL November 2005

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

(a) The EMF of a cell made up of the test electrode and a standard hydrogen electrode.
(or the EMF of the electrode compared to the S.H.E.)

[1]

EMF measured under standard conditions of T, (P) and concentration.


(or at 298K and 1 mol dm-3)

[1]
2

(b) The stronger the halogen is as an oxidising agent, the more positive is its Eo value.

[1]

Two examples of F2/F-, Cl2/Cl-; Br2/Br-, I2/I- quoted

[1]

(data: F2/F- = +2.87V


Cl2/Cl- = +1.36V
Br2/Br- = +1.07V
I2/I- = +0.54V)
2
(c) (i)
or

H2O2 + 2I- + 2H+ I2 + 2H2O


H2O2 + 2KI + 2H+ 2K+ + I2 + 2H2O

[1]
Eo = 1.77 - 0.54 = 1.23 V

(ii)
or

[1]

Cl2 + SO2 + 2H2O 2Cl - + SO42- + 4H+


Cl2 + SO2 + 2H2O 2HCl + H2SO4

[1]

Eo = 1.36 0.17 = 1.19 V

[1]
4

(d) since Eo(I2/I-) is +0.54V, tin will be oxidised to Sn4+


(Eo for Sn2+/Sn = -0.14V and Eo forSn4/Sn2 = +0.15V)
Thus:

Sn + 2I2 SnI4

[1]

[1]
2
total: 10

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL November 2005

(a) (i)

Syllabus
9701

melting point: graph showing (Si (+ Ge): medium)


and C: higher than Si/Ge
Sn + Pb: lower than Si/Ge
conductivity: graph showing (Si (+ Ge): medium)
and C: lower (or higher!) than Si/Ge
Sn + Pb: higher than Si/Ge
[for your information, the actual figures are shown below]

Paper
4

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(ii) Sn, Pb (and C(graphite)) have delocalised electrons/metallic bonds


[1]
Si, Ge (and C(diamond)) have localised electrons/covalent bonds
[1]
[for [2] marks carbon has to be mentioned once, and the allotrope mentioned
must fit in with the conductivity shown]
6
(b) (i)

e.g. CO burns to give CO2 [2CO + O2 2CO2]


or CO reduces Fe2O3 [3CO + Fe2O3 3CO2 + 2Fe]

(ii) e.g. PbO2 decomposes on heating [2PbO2 2PbO + O2]


two valid examples
[1]
two balanced equations
[1] + [1]
[two valid and balanced equations warrants [3] marks]
3
(c) use: pottery/china/porcelain etc + property: hardness, high melting point, insulator etc.
(any one use + one relevant property)

[1]
1

(d) (i)

amphoteric

(ii) e.g.
e.g.

[1]

SnO + 2HCl SnCl2 + H2O

[1]

SnO + 2NaOH Na2SnO2 + H2O

[1]
3
total: 13

(Actual figures for (a) (i):)


element
C(graph)
C(dia)
Si
Ge
Sn
Pb

m.pt./oC
3652
3550
1410
937
232
328

conductivity
2 x 103
1 x 10-15
2 x 10-2
2 x 10-2
9 x 104
5 x 104

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL November 2005

Syllabus
9701

(a) HO-C6H4-NH2 + 2AgBr + 2OH- O=C6H4=O + H2O + NH3 + 2Ag + 2Br(or C6H4O2)
(or C6H7NO)

Paper
4
[1]
1

(b) rodinol should be less basic than NH3

[1]

because the lone pair on N is delocalised over/overlaps with the aryl ring

[1]
2

(c) E is H2N-C6H4-O- Na+

or

H2N-C6H4-ONa

[1]

F is HO-C6H4NH3+ Cl-

or

HO-C6H4NH3Cl

[1]

G is HO-C6H2Br2-NH2

up to

HO-C6Br4-NH2 (ignore orientation)

[1]
3

(d) (i)

HNO3(aq) or dil HNO3

(NOT conc., and NOT + conc. H2SO4)

[1]

(ii) reduction

[1]

(iii) Sn + HCl(aq)

[1]
3

(e) (i)

phenol, amide

(ii) CH3COCl or (CH3CO)2O

[1] + [1]
[1]
3
total: 12

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Page 6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL November 2005

(a) (i)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

addition (polymerisation)

[1]

(ii) condensation (polymerisation)

[1]
2

(b) hydrogen bonding

[1]
1

(c) (i)

HO2CCH2CH2CO2H

(ii) ester

[1]
(accept covalent)

[1]
2

(d) (i)

heat with H3O+ or heat with OH-(aq)

(ii) H2N-CH2-CH(OH)-CH2-NH2

[1]

or H3N+-CH2-CH(OH)-CH2-NH3+

[1]

HO2C-CH(OH)-CH(OH)-CO2H or -O2C-CH(OH)-CH(OH)-CO2-

[1]

(allow bonus mark if the acid/base forms are consistent with the reagent used for the
hydrolysis)

[1]

4 max 3
(e) (i)

NC-CH2-CO2- K+

(ii) II:

H2 + Ni or Na in ethanol [allow LiAlH4]

III: dilute HCl or H2SO4 or H+(aq)

[1]
[1]
[1]
3
total: 11

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (Theory 2), maximum raw mark 60

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the
examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.
The grade thresholds for various grades are published in the report on the examination for most
IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2006 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2006 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL - OCT/NOV 2006

1 (a)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

boiling points increase down the group (because of...) (1)


...larger van der Waals/intermolecular attractions or bigger induced dipoles (1)

(b)
(c)

(d)

due to more electrons per molecule (1)

[3]

tetrahedral - clear from diagram (1)


angles = 109-110 (1)

[2]

(i)

four bonded pairs + 2 lone pairs around Xe (1)


three lone pairs on at least one F atom (1)

(ii)

square planar (can be read into very clear diagram in (i)) (1)
angles = 90 (1)

[4]

CCl4 does not react or SiCl4 does (or read into an equation) (1)
due to presence of available/low-lying/d-orbitals on Si (1)
SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl
(or SiCl4 + 4H2O Si(OH)4 + 4HCl etc: also allow partial hydrolysis) (1)

(e)

[3]

PbCl4 + __8__Na + __4__C2H5Cl Pb(C2H5)4 + __8__NaCl (1)


Pb(C2H5)4 = 207 + 4x29 = 323 (1)
323g needs 8 x 23 = 184g Na
1000g needs 1000 x 184/323 = 569 or 570g

ecf from equn (1)


(correct ans = (2) marks)

(alternative method:
1.0kg of Pb(C2H5)4 is 3.096 moles (1)
we need 8 x 3.096 = 24.77 moles of Na, which is 569 or 570g) (1)

[3]
[Total: 15]

UCLES 2006

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL - OCT/NOV 2006

2 (a)

(i)

[one chiral centre only] (1)

(ii)

C13H18O2 (1)

(iii)

Mr = 206

Paper
4

ecf (1)

mass = 0.15 x (100/1000) x 206 = 3.1 g


(iv)

Syllabus
9701

ecf (1)
(correct ans = (2) marks)

n(NaOH) = 0.1 x 12/100 = 1.2 x 10-3 moles (1)


n(A) = 0.6 x 10-3, so Mr = 0.1/(0.6 x 10-3) = 167 (allow 166-170) (1)
(correct ans = (2) marks)
This fits with HO2C-C6H4-CO2H (which has Mr = 166) (1)

(b)

(i)

(Ka =) [H+][A-]/[HA] (1)

(ii)

[H+] = Ka.c = 6.3 x 10-6 x 0.15 = 9.72 x 10-4 (1)

[7]

pH = 3.0 (1)
(correct ans = (2) marks)
(c)

(i)

[3]

one that resists/control/maintains changes in pH (NOT no change in pH) (1)


when small amounts of acid/H+ (or base/OH-) are added. (1)

(ii)

HPO42- + H+ H2PO4- (1)


H2PO4- + OH- HPO42- + H2O (1)

(iii)

pH = pKa + log ([base]/[acid])


= 7.2 + log (.002/.005) = 6.8 (2)
(correct ans = (2) marks: deduct (1) for each error,
e.g. if ratio is upside down, hence pH = 7.6, answer is worth (1))

[6]
[Total: 16 max 15]

UCLES 2006

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL - OCT/NOV 2006

3 (a)

(i)

2Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2 (or x ) (1)

(ii)

(Down the group the nitrates)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

become more stable or are more difficult to decompose


or need a higher temperature (to decompose) (1)
because the radius of cation/Group II ion//M2+ increases
or charge density of the cation decreases (1)
thus causing less polarisation/distortion of the anion/NO3-/nitrate (1)
(b)

[4]

molar mass of mixture = 211.6 + 3 x 12 = 247.6 (1)


10 g is thus 10/247.6 = 0.040(4) moles

(allow ecf for 0.047(3), from Mr = 211.6) (1)

no of moles of gas produced = 0.0404 x 4 = 0.162 moles (ecf: 0.189 mol)


volume = 0.1616 x 24 = 3.88 or 3.9 dm3 (allow ecf for 4.54 dm3) (1)
(correct ans = (3) marks)
(alternative method:
1 mole/247.6g of mixture will produce 4 x 24 = 96 dm3 of gas (1)
10g of mixture will produce 96 x 10/247.6 = 3.88 or 3.9 dm3) (1)
(c)

[3]

(CO is poisonous...)
due to complexing/ligand exchange with (Fe of) haemoglobin (1)
(NOT redox involving Fe2+/Fe3+)
stopping O2 being transported around body/in blood/to tissues/from lungs (1)

[2]

[Total: 9 max 8]

UCLES 2006

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL - OCT/NOV 2006

4 (a)

(b)

(c)

(i)

light or heat

(ii)

NaOH/KOH/alkali/OH- (1)
in alcohol/ethanol + heat

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

[aq or AlCl3 negates] (1)

[aq negates] (1)

(iii)

[-CH2CH(C6H5)-]

(iv)

CH2=CHCN

(i)

/OH-(aq)/NaOH(aq)/aqueous alkali/ + heat

(ii)

(pale) yellow ppt/crystals (NOT orange or orange-yellow) (1)

(iii)

C/D is C6H5CO2Na 

[C-C not needed, but C=C is wrong] (1)

[C=C is needed here] (1)

[5]
[aq or solution or dil etc. needed] (1)

D/C is CHI3  (1) + (1)

[4]

(i)
Cl
Cl

CH2CH3

(1)
(ii)

needs AlCl3 or similar

[light or aq negates] (1)

(iii)

(hot) KMnO4(aq) + OH- or H+ [NOT Cr2O72-] (1)

[3]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2006

Page 6

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL - OCT/NOV 2006

5 (a)

(i)

Br2(aq) (or solution or in an inert solvent)

(ii)

G is
CH3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
4

[light or AlCl3 etc negates] (1)

NHCOCH3

(1)
H is
Cl

[charges needed] (1)

(b)

(iii)

amide

[NOT peptide] (1)

IV:

H+/HCl + NaNO2

[4]

or HNO2/nitrous acid (1)

0CT10C

[REFLUX negates] (1)

V:
OH

CH3

CH3

(1)
in NaOH(aq) (1)
(c)

[4]

To increase its solubility in water or to increase binding to food components (1)


due to ionic solvation or more oxygen atoms to H-bond to H2O/glucose etc (1)

[2]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2006

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (Theory 2), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2007 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2007 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) (i) Ka = [H+][RCO2]/[RCO2H]

[1]

(ii) pKa = log10Ka or logKa or log [H+]2/[RCO2H] NOT ln;

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) acid strength increases from no. 1 to no. 3 or down the table or as Cls increase
due to the electron-withdrawing effect/electronegativity of chlorine (atoms)
stabilising the anion or weakening the O-H bond NOT H+ more available
(ii) chlorine atom is further away (from O-H) in no. 4, so has less influence
(iii) either: pH = (pKa log10[acid]) or Ka = 10pKa = 1.259 x 103
= (4.9 + 2)
[H+] = (Ka. c) = 3.55 x 104
= 3.4 (allow 3.5)
pH = 3.4
([1] for correct expression & values; [1] for correct working)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
ecf [1]
[6]

(c) (i) catalyst

(d)

[1]

(ii) CH3CH2CO2H + Cl2 CH2CHClCO2H + HCl

[1]

(iii) nucleophilic substitution NOT addition/elimination

[1]

(iv) Mr (CH3CH2CO2H) = 74 Mr(CH2CH(NH2)CO2H) = 89


10.0 g should give 10 x 89/74 = 12.03 g
percentage yield = 100 x 9.5/12.03 = 79%

[1]

NH3-CH(CH3)-CO2
Allow charges on H of H3N, and COO but not C-O-O

ecf [1]
([2] for correct answer)
[5]
correct atoms [1]
correct charges [1]
[2]
[Total: 15]

UCLES 2007

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

(a) solubility decreases (down Group II)


lattice energy decreases
solvation/hydration energy (of cation) decreases
but more so than does lattice energy/is not able to overcome LE
Hsoln becomes more endothermic/positive/less exothermic

(b) identities of A and B


Mg(OH)2 + H2C2O4 MgC2O4(aq) + 2H2O
(A)
MgC2O4(aq) + Ca(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2 + CaC2O4(s)
(B)

Paper
04
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[max 4]
2 x [1]
[1]

[1]
[max 3]

(c) (i) (Ksp =) [Mg2+][OH]2


units are mol3dm9

[1]
ecf from Ksp [1]

(ii) (call [Mg(OH)2(aq)] = [Mg2+] = x) Ksp = 2 x 1011 = 4x3


x = 1.71 x 104 mol dm3
(iii) less soluble because of the common ion effect
or the equilibrium Mg(OH)2(s)  Mg2+(aq) + 2OH(aq) is moved to the left

UCLES 2007

[1]
ecf [1]

[1]
[5]
[Total: 12]

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

(a) K = 22.4/39.1 = 0.573


Cr = 29.8/52.0 = 0.573
Cl = 20.3/35.5 = 0.572
O = 27.5/16.0 = 1.719
[1]

thus ratio is:

Syllabus
9701

1
1
1
3 or KCrClO3 (scores 2)
[1]

Paper
04

[2]

(b) K2Cr2O7 + 2HCl 2KCrClO3 + H2O

[1]
[1]

(c) (i) redox or oxidation

[1]

(ii) Eo data and half equations:


Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O
Eo = 1.33 V

Eo = 1.36 V
Cl2 + 2e 2 Cl
overall ionic equation:
Cr2O72 + 6Cl + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 3Cl2 + 7H2O

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii) (dilution will) lower Eo for Cr2O72/Cr3+ or raise Eo for Cl2/Cl

+
or lower [Cl ] or [H ] will shift equilibrium in eqn to the left hand side

(iv) Br2/Br = +1.07 V, so Cr(VI) would oxidise Br (easily)

UCLES 2007

[1]

[1]
[6]
[Total: 9]

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

(a) CCl4 is unreactive. (The rest react (with increasing vigour))


no d-orbitals or available/low-lying empty orbitals in carbon or unable to expand octet
e.g. SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl
(or GeCl4 etc)
or Si(OH)2Cl2
or Si(OH)4
(allow balanced equations for partial hydrolysis)

(b) (i) E(Cl-Cl) = 244 kJ mol1;


H = 436 (kJ mol1)

[1]
[1]

[1]
[3]

2 E(C-Cl) = 2 x 340 = 680 kJ mol1


[1]

(ii) H = 359 329 = +30 (kJ mol1)


(iii) since reaction (ii) is endothermic, the +4 oxidation state is less stable
or the +2 oxidation state is more stable (down the group)

Paper
04

(a) 2 MnO4 + 5 H2O2 + 6 H+ 2 Mn2+ + 8 H2O + 5 O2

(b) Ecell = 1.52 0.68 = +0.84 (V)

[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 6]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(c) (i) (as KMnO4 is added), colour changed (from purple) to colourless NOT pink
or effervescence/bubbles (of O2) are produced
at end-point, change is to (first) pink
(ii) n(MnO4) = 0.02 x 15/1000 = 3 x 104
since H2O2 : MnO4 = 5:2,
n(H2O2) = (5/2) x 3 x 104 = 7.5 x 104 in 25 cm3
[H2O2] = 7.5 x 104 x 1000/25 = 3.0 x 102 mol dm3

UCLES 2007

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]
[4]
[Total: 6]

Page 6
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) (i)
O Na

C is

allow ONa but no covalent O-Na bond


(ii) amide, ester

[1]
2 x [1]

(iii) CO2 or H2CO3 or Na2CO3


CH3NH2 or CH3NH3+Cl

[1]
[1]

OH

[1]
(iv) H3O+ and heat >80 or OH(aq) and heat >80

(b) (i) Br2(aq) (or other suitable solvent)


(ii) dilute/aqueous HNO3

[1]
[7]
[1]
[1]
[2]

(c) (i)
OH
NO2

D is

[1]
(ii) tin/Fe + HCl NOT LiAlH4

[1]

(iii)
OCOCH 3
NHCOCH 3

mark each side chain separately

2 x [1]
[4]

(d) (i) (allow any orientation of groups)


H2O
O
N
H2

Cu

H2
N
O

OH2

penalise missing H on NH2


(ii) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ or [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ NOT [Cu(NH3)6]2+
(iii) ligand substitution/exchange

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: max 15]

UCLES 2007

Page 7
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

(a) HNO3 + H2SO4


at 50 60C (or 60C) not dilute or (aq)

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) 2H2SO4 + HNO3 2HSO4 + H3O+ + NO2+


(allow equ. with only one H2SO4, giving H2O)

(c)

Paper
04

[1]
[1]

CO2H

CH3
Cl

G is
reaction I:
reaction II:
reaction III:
reaction IV:

H is
Cl2 + AlCl3/accept other halogen carriers NOT aq, nor u.v.
KMnO4 + H+ NOT HCl nor HNO3
KMnO4 + H+ NOT HCl nor HNO3
Cl2 + AlCl3/accept other halogen carriers NOT aq, nor u.v.

[1] + [1]

both I + IV [1]
both II + III [1]
[4]
[Total: 7]

UCLES 2007

Page 8
8

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) (i) Two interlinked spirals or chains or strands woven round each other

[1]

(ii) By hydrogen bonds between bases

[1]
[2]

(b) Transcription (1)DNA/RNA/nucleic acid unravels


(2)strand is used as a template
(3)mRNA reads the sequence on this strand/
produces complementary strand
Translation

[1]
[1]
[1]

(4)mRNA binds to the ribosome


(5)tRNA translates the codon from mRNA
(6)tRNA carries amino acids to ribosome/adds a.a. to chain

[1]
[1]
[1]
[max 4]

(c) (i) Disruption of the secondary/tertiary/quaternary/3D structure of the protein


(could be answered in terms of bonds e.g. hydrogen bonds break)
[1]
(ii) The covalent/peptide bonds in the (protein) chain are too strong

[1]
[2]

(d) Energy is provided by the breakdown/hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)


ATP (+ H2O) ADP + Pi (+ energy) or in words
ATP is produced during respiration/Krebs cycle/oxidation of glucose, fats or proteins/
in mitochondria/ADP is recycled

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

[Total: 11]

UCLES 2007

Page 9
9

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

(a) Suitable diagram showing origin of two energy states/or description


Needs to mention applied magnetic field/electron transfer negates
Indication that energy difference is in the radio frequency range
Indication that frequency of absorption or gap between the 2 energy states
depends on the nature of nearby atoms or the chemical environment of the 1H

(b) They do not damage tissues/X-rays harmful/NMR of lower energy


They are not obscured by bones/skeleton
They can be tuned to examine particular tissues/tumours/organs/protons

Paper
04
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[max 2]

(c) (i) M : M+1 = 100/(1.1n)

0.66 200
66
=
= 4.14 = 4 carbon atoms
14.5 1.1 15.95
Check for 1.1 in divisor, if missing, penalise
n=

(ii) Singlet at 2 suggests methyl adjacent to C=O


Quartet at 4 suggests a CH2- group (adjacent to a methyl group)
(allow OCH2- )
Triplet at 1.2 suggests a methyl group (adjacent to a CH2)
G is ethyl ethanoate (or structure)/if methyl propanoate given here
cannot score first marking point

[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[5]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2007

Page 10

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2007

Syllabus
9701

10 (a) Iron is higher in the reactivity series than copper (owtte)/allow use of Eo
Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s) Cu(s) + Fe2+(aq)
If conversion to Fe3+ given, Ecell is 0.38

Paper
04
[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) It does not require investment in machinery/labour


It requires little energy

[1]
[1]

accept it produces little/no pollution/noise


Do not accept comparison with electrolytic method
(c) The process takes a long time/requires smaller workforce

[1]
[max 2]
[1]
[1]

(d) (i) 0.75% is 7.5 kg in every tonne of ore


Hence 150,000 tonnes of ore yield

7.5 150000
tonnes
1000

or 1,125 tonnes Cu
1125 x 0.6 = 675 tonnes (accept 680)
(ii) 450 x 0.17 = 76.5 tonnes (accept 77)
or 1125 x 0.17 = 191.25 tonnes (accept 191) this is an ecf if 675 not in (i)
(e) Aluminium is too high in the reactivity series/very reactive/aluminium forms
bonds with oxygen which are too strong/aluminium ore doesnt exist as sulphide
/Fe unable to displace Al

(f) Control the pH (greater than pH 6.0)


Bioremediation/growth of special plants (to remove heavy metals)
Other reasonable suggestions such as displacement by a more reactive metal/
precipitation/ion exchange

UCLES 2007

[1]
[1]
[2]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 9]

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/04

Paper 4 (Theory 2), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began.
All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in
candidates scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills
demonstrated.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2008 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2008 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2008

(a) (i) 162


160
158
81
79

(81Br 81Br+)
(81Br 79Br+)
(79Br 79Br+) ignore missing charges
(81Br+)
(79Br+)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

for molecular species [1]


for atomic species [1]
for 5 masses [1]

(ii) 158:160:162 =1:2:1


79:81 =1:1

[1]
[1]

(b) (i) either BrCH2CHBr-CHO or CH2=CH-CH2OH (double bond needed)

[1]

(ii) reaction I:
reaction II:

Br2(aq or in CCl4 etc.), light negates solvent not needed


NaBH4 or H2/Ni etc. (but not if A is CH2=CH-CH2OH)
allow LiAlH4 or Na/ethanol
(reactions can be reversed)

(c) (i) C3H6OBr2 = 216, 218 and 220


(ii) 31
106
108
185
187
189

is
is
is
is
is
is

[1]
[1]

(any one)

[1]

CH2OH+/CH3O+
C2H379Br+
C2H381Br+
C2H379Br2+
ignore missing charges
81
+
79
C2H3 Br Br
6 correct [4]
C2H381Br2+
5 correct [3] etc

if no mass numbers given [1] only

[4]
[Total: 13 max 12]

(a) solution will turn brown/purple

[1]

(b) table:
case
a
b
c
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
each horizontal row scores [1]
if no marks scored, a correct vertical row can score [1]

[3 max]

(c) rate = 6.57.5 106


units are mol dm3 s1

[1]
[1]

(d) half-life measured and quoted as 9094 s


evidence of two half-lives measured

[1]
[1]

UCLES 2008

Page 3

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(e) lines 1 and 2: as [H2O2] increases by 0.07/0.05 = 1.4, so does rate


so order w.r.t. [H2O2] = 1
lines 1 and 3: increase in rate (1.8) is also the increase in [H2O2],
so rate is independent of [H+] (or zero order)

[1]
[1]

a description can be accepted here


if both orders are correct but no working/explanation given score [1]
(f) the first step/or the relevant equation

[1]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i) carbonates become more stable down the Group/higher decomposition temperature
cation/M2+ radius/size increases down the group/M2+ charge density decreases
anion/carbonate ion/CO32 suffers less polarisation/distortion
(ii) ionic radii quoted:

Ca2+: 0.099 nm
Zn2+: 0.074 nm
Pb2+: 0.120 nm

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]

thus we expect ZnCO3 to be less stable, but PbCO3 to be more stable


[1]
if candidate states PbCO3 is more stable than ZnCO3 (or converse) with no reference
to CaCO3 give [1] as salvage.
(b) (i) Cu = 57.7/63.5
O = 36.2/16
C = 5.4/12
H = 0.9/1

=
=
=
=

0.91 ratios correct scores


2.26
0.45
0.90 hence Cu2O5CH2

[1]
[1]

(ii) Cu2+(aq) or [Cu(H2O)6]2+ NOT [Cu(H2O)4]2+

[1]

(iii) D is CuO / copper(II) oxide

[1]

Cu2O5CH2
221

2CuO + CO2 + H2O


159

10

10 159/221 = 7.2 g (7.19)

if candidate thinks only CO2 is lost, answer will be 8.0 g

[1]
(Mrs) [1]

[1]

(iv) E is copper; F is Fe2+ / Fe SO4


Fe + Cu2+ Fe2+ + Cu (or molecular)

[1]
[1]

(v) redox/displacement

[1]

(vi) blue ppt./solid formed


(dissolves to give) dark blue/purple colour
blue ppt. is Cu(OH)2(s)
deep blue is [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (allow [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ NOT [Cu(NH3)6]2+

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 19]

UCLES 2008

Page 4
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) (i) CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3 accept C3H7 on RHS

[1]

(ii) 8

[1]

(b) (i) e.g. C40H82 C16H34 + 2 C12H24 OR C24H48

[1]

(ii) heat + catalysts/SiO2/Al2O3/Pt/ceramic/pumice/zeolite etc


if temp given >500 C

[1]

=
1400 kJ mol1
=
1220 kJ mol1
H = +180 kJ mol1
1
from eqn in (i) : +90 kJ mol for each C=C formed (could be multiples of 90)

(iii) bonds broken: 4(CC) =


bond formed: 2 (C=C) =

4 350
2 610

[1]

(iv) endothermic reactions H > 0

[1]
[Total: 6]

(a) G is 4-nitromethylbenzene
H is 4-nitrophenylethanoic acid
(b) step II:

[1]
[1]

Cl2 + light or heat (T~100 C)

(AlCl3 or aq. negates)

[1]

step III:

KCN (in ethanol) + heat (T~75 C)

(HCN negates)

[1]

step V:

Sn or Fe + HCl (+ heat)

[1]
[Total: 5]

(a) alkaline aqueous iodine (NaOH/I2) (allow NaOI)


J gives yellow ppt; K gives no reaction

[1]
[1]

(b) aqueous bromine / Cu2+ aq / diazotisation with phenol


L gives no change; M decolourises/gives white ppt.
with Cu2+ L goes blue, M goes green
with diazotisation L gives no reaction, M a coloured compound

[1]

(c) drop of water


N fizzes/gives off steamy fumes; P has no reaction
or add AgNO3(aq)
N gives rapid ppt.; P gives ppt. very slowly
or add NH3/RNH2
N gives off fumes; P has no reaction
or add alcohol/phenol
N produces sweet-smelling liquid, P gives no reaction

[1]
[1]

(d) Universal Indicator solution/litmus


Q shows no change; R will turn solution blue (alkaline)

[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2008

Page 5
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(a) protein: polymer of amino acids / amino acids are monomers.

[1]

(b) diagram of at least two amino acids joining by the loss of water
at least one peptide bond drawn out in full
correct formula of the tripeptide

[1]
[1]
[1]

(c) acid/H+/HCl etc. or alkali/OH/NaOH NOT conc H2SO4 or any HNO3


heat/boil/reflux if temp given >90 C

[1]
[1]

(d) (i) six

[1]

(ii) Mr

[1]
[1]

= 3 75 + 2 89 + 2 165 6 18
= 625
(allow [1] for Mr = 733)
(also ecf from (i))

[Total: 9]
8

(a) (i)
dotted line
must start and end
at same points

[1]

(ii) protein/polypeptide NOT polymer/polyamide

[1]

(iii) they are denatured/lose their 2/3 structure/or H-bonds/vdW

[1]

(b) (i) competitive inhibitor resembles the substrate OR competes for the active site of the
enzyme

[1]

non-competitive inhibitor can bind to a different site on the enzyme OR forms a covalent
bond/bonds permanently with the enzyme
[1]

UCLES 2008

Page 6

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

(ii)

mark for each line NB lines must cross to score mark for II

[2 1]

(c) (i) SH groups (allow sulphide/S/cysteine residue)

[1]

(ii) this inhibits/reduces/decreases the enzyme activity/stops normal function


the bonding disrupts the 3-dimensional structure of the enzyme

[1]
[1]
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) cut DNA into sections / fragments / minisatellites

[1]

(ii) these undergo electrophoresis OR are placed on agarose gel

[1]

(iii) radioactive phosphorus / 32P OR darkens photographic film

[1]

(b) (i) NMR can be done in solution / in vivo / shows labile protons / shows positions of protons
and/or carbon atoms
[1]
X-ray crystallography shows the positions of most atoms in structure / allows
measurement of bond length
[1]
(ii) different types of tissue have protons in different chemical environments / tumour and
healthy tissue absorb differently / allow at different frequencies
[1]
(c) (i) M : M+1 = 48 : 1.7
x = 100 1.7 = 3.2 hence there are 3 carbon atoms in the compound
1.1 48
NB if calculation shown 1.1 divisor MUST be present

[1]

since the compound has an m/e of 73 and contains 3 carbon atoms, 1 nitrogen atom and
1 oxygen atom, y = 73(36 +14+16) = 7
[1]
(ii) the NMR spectrum shows a quartet, triplet pattern characteristic of an ethyl group
the other broad peak must be due to NH protons
thus the structure of the compound is likely to be
CH3CH2CONH2

[1]
[1]
[1]

[Total: 11 max 10]


UCLES 2008

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2008

Syllabus
9701

Paper
04

10 (a) (i) silkworm hydrogen bonds


spider van der Waals OR hydrogen bonds

[1]
[1]

(ii) spider silk is more elastic/flexible/less rigid than silkworm silk/has a lower density
silkworm silk absorbs water more easily

[1]
[1]

(iii) this increases the elasticity/hydrophobic nature of the silk

[1]

(b) (i) a polymer formed with the elimination/formation of a small molecule


(or example)
(ii) any addition polymer e.g. poly(ethene), PVC, etc.

[1]
[1]

(iii) 3 from:
addition polymers have a limited range of bonds/monomers
[1]
addition polymers are non-polar/have fewer/no H-bonds
[1]
condensation polymers/proteins have a range of combinations of amino acids which give
a wide range of properties
[1]
condensation polymers/proteins have more functional groups/sidechains
[1]
different sequences of amino acids result in different 2/3 structure
[1]
[Total: 12 max 10]

UCLES 2008

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 41 (A2 Structured Questions),


maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2009 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2009 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) CO2 is a gas (at room temperature); SiO2 is a high melting solid
CO2: simple / discrete molecular / covalent
SiO2: giant covalent or macromolecular / giant molecular

(b) (a substance that is..) hard, high melting, electrical insulator


SiO2 has strong covalent bonds (can be in (a))

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
any two

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c) (i) amphoteric

[1]

(ii) 2NaOH + PbO Na2PbO2 + H2O


(or NaOH + PbO + H2O NaPb(OH)3 etc.)

[1]
[2]

(d) (i) Zn + Sn4+ Zn2+ + Sn2+

[1]

(ii) E = 0.15 (0.76) = 0.91 V


E = 1.52 0.15
= 1.37 V
(iii) n(Sn2+) = 0.02 13.5/1000 5/2 = 6.75 104 mol
n(Sn2+) = 0.02 20.3/1000 5/2 = 1.02 103 mol

[1]
[1]
use of the 5/2 ratio
correct rest of working

(iv) n(Sn4+) = 1.02 103 6.75 104 = 3.45 104 mol


ratio = 6.75/3.45 = 1.96:1 2:1
formula is 2SnO + SnO2 Sn3O4
(condl on calculation, but allow ecf)

(e) (i) volume = 1 1 1 105 = 1 105 m3 or 10 cm3

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[8]
[1]

(ii) mass = vol density = 10 7.3 = 73 g


moles = mass/Ar = 73/119 = 0.61 mol

ecf
ecf

[1]
[1]

(iii) Q = nFz = 0.61 9.65 104 2 = 1.18 (1.2) 105 coulombs

ecf

[1]
[4]
[Total: 19]

UCLES 2009

Page 3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) Ca2+(g) + 2Cl(g) CaCl2(s)

[1]
[1]

(b) CaF2 and CaS both have larger lattice energies (than CaCl2)

[1]

(i) F is smaller than Cl

[1]

(ii) S2 is more highly charged than Cl

[1]
[3]

(c) LE = [178 + 590 + 1150] [244 2 349] 796




= 2260 (kJ mol1)

(d) (i) Ca
C
H
O

=
=
=
=

28.2/40.1
25.2/12
1.4/1
45.1/16

=
=
=
=

0.703
2.10
1.4
2.82

1
3
2
4

signs
[3]
[3]

(1 mark for initial step of calcn)

formula is CaC3H2O4
(ii) malonic acid must be C2H4O4, i.e. CH3(CO2H)2

(1)

[2]

(must be structural)

[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

(a) d-orbitals split into two / different levels


light is absorbed
electron is promoted from a lower to a higher level
colour observed is the complement of the colour absorbed
E = hf

any 3 points

(b) (i) [Cu(H2O)6]2+ is pale blue


[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2 ]2+ is deep / dark blue or purple

[3]
[3]
[1]
[1]

(ii) because it has a larger absorbance peak or a larger o value


because max is in the visible region (hence more visible light is absorbed)

[1]
[1]

(iii) curve will have max between >600 nm and 800 nm


with maximum o in between the other two

[1]
[1]
[6]

(c) (i) Kc = [CuCl42]/([Cu2+][Cl]4)

units are mol4 dm12

(ii) [CuCl42]/[Cu2+] = Kc[Cl]4 = 672 (no units)

[1] + [1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2009

Page 4
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (cyclohexanol & phenol) hydrogen bonding to (solvent) water molecules


due to OH group

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) phenoxide anion is more stable (than cyclohexoxide) / OH bond is weaker


due to delocalisation of charge / lone pair over the ring

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c)
reagent

product with cyclohexanol

product with phenol

Na(s)

RONa or RONa+

ArONa or ArONa+

NaOH(aq)

no reaction

ArONa or ArONa+

Br2(aq)

no reaction

tribromophenol

I2(aq) + OH(aq)

no reaction

no reaction

an excess of acidified Cr2O72(aq)

cyclohexanone

no reaction

five correct products


5 [1]
five correct no reactions
[2]
(4 correct = [1]; 3 correct = [0])
[7]
(d) either Br2(aq):
or

Cr2O72 + H+:

no reaction with cyclohexanol; decolourises or white ppt with phenol


turns from orange to green with cyclohexanol; no reaction with phenol
correct reagent chosen and the correct no reaction specified
correct positive observation

[1]
[1]
[2]

[Total: 13]

UCLES 2009

Page 5
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) I:

KMnO4
heat with H+ or OH
II: SOCl2 or PCl5 or PCl3

(NOT aq)

(ii) -[-CO-C6H4-CO-NH-C6H4-NH-]-

(b) (i) CH3NHCO-C6H4-CONHCH3

(Peptide bond must be displayed for minm)

(1 mark for each end)

(ii) HOCH2CH2O-CO-C6H4-CO-OCH2CH2OH
or the polymer -[- OCH2CH2O-CO-C6H4-CO-]-

(c) (i) Cl +NH3-C6H4-NH3+ Cl-

(1 mark for each end)

(ii) H2N-C6H2Br2-NH2 or H2N-C6H2Br3-NH2 or H2N-C6Br4-NH2

(d) I:

HNO2 (or NaNO2 + HCl/H2SO4)


at T < 10oC

II: m-prop-2-yl phenol, (CH3)2CH-C6H4OH


+ NaOH(aq)

Paper
41
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]
[1] + [1]
for [1]
for [2]
[4 max 3]
[1] + [1]
[1]
[3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]

(e) (i) A species having positive and negative ionic centres / charges, with no overall charge [1]
(ii) -O2C-C6H4-NH3+

[1]
[2]
[Total: 16]

UCLES 2009

Page 6
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

(a) All three amino acids correctly paired


Two amino acids correctly paired
One labelled H-bond between strands
(b) (i) tRNA each amino acid has its own specific / appropriate tRNA
carry amino acids to ribosomes / mRNA
contains a triplet code / anticodon
(ii) ribosome attaches / moves along / binds to mRNA
assemble amino acids in correct sequence for / synthesises protein
(c) (i) Base miscopied / deleted

Paper
41
(2)
(1)
(1)

[3]

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

[5]

(1)

(ii) Sequence of bases is changed


This may result in different amino acid sequence different protein
Can affect shape / tertiary structure of protein

(1)
(1)
(1) [Max 3]
[Total: 12 max 11]

UCLES 2009

Page 7
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) Positions of atomic nuclei / atoms

Paper
41
(1)

(ii) Insufficient electrons / electron density / electron cloud (around H atom)

(1)

(b) X-ray crystallography can show the geometry of the arrangement of atoms /
bonding between atoms / shape of atoms

(1)

This can help explain how e.g. enzymes work (any reasonable example)

(1)

(c) (i) Nuclear spin

[2]

[2]

(1)

(ii) (If M : M+1 gives a ratio 15 : 2)

100 2
= 7
1.1 25

(1)

Single peak at 3.7 due to O-CH3

(1)

Single peak at 5.6 due to phenol / OH

(1)

1,2,1 peak at 6.8 due to hydrogens on benzene ring

(1)

Pattern suggests 1,4 subsitution

(1)

(x = 7,) y = 8, z = 2

(1)

Compound is 4-methoxylphenol

(1)
Max 5

Then x =

[6]

[Total: 10]

UCLES 2009

Page 8
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) Graphite / graphene

(1)

(b) They do not exist as sheets / layers of carbon atoms

(1)

(c) The lengths of nanotubes are much shorter than the curvature of the paper /
they are so small that they are not effected by rolling

(1)

(d) Any molten ionic salt (or plausible organic ionic compounds)

(1)
[Total: 4]

(a) (i) Covalent / co-ordinate

(1)

(ii) Mechlorethamine binds the two chains together


prevents unravelling
Cis-platin binds to two Gs / bases in one chain
so they are not available for base pairing

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
[Total: 5]

UCLES 2009

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 42 (A2 Structured Questions),


maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2009 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2009 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

(a) Sulfates become less soluble down the group


both lattice energy and hydration (are involved)
but hydration energy decreases more than lattice energy
or HE becomes less than LE or HE decreases whereas LE is almost constant
(due to cationic radius increasing)

Paper
42
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (i) n(CO) = pV/RT = 1.01 105 140 103/(8.31 450) = 3.78
or

= 140 (273/450) / 22.4 = 3.79

allow= 140 (298/450) / 24.0 = 3.86

[1]

(ii) n(BaSO4) = n(CO)/4 = 0.945 moles (or 0.9475)


If RTP used answer is 0.966

[1]

(iii) Mr = 233,
so 0.945 mol = 0.945 233 = 220g 100 220/250 = 88(.07)%
(or 0.9475 mol 220.8g 88(.3)%)
If RTP used answer is 90(.0)%

[1]
[1]
[4]

(c) (i) from data booklet, 1st IE = 502; 2nd IE = 966; sum = 1468 kJ mol1
so 460 = 1468 + 180 + 279 200 + 640 + LE
460 = 2367 + LE
LE = 2827 kJ mol1
( 1 for each error)
(ii) LE of BaS should be smaller than that of BaO, since S2 is bigger than O2.

[3]
[1]
[4]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2009

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

(a) ethylamine > NH3, but phenylamine < NH3

Paper
42
[1]

in ethylamine, the alkyl group donates electrons to the N, making lone pair more available [1]
in phenylamine, the lone pair is delocalised over the ring, so is less available

[1]
[3]

(b)
halide

observation when
AgNO3(aq) is
added

observation when
dilute NH3(aq) is
added

observation when
concentrated
NH3(aq) is added

chloride

white ppt

dissolves

dissolves

[1]

bromide

cream ppt

no reaction /
slightly dissolves

dissolves

[1]

iodide

(pale) yellow ppt

no reaction

no reaction

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) [Ag+(aq)] = Ksp = (5 1013) = 7.1 (7.07) 107 mol dm3

[1]

(ii) AgBr will be less soluble in KBr, due to common ion effect or equilibrium is shifted to
the left / or by Le Chateliers principle
[1]
[2]
(d) (i) Kc = [Ag(RNH2)2+]/[Ag+][RNH2]2
units are mol2 dm6

[1]
[1]

(ii) assume that most of the Ag+(aq) has gone to the complex, then
[Ag+(aq)] = 7.1 107
[Ag(NH3)2+] = 0.1
and [NH3] = {[Ag(NH3)2+]/(Kc[Ag+])} = {0.1/(1.7 107 7.1 107)}
= 0.091 mol dm3

[1]
[1]

(iii) When R = C2H5, Kc is likely to be greater, since the ethyl group will cause the lone pair
on N to be more available / nucleophilic / increases basicity
[1]
[5]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2009

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) Any two from: high(-ish) density of metal


variable oxidation states
ability to form complexes
formation of coloured compounds
incomplete d subshell
high m.p. / b.p.

[1] + [1]
[2]

(b) equ: MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O

[1]

method: Take a known volume of Fe2+(aq)/in a pipette and place in (conical) flask
Add an excess of (dil) H2SO4
Titrate until end point is reached and note volume used
End point is first permanent pink colour
Repeat titration & take average of consistent readings
any 3 points

(c) (i) 2 MnO4 + 5 SO2 + 2 H2O 2 Mn2+ + 5 SO42 + 4 H+


oxidation numbers:

+7

+4

+2

[2]

+6

[1]

(ii) 1 Cr2O72 + 6 NO2 + 2 H+ 2 Cr3+ + 6 NO3 + 1 H2O


oxidation numbers:

+6

+4

+3

[3]
[4]

[2]

+5

[1]

([2] marks for each equation: [1] for balancing of redox species,
[1] for total balancing: i.e. H2O and H+)
[6]
(d) Fe3+ is a homogeneous (catalyst)
Fe3+ oxidised I (and is reduced to Fe2+)
Fe2+ reduces S2O82 (and is oxidised to Fe3+)
or equations showing this

any two points

[2]
[2]
[Total: 14]

UCLES 2009

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) The energy required to break....


.....1 mole of bonds in the gas phase

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) HCl: nothing happens AND HI: purple fumes (at a low temperature)
purple is iodine formed (or in an equation: 2HI H2 + I2)
H-X bond energy becomes smaller/weaker down the group

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(c) data needed: F-F = 158


Cl-Cl = 244
6 E(Cl-F) 328 = 3158 + 244
E(Cl-F) = +174 (kJ mol1)

[2]
[2]
[Total: 7]

(a)
compound

all carbon atoms


can be coplanar

not all carbon


atoms coplanar

B
C


all 5 correct
[3]
(4 correct: [2], 3 correct: [1]. <3 correct: [0])
[3]

(b) reaction I: Cl2 + AlCl3 / FeCl3 / Fe / or bromides of Al or Fe


reaction II: Cl2 + heat / light / uv / hf

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c) (i) H is C6H5CH2Cl

[1]

(ii) reaction III: KMnO4 + heat (+ OH)


reaction V: NaOH in water + heat
reaction VI: conc H2SO4 + heat

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii) reaction III: oxidation


reaction V: hydrolysis or nucleophilic substitution

[1]
[1]
[6]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2009

Page 6
6

(a) L
M
N
Q
P
J
K

is
is
is
is
is
is
is

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

CH3CH2Br
CH3CO2H
CH3CH2NH2
CH3CH2CO2H
CH3CH2CH2NH2
CH3CH2CONHCH2CH3
CH3CONHCH2CH2CH3

Paper
42

[7]
[7]

(b) reaction I: KCN, heat NOT H+ OR HCN aq negates


reaction II: SOCl2 or PCl5 or PCl3 BUT aq negates
reaction IV: H2 + Ni or LiAlH4 or NaBH4 NOT Sn + HCl

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(c) reaction IV: reduction


reaction VI: nucleophilic substitution or condensation reaction

[1]
[1]
[2]

(d) (i) amide

[1]

(ii) amine

[1]
[2]
[Total: 14]

(a) Primary:

Covalent bond (ignore amide, peptide etc.)


Diagram showing peptide bond: (-CHR-)CONH(-CHR-)

[1]
[1]

Secondary:

Hydrogen bonds (NOT between side chains


Diagram showing N-HO=C

[1]
[1]

Tertiary:

Two of the following:


hydrogen bonds (diagram must show H-bonds other than those in -helix
or -pleated sheet e.g. ser-ser)
electrostatic/ionic attraction,
Van der Waals/hydrophobic forces/bonds,
(covalent) disulphide (links/bridges)
[1] + [1]
Suitable diagram of one of the above
(for disulphide: S-S not S=S or SH-SH)

[1]
[max 6]

(b) Substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme


Interaction with site causes a specific bond to be weakened, (which breaks)
Or change in shape weakens bond(s) / lowers activation energy

(c) Non-competitive inhibition


Rate never reaches Vmax

[1]
[1]
[2]
[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2009

Page 7
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) Ratio of the concentrations of a solute / distribution of solute [1] in two immiscible liquids

(b) Kc =

[pesticide in hexane]
[pesticide in hexane]
hence 8.0 =
[pesticide in water]
0.0050 - [pesticide in hexane]

[1]
[2]

[1]

Therefore [pesticide in hexane] x = 0.040 8x


Hence x = 0.0044(g)

[1]
[2]

(c) (i) Ratio would be 3 : 1

[1]

(ii) Each chlorine at could be 35Cl or 37Cl


Only way of getting M+4 is for both chlorines to be 37Cl (1 in 9 chance)
Ratio of peaks M M+2 M+4
9
6
1

[1]
[1]
[3]

(d) (i) Accept dioxins and furans (without specifying)

[1]

(ii) PCBs (but dont penalise non-specified dioxins and furans)

[1]

(iii) Allow : pollution control / environmental legislation / removal of dioxins and furans /
mill closed down (owtte)

[1]

(iv) Five

[1]
[4]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2009

Page 8
9

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2009

(a) Length of DNA


3

nanosphere diameter
1

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

cell diameter
2

Both marks for correct sequence, [1] for cell smaller than DNA
[2]
(b) (i) Gaps in structure of shaft much smaller, hence less prone to fracture / more flexible

[1]

(ii) Composites and carbon nanotubes less dense than metal (of comparable strength)

[1]
[2]

(c) Wavelength of infrared energy is longer than that of light


[1]
Gaps between nano-sized particles allow light to pass through, but reflect infrared energy [1]
[2]
(d) (i) Resistance to corrosion / reaction

[1]

(ii) Ability to kill bacteria / prevent bacteria multiplying

[1]

(iii) Very much larger surface area means they dissolve more readily

[1]
[3]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2009

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2010 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2010 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) PCl5 + 4H2O H3PO4 + 5HCl (1)


SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl (or giving H2SiO3, Si(OH)4 etc.) (1)
(b) bond energies: S-S
Cl-Cl
S-Cl

[2]

= 264 kJ mol1
= 244 kJ mol1
= 250 kJ mol1

H = 8 264 + 8 244 16 250 = +64 kJ mol1 (2)

[2]

(c) (i) +2 (1)


(ii) (half) the sulfur goes up by +2, (1)
(the other half) goes down by 2 (1)
(iii) HCl (can be read into (iv)) (1)
(iv) 2SCl2 + 2H2O S + SO2 + 4HCl (1)
(v) (+ AgNO3)
(+ K2Cr2O7)

white ppt. (1)


solution turns green (1)

[7]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i) A ligand is a species that contains a lone pair of electrons, or that can form a
dative bond (to a transition element) (1)
(ii)
species
OH
NH4+
CH3OH
CH3NH2

can be a ligand


cannot be a ligand




(4 )

[3]

(b) (i) C is [Cu(NH3)6]2+ SO42 (allow [Cu(NH3)4]2+ SO42 (1)


D is CuO (1)
E is Na2SO4 (1)
F is BaSO4 (1)
(ii) acid-base or neutralisation (1)

[5]

(c) (i) any two from:


brown fumes or vapour evolved / gas relights glowing splint / black solid formed (2)
(ii) 2Cu(NO3)2 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2 (1)

[3]
[Total: 11 max 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) Cu(s) 2e Cu2+(aq) allow electrons on RHS (1)


(ii) Eo for Ag+/Ag is +0.80V which is more positive than +0.34V for Cu2+/Cu, (1)
so its less easily oxidised (owtte) (1)
(iii) Eo for Ni2+ is 0.25V, (1)
Ni is readily oxidised and goes into solution as Ni2+(aq) (1)

[Mark (ii) and (iii) to max 3]

(iv) Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) (1)


(v) Eo for Zn2+/Zn is negative / = 0.76V, so Zn2+ is not easily reduced. (1)
(vi) The blue colour fades because Cu2+(aq) is being replaced by Zn2+(aq) or Ni2+(aq) or
[Cu2+] decreases (1)
[7]
(b) amount of copper = 225/63.5 = 3.54(3) mol (1)
amount of electrons needed = 2 3.54 = 7.08/9 (7.087) mol (1)
no. of coulombs = 20 10 60 60 = 7.2 105 C
no. of moles of electrons = 7.2 105/9.65 104 = 7.46 mol (1)
percentage wasted = 100 (7.461 7.087)/7.461 = 5.01 (5.0)% (accept 4.985.10) (1)
[4]
(c) Eo data: Ni2+/Ni = 0.25V
Fe2+/Fe = 0.44V (1)
Because the Fe potential is more negative than the Ni potential, the iron will dissolve (1)

[2]

[Total: 13]
4

(a) (i) SnO2


(ii) PbO

Can be read into equation (1)


2NaOH + SnO2 Na2SnO3 + H2O (1)
Can be read into equation (1)
PbO + 2HCl PbCl2 + H2O (1)
[4]

(b) moles of oxygen = 9.3/16 = 0.581 mol


moles of lead
= 90.7/207 = 0.438 mol (both 3 s.f.) (1)
so formula is Pb3O4 (1)

[2]

(c) (i) Ksp = [Pb2+][Cl ]2 (1) units = mol3 dm9 (1)


(ii) if [Pb2+] = x, Ksp = 4x3, so x = 3{Ksp/4}
[Pb2+] = 3{2 105/4} = 1.71 102 mol dm3 (1)
(iii) [Pb2+] = 2 105/(0.5)2 = 8.0 105 mol dm3 (1)
(iv) common ion effect, or increased [Cl ] forces solubility equilibrium over to the left (1)
[Max 4]
[Total: 10]
UCLES 2010

Page 4
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) ester (1)


(ii) H is nitrobenzene structure needed here (1)
J is phenyldiazonium chloride structure needed here (1)
(iii) step 2
step 3
step 4
step 5

Sn/Zn + HCl / H2 + named cat / NaBH4 / LiAlH4 / Na + ethanol (1)


HNO2/NaNO2 + HCl at T = 10C or less (1)
heat/warm to T > 10C (1)
CH3COCl / CH3COCOCOCH3 (1)

[7]

(b) (i) compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structures (1)
(ii) phenol (NOT hydroxy) (1)
(methyl) ketone or carbonyl (1)
(iii) K is 4-ethanoylphenol, HO-C6H4-COCH3 (must be 1,4- disubstituted isomer) (1)
(iv)

I2 + NaOH(aq)

NaOH(aq)
Br2(aq)

CO2

((1) for CO2; (1) for O)


In any positions

Br

OH

Br

COCH3

(2 Br needed)

COCH3

(anion needed)
[4]
[8 max 7]
[Total: 14]

UCLES 2010

Page 5
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

(a)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(1) for each centre more than 2 centres shown deduct 1 mark

[2]

LiAlH4 or NaBH4 or Na + ethanol or H2 + Ni (1)


heat with Al2O3 / porous pot or conc. H2SO4 / H3PO4 (1)

(b) (i) step 1


step 2
(ii)

M (1)

L (1)

(letters may be reversed)


[4]
(c) (i) M (no mark)
(ii)
CO2H
O

i.e. 3,7-dimethyl-6-oxo-octanoic acid (1)


(iii) 2,4-DNPH (1) orange ppt. with P (none with N) (1)
Mark ecf from candidates P
(d)

(+)
H

(-)
Cl

H
+

[3]

H
Cl
Cl

2 curly arrows (1)


carbocation intermediate + Cl (1)
lone pair on Cl and last curly arrow (1)

[3]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2010

Page 6
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) Disulfide bond / group / bridge (1)


(ii) The tertiary structure (1)
(iii) The substrate will no longer bond to / fit into the active site (1)
or shape of active site is changed

[3]

(b) (i) Acid-base / proton donor / neutralisation / salt formation (1)


(ii) The ability of the CO2H group to form hydrogen bonds (1) and ionic interactions (1)
The CO2H/CO2 group is no longer able to interact with NH2/NH3+ (1)
The Ag+ forms a strong bond with COO (1)

[5] max [4]

(c) (i) 8 but allow 4O2 if specified as molecules (1)


(ii) Dative / co-ordinate (1)
(iii) Octahedral / 6 co-ordinate (1)

[3]
[Total: 10]

(a) Protons (1)


in NMR, energy is absorbed due to the two spin states (1)
Electrons (1)
in X-ray crystallography, X-rays are diffracted (by regions of high electron density) (1)

[4]

(b) (i) 1 no mark


The spectrum of alcohol / Y contains different peaks
Alcohol / Y contains different chemical environments
Spectrum 2 contains only one peak (1)
(ii) Spectrum 2 only shows 1 peak so Z must be a ketone (1)
Hence Y must be a 2 alcohol (1)
Number of carbon atoms present =

0.6 100
= 3 (1)
17.6 1.1

Thus Z must be CH3COCH3 (1)


Hence Y must be propan-2-ol, CH3CH(OH)CH3 (1)
(iii)

Y is CH3 C CH3

OH
(1)

(iv) All of the protons in Z are in the same chemical environment (1)

[8] max [7]


[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 7
9

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) A few nanometres (accept 0.510 nm) (1)


(ii) Graphite/graphene (1)
(iii) van der Waals (1)
Carbon atoms in the nanotubes are joined by covalent bonds (1)
(as are the hydrogen atoms in a hydrogen molecule)
or no dipoles on C or H2 or the substances are non-polar

[4]

(b) More hydrogen can be packed into the same space/volume (1)

[1]

(c) If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium moves in the direction which tends to
reduce the disturbance (owtte) (1)
When H2 is removed the pressure drops and more H2 is released from that adsorbed (1)
The equilibrium H2adsorbed

H2gaseous (1)

Equilibrium shifts to the right as pressure drops (1)

[4]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2010

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2010 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2010 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) PCl5 + 4H2O H3PO4 + 5HCl (1)


SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl (or giving H2SiO3, Si(OH)4 etc.) (1)
(b) bond energies: S-S
Cl-Cl
S-Cl

[2]

= 264 kJ mol1
= 244 kJ mol1
= 250 kJ mol1

H = 8 264 + 8 244 16 250 = +64 kJ mol1 (2)

[2]

(c) (i) +2 (1)


(ii) (half) the sulfur goes up by +2, (1)
(the other half) goes down by 2 (1)
(iii) HCl (can be read into (iv)) (1)
(iv) 2SCl2 + 2H2O S + SO2 + 4HCl (1)
(v) (+ AgNO3)
(+ K2Cr2O7)

white ppt. (1)


solution turns green (1)

[7]
[Total: 11]

(a) (i) A ligand is a species that contains a lone pair of electrons, or that can form a
dative bond (to a transition element) (1)
(ii)
species
OH
NH4+
CH3OH
CH3NH2

can be a ligand


cannot be a ligand




(4 )

[3]

(b) (i) C is [Cu(NH3)6]2+ SO42 (allow [Cu(NH3)4]2+ SO42 (1)


D is CuO (1)
E is Na2SO4 (1)
F is BaSO4 (1)
(ii) acid-base or neutralisation (1)

[5]

(c) (i) any two from:


brown fumes or vapour evolved / gas relights glowing splint / black solid formed (2)
(ii) 2Cu(NO3)2 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2 (1)

[3]
[Total: 11 max 10]

UCLES 2010

Page 3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) Cu(s) 2e Cu2+(aq) allow electrons on RHS (1)


(ii) Eo for Ag+/Ag is +0.80V which is more positive than +0.34V for Cu2+/Cu, (1)
so its less easily oxidised (owtte) (1)
(iii) Eo for Ni2+ is 0.25V, (1)
Ni is readily oxidised and goes into solution as Ni2+(aq) (1)

[Mark (ii) and (iii) to max 3]

(iv) Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) (1)


(v) Eo for Zn2+/Zn is negative / = 0.76V, so Zn2+ is not easily reduced. (1)
(vi) The blue colour fades because Cu2+(aq) is being replaced by Zn2+(aq) or Ni2+(aq) or
[Cu2+] decreases (1)
[7]
(b) amount of copper = 225/63.5 = 3.54(3) mol (1)
amount of electrons needed = 2 3.54 = 7.08/9 (7.087) mol (1)
no. of coulombs = 20 10 60 60 = 7.2 105 C
no. of moles of electrons = 7.2 105/9.65 104 = 7.46 mol (1)
percentage wasted = 100 (7.461 7.087)/7.461 = 5.01 (5.0)% (accept 4.985.10) (1)
[4]
(c) Eo data: Ni2+/Ni = 0.25V
Fe2+/Fe = 0.44V (1)
Because the Fe potential is more negative than the Ni potential, the iron will dissolve (1)

[2]

[Total: 13]
4

(a) (i) SnO2


(ii) PbO

Can be read into equation (1)


2NaOH + SnO2 Na2SnO3 + H2O (1)
Can be read into equation (1)
PbO + 2HCl PbCl2 + H2O (1)
[4]

(b) moles of oxygen = 9.3/16 = 0.581 mol


moles of lead
= 90.7/207 = 0.438 mol (both 3 s.f.) (1)
so formula is Pb3O4 (1)

[2]

(c) (i) Ksp = [Pb2+][Cl ]2 (1) units = mol3 dm9 (1)


(ii) if [Pb2+] = x, Ksp = 4x3, so x = 3{Ksp/4}
[Pb2+] = 3{2 105/4} = 1.71 102 mol dm3 (1)
(iii) [Pb2+] = 2 105/(0.5)2 = 8.0 105 mol dm3 (1)
(iv) common ion effect, or increased [Cl ] forces solubility equilibrium over to the left (1)
[Max 4]
[Total: 10]
UCLES 2010

Page 4
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) ester (1)


(ii) H is nitrobenzene structure needed here (1)
J is phenyldiazonium chloride structure needed here (1)
(iii) step 2
step 3
step 4
step 5

Sn/Zn + HCl / H2 + named cat / NaBH4 / LiAlH4 / Na + ethanol (1)


HNO2/NaNO2 + HCl at T = 10C or less (1)
heat/warm to T > 10C (1)
CH3COCl / CH3COCOCOCH3 (1)

[7]

(b) (i) compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structures (1)
(ii) phenol (NOT hydroxy) (1)
(methyl) ketone or carbonyl (1)
(iii) K is 4-ethanoylphenol, HO-C6H4-COCH3 (must be 1,4- disubstituted isomer) (1)
(iv)

I2 + NaOH(aq)

NaOH(aq)
Br2(aq)

CO2

((1) for CO2; (1) for O)


In any positions

Br

OH

Br

COCH3

(2 Br needed)

COCH3

(anion needed)
[4]
[8 max 7]
[Total: 14]

UCLES 2010

Page 5
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

(a)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(1) for each centre more than 2 centres shown deduct 1 mark

[2]

LiAlH4 or NaBH4 or Na + ethanol or H2 + Ni (1)


heat with Al2O3 / porous pot or conc. H2SO4 / H3PO4 (1)

(b) (i) step 1


step 2
(ii)

M (1)

L (1)

(letters may be reversed)


[4]
(c) (i) M (no mark)
(ii)
CO2H
O

i.e. 3,7-dimethyl-6-oxo-octanoic acid (1)


(iii) 2,4-DNPH (1) orange ppt. with P (none with N) (1)
Mark ecf from candidates P
(d)

(+)
H

(-)
Cl

H
+

[3]

H
Cl
Cl

2 curly arrows (1)


carbocation intermediate + Cl (1)
lone pair on Cl and last curly arrow (1)

[3]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2010

Page 6
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) Disulfide bond / group / bridge (1)


(ii) The tertiary structure (1)
(iii) The substrate will no longer bond to / fit into the active site (1)
or shape of active site is changed

[3]

(b) (i) Acid-base / proton donor / neutralisation / salt formation (1)


(ii) The ability of the CO2H group to form hydrogen bonds (1) and ionic interactions (1)
The CO2H/CO2 group is no longer able to interact with NH2/NH3+ (1)
The Ag+ forms a strong bond with COO (1)

[5] max [4]

(c) (i) 8 but allow 4O2 if specified as molecules (1)


(ii) Dative / co-ordinate (1)
(iii) Octahedral / 6 co-ordinate (1)

[3]
[Total: 10]

(a) Protons (1)


in NMR, energy is absorbed due to the two spin states (1)
Electrons (1)
in X-ray crystallography, X-rays are diffracted (by regions of high electron density) (1)

[4]

(b) (i) 1 no mark


The spectrum of alcohol / Y contains different peaks
Alcohol / Y contains different chemical environments
Spectrum 2 contains only one peak (1)
(ii) Spectrum 2 only shows 1 peak so Z must be a ketone (1)
Hence Y must be a 2 alcohol (1)
Number of carbon atoms present =

0.6 100
= 3 (1)
17.6 1.1

Thus Z must be CH3COCH3 (1)


Hence Y must be propan-2-ol, CH3CH(OH)CH3 (1)
(iii)

Y is CH3 C CH3

OH
(1)

(iv) All of the protons in Z are in the same chemical environment (1)

[8] max [7]


[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 7
9

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) A few nanometres (accept 0.510 nm) (1)


(ii) Graphite/graphene (1)
(iii) van der Waals (1)
Carbon atoms in the nanotubes are joined by covalent bonds (1)
(as are the hydrogen atoms in a hydrogen molecule)
or no dipoles on C or H2 or the substances are non-polar

[4]

(b) More hydrogen can be packed into the same space/volume (1)

[1]

(c) If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium moves in the direction which tends to
reduce the disturbance (owtte) (1)
When H2 is removed the pressure drops and more H2 is released from that adsorbed (1)
The equilibrium H2adsorbed

H2gaseous (1)

Equilibrium shifts to the right as pressure drops (1)

[4]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2010

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2010 question papers for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

om
.c

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2010 question paper

s
er

GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level

Page 2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 (or similar) or P4O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4 (1)
SO2 + H2O H2SO3 (1)
(ii) 2NO2 + H2O HNO2 + HNO3 (1)
(iii) 2ClO2 + 2NaOH NaClO2 + NaClO3 + H2O or ionic eqn (1)

[4]

(b) (i) 2CH4 + C2H6 + H2S + 9O2 4CO2 + SO2 + 8H2O


Formulae (1), balanced (1)
(ii) (The SO2 produced) causes acid rain (1)
or consequence of acid rain defoliation etc. or respiratory problem
(iii) 1000 dm3 contains 50 dm3 of H2S
this is 50/24 (= 2.083 moles) (1)
Mr(ethanolamine) = 24 + 7 + 14 + 16 = 61
therefore mass = 2.083 61 = 127(.1)g (1) (or ecf)
(iv) acid-base (1)
(v) H = Hf(rhs) Hf(lhs)
= {(3 11 2 242)}{}{(2 21 297)} 1 for each { } in which there is an error
= 451 + 339
= 112 (kJ mol1) (2)

[8]

[Total: 12]
2

(a) any three from:


d-orbitals / sub-shells / energy levels are split or equivalent * (1)
colour due to absorption of light (1)
when e promoted to higher orbital * (1)
E = hf or h or h / (marks * could be in labelled diagram) (1)
(b) blue is [Cu(H2O)6]2+ (or full correct name of ion) (1)
ligand exchange/displacement/replacement (1)
((NH4)2CuCl4 contains) [CuCl4]2 (1)
CuSO4 is white as it has no ligands (1)

[3]

[max 3]

(c) n(thio) = 0.02 19.5/1000 = 3.9 104 mol (1)


n(thio) = n(Cu2+), so n(Cu2+) in 50 cm3 = 3.9 104 mol
so [Cu2+] = 3.9 104 1000/50 = (7.8 103 (mol dm3)) (1)
{or all-in-one-line: n(thio) = n(Cu2+), so [Cu2+] = 0.02 19.5/50 = (7.8 103 mol dm3)} (2)
in 100 cm3, there will be 7.8 104 mol, which is 63.5 7.8 104 = 0.049 0.050% (1)
Allow ecf on 2nd and 3rd marks 0.5 gets 2 marks only

[3]

[Total: 9]

UCLES 2010

Page 3
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

(a) reaction I: reduction or hydrogenation (1)


reaction II: oxidation or redox (1)
(b) thymol:
or
or
menthol:
or
menthone:

Br2(aq) (1)
NaOH(aq) (1)
FeCl3(aq) (1)
Cr2O72/H+ (1)
Lucas test or ZnCl2/HCl (1)
2,4-DNPH/Bradys reagent (1)

Paper
43
[2]

decolourises or white ppt (1)


dissolves (1)
violet/purple (colour) (1)
orange green (1)
cloudy or white ppt (1)
orange ppt (1)

[6]
[Total: 8]

reaction I:
reaction II:
reaction III:
reaction IV:
reaction V:
reaction VI:
reaction VII:

Cl2 + light (1) (not aq)


Br2 + Al Br3 or Fe or FeBr3 (1) (not aq)
NaOH, heat in ethanol (1) (allow aqueous EtOH)
HNO3 + H2SO4 (1) conc and < 60C (1) (2 marks)
KMnO4 + H+/OH + heat (1)
Sn + HCl (1)
HNO2 + HCl, < 10C (1)

XXisis
N

OH

(1) allow N2 and ONa


[max 8]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2010

Page 4

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) 2H2O 4e 4H+ + O2 (1)


(ii) 2Cl 2e Cl2 (1)

[2]

(b) (i) Eo = (1.23 (0.83)) = 2.06V (1)


(ii) Eo = (1.36 (0.83)) = 2.19V (1)
(in (i) if (a)(i) as 4(OH) 4e 2H2O + O2 ecf is 0.4 (0.83) = 1.23 (1) needs
working shown)
[2]
(c) (i) no change (because [H2O] does not change) (1)
smaller/less positive (1)
(ii) The (overall) Eo for Cl2 production will decrease, (whereas that) for O2 production will
stay the same. (answer could be in terms of 1st Eo decreasing and becoming lower than
2nd)(or Eo for Cl2 becomes less than for O2) (1)
[3]
(d) (i) Cl + 3H2O ClO3 + 3H2 (1)
(ii) n(C) = 250 60 60 = (9 105 C) (1)
n(e) = 9 105/96500 = 9.33 mol
n(NaClO3) = 9.33/6 = (1.55 mol) allow ecf (1)
Mr(NaClO3) = 106.5
mass (NaClO3) = 1.55 106.5 = 165.5 g (1) (165 166 gets 3 marks, 993 gets 2 marks
as ecf)
[4]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 5
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) Br2 (ignore solvent, but do not credit AlCl3 or HCl or light) (1)
(ii) curly arrow from C=C to Br (1)
another one breaking Br-Br bond. (1)
correct intermediate cation and Br produced (not Br) (1)

[max 3]

(b) B is NH2CH2CH2NH2 (1)


C is NCCH2CH2CN (1)
E is ClCOCH2CH2COCl (1)
[3]
(Allow (CH2)2 or C2H4. Allow correct atoms in any order on LHS but order must be correct on
RHS)
(c) reaction II: heat, dilute H+(aq) or HCl(aq) or HCl(conc) or H2SO4(aq) (1)
reaction III: H2 + Ni (or other named catalyst) or LiAlH4 or Na in ethanol (1)

[2]

(d) NH4+ (1)

[1]

(e) (i) [-NHCH2CH2CH2CH2NH-COCH2CH2CO-] (1)


(allow (CH2)4 and (CH2)2)
(not dimer, needs bonds both ends)
(ii) HCl (1)
(f)

[2]

(i) [H+] = 10pH = 102.6 = 2.51 103 (mol dm3) (1)


(ii) Ka = [H+]2/c = 6.31 105 (mol dm3) (allow ecf from (i)) (1)

[2]
[Total: 13]

(a) NH2CH2CH2CH2NH2 + HCl NH2CH2CH2CH2NH3+ Cl (1)


NH2CH2CH2CH2NH3+ Cl + HCl Cl NH3+CH2CH2CH2NH3+ Cl (1)
(Deduct 1 only, if Cl omitted twice but allow with H+)
(b) starts at 11.3 and finished as 1.6 (1)
steep portions at 10 cm3 and 20 cm3 volume added (1)

[2]

[2]
[Total: 4]

UCLES 2010

Page 6
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) diagram to show tetrahedral arrangement (3D or bond angle marked) (1)
(ii) 4 covalent bonds/bond pairs (with Cl) only or no lone pairs. (1)

[2]

(b) (i) steamy/white fumes/gas or heat evolved (1)


(fumes are) HCl (from hydrolysis of Sn-Cl bonds) or exothermic reaction/bond breaking (1)
(can award second mark for HCl (g) in eqn.)
(ii) SnCl4 + 2H2O SnO2 + 4HCl etc. (allow partial hydrolysis and with OHs) (1)

[3]
[Total: 5]

(a) Sugar/deoxyribose, phosphate, base (or better)(not ribose) (1)

[1]

(b) Diagram showing sugar-phosphate backbone (chain) (1)


Bases on side-chain (1)
Base paired A-T or G-C (1)
H-bonds shown and labelled (1)
(c) mRNA, ribosome, tRNA

[4]
all three correct (2)
(mRNA first allow 1 mark)

[2]

(d) (i) (4 4 4) = 64 (1)


(ii) START (or Met) ser arg leu asp val (2)
(5 correct order score (1))
(iii) Amino acid leu is changed to pro (1)

[4]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

Page 7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

10 (a) (i) Partition substance is distributed between the stationary and mobile phase
or has different solubility in each phase (1)
Adsorption substances form bonds of varying strength with or are attracted to
or are held on to stationary phase. (1)
(ii)
Technique

Separation method

Paper chromatography

Partition

Thin-layer chromatography

Adsorption

Gas/liquid chromatography

Partition

3 correct (2)
2 correct (1)
(iii) %X = 44% (2) %; %Y = 56% (2%) (1)

[5]

(b) (i) They are largely composed of (carbon and) hydrogen which are active in the NMR
(owtte) or protons/H+/H exist in different chemical environments (with characteristic
absorptions) (1)
(ii) 2 correct displayed formulae (1)
In propanone all the protons are in a similar chemical environment (and hence there will
be one proton peak.) (1)
In propanal there are (three) different chemical environments and hence there will be
(three) proton peaks or three different chemical environments or three proton peaks (1)
[4]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2010

Page 8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A/AS LEVEL October/November 2010

Syllabus
9701

11 (a) Any two from:


The drug can be localised in a part of the body (1)
Smaller doses can be given reducing cost (1)
Smaller doses can be given with fewer possible side effects (1)
More immediate action / acts faster (1)

Paper
43

[2]

(b)

(May circle whole functional group)


Any 2 circles (2)

[2]

(c) (i) Must not react with the drug or must not breakdown too easily/quickly (1)
(ii) The swelling/hydrolysis would begin in the stomach (and the drug would be released too
soon) or stomach is acidic or has low pH (1)
[2]
(d) Addition, condensation (1)
Suitable equation for addition (1)
Suitable equation for condensation (1)
(Addition equation must show polymeristion and balance allow nX X2n or Xn or Xn/2)
(Condensation can be simple reaction e.g. to single ester or amide but must balance
2 products)
(If polymerisation RHS must show a repeat unit but can leave out other product HCl etc.)
[3]
(e) Hydrolysis (1)

[1]
[Total: 11]

UCLES 2010

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2011 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2011 question papers for most
IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) either burn or shine light/uv on mixture of H2 + Cl2 but NOT heat

[1]

(ii) red/orange/brown colour of bromine decolourises/disappears


steamy/misty/white fumes produced
container gets warm/hot

[2]

(iii) H-H = 436

Cl-Cl = 244
= 182 kJ mol1

H = 436 + 244 2(431)


H-H = 436

H-Cl = 431

Br-Br = 193

[2]
H-Br = 366

= 103 kJ mol1

H = 436 + 193 2(366)

[2]

(iv) H-Br bond is weaker than the H-Cl bond allow converse.

[1]
[8]

(b) (i) light

[1]

(ii) bonds broken = C-H & I-I


bonds made = C-I & H-I
H

= 410 + 151 = 561


= 240 + 299 = 539
= 551 539 = +22 kJ mol1

[2]

(iii) The overall reaction is endothermic or no strong bonds/only weak bonds are
formed or high Eact

(c) (i) homolytic fission is the breaking of a bond to form (two) radicals/neutral species/
odd-electron species
(ii) CH2Cl
the C-Br bond is the weakest or needs least energy to break/breaks most easily

(d)
Cl

Cl

Cl
Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

[1]
[4]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

Cl

4 structures: [2]
2 or 3 structures: [1]
Correct chiral atom identified

[1]
[3]
[Total: 18]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) Order w.r.t. [CH3CHO] = 1


Order w.r.t. [CH3OH] = 1
Order w.r.t. [H+] = 1

Paper
41
[1]
[1]
[1]

(ii) rate = k[CH3CHO][CH3OH][H+]

[1]

(iii) units = mol2 dm6 s1

[1]

(iv) rate will be 2 4 = 8 times as fast as reaction 1 (relative rate = 8)

[1]
[6]

(b)
[CH3CHO]
/mol dm3

[CH3OH]
/mol dm3

[H+]
/mol dm3

[acetal A]
/mol dm3

[H2O]
/mol dm3

at start

0.20

0.10

0.05

0.00

0.00

at equilibrium

(0.20 x)

(0.10 2x)

0.05

at equilibrium

0.175

0.05

0.05

0.025

0.025

(i) 3 values in second row

3 x [1]

(ii) 4 values in third row

4 x [1]

(iii) Kc = {[acetal A][H2O]}/{[CH3CHO][CH3OH]2}


units = mol1dm3
(iv) Kc = 0.0252/(0.175 0.052) = 1.4(3) (mol1 dm3)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[max 9]
[Total: 15]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 4

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) for example.... also allow dz2

dxy

shape (4 lobes) [1]


correct label e.g. dxy [1]
[2]
(b) (i)

energy

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Marks are for 5 degenerate orbitals [1]


and 3:2 split [1]
(ii) colour due to the absorption of light NOT emitted light
E = hf or photons energy = E in above diagram
electron promoted from lower to higher orbital
size of E depends on the ligand
as E changes, so does f in E = hf

(c) (i) O.N.(carbon) = +3 (4 (2) + 2x = 2, thus 2x = +6)


(ii) O.N. = +3

[1]

3-

O
O

[1]
[1]
[7]

[1]

(iii)

[1]
[1]
[1]

O
Fe

O
O

O
O

(iv) 2 K3Fe(C2O4)3 3 K2C2O4 + 2 FeC2O4 + 2 CO2


Or K3Fe(C2O4)3 3/2 K2C2O4 + FeC2O4 + CO2

[2]
[2]
[max 5]
[Total: 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) C2H5NH2 + HA C2H5NH3+ + A (HA can be H2O, HCl etc.)


instead of arrow
Allow

[1]

(ii)
most basic
ethylamine

least basic
ammonia

phenylamine
[1]

(iii) ethylamine > NH3 due to electron-donating ethyl/alkyl group


phenylamine < NH3 due to delocalisation of lone pair over ring

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) C6H5OH + OH C6H5O + H2O (or with Na+/H2O/A)

[1]

(ii) pKa of nitrophenol is smaller/Ka is larger because its a stronger acid/dissociates


more than phenol
stronger because the anionic charge is spread out moreover the NO2 group or NO2
is electron-withdrawing

[1]
[1]

(iii) pKa = 1.0

[1]

(iv) Nitro group increases acidity / electron-withdrawing groups increase acidity

[1]
[5]

(c) (i) B is phenyldiazonium cation, C6H5N+N

[1]

(ii)
reaction

reagent(s)

Step 1

NaNO2 + HCl
or HNO2 [1]

Step 2

H2O / aq

Step 3

HNO3
NB HNO3(aq) OK for both

conditions
T < 10C
heat/boil/T > 10
dilute

[1]
(both) [1]

(both) [1]
[4]
[5]
[Total: 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) C=C double bonds / alkenes


(ii) OH groups / accept alcohols or acids
(iii) CH3CO or CH3CH(OH) groups
(iv) carbonyl, >C=O, groups / accept aldehydes and ketones

(b)

4 [1]
[4]

O
CO2H
O

D
D

E
E

2 [1]
[2]

(c) isomers of C
OH
OH

cis
cis

trans
trans

correct structure (excl. stereochemistry)


cis and trans drawn correctly
type of isomerism is cis-trans or geometrical isomerism

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 9]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) 2H2NCH2CO2H H2NCH2CONHCH2CO2H + H2O

[1]

(ii) Skeletal formula required

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) helix


pleated sheet

[1]
[1]

(ii) Students should choose one of the structures below


For helix:
For pleated sheet:
Need to show a helix
Need to show two parallel zig-zag
with C=O - - - H-N
strands with C=O - - - H-N between
between turns
them
Whichever is chosen, overall structure [1] position of H bonds [1]
[4]
(c)
amino acid residue 1

amino acid residue 2

type of bonding

HNCH(CH2CH2CH2CH2NH2)CO

HNCH(CH2CH2CO2H)CO

Ionic bonds or hydrogen


bonds

HNCH(CH3)CO

HNCH(CH3)CO

van der Waals

HNCH(CH2SH)CO

HNCH(CH2SH)CO

Disulfide bonds

HNCH(CH2OH)CO

HNCH(CH2CO2H)CO

Hydrogen bonds
[4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 8
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) Sketch and label the apparatus used to carry out electrophoresis e.g

Marks: power supply / electrolyte + filter paper / buffer / acid mixture central

(b) (i) pH of the buffer


Charge on the amino acid species
(ii) Size of the amino acid species / Mr
Voltage applied
Magnitude of the charge (on the amino acid species)
Temperature

(c) (i) They have insufficient electron density / only one electron
(ii) Sulfur
because it has the greatest atomic number / number of electrons

4 [1]
[4]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
(max 3)
[max 3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 9
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)
traditional material

modern polymer used

Paper/cardboard/wood/leaves
hessian/hemp/jute
steel/aluminium

PVC in packaging

Cotton/wool/linen

Terylene in fabrics

Glass/china/porcelain/earthenware
metal/leather

Polycarbonate bottle
3 2 marks, 2 1 mark
[2]

(b) Reasons: Plastics/polymers pollute the environment for a long time do not decompose/
biodegrade quickly
[1]
They are mainly produced from oil
[1]
Produce toxic gases on burning
[1]
max two
Strategy 1: Recycle polymer waste / use renewable resources
Strategy 2: Develop biodegradable polymers

(c) PVC
Combustion would produce HCl / dioxins as a pollutant
or
nylon/acrylic
Combustion would produce HCN

(d) (i) Polythene (or other addition polymer)


(ii) Addition polymerisation
The polymer chains dont have strong bonds between them easy to melt
Could be answered with a suitable diagram

[1]
[1]
[max 3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[2]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2011 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2011 question papers for most
IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) either burn or shine light/uv on mixture of H2 + Cl2 but NOT heat

[1]

(ii) red/orange/brown colour of bromine decolourises/disappears


steamy/misty/white fumes produced
container gets warm/hot

[2]

(iii) H-H = 436

Cl-Cl = 244
= 182 kJ mol1

H = 436 + 244 2(431)


H-H = 436

H-Cl = 431

Br-Br = 193

[2]
H-Br = 366

= 103 kJ mol1

H = 436 + 193 2(366)

[2]

(iv) H-Br bond is weaker than the H-Cl bond allow converse.

[1]
[8]

(b) (i) light

[1]

(ii) bonds broken = C-H & I-I


bonds made = C-I & H-I
H

= 410 + 151 = 561


= 240 + 299 = 539
= 551 539 = +22 kJ mol1

[2]

(iii) The overall reaction is endothermic or no strong bonds/only weak bonds are
formed or high Eact

(c) (i) homolytic fission is the breaking of a bond to form (two) radicals/neutral species/
odd-electron species
(ii) CH2Cl
the C-Br bond is the weakest or needs least energy to break/breaks most easily

(d)
Cl

Cl

Cl
Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

[1]
[4]

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

Cl

4 structures: [2]
2 or 3 structures: [1]
Correct chiral atom identified

[1]
[3]
[Total: 18]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) Order w.r.t. [CH3CHO] = 1


Order w.r.t. [CH3OH] = 1
Order w.r.t. [H+] = 1

Paper
42
[1]
[1]
[1]

(ii) rate = k[CH3CHO][CH3OH][H+]

[1]

(iii) units = mol2 dm6 s1

[1]

(iv) rate will be 2 4 = 8 times as fast as reaction 1 (relative rate = 8)

[1]
[6]

(b)
[CH3CHO]
/mol dm3

[CH3OH]
/mol dm3

[H+]
/mol dm3

[acetal A]
/mol dm3

[H2O]
/mol dm3

at start

0.20

0.10

0.05

0.00

0.00

at equilibrium

(0.20 x)

(0.10 2x)

0.05

at equilibrium

0.175

0.05

0.05

0.025

0.025

(i) 3 values in second row

3 x [1]

(ii) 4 values in third row

4 x [1]

(iii) Kc = {[acetal A][H2O]}/{[CH3CHO][CH3OH]2}


units = mol1dm3
(iv) Kc = 0.0252/(0.175 0.052) = 1.4(3) (mol1 dm3)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[max 9]
[Total: 15]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 4

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) for example.... also allow dz2

dxy

shape (4 lobes) [1]


correct label e.g. dxy [1]
[2]
(b) (i)

energy

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Marks are for 5 degenerate orbitals [1]


and 3:2 split [1]
(ii) colour due to the absorption of light NOT emitted light
E = hf or photons energy = E in above diagram
electron promoted from lower to higher orbital
size of E depends on the ligand
as E changes, so does f in E = hf

(c) (i) O.N.(carbon) = +3 (4 (2) + 2x = 2, thus 2x = +6)


(ii) O.N. = +3

[1]

3-

O
O

[1]
[1]
[7]

[1]

(iii)

[1]
[1]
[1]

O
Fe

O
O

O
O

(iv) 2 K3Fe(C2O4)3 3 K2C2O4 + 2 FeC2O4 + 2 CO2


Or K3Fe(C2O4)3 3/2 K2C2O4 + FeC2O4 + CO2

[2]
[2]
[max 5]
[Total: 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) C2H5NH2 + HA C2H5NH3+ + A (HA can be H2O, HCl etc.)


instead of arrow
Allow

[1]

(ii)
most basic
ethylamine

least basic
ammonia

phenylamine
[1]

(iii) ethylamine > NH3 due to electron-donating ethyl/alkyl group


phenylamine < NH3 due to delocalisation of lone pair over ring

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) C6H5OH + OH C6H5O + H2O (or with Na+/H2O/A)

[1]

(ii) pKa of nitrophenol is smaller/Ka is larger because its a stronger acid/dissociates


more than phenol
stronger because the anionic charge is spread out moreover the NO2 group or NO2
is electron-withdrawing

[1]
[1]

(iii) pKa = 1.0

[1]

(iv) Nitro group increases acidity / electron-withdrawing groups increase acidity

[1]
[5]

(c) (i) B is phenyldiazonium cation, C6H5N+N

[1]

(ii)
reaction

reagent(s)

Step 1

NaNO2 + HCl
or HNO2 [1]

Step 2

H2O / aq

Step 3

HNO3
NB HNO3(aq) OK for both

conditions
T < 10C
heat/boil/T > 10
dilute

[1]
(both) [1]

(both) [1]
[4]
[5]
[Total: 14]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) C=C double bonds / alkenes


(ii) OH groups / accept alcohols or acids
(iii) CH3CO or CH3CH(OH) groups
(iv) carbonyl, >C=O, groups / accept aldehydes and ketones

(b)

4 [1]
[4]

O
CO2H
O

D
D

E
E

2 [1]
[2]

(c) isomers of C
OH
OH

cis
cis

trans
trans

correct structure (excl. stereochemistry)


cis and trans drawn correctly
type of isomerism is cis-trans or geometrical isomerism

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 9]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) 2H2NCH2CO2H H2NCH2CONHCH2CO2H + H2O

[1]

(ii) Skeletal formula required

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) helix


pleated sheet

[1]
[1]

(ii) Students should choose one of the structures below


For helix:
For pleated sheet:
Need to show a helix
Need to show two parallel zig-zag
with C=O - - - H-N
strands with C=O - - - H-N between
between turns
them
Whichever is chosen, overall structure [1] position of H bonds [1]
[4]
(c)
amino acid residue 1

amino acid residue 2

type of bonding

HNCH(CH2CH2CH2CH2NH2)CO

HNCH(CH2CH2CO2H)CO

Ionic bonds or hydrogen


bonds

HNCH(CH3)CO

HNCH(CH3)CO

van der Waals

HNCH(CH2SH)CO

HNCH(CH2SH)CO

Disulfide bonds

HNCH(CH2OH)CO

HNCH(CH2CO2H)CO

Hydrogen bonds
[4]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 8
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) Sketch and label the apparatus used to carry out electrophoresis e.g

Marks: power supply / electrolyte + filter paper / buffer / acid mixture central

(b) (i) pH of the buffer


Charge on the amino acid species
(ii) Size of the amino acid species / Mr
Voltage applied
Magnitude of the charge (on the amino acid species)
Temperature

(c) (i) They have insufficient electron density / only one electron
(ii) Sulfur
because it has the greatest atomic number / number of electrons

4 [1]
[4]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
(max 3)
[max 3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 9
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a)
traditional material

modern polymer used

Paper/cardboard/wood/leaves
hessian/hemp/jute
steel/aluminium

PVC in packaging

Cotton/wool/linen

Terylene in fabrics

Glass/china/porcelain/earthenware
metal/leather

Polycarbonate bottle
3 2 marks, 2 1 mark
[2]

(b) Reasons: Plastics/polymers pollute the environment for a long time do not decompose/
biodegrade quickly
[1]
They are mainly produced from oil
[1]
Produce toxic gases on burning
[1]
max two
Strategy 1: Recycle polymer waste / use renewable resources
Strategy 2: Develop biodegradable polymers

(c) PVC
Combustion would produce HCl / dioxins as a pollutant
or
nylon/acrylic
Combustion would produce HCN

(d) (i) Polythene (or other addition polymer)


(ii) Addition polymerisation
The polymer chains dont have strong bonds between them easy to melt
Could be answered with a suitable diagram

[1]
[1]
[max 3]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[2]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2011 question paper


for the guidance of teachers

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the
examination.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2011 question papers for most
IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level
syllabuses.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

(a) Cr3+:
Mn2+:

Syllabus
9701

1s22s22p6 3s2 3p6 3d3


1s22s22p6 3s2 3p6 3d5

Paper
43
[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) (i) Any two from


H+ is on the oxidant/L.H. side of each of the -equations, or H+ is a reactant
(increasing [H+]) will make Eo more positive
(increasing [H+]) will drive the reaction over to the R.H./reductant side or forward
direction
[1] + [1]
(ii) KMnO4:
K2Cr2O7

Purple/violet to colourless (allow very pale pink)


Orange to green

[1]
[1]
[4]

(c) (i) MnO2 + SO2 MnSO4 (or Mn2+ + SO42)

[1]

manganese changes/is reduced from +4 to +2


sulfur changes/is oxidised from +4 to +6

[1]
[1]

(ii) No effect, because H+ does not appear in the overall equation or its effect on the
MnO2/Mn2+ change is cancelled out by its effect on the SO2/SO42 change
[1]
[4]
(d) (i) MnO2 + 4H+ + Sn2+ Mn2+ + 2H2O + Sn4+
(ii) n(MnO4) = 0.02 18.1/1000 = 3.62 104 mol
n(Sn2+) = 3.62 104 5/2 = 9.05 104 mol
n(Sn2+) that reacted with MnO2 = (20 9.05) 104 = 1.095 103 mol
reaction is 1:1, so this is also n(MnO2)
mass of MnO2 = 1.095 103 (54.9+16+16) = 0.0952 g
95% 96%; 2 or more s.f.

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[6]
[Total: 16]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) A molecule/ion/species with a lone pair (of electrons) or electron pair donor...
.... that bonds to a metal ion/transition element....

[1]

(ii) ...by means of a dative/coordinate (covalent) bond

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) straight line from (0, 0.01) to point at (350, 0.0028) with all points on the line

[1]

(ii) order w.r.t. Cr(CO)6 is 1 and order w.r.t. PR3 is zero


[1]
because (a) Cr(CO)6 graph has a constant half-life (which is 700 s)
or construction lines on graph showing this)
[1]
because (b) PR3 graph is a straight line (of constant slope) or line shows a constant rate
of reaction or no change in rate or shows a linear decrease
[1]
(iii) rate = k[Cr(CO)6]

[1]

k = (0.9 1.1) 103 (s1) (one or more s.f.)

[1]

either rate0 = 0.01/1020 = 9.8 106 mol sec1 when [Cr(CO)6] = 0.01 mol dm3
so k = 9.8 106/0.01 = 9.8 104
or t1/2 700 sec
k = 0.693/700 = 9.9 104
(iv) (units of k are) sec1

[1]

(v) N.B. the chosen mechanism must be consistent with the rate equation in (iii). Thus:
either if rate = k[Cr(CO)6]
mechanism B is consistent
[1]
because its the only mechanism that does NOT involve PR3 in its slow/rate-determining
step or only Cr(CO)6 is involved in slow step or [PR3] does not affect the rate
[1]
or
if rate = k[Cr(CO)6][PR3], then
mechanism A or C or D is consistent
because both reactants are involved in slow step

[1]
[1]
[9]
[Total: 11]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) E is CH3CH(NH2)CN

Paper
43
[1]

(ii) C6H5CH2CHO

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) a polymer/polypeptide of amino acids, (joined by peptide bonds)


(allow chain of amino acids but not sequence: the idea of many has to be conveyed)
[1]
(ii)
H
N

O
N
H

peptide bond shown in full (C=O) in an ala-ala fragment in a chain


two repeat units

[1]
[1]

Allow peptide bond shown in full (C=O) in a dipeptide ala-ala for 1 mark
H2N

O
N
H

OH
O

[3]
(c) (i) HCl or H2SO4 or NaOH or H+ or OH reagents
+ heat and H2O/aq (allow H3O+).
If T is quoted, 80 oC < T < 120 oC. NOT warm. conditions
(ii)

H2N

CO2H

[1]
[1]

CO2H

and
NH2

HO2C

(if a structural formula, it must have all H atoms) allow protonated or deprotonated
versions
[1] + [1]
[max 3]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

(d) (i) NH3+CH(CH3)CO2

Paper
43
[1]

(ii)
compound
H 2N

zwitterion

CO2H

H3N

CO2

OH

NH2CH3

NHCH3

HO

SO2

NH2

NH3
SO2

[3]
[4]
(e) (i) A buffer is a solution whose pH stays fairly constant or which maintains roughly the
same pH or which resists/minimises changes in pH
[1]
when small/moderate amounts of acid/H+ or alkali/OH are added
[1]
(ii) NH2CH(CH3)CO2H + H(Cl) +NH3CH(CH3)CO2H (+ Cl )

[1]

(iii) blood contain HCO3 (or in an equation)


which absorbs H+ or equn
H+ + HCO3 H2CO3 (H2O + CO2)
or absorbs OH
or equn
OH + HCO3 CO32 + H2O

[1]

(iv) [CH3CO2Na] = 0.05 [CH3CO2H] = 0.075


pH = 4.76 + log (0.05/0.075) = 4.58 or 4.6

[1]
[1]
[1]
[7]
[Total: 19]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) Ca(NO3)2 CaO + 2NO2 + O2

Paper
43
[1]
[1]

(b) (down the group) nitrates become more stable or require a higher temperature to
decompose
[1]
as size/radius of (cat)ion increases or charge density of ion decreases
[1]
so polarisation/distortion of anion/nitrate decreases
[1]
[3]
(c) (i) Li2CO3 Li2O + CO2

[1]

(ii) radius of Li ion/Li+ is less than that of Na ion/Na+ (or polarising power of M+ is greater) [1]
(iii) Brown/orange fumes/gas would be evolved or glowing splint relights
[1]
Since the nitrate is likely to be thermally unstable or decomposes (just like the
carbonate) or the balanced equation: 2LiNO3 Li2O + 2NO2 + O2
[1]
[4]
[Total: 8]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 7
5

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) Alkanes are non-polar or have no dipole or CH bonds are strong


or C and H have similar electronegativities

[1]
[1]

(b) (i) (free) radical substitution or substitution by homolytic fission


(ii) initiation:
propagation:
termination:

Cl2 2Cl
Cl + C2H6 C2H5 + HCl
C2H5 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + Cl
C2H5 + Cl C2H5Cl
or Cl + Cl Cl2 etc

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
all 3 names [1]

(iii)
structural formula of by-product

formed by

CH2ClCH2Cl (or isomer)

further substitution

CH3CH2CH2CH3

(termination of 2 ) C2H5

CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl (or isomer)

substitution of C4H10 by-product

[3]
accept in the formed by column the formulae of radicals that will produce the
compound in the by-product column, or the reagents, e.g. C4H9 + Cl2 or C4H9 + Cl or
C4H10 + Cl2 (giving CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl).
do not allow anything more Clsubstituted than dichlorobutane.
N.B. C2H5Cl is the major product, not a by-product, so do not allow C2H5Cl.
(iv) J/K = 2.3 : 1 or 7:3 or 21:9
[2]
(reason: straightforward relative rate suggests 21:1, but there are 9 primary to 1 tertiary,
so divide this ratio by 9. 21/9 = 2.33)
allow [1] mark if J/K ratio is given as 21:1;
[10]
(c)
Cl

Cl

Cl

2 chiral atoms identified correctly, even in incorrect structures

Cl

4 isomers 4 [1]
[1] + [1]
[max 5]
[Total: 16]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 8
6

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) K, because it is the (only) one to contain nitrogen or its an amino acid
or because it contains CO2H or NH groups
(ii)
or

molecule: J,
molecule: L,

[1]

polymer: RNA (not DNA)


polymer: starch, cellulose, glycogen or polysaccharide
(not carbohydrate)

[1]
[2]

(b) (i) Covalent bonding

[1]

(ii) Hydrogen bonding

[1]

(iii) Ionic/electrovalent bonding or disulphide/SS bonding or van der Waals forces

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) Enzymes

[1]

(ii) change in pH
increase in T (NOT decrease; T > 40 oC or too high are OK)
addition of heavy metal ions or specific, e.g. Hg2+, Ag+. Pb2+ etc.
any two bullet points [1] + [1]
change in pH disrupts ionic bonds
or metal ions disrupt ionic bonds
or metal ions disrupt SS bonds
or heating disrupts hydrogen bonds
any one [1]
This changes: the 3D structure or shape of the enzyme or the active site

[1]
[max 4]
[Total: 9]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)
structural information

analytical technique

three-dimensional
arrangement of atoms and
bonds in a molecule

X-ray crystallography/diffraction

chemical environment of
protons in a molecule

NMR (spectroscopy) only

identity of amino acids


present in a polypeptide

Electrophoresis / chromatography /
mass spectrometry
[1] + [1] + [1]
[3]

(b) (i) paper chromatography;


The components partition between the solvent/moving phase and the water/liquid
stationary phase or separation relies on different solubilities (of components) in the
moving solvent and the stationary water phase.
[1]
(ii) thin-layer chromatography.
Separation depends on the differential adsorption of the components onto the solid
particles/phase or Al2O3 or SiO2.
[1]
[2]

(c) (i) No. of carbon atoms present =

0.2 100
= 3.08 hence 3 carbons
5.9 1.1

(ii) Bromine

[1]
[1]

(iii) One bromine is present as there is only an M+2 peak / no M+4 peak or the M and M+2
peaks are of similar height
[1]
(iv) NMR spectrum shows a single hydrogen split by many adjacent protons and 6 protons in
an identical chemical environment. This suggests...
two CH3 groups and a lone proton attached to the central carbon atom
[1]
Empirical formula of N is C3H7Br

[1]

Hence N is (CH3)2CHBr or
H
CH3

CH3

Br

[1]
[6]
[Total: 11]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme: Teachers version


GCE A LEVEL October/November 2011

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) Soluble form would be most effective


(ii) Q, since the mini-pills/granules/powder have a larger surface area
or P, because it has no protective casing

Paper
43
[1]
[1]

(iii) The gel coat stops it being broken down while passing through the upper part of the
digestive system/stomach
or the gel coat is stable to stomach acid.
[1]
[3]
(b) The drug is taken quickly/directly to the target
or more accurate dosing can be achieved

[1]

When the drug is taken by mouth it has to pass through the stomach/intestine wall to get into
the bloodstream. or some is digested/lost to the system
[1]
[2]
(c) (i) condensation (polymerisation)
(ii) hydrogen bonds or van der Waals
(iii) It would change the overall shape of the (drug) molecule
The fit into the active site would be less effective
(iv) Hydrolysis

[1]
[1]
[1] + [1]
[1]
[5]
[Total: 10]

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2012 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2012 series for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level
components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) SiCl4: white solid or white/steamy fumes

[1]

SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl

[1]

PCl5: fizzes or white/steamy fumes


PCl5 + 4H2O H3PO4 + 5HCl

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

[1]

(ii) 5 : 1
(iii) n(MnO4) = 0.02 15/1000 = 3 104 (mol)

[1]

(iv) n(Fe2+) = 5 3 104 = 1.5 103 (mol) ecf from (i) or (ii)

[1]

(v) [Fe2+] = 1.5 103 1000/2.5 = 0.6 (mol dm3) ecf from (iv)

[1]

(vi) In the original solution, there was 0.15 mol of Fe3+ in 100 cm3.
In the partially-used solution, there is 0.06 mol of Fe2+ in 100 cm3.
So remaining Fe3+ = 0.15 0.06 = 0.09 mol. ecf from (v)

[1]

This can react with 0.045 mol of Cu, which = 0.045 63.5 = 2.86 g of copper. ecf

[1]
[6]

(c) bonds broken are Si-Si and Cl-Cl = 222 + 244 = 466 kJ mol1
bonds formed are 2 Si-Cl = 2 359 = 718 kJ mol1
H = 252 kJ mol1

[2]
[2]

(d) (i) Ca2Si + 6H2O 2Ca(OH)2 + SiO2 + 4H2


(ii) silcon has been oxidised AND hydrogen has been reduced

[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) A = CuSO4


B = silver

[1]
[1]

(ii) salt bridge


voltmeter

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) 0.80 0.34 = (+) 0.46 V

[1]

(ii) If Ecell = 0.17, this is 0.29 V less than the standard Eo,
so EAg electrode must = 0.80 0.29 = 0.51 V

[1]

(iii) 0.51 = 0.80 + 0.06log [Ag+], so [Ag+] = 10(0.29/0.06) = 1.47 x 105 mol dm3 ecf from (ii)

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) Ksp = [Ag+]2[SO42]


units = mol3 dm9 ecf on Ksp
(ii) [SO42] = [Ag+]/2 Ksp = (1.6 102)2 0.8 102 = 2.05 106 (mol3 dm9)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(d) AgCl
AgBr
AgI

white
cream
yellow

[1]
[1]
[1]

Solubility decreases down the group

[1]
[4]

(e) solubility decreases down the group


as M2+/ionic radius increases
both lattice energy and hydration(solvation) energy to decrease
enthalpy change of solution becomes more endothermic

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]
[Total: 18]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) heterogeneous: different states AND homogeneous: same state

[1]

(ii) the correct allocation of the terms heterogeneous and homogeneous to common
catalysts

[1]

example of heterogeneous, e.g. Fe (in the Haber process) linked to correct system
equation, e.g. N2 + 3H2 2NH3

[1]
[1]

how catalyst works, adsorption (onto the surface)


ecf for non-iron catalyst

[1]

example of homogeneous, e.g. Fe3+ or Fe2+ (in S2O82 + I) linked to correct system

[1]

equation, e.g. S2O82 + 2I 2SO42 + I2

[1]

how catalyst works, e.g. Fe3+ + I Fe2+ + I2


ecf for non-iron catalyst

[1]
[8]

(b)

[2]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) K2Cr2O7 + H+ + heat under reflux

[1]

(b) nucleophilic substitution

[1]

(c) heat under reflux + aqueous HCl

[1]

(d) alkene

[1]

(e) amide or ester

[1]
[5]

(f)

OH
CONH

H3C
CH3

OCH 3

capsaicin
CO 2H

H3C
CH3

C (cis/trans)
CH3

HO 2C

CO 2H

CO 2H

H3C

D
NC

CN (-1 for CN- bond attachment)

F
alternative structure for capsaicin
COO

H3C
CH3

H3CO

NH2

ecf 5 [1]
[5]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) phenol
ketone

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b)
reagent

observation

structure of product

type of reaction

sodium
metal

effervescence
/bubbles/fizzing

redox
O

aqueous
bromine

Br

decolourises
or white ppt.

electrophilic
substitution

HO
Br

CO 2Na

aqueous
alkaline
iodine

yellow ppt.

oxidation
HO

[2]
[8]
(c) (i)
SO 3H

H2N

N2

SO 3H

K
[1] + [1]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

(ii) step 1: NaNO2 + HCl or HNO2

Paper
41
[1]

at T < 10C

[1]

step 2: (add K to a solution of G) in aqueous NaOH

[1]
[5]

(d)

SOCl2/PCl5
/PCl3 + heat
add to G (in NaOH(aq))
(CH3CH2CO2H) CH3CH2COCl L
[1]
[1]
[1]
ecf from CH3COOH

[3]
[Total: 18]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

Section B
6

(a)
bonding

structure involved

disulfide bonds between parts of the chain

tertiary

hydrogen bonds in a -pleated sheet

secondary

ionic bonds between parts of the chain

tertiary

peptide links between amino acids

primary

zero/one correct only [0], two correct only [1], three correct only [2] all four correct [3]
[3]
(b) labelled diagrams such as:

Competitive any two from:


complementary shape to substrate / able to bind to active site of enzyme
so preventing the substrate from binding / able to compete with substrate
can be overcome by increasing [substrate]

2 [1]

Non-competitive: any two from:


binds elsewhere in the enzyme than active site / at an allosteric site
this changes the shape of the active site
cannot be removed by increasing [substrate]

2 [1]
[4]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 9

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

(c)
phosphate

phosphate

II

III
C

sugar
phosphate

Paper
41

sugar

sugar
phosphate

Syllabus
9701

phosphate

sugar

phosphate

A and C and other strand correct


H-bonds labelled
adenine AND cytosine

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) Electrophoresis

[1]

(ii) Using a restriction enzyme.

[1]

(iii) The phosphate group.

[1]
[3]

(b) (i) X labelled correctly on diagram.


(ii) Suspect 2 AND matches crime scene 1 or matches at least one crime scene.

[1]
[1]
[2]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 10

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

(c) P is CH3CO2CH2CH3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
[1]

any four of:


3 different (proton) environments
(M and M+1 data shows no of carbons present is) (100 0.22)/(1.1 5.1) = 4 carbons
the NMR spectrum shows 8 hydrogens leaving 32 mass unit or 2 oxygen or
Mr = 88 and (molecular formula is) C4H8O2
4 peaks/quartet (at 4.1) shows an adjacent 3H/CH3
3 peaks/triplet (at 1.3) shows an adjacent 2H/CH2
(peak at) 2.0/singlet shows CH3CO (group)
(peak at) 4.1/quartet and 1.3/triplet shows presence of ethyl/CH3CH2 (group)
4 [1]
[5]
[Total: 10]
8

(a) (i) It could denature the enzyme or


alter the 3D structure/tertiary structure/shape of active site.
(ii) condensation

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b)

[1]
[1]
(c) (i) (Acid present would) hydrolyse the ester (linkage)
(ii) (Hot water would) soften (the container)

[1]
[1]
[2]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 11

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(d) (i)

ester linkage shown


rest of repeat unit correct (ONE)
(ii) van der Waals from CH3/methyl group
permanent dipole-dipole from ester group

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii) Accept any sensible physical property suggestion e.g. different melting point or different
density or different solubility.
[1]
[5]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2012 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2012 series for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level
components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) SiCl4: white solid or white/steamy fumes

[1]

SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl

[1]

PCl5: fizzes or white/steamy fumes


PCl5 + 4H2O H3PO4 + 5HCl

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) MnO4 + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

[1]

(ii) 5 : 1
(iii) n(MnO4) = 0.02 15/1000 = 3 104 (mol)

[1]

(iv) n(Fe2+) = 5 3 104 = 1.5 103 (mol) ecf from (i) or (ii)

[1]

(v) [Fe2+] = 1.5 103 1000/2.5 = 0.6 (mol dm3) ecf from (iv)

[1]

(vi) In the original solution, there was 0.15 mol of Fe3+ in 100 cm3.
In the partially-used solution, there is 0.06 mol of Fe2+ in 100 cm3.
So remaining Fe3+ = 0.15 0.06 = 0.09 mol. ecf from (v)

[1]

This can react with 0.045 mol of Cu, which = 0.045 63.5 = 2.86 g of copper. ecf

[1]
[6]

(c) bonds broken are Si-Si and Cl-Cl = 222 + 244 = 466 kJ mol1
bonds formed are 2 Si-Cl = 2 359 = 718 kJ mol1
H = 252 kJ mol1

[2]
[2]

(d) (i) Ca2Si + 6H2O 2Ca(OH)2 + SiO2 + 4H2


(ii) silcon has been oxidised AND hydrogen has been reduced

[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) A = CuSO4


B = silver

[1]
[1]

(ii) salt bridge


voltmeter

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) 0.80 0.34 = (+) 0.46 V

[1]

(ii) If Ecell = 0.17, this is 0.29 V less than the standard Eo,
so EAg electrode must = 0.80 0.29 = 0.51 V

[1]

(iii) 0.51 = 0.80 + 0.06log [Ag+], so [Ag+] = 10(0.29/0.06) = 1.47 x 105 mol dm3 ecf from (ii)

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) Ksp = [Ag+]2[SO42]


units = mol3 dm9 ecf on Ksp
(ii) [SO42] = [Ag+]/2 Ksp = (1.6 102)2 0.8 102 = 2.05 106 (mol3 dm9)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(d) AgCl
AgBr
AgI

white
cream
yellow

[1]
[1]
[1]

Solubility decreases down the group

[1]
[4]

(e) solubility decreases down the group


as M2+/ionic radius increases
both lattice energy and hydration(solvation) energy to decrease
enthalpy change of solution becomes more endothermic

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[4]
[Total: 18]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) heterogeneous: different states AND homogeneous: same state

[1]

(ii) the correct allocation of the terms heterogeneous and homogeneous to common
catalysts

[1]

example of heterogeneous, e.g. Fe (in the Haber process) linked to correct system
equation, e.g. N2 + 3H2 2NH3

[1]
[1]

how catalyst works, adsorption (onto the surface)


ecf for non-iron catalyst

[1]

example of homogeneous, e.g. Fe3+ or Fe2+ (in S2O82 + I) linked to correct system

[1]

equation, e.g. S2O82 + 2I 2SO42 + I2

[1]

how catalyst works, e.g. Fe3+ + I Fe2+ + I2


ecf for non-iron catalyst

[1]
[8]

(b)

[2]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) K2Cr2O7 + H+ + heat under reflux

[1]

(b) nucleophilic substitution

[1]

(c) heat under reflux + aqueous HCl

[1]

(d) alkene

[1]

(e) amide or ester

[1]
[5]

(f)

OH
CONH

H3C
CH3

OCH 3

capsaicin
CO 2H

H3C
CH3

C (cis/trans)
CH3

HO 2C

CO 2H

CO 2H

H3C

D
NC

CN (-1 for CN- bond attachment)

F
alternative structure for capsaicin
COO

H3C
CH3

H3CO

NH2

ecf 5 [1]
[5]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) phenol
ketone

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b)
reagent

observation

structure of product

type of reaction

sodium
metal

effervescence
/bubbles/fizzing

redox
O

aqueous
bromine

Br

decolourises
or white ppt.

electrophilic
substitution

HO
Br

CO 2Na

aqueous
alkaline
iodine

yellow ppt.

oxidation
HO

[2]
[8]
(c) (i)
SO 3H

H2N

N2

SO 3H

K
[1] + [1]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

(ii) step 1: NaNO2 + HCl or HNO2

Paper
42
[1]

at T < 10C

[1]

step 2: (add K to a solution of G) in aqueous NaOH

[1]
[5]

(d)

SOCl2/PCl5
/PCl3 + heat
add to G (in NaOH(aq))
(CH3CH2CO2H) CH3CH2COCl L
[1]
[1]
[1]
ecf from CH3COOH

[3]
[Total: 18]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Section B
6

(a)
bonding

structure involved

disulfide bonds between parts of the chain

tertiary

hydrogen bonds in a -pleated sheet

secondary

ionic bonds between parts of the chain

tertiary

peptide links between amino acids

primary

zero/one correct only [0], two correct only [1], three correct only [2] all four correct [3]
[3]
(b) labelled diagrams such as:

Competitive any two from:


complementary shape to substrate / able to bind to active site of enzyme
so preventing the substrate from binding / able to compete with substrate
can be overcome by increasing [substrate]

2 [1]

Non-competitive: any two from:


binds elsewhere in the enzyme than active site / at an allosteric site
this changes the shape of the active site
cannot be removed by increasing [substrate]

2 [1]
[4]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 9

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

(c)
phosphate

phosphate

II

III
C

sugar
phosphate

Paper
42

sugar

sugar
phosphate

Syllabus
9701

phosphate

sugar

phosphate

A and C and other strand correct


H-bonds labelled
adenine AND cytosine

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]
[Total: 10]

(a) (i) Electrophoresis

[1]

(ii) Using a restriction enzyme.

[1]

(iii) The phosphate group.

[1]
[3]

(b) (i) X labelled correctly on diagram.


(ii) Suspect 2 AND matches crime scene 1 or matches at least one crime scene.

[1]
[1]
[2]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 10

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

(c) P is CH3CO2CH2CH3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42
[1]

any four of:


3 different (proton) environments
(M and M+1 data shows no of carbons present is) (100 0.22)/(1.1 5.1) = 4 carbons
the NMR spectrum shows 8 hydrogens leaving 32 mass unit or 2 oxygen or
Mr = 88 and (molecular formula is) C4H8O2
4 peaks/quartet (at 4.1) shows an adjacent 3H/CH3
3 peaks/triplet (at 1.3) shows an adjacent 2H/CH2
(peak at) 2.0/singlet shows CH3CO (group)
(peak at) 4.1/quartet and 1.3/triplet shows presence of ethyl/CH3CH2 (group)
4 [1]
[5]
[Total: 10]
8

(a) (i) It could denature the enzyme or


alter the 3D structure/tertiary structure/shape of active site.
(ii) condensation

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b)

[1]
[1]
(c) (i) (Acid present would) hydrolyse the ester (linkage)
(ii) (Hot water would) soften (the container)

[1]
[1]
[2]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 11

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(d) (i)

ester linkage shown


rest of repeat unit correct (ONE)
(ii) van der Waals from CH3/methyl group
permanent dipole-dipole from ester group

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii) Accept any sensible physical property suggestion e.g. different melting point or different
density or different solubility.
[1]
[5]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2012 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2012 series for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level
components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) MgCl2: forms a (colourless) solution or dissolves.


AlCl3:

or

[1]

produces a white ppt or steamy fumes

[1]

2AlCl3 (or Al2Cl6) + 3H2O Al2O3 + 6HCl


(or AlCl3 + 3H2O Al(OH)3 + 3HCl)

[1]

forms a (colourless) solution or dissolves

[1]

AlCl3 + 6H2O [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+ + H+ + 3Cl

[1]

SiCl4: produces a white ppt or steamy fumes

[1]

SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl


(or balanced equation giving H2SiO3 or Si(OH)4)

[1]
[Total: 5]

(b) (i) n(NaCl) = 1.10/58.5 = 1.88 102 mol


n(KCl) = 0.90/74.6 = 1.21 102 mol

[1]
[1]

total n(Cl) = 3.08 or 3.09 or 3.1 102 mol [2 or more sig. figs.] allow ecf
(ii) Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq) AgCl(s)

[1]

(iii) moles sampled for the titration = 3.09 102 10/1000 = 3.09 104 mol ecf

[1]

this equals n(Ag+), so vol of AgNO3 = 3.09 104 1000/0.02 = 15.5 cm3 ecf

[1]
[Total: 5]

(c) (i) bonds broken are CH and II


)
bonds formed are CI and HI =
H =

= 410 + 151 = 561 kJ mol1 (all bonds = 5731 kJ mol


240 + 299 = 539 kJ mol1 (all bonds = 5709 kJ mol1)
+22 kJ mol1
[2]

(ii) 4 HI + 2 HNO3 2 I2 + N2O3 + 3 H2O (or double)


N: (is reduced from) 5 to 3
I: (is oxidised from) 1 to 0

[1]

[1]
[Total: 4]
[TOTAL: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) catalyst: any two from the following three bullets for [1] mark:
speeds up/increases (NOT alters or changes) the rate of a reaction
lowers energy barrier/Eact or offers a lower energy pathway
is not used up or remains unchanged or does not alter its mass/concentration
or does not appear in stoichiometric equation or is regenerated
homogeneous: (catalyst and reactants) in the same phase/state

[1]
[1]
[Total: 2]

(b) (i) e.g. car exhausts/engines or aeroplanes or lightning or burning fuels or power stations
[1]
nitrogen reacts with oxygen or N2 + O2

[1]

(ii) NO2 + SO2 NO + SO3


NO + O2 NO2
SO3 + H2O H2SO4
4NO2 + 2H2O + O2 4HNO3 or 3NO2 + H2O 2HNO3 + NO (any 3 equations) 3 [1]
[Total: 5]
(c)

H shown as negative
both Ea labelled and correct i.e. for the forward reaction
Ea(cat) < Ea(uncat)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 3]
[TOTAL: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 4
3

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (1s22s22p6)3s23p63d9

[1]
[Total: 1]

(b) (i) electron / orbitals near ligands are at a higher energy


due to repulsion from ligand lone pairs

[1]
[1]

(ii) when an electron moves to higher orbital / energy level or is promoted


it absorbs a photon or light (mention of light being emitted negates this mark)

[1]
[1]

(iii) (different ligands produce) different (sizes of) energy gap or E

[1]
[Total: 5]

(c)
V

salt
bridge
Pt
Cu
Fe3+ + Fe2+

Cu2+

solutions at 1 mol dm3 (1 M) and 298(K)/25C


salt bridge and voltmeter
platinum/carbon/graphite electrode
(this mark is negated by inclusion of H2 around the electrode)
copper electrode
Fe3+/Fe2+ mixture and Cu2+ or CuSO4 etc

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[Total: 5]

(d) Parts (i) (iii) have to correspond to each other.


either

or

(i)

ligand
exchange/substitution/displacement/replacement

precipitation/acid-base/deprotonation

(ii)

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(H2O)2(NH3)4]2+ + 4H2O


or [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 6H2O
or [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + nNH3 [Cu(H2O)6n(NH3)n]2+ +
nH2O

Cu2+ + 2NH3 + 2H2O Cu(OH)2 + 2NH4+


or Cu2+ + 2NH4OH Cu(OH)2 + 2NH4+
or [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 2NH3 [Cu(H2O)4(OH)2]
+ 2NH4+

(iii)

turns purple or deep/dark/royal blue

forms a pale blue ppt


[1] + [1] + [1]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(iv) Eo will decrease/ be less positive/more negative...


...because [Cu2+] decreases or Cu2+ + 2e  Cu shifts to the LHS or
Eo [Cu(NH3)4]2+ = 0.05V or [Cu(NH3)4]2+ is more stable.

[1]
[Total: 4]

(e) (i) aldehyde

[1]

(ii) red ppt./solid


(iii)

[1]

2Cu2+ + CH3CHO + 5OH Cu2O + CH3CO2 + 3H2O

[1]
[Total: 3]

(f) pH = pKa + log [salt]/[acid] = log(9.3 104) + log (0.8/0.5)


= 3.032 + 0.204 = 3.23/3.24 (3 or more sig. figs.)

[2]
[Total: 2]
[TOTAL: 20]

(a) (i) ketone/carbonyl [NOT aldehyde]

[1]

(ii) carboxylic acid (name of group needed. NOT 'carboxyl')

[1]
[Total: 2]

(b) (i) (allow structural, displayed or skeletal formulae in (b), (c) and (e))
OH

OH
HO2C

CO2H

OH

OH
NC

H3CO
CN
HO

[1] + [1] + [1]

(ii) heat/reflux/boil/hot/T>60C in H3O+ or aqueous/dilute H+/HCl/H2SO4 (NOT HNO3)

[1]

[Total: 4]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(c) (i) reduction/redox (allow nucleophilic addition or hydrogenation, as appropriate from (ii)) [1]
(ii) NaBH4 or LiAlH4 or H2 + Ni/Pt or Na + ethanol
(iii)

HO2C

[1]
CO2H

[1]
[Total: 3]

(d) (i) alkene/C=C/C-C double bond

[1]

(ii) phenol and alkene/C=C/C-C double bond

[1]
[Total: 2]

(e)
O

H3CO

OCH3

HO

curcumin

OH

allow

complete formula

[2]
[Total: 2]
[TOTAL: 13]

(a) (i) contains a lone pair on N (that can react with H+)
(ii) e.g. C2H5NH2 + H(Cl) C2H5NH3+ (Cl)
or C2H5NH2 + H3O+ C2H5NH3+ + H2O
or C2H5NH2 + H2O C2H5NH3+ + OH etc
e.g. C2H5NH2 + CH3Br C2H5NHCH3 + HBr
or C2H5NH2 + CH3COCl CH3CONHC2H5 + HCl

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

[1]
[1]

[1]

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(iii) the lone pair (on N) in phenylamine overlaps with ring or is delocalised
electron density of N is reduced or N becomes more positive or lone pair is less
available

[1]
[1]

(iv)

N
H
N

ClCH3

Cl-

[1] + [1]
[7 max 6]
(b) (i) NaNO2 + HCl/H+ or HNO2 (HNO3 or NO3 negates this mark)
10 oC < T Y 10 oC or 'less than 10 oC'

[1]
[1]

(ii) alizarin yellow R:


CO2H
O2N

NH2

or
but NOT

and

OH

N N
N N
N2

[1] + [1]
methyl orange:
(CH3)2N

and

H2 N

SO3Na

(NH2 alternatives as above)

[1] + [1]
(iii) makes the molecule (more) hydrophilic/soluble in water (due to H-bonding or ionic
solvation)
or increases its melting point

[1]

[Total: 7]
[TOTAL: 13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 8
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) It has no chiral centre/asymmetric carbon/optical isomers or is not optically active

[1]
[Total: 1]

(b) (i) structure -helix or -(pleated) sheet

[1]

hydrogen (bonding) (for either)

[1]

(ii) any two pairs from the following:


bonding

possible amino acid

van der Waals

ala, gly, leu, ile, val, pro, phe, try, met

ionic

asp, arg, glu, his, lys

disulfide bond

cysteine

hydrogen bond

asn, asp, arg, gln, glu, his, lys, ser, thr, try, tyr

[1] + [1]

[1 ] + [1]

(candidates can identify amino acids by name, three-letter abbreviation, formula of sidechain
or formula of whole amino acid)
[Total: 6]
(c) (globular proteins/enzymes need) polar/H-bonding/ionic (side chains) so as to....
....enhance their solubility or as part of their active site or to help their catalytic activity

[1]

[Total: 1]
(d) (i) A T
CG

[1]
[1]

(ii) (start or met) gly ser leu ala ser (stop)


If an amino acid is shown before gly, then it must be met.
correct sequence of the 5 in bold

[2]

(iii) leu would be replaced by val

[1]
[Total: 5]
[TOTAL: 13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 9
7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) No. of carbon atoms present in J is 100 1.3 = 5 carbons (must show working)
1.1 x 23.5
(NMR spectrum shows) 10 H (atoms present) (no reasoning need be shown)

[1]
[1]

(ii) Oxygen or O2 or O

[1]

(iii) J is (CH3CH2)2C=O

[1]

any one from:


quartet/4 peaks (at 2.5) shows an adjacent CH3 or 3 adjacent H
triplet/3 peaks (at 1.1) shows an adjacent CH2 or 2 adjacent H
two (chemical/hydrogen) environments
pair of peaks in ratio 6 :4 are (two) ethyl groups or the triplet + quartet shows an ethyl
group
2.5 implies there's a CH2 next to C=O
[1]
[Total: 5]
(b) (i)
technique

physical method

paper chromatography

partition

thin-layer chromatography

adsorption

gas-liquid chromatography

partition
[2]

(ii) 4

[1]

(iii)

correct spot circled


(iv) 3

[1]
[1]
[Total: 5]
[TOTAL: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

Page 10
8

(a) A

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2012

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

monomers: H2N(CH2)6NH2 and HO2C(CH2)4CO2H or ClCO(CH2)4COCl

[1]

Condensation or nucleophilic substitution or addition-elimination

[1]

monomer: H2C=CHCH3

[1]

Addition (NOT additional)

[1]

monomer: H2N(CH2)5CO2H or H2N(CH2)5COCl or

[1]

Condensation

[1]
[max 5]

(b) (i) Need a statement from both columns for [1] mark.
(a)

(b)

more compact packing in A


chains closer in A
chains further apart in B

stronger (inter-chain) forces in A


hydrogen bonding in A
weaker (inter-chain) or van der Waals' forces in B
B contains side-chain/branched chains
[1]

(ii) Polymer B van der Waals/London (dispersion) forces/induced-instantaneous/induced


dipoles
NOT just 'dipole'
[1]
[Total: 2]
[TOTAL: 7]

Cambridge International Examinations 2012

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2013 series for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level
components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a)

8 e- around chlorine
1 Helectron (+) on the Cl - ion
3 covalent (ox) and one dative (oo) around N

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (i) it would react (with H2SO4)

[1]

(ii) CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

[1]

(iii) CaO absorbs more water or CaO has greater affinity for water

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) 2Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

[1]

(ii) (Down the group, the nitrates)


become more stable/stability increases

[1]

because the size/radius of ion (M2+) increases

[1]

thus causing less polarisation/distortion


of the anion/NO3-/N-O bond

[1]
[4]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

(a) (i) Si-Si bonds are weaker (than C-C bonds)


(ii) metallic (Sn) is weaker than (giant) covalent (Ge)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) (i) SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl


or SiCl4 + 4H20 Si(OH)4 + 4HCl
or SiCl4 + 3H20 H2SiO3 + 4HCl
(partial hydrolysis is not sufficient e.g. to SiCl3OH + HCl)

[1]

(ii) PbCl4 PbCl2 + Cl2

[1]

(iii) SnCl2 + 2FeCl3 SnCl4 + 2FeCl2

[1]

(iv) SnO2 + 2NaOH Na2SnO3 + H2O


or SnO2 + 2NaOH + 2H2O Na2Sn(OH)6
or ionic equation SnO2 + 2OH- SnO32- + H2O

[1]
[4]
[Total: 6]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) NH3 + HZ NH4+ + ZCH3OH + HZ CH3OH2+ + Z-

[1]
[1]

(ii) NH3 + B- NH2- + BH


CH3OH + B- CH3O- + BH

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) a reaction that can go in either direction

[1]

(ii) rate of forward = rate of backward reaction


or forward/back reactions occurring but concentrations of all species do not change

[1]
[2]

(c) (i) a solution that resists changes in pH

[1]

when small quantities of acid or base/alkali are added

[1]

(ii) in the equilibrium system HZ + H2O  Z- + H3O+

[1]

addition of acid: reaction moves to the left


or H+ combines with Z- and forms HZ

[1]

addition of base: the reaction moves to the right


or H+ combines with OH- and more Z- formed

[1]
[5 max 4]

(d) (i) [H+] = (0.5 1.34 10-5) = 2.59 10-3 (mol dm-3)
pH = 2.59/2.6 (min 1 d.p)

[1]
ecf

[1]

(ii) CH3CH2CO2H + NaOH CH3CH2CO2Na + H2O

[1]

(iii) n(acid) in 100 cm3 = 0.5 100/1000 = 0.05 mol


n(acid) remaining = 0.05 0.03 = 0.02 mol
[acid remaining] = 0.2 (mol dm-3)

[1]

likewise, n(salt) = 0.03 mol


[salt] + 0.3 (mol dm-3)
(iv) pH = 4.87 + log(0.3/0.2) = 5.045.05

[1]
ecf

[1]
[6]

(e) G is CH3CH2COCl
H is SOCl2 or PCl5
J is NaCl
(or corresponding Br compounds for G, H and J; CH3CH2COBr, SOBr2, NaBr)

[2]
[Total: 18]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (the energy change) when 1 mol of bonds


is broken in the gas phase

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) (i) (C-X bond energy) decreases/becomes weaker (from F to I)

[1]

due to bond becoming longer/not such efficient orbital overlap

[1]

(ii) (as the bond energy of C-X decreases) the halogenalkanes become more reactive
(answer must imply that it is from F to I)

[1]
[3]

(c) The C-Cl bond is weaker than the C-F and C-H bonds
or C-Cl bond (E = 340) and C-H (E = 410)

[1]

so is (easily) broken to form Cl /Cl radicals/Cl atoms


causing the breakdown of O3 into O2

[1]
[1]
[3]

(d) Cl-CH2CH2-CO2H
HO-CH2CH2CH2-Cl

[1]
[1]

OH

Br

[1]
[3]
(e) (i) light/UV/h or 300C

[1]

(ii) (free) radical substitution

[1]

(iii) H = E(C-H) E(H-Cl) = 410 431 = 21 kJ mol-1

[1]

(iv) H = E(C-H) E(H-I) = 410 299 = +111 kJ mol-1

ecf

[1]

(v) The reaction with iodine is endothermic or H is positive or requires energy

[1]

(vi) Cl2 2Cl


CH3CH2 + Cl2 CH3CH2Cl + Cl
CH3CH2 + Cl CH3CH2Cl

[1]
[1]
[1]
[8]
[Total: 19]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) many monomers form a polymer

Paper
41
[1]

(ii) addition

[1]

(iii) C=C/double/ bond is broken and new C-C single bonds are formed
or double bond breaks and forms single bonds with other monomers

[1]
[3]

(b) propenoic acid

[1]
[1]

(c) (i)

carbon chain and CO2H


at least one sodium salt

(ii) 120 to 109(.5)


due to the change from a trigonal/sp2 carbon to a tetrahedral/sp3 carbon

[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]
[4]

(d) (i)

Any four:
hydrogen bond labelled
water H-bonded to O through H atom
+/- shown on each end of a H-bond
lone pair shown on O- or C=O or H2O on a correct H-bond
Na+ shown as coordinated to a water molecule
(ii) Solution became paler and Cu(2+) swapped with Na(+)
or darker in colour and polymer absorbs water

[3]
[1]
[4]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

(e) (i) alkene(1), amide(1)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
[2]

(ii) NH3

[1]

(iii) H2O

[1]

(iv) HCl (aq)/H3O+ and heat/reflux (not warm)


or OH- (aq), heat and acidify

[1]
[5]
[Total: 17]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

Section B
6

(a) (i) six/6 (gsv, sgv, gvs, vgs, svg,vsg)

[1]

(ii)

two displayed peptide bonds


correct formula of peptide
(iii) valine (allow glycine)
(iv) any two of:
hydrogen bonds and CO2H or OH or NH2 or CONH or CO or NH or CO2ionic bonds and NH3+ or CO2
van der Waals and CH3 or H

[1]
[1]
[1]

2 [1]
[6]

(b) (i) same shape/structure as substrate


(inhibitor) competes/blocks/binds/bonds to active site
or substrate cannot bind to active site
(ii) binds with enzyme and changes shape/3D structure (of enzyme/active site)

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii)

[1]
[4]
[Total: 10]
Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Pa
age
e9
7

Ma
ark
k Sch
S hem
me
e
GCE
E A LEV
VEL
L Octo
O ob
ber//No
ove
em
mbe
er 2
201
13

Syllab
bus
s
97
701
1

Pa
ape
er
4
41

(
(a)

pow
p
werr su
upp
ply
y (id
dea
a of
o com
c mpllete
e circ
c uit)
e ctro
elec
oly
yte//bu
uffe
er solu
s utio
on
g /filtter pa
gel/
ape
er/a
abs
sorrbent pa
ape
er
(am
mino
o acid
a d) sam
s mp
ple//miixtu
ure
e [c
cen
ntre
e off plate
e]

4 [1]
4]
[4

( ) a
(b)
anyy tw
wo fro
om::
s e/M
size
Mr (of
( the
ea
amiino
o ac
cid sp
pec
cies
s)
c arge
cha
e (on the a
am
mino
o acid
a d specie
es)
te
em
mpe
eraturre

2 [1]
2]
[2

(
(c)
Rattio of the
R
e con
c nce
entrratiion
n off a so
olutte in e
eac
ch of two
o (immis
sciible
e) ssolvents
s
o e
or
equ
uilib
briu
um
m co
ons
sta
ant rep
pre
ese
enting
g th
he dis
strib
buttion
no
of a so
olu
ute be
etw
wee
en two
t o solv
ven
nts
o P
or
PC = [X]]a/[X
X]b (a
at a consta
ant temp
perratu
ure
e)

[1]
[1]

( ) (i)
(d)
(
Kpc = [Z
Z in e
ether]]/[Z
Z in
n H2O]
O allow
w reve
ers
se rattio
40
0 = (x
x/0.05
5)/(((4
x))/0.5))
= 3.2 g
(ii) Firstt ex
xtrracttion
n
40
0 = (x
x/0.02
25))/((4
4x
x)//0.5
5)
x = 2.6
2 67 g

[1]
e f
ecf

[1]

e f
ecf

[1]

e f
ecf

[1]

(iii) Sec
cond ext
e trac
ctio
on: 1.33
3g rem
r maiin in
i ssolutio
on
Sec
cond ext
e trac
ctio
on
40
0 = (y
y/0.02
25))/((1.3
33
y)/0.5)
y = 0.8
0 887
7g
mas
m ss ext
e traccte
ed = 2.67
2 7 + 0.89
9 = 3..56
6/3..6 g

[4
4]
[To
ota
al: 11]
Ca
amb
brid
dge
e In
nterrnattion
nal Ex
xam
mina
atio
ons
s 20
013
3

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(a) (i) (nitrates are) soluble

[1]

(ii) Ba(2+) and Pb(2+)

[1]

SO4(2-)

[1]

BaCO3/PbCO3/CaSO4 are insoluble

[1]
[4]

(b) (i) fertilisers/animal manure

[1]

(ii) washing powder/detergents/fertilisers/animal manure

[1]

(iii) growth/production of algae/weeds/plants


or eutrophication

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) any one of:


2SO2 + O2 2SO3 and SO3 + H2O H2SO4
or SO2 + NO2 SO3 + NO and SO3 + H2O H2SO4
or SO2 + O2 + H2O H2SO4
(ii) roasting sulfide ores/extraction of metals from sulfide ores

[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2013 series for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level
components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a)

8 e- around chlorine
1 Helectron (+) on the Cl - ion
3 covalent (ox) and one dative (oo) around N

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (i) it would react (with H2SO4)

[1]

(ii) CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

[1]

(iii) CaO absorbs more water or CaO has greater affinity for water

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) 2Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

[1]

(ii) (Down the group, the nitrates)


become more stable/stability increases

[1]

because the size/radius of ion (M2+) increases

[1]

thus causing less polarisation/distortion


of the anion/NO3-/N-O bond

[1]
[4]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

(a) (i) Si-Si bonds are weaker (than C-C bonds)


(ii) metallic (Sn) is weaker than (giant) covalent (Ge)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42
[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) (i) SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl


or SiCl4 + 4H20 Si(OH)4 + 4HCl
or SiCl4 + 3H20 H2SiO3 + 4HCl
(partial hydrolysis is not sufficient e.g. to SiCl3OH + HCl)

[1]

(ii) PbCl4 PbCl2 + Cl2

[1]

(iii) SnCl2 + 2FeCl3 SnCl4 + 2FeCl2

[1]

(iv) SnO2 + 2NaOH Na2SnO3 + H2O


or SnO2 + 2NaOH + 2H2O Na2Sn(OH)6
or ionic equation SnO2 + 2OH- SnO32- + H2O

[1]
[4]
[Total: 6]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) NH3 + HZ NH4+ + ZCH3OH + HZ CH3OH2+ + Z-

[1]
[1]

(ii) NH3 + B- NH2- + BH


CH3OH + B- CH3O- + BH

[1]
[1]
[4]

(b) (i) a reaction that can go in either direction

[1]

(ii) rate of forward = rate of backward reaction


or forward/back reactions occurring but concentrations of all species do not change

[1]
[2]

(c) (i) a solution that resists changes in pH

[1]

when small quantities of acid or base/alkali are added

[1]

(ii) in the equilibrium system HZ + H2O  Z- + H3O+

[1]

addition of acid: reaction moves to the left


or H+ combines with Z- and forms HZ

[1]

addition of base: the reaction moves to the right


or H+ combines with OH- and more Z- formed

[1]
[5 max 4]

(d) (i) [H+] = (0.5 1.34 10-5) = 2.59 10-3 (mol dm-3)
pH = 2.59/2.6 (min 1 d.p)

[1]
ecf

[1]

(ii) CH3CH2CO2H + NaOH CH3CH2CO2Na + H2O

[1]

(iii) n(acid) in 100 cm3 = 0.5 100/1000 = 0.05 mol


n(acid) remaining = 0.05 0.03 = 0.02 mol
[acid remaining] = 0.2 (mol dm-3)

[1]

likewise, n(salt) = 0.03 mol


[salt] + 0.3 (mol dm-3)
(iv) pH = 4.87 + log(0.3/0.2) = 5.045.05

[1]
ecf

[1]
[6]

(e) G is CH3CH2COCl
H is SOCl2 or PCl5
J is NaCl
(or corresponding Br compounds for G, H and J; CH3CH2COBr, SOBr2, NaBr)

[2]
[Total: 18]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (the energy change) when 1 mol of bonds


is broken in the gas phase

[1]
[1]
[2]

(b) (i) (C-X bond energy) decreases/becomes weaker (from F to I)

[1]

due to bond becoming longer/not such efficient orbital overlap

[1]

(ii) (as the bond energy of C-X decreases) the halogenalkanes become more reactive
(answer must imply that it is from F to I)

[1]
[3]

(c) The C-Cl bond is weaker than the C-F and C-H bonds
or C-Cl bond (E = 340) and C-H (E = 410)

[1]

so is (easily) broken to form Cl /Cl radicals/Cl atoms


causing the breakdown of O3 into O2

[1]
[1]
[3]

(d) Cl-CH2CH2-CO2H
HO-CH2CH2CH2-Cl

[1]
[1]

OH

Br

[1]
[3]
(e) (i) light/UV/h or 300C

[1]

(ii) (free) radical substitution

[1]

(iii) H = E(C-H) E(H-Cl) = 410 431 = 21 kJ mol-1

[1]

(iv) H = E(C-H) E(H-I) = 410 299 = +111 kJ mol-1

ecf

[1]

(v) The reaction with iodine is endothermic or H is positive or requires energy

[1]

(vi) Cl2 2Cl


CH3CH2 + Cl2 CH3CH2Cl + Cl
CH3CH2 + Cl CH3CH2Cl

[1]
[1]
[1]
[8]
[Total: 19]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

(a) (i) many monomers form a polymer

Paper
42
[1]

(ii) addition

[1]

(iii) C=C/double/ bond is broken and new C-C single bonds are formed
or double bond breaks and forms single bonds with other monomers

[1]
[3]

(b) propenoic acid

[1]
[1]

(c) (i)

carbon chain and CO2H


at least one sodium salt

(ii) 120 to 109(.5)


due to the change from a trigonal/sp2 carbon to a tetrahedral/sp3 carbon

[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]
[4]

(d) (i)

Any four:
hydrogen bond labelled
water H-bonded to O through H atom
+/- shown on each end of a H-bond
lone pair shown on O- or C=O or H2O on a correct H-bond
Na+ shown as coordinated to a water molecule
(ii) Solution became paler and Cu(2+) swapped with Na(+)
or darker in colour and polymer absorbs water

[3]
[1]
[4]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 7

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

(e) (i) alkene(1), amide(1)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42
[2]

(ii) NH3

[1]

(iii) H2O

[1]

(iv) HCl (aq)/H3O+ and heat/reflux (not warm)


or OH- (aq), heat and acidify

[1]
[5]
[Total: 17]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Section B
6

(a) (i) six/6 (gsv, sgv, gvs, vgs, svg,vsg)

[1]

(ii)

two displayed peptide bonds


correct formula of peptide
(iii) valine (allow glycine)
(iv) any two of:
hydrogen bonds and CO2H or OH or NH2 or CONH or CO or NH or CO2ionic bonds and NH3+ or CO2
van der Waals and CH3 or H

[1]
[1]
[1]

2 [1]
[6]

(b) (i) same shape/structure as substrate


(inhibitor) competes/blocks/binds/bonds to active site
or substrate cannot bind to active site
(ii) binds with enzyme and changes shape/3D structure (of enzyme/active site)

[1]
[1]
[1]

(iii)

[1]
[4]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Pa
age
e9
7

Ma
ark
k Sch
S hem
me
e
GCE
E A LEV
VEL
L Octo
O ob
ber//No
ove
em
mbe
er 2
201
13

Syllab
bus
s
97
701
1

Pa
ape
er
4
42

(
(a)

pow
p
werr su
upp
ply
y (id
dea
a of
o com
c mpllete
e circ
c uit)
e ctro
elec
oly
yte//bu
uffe
er solu
s utio
on
g /filtter pa
gel/
ape
er/a
abs
sorrbent pa
ape
er
(am
mino
o acid
a d) sam
s mp
ple//miixtu
ure
e [c
cen
ntre
e off plate
e]

4 [1]
4]
[4

( ) a
(b)
anyy tw
wo fro
om::
s e/M
size
Mr (of
( the
ea
amiino
o ac
cid sp
pec
cies
s)
c arge
cha
e (on the a
am
mino
o acid
a d specie
es)
te
em
mpe
eraturre

2 [1]
[2
2]

(
(c)
Rattio of the
R
e con
c nce
entrratiion
n off a so
olutte in e
eac
ch of two
o (immis
sciible
e) ssolvents
s
o e
or
equ
uilib
briu
um
m co
ons
sta
ant rep
pre
ese
enting
g th
he dis
strib
buttion
no
of a so
olu
ute be
etw
wee
en two
t o solv
ven
nts
o P
or
PC = [X]]a/[X
X]b (a
at a consta
ant temp
perratu
ure
e)

[1]
[1]

( ) (i)
(d)
(
Kpc = [Z
Z in e
ether]]/[Z
Z in
n H2O]
O allow
w reve
ers
se rattio
40
0 = (x
x/0.05
5)/(((4
x))/0.5))
= 3.2 g
(ii) Firstt ex
xtrracttion
n
40
0 = (x
x/0.02
25))/((4
4x
x)//0.5
5)
x = 2.6
2 67 g

[1]
e f
ecf

[1]

e f
ecf

[1]

e f
ecf

[1]

(iii) Sec
cond ext
e trac
ctio
on: 1.33
3g rem
r maiin in
i ssolutio
on
Sec
cond ext
e trac
ctio
on
40
0 = (y
y/0.02
25))/((1.3
33
y)/0.5)
y = 0.8
0 887
7g
mas
m ss ext
e traccte
ed = 2.67
2 7 + 0.89
9 = 3..56
6/3..6 g

4]
[4
[To
ota
al: 11]

Ca
amb
brid
dge
e In
nterrnattion
nal Ex
xam
mina
atio
ons
s 20
013
3

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(a) (i) (nitrates are) soluble

[1]

(ii) Ba(2+) and Pb(2+)

[1]

SO4(2-)

[1]

BaCO3/PbCO3/CaSO4 are insoluble

[1]
[4]

(b) (i) fertilisers/animal manure

[1]

(ii) washing powder/detergents/fertilisers/animal manure

[1]

(iii) growth/production of algae/weeds/plants


or eutrophication

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) any one of:


2SO2 + O2 2SO3 and SO3 + H2O H2SO4
or SO2 + NO2 SO3 + NO and SO3 + H2O H2SO4
or SO2 + O2 + H2O H2SO4
(ii) roasting sulfide ores/extraction of metals from sulfide ores

[1]
[1]
[2]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

s
er
om
.c

GCE Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.

Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2013 series for most IGCSE,
GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level
components.

Page 2
1

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a)

O
N

dative bond to an oxygen using two N electrons


8 electrons around N in 1 double + 2 single bonds
a total of 24 electrons, including one, and only one " "
(the extra electron, " ", can be in a bond or a lone pair)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[3]

(b) (i) 2Mg(NO3)2 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2

[1]

(ii) (down the group)


nitrates become more stable or are more difficult to decompose or need a higher
temperature to decompose

[1]

because there is less polarisation of the anion / nitrate ion / NO bonds

[1]

as radius of M2+ / metal ion increases or charge density of the cation decreases

[1]
[4]

(c) Cu + 4H+ + 2NO3 Cu2+ + 2NO2 + 2H2O

species [1]
balancing [1]
[2]
[Total: 9]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 3
2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) any two from: molecules have negligible volume


negligible intermolecular forces or particles are not attracted to each other
or to the walls of the container
random motion
no loss of kinetic energy during collisions or elastic collisions (NOT
elastic molecules)
2 [1]
[2]
(b) (i) low temperature and high pressure
(ii) (at low T) forces between particles are more important,
(at high P) volume of molecules are significant

both required [1]


[1]
[1]
[3 max 2]

(c) (i) endothermic; because the equilibrium moves to the right on heating or with
increasing temperature or because bonds are broken during the reaction
[1]
(ii) e.g. halogenation or Friedel-Crafts alkylation / acylation

other possibilities: Cl2, I2, RCl, RCOCl etc.

reactants [1]
products [1]
[3]
[Total: 7]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) CH3Br(g) CH3(g) + Br(g)


(ii)

[1]

/3 AlCl3(g) 1/3Al(g) + Cl(g)


or AlCl3(g) AlCl2(g) + Cl(g)
(AlCl3(g) Al(g) + 3Cl(g) for (1) mark)

[2]

[3]
(b) (i) bond energies decrease from Cl2 to I2
due to increasing bond length or increase in number of electron shells
which causes less effective orbital overlap or less attraction for the shared pair

[1]
[1]
[1]

(ii) either because fluorine is electronegative, (hence each F wants to keep its electrons
to itself)
or because the bond length is so short there is repulsion between the lone pairs (on
F)
or repulsion between the nuclei (of F)
[1]
[4 max 3]
(c) (i) for chlorine:
H = E(H H) + E(Cl Cl) 2E(H Cl) =
=
for iodine:
H = E(H H) + E(I I) 2E(H I)
=
=

436 + 242 (2 431)


184 kJ mol1

[2]

436 + 151 (2 299)


11 kJ mol1

[1]

(ii) Hydrides become less thermally stable down the group from Cl to I
as the HX bond energy decreases (more than does the XX bond energy)

[1]
[1]
[5]

(d) (i)

Na
15.2 / 23
0.661
0.661 1.0

O
31.8 / 16
1.99
3.0

Br
53.0 / 79.9
0.663
1.0

[1]

thus NaBrO3
(ii) 3Br2 + 6NaOH NaBrO3 + 5NaBr + 3H2O
or 3Br2 + 6OH BrO3 + 5Br + 3H2O

[1]

species [1]
balancing [1]
[4]
[Total: 15]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 5
4

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) Carbon (graphite) has delocalised electrons whereas silicons electrons are
localised.
[1]
(ii) Tin has metallic structure or delocalised / mobile electrons whereas germanium has
localised electrons or giant covalent structure
[1]
[2]
(b) (i) 2 PbO2 2PbO + O2

[1]

(ii) PbO2 + 4HCl PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

[1]

(iii) SnO + 2NaOH Na2SnO2 + H2O

[1]

(iv) GeCl4 + 2H2O GeO2 + 4HCl

[1]
[4]
[Total: 6]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 6
5

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) Br2(aq)


electrophilic substitution

[1]
[1]

[1]
(ii) no special conditions
electrophilic addition

[1]
[1]

product [1]
(iii) light / UV or heat
(free) radical substitution

[1]
[1]

product [1]
[1]
[1]

balanced equation in (i) (i.e. 3 Br2 and 3 HBr)


balanced equation in (iii) (i.e. Br2 and HBr)

[11 max 10]


(b) (i)

OH
O

O
D

CH3CO2H
E

3 correct structures (can be in any order) 3 [1]


(ii) results of tests:
with 2,4DNPH: C and D
with I2 + OH:
D only
with NaOH:
D and E
(N.B. letters may be different must refer to the candidates formulae)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[6]
[TotaI: 16]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 7
6

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) A (Bronsted-Lowry) acid is a proton donor.

(b) (i)

[1]
[1]

H
O

O
H +

H
H

carboxylic acid

amino group

at least one H2O molecule in the right orientation:

attached to CO2H
[1]
attached to NH2
[1]
lone pair (on oxygen in H2O or CO2H or on nitrogen) shown at least once on
a H-bond
[1]
+ and shown at least once (at each end of the same H-bond)
[1]
(ii)
CO2

H3N
CH2

[1]
[5]

(c) allow either SN1 or SN2


(or CO2 )
H3N

(+)
H3N

H3C
H

Cl

CO2H

CO2H

CO2H

H3C

+ Cl -

(-)
Cl

CH3

NH3

-H+
CO2H

H2N

any three of

CH3
H

+ and shown in CCl


curly arrow from lone pair on NH3 to (+) carbon
curly arrow from CCl bond to Cl
5-coordinate transition state or carbocation intermediate if SN1, with
correct charge
[3]
[3]

(d) lysine @ pH 1:
aspartic acid @ pH 12:

NH3(CH2)4CH(NH3+)CO2H
O2C CH2 CH(NH2)CO2

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

[1]
[1]
[2]

Page 8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

(e) (i) 6 (six)

[1]

(ii) either H2NCH(CH3)CONHCH(CH2OH)CO2H


or
H2NCH(CH2OH)CONHCH(CH3)CO2H

(f)

Paper
43

[2]
[3]

(i) Compounds have the same structural formula but ....


different (spatial) arrangement / position or orientation of atoms in space

[1]

(ii) J

[1]

(iii)
H
H2N
HO2C

CH3

OH

[1]
[3]
[Total: 17]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 9

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

Section B
7

(a) (i) Metals such as Hg, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu (identified NOT just "heavy metals")
(allow names, atomic symbols or ions, names or formulae of salts e.g. Pb(NO3)2)
or penicillin or organophosphorus insecticide etc.

[1]

(ii) The ion / inhibitor binds to a part of the enzyme molecule away from the active site
or to an allosteric site
[1]
This changes the shape of the active site or denatures the enzyme
[1]
OR
the inhibitor forms a covalent / permanent bond with the active site
[1]
blocking entry of the substrate
[1]
(iii)

rate of
reaction

[1]
[4]
(b) (i) (DNA) mRNA ribosome tRNA (Protein)

[2]

(ii) stop codon / it is used to stop the growth of a protein chain


(allow: used at the start of protein synthesis)

[1]
[3]

(c) (i) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or AMP and (inorganic) phosphate/Pi/PO43/H3PO4


(ii) Any two of
muscle contraction
transport of ions / molecules or active transport or exocytosis or Na / K pump
synthesis of new compounds / proteins etc.
movement of electric charge in nerve cells
bioluminescence
non-shivering thermogenesis
DNA synthesis / reproduction

[1]

2 [1]
[3]

[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 10
8

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) NMR and radiowaves (or VHF / UHF or 40 800 MHz)

[1]
[1]

(b) NMR: protons have (nuclear) spin


or (spinning) proton produces magnetic moment / field or two spin states
or protons can align with or against an applied magnetic field

[1]

there is insufficient electron density / cloud around H atoms for X-ray crystallography

(c) Sulfur, because it has the highest electron density

(d) (i)

4.5 100
=
n
1.5 1.1
100 0.15
n=
= 3.03 = 3
4.5 1.1

[1]
[2]
[1]
[1]

(calculation must be shown) [1]

(ii) the OH peak (broad singlet) at 4.6

[1]

(iii) 3 (three)

[1]

(iv) Q has peak at 11.7.


which is due to CO2H
(This can only be formed by oxidising a primary alcohol.)

[1]
[1]

or P has 4 peaks in its NMR spectrum, not 3


[1]
in a secondary alcohol with 3 carbons, two (methyl) groups will be in the same
chemical environment (or wtte)
[1]
or analysis of the splitting pattern in P: the peaks at 0.9 and 3.6 are triplets,
so each must be adjacent to a CH2 group. (hence CH2CH2CH3)
(v) CH3CH2CO2H (structure needed, not name)

[1]
[1]
[1]
[6]
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

Page 11
9

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL October/November 2013

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

(a) (i) diamond and graphite

[1]

(ii) any three from


colour
electrical conductivity
hardness
density
melting point

graphite
black
good conductor
soft / slippery
less dense than
diamond
lower

diamond
transparent / colourless
non-conductor
hard / non slippery
more dense than graphite
higher
3 [1]
[4]

(b) Because each carbon is only bonded to 3 others or is unsaturated / doubly-bonded / sp2
or has 3 bonding locations
(NOT forms only 3 bonds)
C60H60

[1]
[1]
[2]

(c) (i) Number of atoms carbon present = 0.001 6.02 1023 / 12 = 5.02 1019

[1]

(ii) Number of hexagons present = 5.02 1019 / 2 = 2.51 1019


Area of sheet = 690 2.51 1019 = 1.73 1022 nm2

[1]

(iii) Graphene: Yes, since it has free / delocalised / mobile electrons

[1]

Buckminsterfullerene: No, (although there is delocalisation within each sphere)


it consists of separate / simple / discrete molecules / spheres / particles,
(so no delocalisation from one sphere to the next)
or electrons are trapped within each molecule / sphere

[1]
[4]

[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2013

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2014 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/41

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2014 series for
most Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page 2

Question
1

(a) (i)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

Marking point

Marks

[NO]

2nd order and the concentration is 2, rate 4

[O2]

1st order and evidence of using expt 1 & 2 when the concentration is 2, rate doubles

(ii)

(0.00408 27)
rate = 0.11 (mol dm3 s1) to 2sf

(iii)

(Rate =) k [O2][NO]2

(iv)

k = 332(.03125)
mol2 dm6 s1

1
1

labelled axes x-axis: energy (KE) and y-axis: molecules or particles


two curves: starts origin; not touching x-axis again; no levelling out; curves only intersecting once
curves labelled and T2 is to the right and lower max than T1

1
1
1

rate increases and energy of the particles increases

more particles have Ea

1 mole of F2 and 1 mole NO reacting in the slow step

a balanced mechanism consistent with overall equation

(b) (i)

(ii)

(c)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

e.g. F2 + NO NOF + F
NO + F NOF

OR

F2 + NO NOF2
NO + NOF2 2NOF

Total

Marks
total

[6]

[5]

[2]
[13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 3

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014
3d

(a)

(b) (i)

(c)

4s

(Ni)

(Ni2+)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
1

degenerate

(ii)

2 upper orbitals and 3 lower orbitals

(iii)

correct upper orbital diagram

correct lower orbital diagram

electron(s) move from lower to upper level

absorb (red/blue) light/photon

complementary colour (green) is seen


OR green light is transmitted

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[2]

[4]

[3]

Page 4

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

A Ni(OH)2
OR
Ni(OH)2(H2O)4
B [Ni(NH3)6]2+ OR [Ni(NH3)n(H2O)6-n]2+
Ni2+ + 2OH
OR [Ni(H2O)6]2+
OR [Ni(H2O)6]2+
OR [Ni(H2O)6]2+

OR

[Ni(NH3)n(H2O)4-n]2+

Ni(OH)2
+ 2OH Ni(OH)2 + 6H2O
+ 2NH3 Ni(OH)2 + 4H2O + 2NH4+
+ 2OH Ni(OH)2(H2O)4 + 2H2O

Ni(OH)2 + 6NH3 [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 2OH


OR Ni(H2O)6]2+ + 6NH3 [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 6H2O
Total

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41
1
1
1

[4]
[13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 5

(a) (i)

(ii)
(b) (i)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

101 = P35Cl35Cl
103 = P35Cl37Cl
105 = P37Cl37Cl

1
1
1

9:6:1

PCl5 5 bonding pairs around P

Cl

(ii)

Cl

Cl

1
1

Cl

Cl

(c) (i)

Cl

Cl

Cl

[3]

Cl

O O
P

Cl

[4]

P
O
O
P4O6 structure where each P has three P-O bonds and each O has two P-O bonds e.g.

O
(ii)
(d) (i)

(molecule/ion/species) that donates a lone pair of electrons (to a central transition metal atom or
ion)

Ksp =[Ca2+]3[PO43]2

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[2]

Page 6

(ii)

(e) (i)
(ii)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

[Ca2+] = 3 2.50 106 = 7.50 106 mol dm3


[PO43] = 2 2.50 106 = 5.00 106 mol dm3

= (7.50 106)3(5.00 106)2


= 1.05(1.1) 1026
mol5dm15

1
1

(enthalpy change) when 1 mole of an ionic compound


is formed from its gaseous ions

1
1

Mg2+ has a smaller (ionic) radii than Ca2+


OR Mg2+ is smaller than Ca2+

Total

(a) (i)

[4]

[3]
[16]

2H2SO4 + HNO3 2HSO4 + NO2+ + H3O+


OR H2SO4 + HNO3 HSO4 + NO2+ + H2O

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 7

(ii)

(b) (i)
(ii)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

any three of
curly arrow from inside the benzene ring to NO2+ group
intermediate penalise NO2 connectivity or missing methyl group (once)
curly arrow from C-H bond into ring
product + H+ (or as diagram H+)
allow 2- and 3-substituted nitromethylbenzene)

acidity of ClCH2CO2H > CH3CO2H AND (ClCH2CO2H) as an electronegative/electron withdrawing


Cl
acidity of phenol > CH3CH2OH AND electrons on oxygen (on phenol) delocalised into ring
OR benzene ring withdraws electrons from oxygen
stronger acid linked to weakening O-H bond/anion being stabilised

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[4]

1
1

[3]

Page 8

(c)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

Na
redox/reduction

O
O
ONa

(or ionic)
Br2

O
Br

(electrophilic)
substitution

O
OH
Br

NaOH

hydrolysis/
acid-base/

OH

and
OH [1]

OH

or ionic

O
ONa

ONa

ONa

1 mark for each correct structure


for reaction types, 2 correct = 1 mark, 3 correct = 2 marks
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

4
2

[6]

Page 9

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

Total
5

13

(a)

CH3CH2COCl > CH3CH2CH2Cl > C6H5Cl

any two of:


C-Cl bond strength is weakest in CH3CH2COCl ora

In C6H5Cl (no hydrolysis) C-Cl bond is part of delocalised system OR p-orbital on Cl


overlaps with system OR electrons from Cl overlap with system

CH3CH2COCl carbon in C-Cl bond is more electron deficient since it is also attached to an
oxygen atom ora

[3]
1+1

(b)

ketone, amine, carboxylic acid


two correct 1 mark, all three 2

(c) (i)

dipole on C-Br
curly arrow breaking C-Br bond
curly arrow from lone pair on N to carbon in C-Br bond

1
1
1

H2N

[2]

OH
O

H3C

CH2

Br

(ii)

nucleophilic substitution

(iii)

HBr or hydrogen bromide

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[5]

Page 10

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

(d)
Y=

W = H N+
3
(Cl)

X=

[3]

1
1

[2]

OH

O
OH

3
OH

H2N

Paper
41

O
OH

NH

H3C

each structure 1 mark


O

(e)

CH2

CH2

O
CH2

O
CH2

CH2

CH2

N
H

correct displayed amide formula


correct polyamide with two repeat units
Total

15

(a)

(b) (i)
(ii)

(move in different directions)


some amino acids have a different charge
(move at different speeds)
some amino acids have a different size/different charge
(some amino acids do not move at all)
some amino acids exist as a zwitterions/have no net(overall) charge/neutral/both
NH2/COOH are charged in amino acids

1
1
1

mobile solvent or water


stationary alumina/silica (supported on glass/plastic/Al)

1
1

by adsorption

1
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[3]

[3]

Page 11

(c)

any three of:

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

(all can be awarded from a clear, labelled diagram)

(base pairing) A to T OR C to G
H-bonds between bases
two/double stranded/chains
anti-parallel strands
(general structure) sugar-phosphate backbone OR BASE-SUGAR-PHOSPHATE bonded
in a diagram

van der Waals forces lost (in val)


H-bonding gained (in ser)

[3]

1
1

[2]

Total

(a)

11

amide group circled OR indicated as diagram


ester group circled OR indicated as diagram
O

H3C
H3C

[2]

[1]

CH3

HN
H3C

(b)

1
1

CH3

lower doses of the drug required


OR improved activity of the drug
OR reduced side effects

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 12

(c)

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

decreases enzyme activity OR decreases rate at which product is formed

binds with the enzymes active site OR has a complementary shape to active site OR similar
shape to substrate

(competitive inhibition can be overcome by)


increasing [substrate] OR increasing substrate concentration

[3]

energy source/carrier OR releases energy when hydrolysed

[1]

Total

(a)

(ii)
(b) (i)

M:M+1 = 100/(1.1 x n)
20.4/0.9 = 100/(1.1 x n)
x =4

C4H10O

2-methylpropan-1-ol OR correct structure

H3C

(ii)

0.9-1.0
multiplet/1.8
singlet/2.5
3.4

is
is
is
is

(iii)

doublet
1H/one proton on adjacent carbon

CH3
OH

(2 x)CH3R/CH3/RCH
CHR/R3CH
OH
CH2O/CH3O

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

1
1
1
1
1
1

[3]

Page 13

(iv)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
41

OH peak or one peak disappears

OH proton is labile or exchanges for D of D2O


or as an equation e.g. D2O + OH DOH + OD as a minimum

Total

[9]
12
100

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2014 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/42

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2014 series for
most Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page 2

Question
1

(a) (i)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Marking point

Marks

[NO]

2nd order and the concentration is 2, rate 4

[O2]

1st order and evidence of using expt 1 & 2 when the concentration is 2, rate doubles

(ii)

(0.00408 27)
rate = 0.11 (mol dm3 s1) to 2sf

(iii)

(Rate =) k [O2][NO]2

(iv)

k = 332(.03125)
mol2 dm6 s1

1
1

labelled axes x-axis: energy (KE) and y-axis: molecules or particles


two curves: starts origin; not touching x-axis again; no levelling out; curves only intersecting once
curves labelled and T2 is to the right and lower max than T1

1
1
1

rate increases and energy of the particles increases

more particles have Ea

1 mole of F2 and 1 mole NO reacting in the slow step

a balanced mechanism consistent with overall equation

(b) (i)

(ii)

(c)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

e.g. F2 + NO NOF + F
NO + F NOF

OR

F2 + NO NOF2
NO + NOF2 2NOF

Total

Marks
total

[6]

[5]

[2]
[13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 3

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014
3d

(a)

(b) (i)

(c)

4s

(Ni)

(Ni2+)

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42
1

degenerate

(ii)

2 upper orbitals and 3 lower orbitals

(iii)

correct upper orbital diagram

correct lower orbital diagram

electron(s) move from lower to upper level

absorb (red/blue) light/photon

complementary colour (green) is seen


OR green light is transmitted

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[2]

[4]

[3]

Page 4

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

A Ni(OH)2
OR
Ni(OH)2(H2O)4
B [Ni(NH3)6]2+ OR [Ni(NH3)n(H2O)6-n]2+
Ni2+ + 2OH
OR [Ni(H2O)6]2+
OR [Ni(H2O)6]2+
OR [Ni(H2O)6]2+

OR

[Ni(NH3)n(H2O)4-n]2+

Ni(OH)2
+ 2OH Ni(OH)2 + 6H2O
+ 2NH3 Ni(OH)2 + 4H2O + 2NH4+
+ 2OH Ni(OH)2(H2O)4 + 2H2O

Ni(OH)2 + 6NH3 [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 2OH


OR Ni(H2O)6]2+ + 6NH3 [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 6H2O
Total

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42
1
1
1

[4]
[13]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 5

(a) (i)

(ii)
(b) (i)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

101 = P35Cl35Cl
103 = P35Cl37Cl
105 = P37Cl37Cl

1
1
1

9:6:1

PCl5 5 bonding pairs around P

Cl

(ii)

Cl

Cl

1
1

Cl

Cl

(c) (i)

Cl

Cl

Cl

[3]

Cl

O O
P

Cl

[4]

P
O
O
P4O6 structure where each P has three P-O bonds and each O has two P-O bonds e.g.

O
(ii)
(d) (i)

(molecule/ion/species) that donates a lone pair of electrons (to a central transition metal atom or
ion)

Ksp =[Ca2+]3[PO43]2

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[2]

Page 6

(ii)

(e) (i)
(ii)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

[Ca2+] = 3 2.50 106 = 7.50 106 mol dm3


[PO43] = 2 2.50 106 = 5.00 106 mol dm3

= (7.50 106)3(5.00 106)2


= 1.05(1.1) 1026
mol5dm15

1
1

(enthalpy change) when 1 mole of an ionic compound


is formed from its gaseous ions

1
1

Mg2+ has a smaller (ionic) radii than Ca2+


OR Mg2+ is smaller than Ca2+

Total

(a) (i)

[4]

[3]
[16]

2H2SO4 + HNO3 2HSO4 + NO2+ + H3O+


OR H2SO4 + HNO3 HSO4 + NO2+ + H2O

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 7

(ii)

(b) (i)
(ii)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

any three of
curly arrow from inside the benzene ring to NO2+ group
intermediate penalise NO2 connectivity or missing methyl group (once)
curly arrow from C-H bond into ring
product + H+ (or as diagram H+)
allow 2- and 3-substituted nitromethylbenzene)

acidity of ClCH2CO2H > CH3CO2H AND (ClCH2CO2H) as an electronegative/electron withdrawing


Cl
acidity of phenol > CH3CH2OH AND electrons on oxygen (on phenol) delocalised into ring
OR benzene ring withdraws electrons from oxygen
stronger acid linked to weakening O-H bond/anion being stabilised

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[4]

1
1

[3]

Page 8

(c)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Na
redox/reduction

O
O
ONa

(or ionic)
Br2

O
Br

(electrophilic)
substitution

O
OH
Br

NaOH

hydrolysis/
acid-base/

OH

and
OH [1]

OH

or ionic

O
ONa

ONa

ONa

1 mark for each correct structure


for reaction types, 2 correct = 1 mark, 3 correct = 2 marks
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

4
2

[6]

Page 9

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

Total
5

13

(a)

CH3CH2COCl > CH3CH2CH2Cl > C6H5Cl

any two of:


C-Cl bond strength is weakest in CH3CH2COCl ora

In C6H5Cl (no hydrolysis) C-Cl bond is part of delocalised system OR p-orbital on Cl


overlaps with system OR electrons from Cl overlap with system

CH3CH2COCl carbon in C-Cl bond is more electron deficient since it is also attached to an
oxygen atom ora

[3]
1+1

(b)

ketone, amine, carboxylic acid


two correct 1 mark, all three 2

(c) (i)

dipole on C-Br
curly arrow breaking C-Br bond
curly arrow from lone pair on N to carbon in C-Br bond

1
1
1

H2N

[2]

OH
O

H3C

CH2

Br

(ii)

nucleophilic substitution

(iii)

HBr or hydrogen bromide

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[5]

Page 10

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

(d)
Y=

W = H N+
3
(Cl)

X=

[3]

1
1

[2]

OH

O
OH

3
OH

H2N

Paper
42

O
OH

NH

H3C

each structure 1 mark


O

(e)

CH2

CH2

O
CH2

O
CH2

CH2

CH2

N
H

correct displayed amide formula


correct polyamide with two repeat units
Total

15

(a)

(b) (i)
(ii)

(move in different directions)


some amino acids have a different charge
(move at different speeds)
some amino acids have a different size/different charge
(some amino acids do not move at all)
some amino acids exist as a zwitterions/have no net(overall) charge/neutral/both
NH2/COOH are charged in amino acids

1
1
1

mobile solvent or water


stationary alumina/silica (supported on glass/plastic/Al)

1
1

by adsorption

1
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[3]

[3]

Page 11

(c)

any three of:

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

(all can be awarded from a clear, labelled diagram)

(base pairing) A to T OR C to G
H-bonds between bases
two/double stranded/chains
anti-parallel strands
(general structure) sugar-phosphate backbone OR BASE-SUGAR-PHOSPHATE bonded
in a diagram

van der Waals forces lost (in val)


H-bonding gained (in ser)

[3]

1
1

[2]

Total

(a)

11

amide group circled OR indicated as diagram


ester group circled OR indicated as diagram
O

H3C
H3C

[2]

[1]

CH3

HN
H3C

(b)

1
1

CH3

lower doses of the drug required


OR improved activity of the drug
OR reduced side effects

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 12

(c)

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

decreases enzyme activity OR decreases rate at which product is formed

binds with the enzymes active site OR has a complementary shape to active site OR similar
shape to substrate

(competitive inhibition can be overcome by)


increasing [substrate] OR increasing substrate concentration

[3]

energy source/carrier OR releases energy when hydrolysed

[1]

Total

(a)

(ii)
(b) (i)

M:M+1 = 100/(1.1 x n)
20.4/0.9 = 100/(1.1 x n)
x =4

C4H10O

2-methylpropan-1-ol OR correct structure

H3C

(ii)

0.9-1.0
multiplet/1.8
singlet/2.5
3.4

is
is
is
is

(iii)

doublet
1H/one proton on adjacent carbon

CH3
OH

(2 x)CH3R/CH3/RCH
CHR/R3CH
OH
CH2O/CH3O

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

1
1
1
1
1
1

[3]

Page 13

(iv)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
42

OH peak or one peak disappears

OH proton is labile or exchanges for D of D2O


or as an equation e.g. D2O + OH DOH + OD as a minimum

Total

[9]
12
100

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

w
ap
eP

e
tr
.X

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

om
.c

s
er

Cambridge International Advanced Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2014 series

9701 CHEMISTRY
9701/43

Paper 4 (A2 Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 100

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2014 series for
most Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page
e2

Que
estio
on
1

Marrk Sche
S eme
e
Cam
mbrridge In
nternatiiona
al A Le
evel O
Octo
oberr/No
ovem
mbe
er 2014
2 4

Sy
yllab
bus
970
9 1

Ma
arking poin
p nt

(a)) (i)

Ma
arks

m/e
m

35
3

Cll

37
3

37
3

Cll

35

C
Cl 35Cl
C o
or 35Cl
C2
37

Cl
C 35Cl

72
7
74
7

Markks
tota
al

ide
entiity

35
3

70
7

37

C
Cl 37Cl
C o
or 37Cl
C2

35, 37,, 70, 72


2, 74
4
corrrectt forrmullae
at leas
st on
ne sttruccture
e as
sap
posittive ion
(ii)

Pap
per
43
3

1
1
1

9:6
6:1

co
orrecct ch
harg
ges
co
orrecct ellectrronss

1
1

La
attice en
nerg
gy = H
Hf(SrrCl2) ((Hatom
(Sr)
(
+ Hi1(Sr) + H
Hi2(S
Sr) + H
Hatom
Hea(C
Cl))
a
m(Cll) + 2H
= +(8
830) ((+ 164 + 54
48 + 10
060 + 24
42 + (2 349
9))
=
2146 (kJ moll1)

1
1
1

SrrCO
O3 + 2H
HNO
O3  Srr(NO
O3)2 + CO
C 2 + H2O

[4]

(b)) (i)

(ii)

(c)) (i)

Ca
ambrridge
e Intterna
ation
nal Exam
E mina
ation
ns 20
014

[5]

Page 3

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

Sr(NO3)2  SrO + 2NO2 + 0.5 O2

[2]

(down the group) nitrates become more stable / require a higher temperature to decompose

1
1
1

[3]

BrO3 + 5Br + 6H+ 3Br2 + 3H2O


five correct species
correct balancing

1
1

[2]

[BrO3] 1st order and the concentration is x2, rate doubles OR evidence using expt 1 & 4 eg ratios
[H+] 2nd order and the concentration is x2, rate x4 OR evidence using expt 1 & 2
[Br-] 1st order and the concentration is x4, rate x4 OR evidence using expt 1 & 3 eg ratios

1
1
1

(ii)

(Rate =) k [BrO3][Br][H+]2

(iii)

k = 1.32
mol3 dm9 s1

1
1

chromium and copper

(ii)

(all orbitals have the) same energy

(iii)

correct id of
one higher energy d orbital
the other higher energy d orbital

1
1

(ii)
(d)

as size/radius of ion increases OR charge density of ion decreases


so polarisation/distortion of anion/nitrate ion/NO3 /NO bond decreases
2

(a)

(b) (i)

(a) (i)

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[6]

[4]

Page 4

Paper
43

Cu(OH)2 OR [Cu(OH)2(H2O)4]
[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+
OR
[Cu(NH3)4]2+
2
[CuCl4]

1
1
1

(ii)

solution B
solution C

royal / deep / dark blue OR violet-blue


yellow / green

1
1

(iii)

redox OR oxidation of Cu OR reduction of Cu2+


AND reducing agent / reductant

3d-shell is full / 3d10 / no vacant d-orbital / d-orbitals full


electrons cannot move between orbitals OR transitions cannot occur

1
1

[2]

green / yellow
orange / red AND blue / violet light is absorbed

1
1

[2]

(HCl) stronger acid / more dissociated / ionised in solution


(HCl has) more ions / higher concentration of ions

1
1

[2]

A solution that resists changes in the pH / keeps pH fairly constant


when small quantities / amounts / vols of acid / H+ or base / OH are added

1
1

add (ethanoic acid) to NaOH OR an equation


excess (ethanoic acid)
OR mix with sodium ethanoate

1
1

[4]

CH3CH(NH2)COOH + H+  CH3CH(NH3+)COOH
CH3CH(NH2)COOH + OH  CH3CH(NH2)COO + H2O

1
1

[2]

(c)
(d)

(a)
(b) (i)
(ii)

(c)

Syllabus
9701

pale blue precipitate A


solution B
solution C

(b) (i)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[6]

Page 5

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

pKa 2.99

OH
OH

pKa 4.40

HO

OH

HO

OH

OH

HO

1
O

+ H+

+ H+

HO

COOH

HOOC
H

[4]

[5]

COOH

HOOC

OH

OH

Paper
43

OH

-O

OH

HO
O

(ii)

OH

(d) (i)

Syllabus
9701

OH

(R,S)

(S,R)
H
HO

COOH

HOOC

(R,R)

OH

any two of the above

(a)

any five of these seven points.


-bonds are between C-C OR C-H
carbons are sp2
rings of charge above and below the ring must be in diagram
presence of -bonds
electrons/bonds are delocalised
planar molecule/bond angles 120o
all C-C are the same length/have intermediate bond length between C-C & C=C

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 6

(b)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

Reagent X e.g. Br2, HNO3, Na, NaOH, benzenediazonium salt / ion; RCOCl ; Fe3+ ; H2+Ni
substituted product for L-DOPA & vanillin (examples given are for X = Br2 and NaOH)
Br

Br

HO

HO

NH2

H 3 CO

COOH

HO

or

NH2
O

HO

H 3 CO

H
O

Reagent Y e.g. HCl; Na2CO3, Mg, SOCl2, PCl5, ROH + c.H2SO4; HCl+NaNO2 / HNO2; CH3Cl
Correct substituted product for L-DOPA
HO

1
1

NH3

COOH

HO

Reagent Z e.g. acidified Cr2O72 ; 2,4-DNPH, hydrazine ; Fehlings, Tollens; HCN; HCN + NaCN;
NaBH4 ;
correct substituted product for vanillin

1
1

HO

OH

HO
O

(a) (i)

C15H21NO2

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[7]

Page 7

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014
O

(ii)

OCH 3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43
1

NHCH2CH3

(iii)

any two of ketone, amine or ether

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[4]

Page 8

(b)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014
OH

(i) LiAlH4

(ii) HCl (aq)

OCH3

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

reduction / nucleophilic
addition

NHCH2CH3
OCH3

acid-base / neutralisation

OCH3

acylation / condensation

NH2CH2CH3

(Cl-)
O

(iii) CH3COCl

allow addition +
elimination
allow nucleophilic
substitution
N
H3CH2C

COCH3

1 mark for each correct structure


1 mark for each correct reaction type
3
3

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[6]

Page 9

(a)
(b)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

1
1

Kpc

= [J in ether]/[J in H2O]
= (2.14/20)/(52.14/75)
=2.81 OR 2.82

2nd extraction:

(d) (i)

Paper
43

(ratio of) the concentrations / distribution / amount / mass of solute in two (immiscible) solvents
at equilibrium OR equilibrium constant OR includes expression with K

1st extraction:

(c)

Syllabus
9701

2.81
=(x/10)/(5.0x)/75
2.81(5x) = 7.5x
x= 1.36 g

2.81
=(y/10)/(3.64y)/75
2.81(3.64-y) = 7.5y
y= 0.99 g

water / solvent / named solvent

(ii)

non-volatile liquid, for example mineral oil or at least a C15 hydrocarbon oil

(iii)

1. Rf (retardation factor) or distance travelled by solute and distance by solvent


2. retention time

1
1

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[2]

[2]

[2]

[4]

Page 10

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

(e)

CO2H

CH2OH

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43
1

[1]

C = 33 %
A = T = 17 %

1
1

[2]

only one isomer may be active / be of therapeutic benefit

the other (stereo) isomer may cause harm / side effects

CO2H

CO2H

(a)
(b) (i)
(ii)

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[2]

Page 11

(c) (i)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Paper
43

structures of the following aldehydes:


CHO

CHO

CHO

CHO

Syllabus
9701

two correct structures = 1 mark


two further correct structures 1 mark

1
1

(ii)

3-methylbutanal

(iii)

pentanal
2-methylbutanal
dimethylpropanal

5 absorptions
5 absorptions
2 absorptions

1
1
1

[6]

(a)

nylon, terylene condensation; PVC addition all three correct

[1]

(b)

correct fully displayed formula of -CO-NH- unit


correct polymer structure

1
1

[2]

C
O
N
H

O
N

C
O

H
N

(c)

sequence / order of amino acids (in the polypeptide chain)

[1]

(d)

hydrogen bond
C=O and N-H in two different amino acids in the backbone diagram

1
1

[2]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 12

(e) (i)

(ii)

(iii)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge International A Level October/November 2014

Syllabus
9701

Paper
43

disrupts hydrogen/ionic bonds as COOH/NH3+ is deprotonated


OR NH3+ + OH NH2 + H2O linked to hydrogen / ionic bond disrupted
ORCOOH + OH COO + H2O linked to hydrogen / ionic bond disrupted

Hg2+ interferes with/breaks the disulfide bond / bridge not sulfite, sulfate, sulfur, sulfide
OR -S-S- shown with Hg2+ in an equation
OR disrupting ionic interactions linked to carboxyl / COO groups

(Heat to 70 C) breaks the van der Waals forces / hydrogen bonding

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

[3]