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PLANE & SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY

A. RECIPROCAL IDENTITIES
1
1. =
2. =
3. =


1

1

B. TANGENT & COTANGENT IDENTITIES



1. =
2. =

C. PYTHAGOREAN IDENTITIES
1. 2 + 2 = 1
2. 1 + 2 = 2
3. 1 + 2 = 2
D. COFUNCTION IDENTITIES
1. (90 ) =
2. (90 ) =
3. (90 ) =
4. (90 ) =
5. (90 ) =

E. SUM & DIFFERENCE FORMULA


1. ( + ) = +
2. ( ) =
3. ( + ) =
4. ( ) = +
+
5. ( + ) =
6. ( ) =

1

1+

F. DOUBLE ANGLE FORMULA


1. 2 = 2
2. 2 = 2 2
2 = 1 22
2
3. 2 =
2
1

G. POWER REDUCING FORMULAS


1 2
2
1. =
2. 2 =

3. 2 =

2
1+ 2
2
1 2
1+ 2

H. HALF ANGLE FORMULAS


1.

2.

1+
=
2
2

1
=
2


=
2
1+


=
2
1

1+
=
2

3.
4.

1
2

I. PRODUCT TO SUM FORMULAS


1
2
1
= [ +
2
1
= [ +
2
1
= [( + )
2

1. = [( ) ( + )]

2.
3.

4.

+ ( )]
+ ( )]

( )]

J. SUM TO PRODUCT FORMULAS


+

) ( )
2
2
+

= 2 ( ) ( )
2
2
+

+ = 2 ( ) ( )
2
2
+

= 2 ( ) ( )
2
2

1. + = 2 (
2.

3.
4.

K. SINE LAW

N. MOLLWEIDES EQUATION

=
=

L. COSINE LAW
2 = 2 + 2 2
2 = 2 + 2 2
2 = 2 + 2 2

M. LAW OF TANGENTS
1.

2()
1

2(+)

1.
2.

=
=

1
2

()
1
2


1
()
2
1

2

O. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

1.

2.

3.

3
=
5
3
= 1
5
4
=
5
4
1
=
5

=
2
1
=
2

4. = 3

= 1 3
5. = 1
6. = 1
7. = 1

P. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTION
1
2
1
= ( + )
2

=

1
=

1
=

2 2 = 1

1. = ( )

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7. 2 + 2 = 1
8. + =
9. 2 2 = 1
10. =

PROBLEMS:
1. If sin A = 3/5, is in the second quadrant and cos B = -1/2, is in the 3rd quadrant. What is
the value of sin (A + B)?
a. 0.3928
b. 0.4122
c. 0.3411
d. 0.3445
2. Solve for x: x = (tan + cot )2 sin2 tan2 .
a. sin
b. 1
c. cos
d. tan
3. Find the value of in coversed sin = 0.134.
a. 500
b. 600
c. 700
d. 800
4. Find the value of in versed sin = 0.456.
a. 570
b. 610
c. 630
d. 750
5. Solve for in cosh2 x sinh2 x = tan .
a. /4
b. /2
c. /3
d.

6. The rectangular coordinates of a point having the polar coordinate (7, 380) is.
a. (5.52, 4.23)
b. (9.8, 4.31)
c. (4.56, 3.45)
d. (5.52, 4.31)
Situation:
Car A is moving east at 70kph while Car B is moving in the direction N450E. For a
passenger in Car A, B appears to be moving away in the direction of N300W.
7. What is the velocity that B appears to passenger in A?
a. 48.23kph
b. 51.24kph
c. 34.23kph
d. 76.12kph
8. What is the true velocity of B?
a. 62.76kph
b. 89.12kph
c. 71.23kph
d. 89.23kph

9. A 20m high mast is placed on the top of the cliff whose height above sea level is
unknown. An observer at sea sees the top of the mast at an elevation of 46042, the
foot at 38023. The height of the cliff is closest to.
a. 57m
b. 54m
c. 51m
d. 59m
10. In the spherical triangle, A = 1200, B = 1350 & c = 300. What is C?
a. 79.820
b. 67.330
c. 46.780
d. 98.230
11. A truck travels from point M northward for 30min then eastward for 1hr, then
shifted N300W. If the constant speed is 40kph, how far directly from M in km will it be
after 2hrs?
a. 47.88
b. 34.56
c. 41.23
d. 36.33

Situation:
In triangle ABC, tan A + tan B + tan C = 5.67
12. Find tan A tan B tan C.
a. 12.33
b. 6.67
c. 5.67
d. 4.33
13. If tan A = 1.732, Find tan B tan C.
a. 3.274
b. 4.123
c. 6.131
d. 2.451
14. If tan B = 1.915, Find the value of angle C.
a. 61.3
b. 69.2
c. 49.1
d. 45.8
15. If the sides of a parallelogram and an included angle are 6, 10 & 1000
respectively. Find the length of the shorter diagonal.
a. 10.23
b. 10.73
c. 11.21
d. 11.34

Situation:
Triangle XYZ has a base angles X = 520 and Z = 600, distance XZ = 400m long. A line AB which is
200m long is laid out parallel to XZ.
16. What is the sum of the other two sides of the triangle?
a. 891.23
b. 713.58
c. 672.34
d. 871.22
17. The area of triangle XYZ is.
a. 58,883
b. 61,234
c. 34,123
d. 91,234
18. The area of ABXZ is.
a. 42,134
b. 44,162
c. 45,123
d. 34,134
19. Point C is due east of B and 300m distance apart. A tower not in line of B & C was observed at
B & C having vertical angles of 450 and 600 respectively. The same tower was observed at point D
500m west of B. The vertical angle observed from D is 300. The height of the tower is.
a. 567.23
b. 672.93
c. 771.23
d. 714.51

20. An equilateral triangular field has sides equal to 2m each. If the field is divided
into two equal areas by a line parallel to the one side, compute the length of the
dividing line.
a. 1.34
b. 1.41
c. 1.71
d. 1.78
21. The plane of a small circle on a sphere of radius 25cm is 12.5cm from the
center of the sphere. Determine the small circle radius and its polar distance.
a. 24.54, 300
b. 21.65, 300
c. 31.23, 300
d. 21.65, 600
22. In a spherical triangle. Given b = 600, c = 300 & A = 450. Find a.
a. 42.330
b. 37.670
c. 39.760
d. 56.230
23. In a spherical triangle. Given A = 600, B = 600 & C = 1200. Find a.
a. 34.330
b. 70.530
c. 76.440
d. 41.450

24. In a right spherical triangle. Given a = 43027, c = 60024. Find b.


a. 56.120
b. 54.120
c. 47.130
d. 71.330
25. Find the distance in nautical miles from London (Latitude 51025N, Longitude 00) to Moscow
(Latitude 55045N, Longitude 37036E).
a. 1231.44
b. 1331.34
c. 2112.34
d. 1346.78
26. From problem 25, find the course angle from London to Moscow.
a. 69.340
b. 62.330
c. 64.070
d. 63.330
27. A parcel of land in the form of a triangle has sides 312m & 485m long. The included angle is
81030. Find the perimeter & area of the triangle.
a. 1233.60, 76334.55 b. 1333.50, 74828.94 c. 1444.43, 80222.33 d. 1333.67, 79447.22
28. The angles of the triangle are 35020, 65036 & 79004. If its area is 1200m2, find the perimeter.
a. 168.36
b. 133.34
c. 144.55
d. 155.67

29. Given the sides of quadrantal triangle, a = 750 b = 85.50 c = 900, find angle A.
a. 76.71deg b. 38.78deg c. 51.21deg d. 74.41deg
30. Given the spherical triangle, A = 112.720, C = 94.830, c = 900. Find a.
a. 112.230 b. 132.110 c. 67.220
d. 56.230
31. Point X is 4m from A, 3m from B and 5m from C. Point X is inside the triangle
formed by ABC. If AB = BC and angle B is right angle, Find the length of side AB.
a. 6.211
b. 6.071
c. 7.022
d. 5.922
32. From point O on the ground of area = 160000 sq. ft., the angles of elevations of
the 3 flag staffs of equal heights at 3 consecutive corners of the yard are 450, 600 &
600 respectively. Find the height of each flag staff.
a. 345.87m b. 374.95m c. 411.44m d. 333.33m

Situation:
Two towers A & B are placed at a distance of 100m apart horizontally. The
height of A is 40m and that of B is 30m.
33. At what distance vertically above the ground will the intersection of the
lines forming the angles of elevation of the two towers are observed from
the bases of towers A and B respectively.
a. 12.33
b. 17.14
c. 17.89
d. 13.66
34. At what distance horizontally is this point located from tower A?
a. 57.14
b. 55.78
c. 59.23
d. 61.33

Situation:
The angle of elevation of the tower from A is 25deg. From another point
B, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 56deg. AB = 300m and
on the same horizontal plane as the foot of the tower. The horizontal
angle subtended by A and B and the foot of the tower is 70deg.
35. What is the height of the tower?
a. 146.7m b. 148.8m c. 134.4m d. 111.2m
36. How far is point A from the tower?
a. 319.1
b. 322.2
c. 341.2
d. 331.2
37. How far is point B from the tower?
a. 111.1
b. 100.4
c. 122.2
d. 97.6

Situation:
A plane flies at a speed of 400mph from A to B on a direction N32degW
with a wind blowing at a speed of 30mph on a direction due west.
38. What is the speed of the wind relative to the ground?
a. 434.22 b. 456.65 c. 416.68 d. 561.22
39. At what angle was the original direction of the flight shifted due to the
tail wind?
a. 2.5deg b. 4.5deg c. 3.5deg d. 5.5deg
40. What is the direction of the plane relative to the ground.
a. N35.5degW b. N45.5degW
c. N32.3degW
d. N51.2degW

Situation:
A plane travels N30degW at an air speed of 600kph. If the wind has a
speed of 80kph on a direction of N40degE,
41. What is the ground speed of the plane?
a. 456.67 b. 631.85 c. 667.89 d. 811.23
42. What is the angle that the plane shifted from the original course?
a. 6.83deg b. 7.81deg c. 8.32deg d. 9.11deg
43. What is the direction of the plane relative to the ground?
a. N23010W
b. N33040W
c. N51020W
d. N35012W

Situation:
Given a spherical triangle:
a = 77036, b = 63017 & c = 107023 with spherical radius of 5m.
44. Find the perimeter.
a. 21.641m
b. 23.341m
c. 22.333m
d. 28.123m
45. Find the value of A.
a. 67.89deg
b. 65.83deg
c. 66.78deg
d. 78.23deg
Situation:
The diagonals of a parallelogram are 87.2 & 100.4m respectively and they intersect at an angle of
48018.
46. Find the perimeter of the parallelogram.
a. 234.97
b. 248.96
c. 251.23
d. 311.45
47. Find the area of the parallelogram.
a. 3567
b. 3268
c. 3342
d. 4122

48. Determine the total length of the belt shown which goes around the pulleys A &
B of radii 10cm and 6cm respectively. The distance between centers is 25cm.
a. 100.91cm b. 111.94cm
c. 122.23cm d. 154.34cm

49. Determine the total length of the crossed belt shown which goes around the pulleys
A & B of radii 12cm and 7cm respectively. The distance between the centers is 30cm.
a. 144.56cm b. 120.34cm
c. 132.19cm d. 144.21cm

50. A horizontal cylindrical tank, buried underground has a diameter of 1.2m and a
length of 3m. If it is filled with gasoline to a depth of 0.8m, find the volume of gasoline
in liters.
a. 2500
b. 2400
c. 2600
d. 2800