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Basic First Aid

Course Objective:
By the end of this course, the delegates will be able to:
Define the meaning of First aid and First Aider
Enumerate the Roles of a First Aider
Identify the Chain of Survival
Demonstrate CPR on a proper manner to an adult patient(s)
Identify common emergencies in adults
Such as:
Choking
Bleeding
Shock
Burns and scalds
Fracture
Heat emergencies
Administer First Aid Management the common emergencies
Analyze when to activate EMS.

First Aid

Is the management of a sudden illness or injury provided before the emergency


service arrive to provide professional medical care.
Principles of First Aid

Bridge that fills the gap between the patient and allied medical personnel
Ensure the safety of everyone
Determine any threats to the patients life
Provide needed care to the patient
Assist medical personnel as needed
Summon more advance care as needed.

Body Substance Isolation

This is to prevent the transmission of communicable diseases from one person to


another ( e.i gloves, mouth barrier, mask, etc.)

Venture Gulf Training Centre

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Basic First Aid

CALL FOR HELP WHEN:


Heart Attack
accident
Difficulty in breathing
what to do
Bleeding badly

Severe pain

Road

Broken bones

Unsure

Fall

Emergency Action Principles


A. PRIMARY SURVEY
1. Scene safety- Observe the scene; make sure there is no hazard prior to
approaching the victim.
2. Check for Life threatening conditions (R-ABC)
Responsiveness
Airway
Breathing
CPR
CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) - manually pumps the heart for circulation
and rescue breaths for oxygenation. Very effective when started immediately after

the patient had collapsed.

ONLY STOP CPR WHEN:


Venture Gulf Training Centre

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Basic First Aid


1. Medics/ Help arrive.
2. First aider is exhausted and someone takes over.
3. The patient started breathing normally.
B. SECONDARY SURVEY

1. Head to Toe examination look for open or close wound , burn and
fracture.
2. Recovery Position

3. Interview the casualty


Signs and symptoms
Allergy
Medication
Past Illness
Venture Gulf Training Centre

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Basic First Aid

Last meal taken


Event prior to injury

FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION


1. CHOKING- characterized by an obstruction of any foreign object in the throat.
SPEAK

COUGH

BREATH

MILD

YES

YES

YES

SEVERE

NO

NO

NO/ HIGH
PITCH

TYPE OF
CHOKING

SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS

Forceful
coughing
CYANOSIS,
SALIVATION

WHAT TO
DO?

Allow to
cough until
expelled
Conscious
Up to 5:
-Back slaps
-Abdominal
thrust
Alternately
Unconscio
us
CPR

COMMON EMERGENCIES

A.)

BLEEDING

- leaking of blood outside the blood

vessel. Could be internal or external.


First Aid:
a) Scene Safety and wear BSI
b) Proper positioning
c) Elevate the affected area above heart
level.
d) Inspect the injury
e) Apply direct pressure with a sterile
dressing
f) Apply a snugly fitting bandage
g) Summon help
h) Apply and indirect pressure

Venture Gulf Training Centre

CM 004/Rev 0/Dated 20th October 2005

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Basic First Aid


B.)
SHOCK- A condition wherein the body
has insufficient or failure of blood to circulate throughout the
body following an injury.
TYPES OF SHOCK
1. Cardiogenic Shock - Poor Pump Mechanism
Injury : Heart Attack
2. Hypovolemic Shock - Decreased Blood Volume
Injury : Open wound
3. Neurogenic Shock - Blood Vessels Dilate
Injury : Drug overdose
4. Anaphylactic Shock - Severe allergic Reaction
Injury : Bee sting
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
EARLY STAGE:
Pale or bluish skin (Figure. 1.1)
Cold and clammy skin
Fast and shallow breathing
Body weakness
Thirst
1.2
Dizziness
Nausea and vomiting (Figure 1.2)

Figure 1.1

Figure

LATE STAGE:
Unconsciousness (Fig 2.1)
Eyes are sunken with vacant expression (Fig 2.2)
Pupils are dilated (Fig 2.3)
Body temperature drops
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.3

Figure 2.2
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Basic First Aid


Shock First Aid:
1.) PRIMARY SURVEY
Asses ABC (Airway, Breathing, CPR) and maintain open airway.
2.) PROPER POSITION
Help in a lying position (Except for victim with heart/ breathing
problem and spinal cord injury)
Raise the leg up.
Loosen restrictive clothing.
3.) PROPER BODY HEAT
Asses body temperature and provide insulation.

C.)

BURNS AND SCALDS

Any injury to the skin caused by heat, friction, radiation and electricity.
Burns characterized by dry heat.
Scalds caused by hot liquid or steam.

Degrees of burn:

FIRST DEGREE-Includes only the outer layer of skin, the epidermis.

SECOND DEGREE- Involve the entire epidermis and upper layers of the dermis.

THIRD DEGREE- All layers of the skin is destroyed

Venture Gulf Training Centre

CM 004/Rev 0/Dated 20th October 2005

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Basic First Aid

Burn/ Scald First Aid:


Stop the burning process as soon as possible
Remove any clothing or jewelry near the burnt area of skin
Cool the burn with cool or lukewarm water for 10-30 minutes
Cover the burn with cling film in a layer over the burn, rather than
by wrapping it around a limb.
Electrical Burn First Aid:

Seek immediate medical attention


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Basic First Aid


Remove the casualty from the source of electrocution.
Do not approach a person who is connected to a high-voltage source
(1,000 volts or more).
Note: If the person has been injured by a low-voltage source, up to 220-240 volts (such as a
domestic electricity supply), safely switch off the power supply or remove the person from
the electrical source using a non-conductive material ( e.g wood stick or chair)

Chemical Burn First Aid:

Wear your BSI


remove any affected clothing from the person who has been burnt
if the chemical is in a dry form, brush it off the skin
use running water to remove any traces of the chemical from the burnt area

WARNING
do not attempt to remove anything that is stuck to the burnt
Never use ice, iced water
Never use any creams or greasy substances, such as butter, lotion or
toothpaste

SEEK IMMEDIATE HELP IF:

3rd degree burn


Burn in the neck and face
Burn in the genitals
Burn in hands and feet
Burn across the joint.

D.)

HEAT EXHAUSTION AND HEAT STROKE

Heat exhaustion is a mild heat related illness with core body


temperature of more than 38.8C

Venture Gulf Training Centre

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Basic First Aid

Heat Stroke is a real medical emergency that may be fatal if not


attended to or treated

FIRST AID FOR HEAT EXHAUSTION AND HEAT STROKE:


Remove from hot area.
Give liquids (if conscious).
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Basic First Aid

Have victim lie down and elevate feet at least 12 inches.


Remove excess clothing
Provide proper ventilation
Provide cold compress (neck, armpit and groin)
Continue to monitor ABC until help arrives.

F. NOSE BLEED (EPISTAXIS)


Most common causes:
Dry air when your nasal membranes dry out, they're more susceptible to
bleeding and infections
Nose picking
Other causes:
Trauma to the nose
Common colds

Nosebleed First Aid


Sit upright and lean
forward.
Pinch your nose for 5
minutes
Repeat.

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