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Brand management

In marketing, brand management is the analysis and
planning on how that brand is perceived in the market.
Developing a good relationship with the target market is
essential for brand management. Tangible elements of
brand management include the product itself; look, price,
the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer has had with the brand, and also
the relationship that they have with that brand. A brand
manager would oversee all of these things.

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branding expanded with each advance in transportation,
communication, and trade.
The modern discipline of brand management is considered to have been started by a famous memo at Procter
& Gamble[4] by Neil H. McElroy.[5]
Interbrand's 2012 top-10 global brands are Coca-Cola,
Apple, IBM, Google, Microsoft, GE, McDonald’s, Intel, Samsung, and Toyota.[6] The split between commodities/food services and technology is not a matter of
chance: both industrial sectors rely heavily on sales to the
individual consumer who must be able to rely on cleanliness/quality or reliability/value, respectively. For this
reason, industries such as agricultural (which sells to other
companies in the food sector), student loans (which have
a relationship with universities/schools rather than the individual loan-taker), and electricity (which is generally a
controlled monopoly) have less prominent and less recognized branding. Brand value, moreover, is not simply a
fuzzy feeling of “consumer appeal,” but an actual quantitative value of good will under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Companies will rigorously defend
their brand name, including prosecution of trademark infringement. Occasionally trademarks may differ across
countries.

Definitions

In 2001 Hislop defined branding as “the process of creating a relationship or a connection between a company’s
product and emotional perception of the customer for
the purpose of generating segregation among competition and building loyalty among customers.” In 2004 and
2008, Kapferer and Keller respectively defined it as a fulfillment in customer expectations and consistent customer
satisfaction.[1]
Brand management is a function of marketing that uses
special techniques in order to increase the perceived value
of a product (see: Brand equity). Based on the aims of
the established marketing strategy, brand management
enables the price of products to grow and builds loyal
customers through positive associations and images or a
strong awareness of the brand.[2]

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Among the most highly visible and recognizable brands
is the red Coca-Cola can. Despite numerous blind tests
indicating that Coke’s flavor is not preferred, Coca-Cola
continues to enjoy a dominant share of the cola market.
Coca-Cola’s history is so replete with uncertainty that a
folklore has sprung up around the brand, including the
(refuted) myth that Coca-Cola invented the red-dressed
Santa-Claus[7] which is used to gain market entry in less
capitalistic regions in the world such as the former Soviet
Union and China, and such brand-management stories as
“Coca-Cola’s first entry into the Chinese market resulted
in their brand being translated as 'bite the wax tadpole').[8]
Brand management science is replete with such stories,
including the Chevrolet 'Nova' or “it doesn't go” in Spanish, and proper cultural translation is useful to countries
entering new markets.

History

The origin of branding can be traced to ancient times,
when specialists often put individual trademarks on handcrafted goods. The branding of farm animals in Egypt
in 2700 BC to avoid theft may be considered the earliest form of branding, as in its literal sense. As somewhat more than half of companies older than 200 years
old are in Japan, (see: List of oldest companies), many
Japanese businesses’ “mon” or seal is an East Asian form
of brand or trademark. In the West, Staffelter Hof dates
to 862 or earlier and still produces wine under its name
today. By 1266, English bakers were required by law to
put a specific symbol on each product they sold. Branding became more widely used in the 19th century, through
the industrial revolution and the development of new professional fields like marketing, manufacturing and business management.[3] Branding is a way of differentiating
product from mere commodities, and therefore usage of

Modern brand management also intersects with legal issues such as 'genericization of trademark.' The 'Xerox'
Company continues to fight heavily in media whenever a
reporter or other writer uses 'xerox' as simply a synonym
for 'photocopy.'[9] Should usage of 'xerox' be accepted as
the standard English term for 'photocopy,' then Xerox’s
competitors could successfully argue in court that they
are permitted to create 'xerox' machines as well. Yet, in

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2004). falls under the category of viral marketing. reaching this stage of market domination is it. due to their short-term focus. Naomi Klein. to attract and retain customers.Thames & • Wally Olins on B®and. which broadly describes any strategy that encourages individuals to propagate a message. The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization. whereas on the other end of the extreme a perfume brand might be created that does not show the actual use of the perfume or Breitling may sponsor an aerobatics team purely for the “image” created by such sponsorship. 2009. Space travel and brand management for this reason also enjoys a special relationship. The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites.[15] Basic forms of this are seen when a customer makes a statement about a product or company or endorses a brand.[14] Word-of-mouth marketing via social media. brand managers may patrol retail outlets for using their name in discount/clearance sales). companies have now experienced a new challenge with the introduction of social media. competitive tools – such as brands. "Nation branding" is a modern term conflating foreign relations and the idea of a brand.[12] An example is Cool • Brand implementation • Chief brand officer • Co-branding • Employer branding • Promise Index • Visual brand language 8 Bibliography • No logo. . Hudson. Thames & Hudson. Brand managers may try to control the brand image. 2005. A typical “no-brand” advertisement might simply put up the price (and indeed. companies and their customers and constituents. This change is finding the right balance between empowering customers to spread the word about the brand through viral platforms. more enduring. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets. luxury and high-end premium brands may create advertisements or sponsor teams merely for the “overall feeling” or goodwill generated. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product lifecycles. its primary goals remain the same.[10] Even though social media has changed the tactics of marketing brands. self a triumph of brand management. Wally Olins.[13] However. 7 See also • Brand ambassador • Brand awareness • Brand engagement 5 Approaches “By Appointment to His Royal Majesty” was a registered and limited list of approved brands suitable for supply to the Royal British family. Picador USA. increasing numbers of companies are looking for other.Britannia of the 1990s. creating the potential for exponential growth in the message’s exposure and influence.[11] On the other end of the extreme. This marketing technique allows users to spread the word on the brand which creates exposure for the company. while still controlling the company’s own core strategic marketing goals. It is a deliberate approach to working with brands. 2008. in that becoming so dominant typically involves strong profit. Because of this brands have become interested in exploring or using social media for commercial benefit. 6 Social media 3 Brand orientation Brand orientation refers to “the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities” (Bridson & Evans. • The Brands Handbook.2 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY a sense. For this reason. thus. both internally and externally. 4 Justification Brand management aims to create an emotional connection between products. Some believe brand managers can be counter-productive. A product’s superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success.

October 20. Erich Joachimsthaler (2000). October 20. Information Systems Research. and Saiqa Tehseen. 2012. [5] Aaker. doi: 10. Retrieved December 14.com/cokelore/tadpole. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management. Sumaira.12 (2011): 435–441.snopes. Business Source Complete.. The effect of the social structure of digital networks on viral marketing performance. Sumaira. and Saiqa Tehseen. 562-583.Interbrand”.1070.12 (2011): 435–441. Web. 2015.asp [8] http://www.com/holidays/christmas/santa/ cocacola.0152 . (2004) ‘The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation’. Business Source Complete. (2008). pp. [7] http://www. Retrieved March 9. Jacqui (2006).3 9 References • Bridson. Retrieved 17 April [3] Shamoon. (2009). 2000. 2012.2013. J. 2012. 32(8): 403-11 [1] Shamoon. London: Wiley. 74. New York: The Free Press. “Globalisation and Identity”. P&G Changing the Face of Consumer Marketing. ISBN 978-0-19558492-9. J. R. Analysis of fashion consumers’ motives to engage in electronic word-of-mouth communication through social media platforms. [14] Wolny. May 2.. doi: 10. David A.12 (2011): 435–441. Web.1287/isre. October 20. Web. October 20. Business Source Complete. Globalisation and Identity. [12] True. 273–290. 2011. [10] Shamoon. T. and Evans.. (2013). Business Source Complete. L. [2] “Brand Management Definition”. Sumaira. Mental Floss. and Saiqa Tehseen. M. 2014. D. Mather. “Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2. “Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2... 2012. Journal Of Marketing Management. [6] “Previous Years . & Mueller. 2014.Best Global Brands .com. M.snopes.. C. [13] Weber.778324 [15] Bampo. Harvard Business School. & Wallace. “Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2. Marketing to the social web: How digital customer communities build your business. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. M. Brand Leadership. Ewing. and Saiqa Tehseen. Web. interbrand. 1–6. 29(5/6). Retrieved December 14. Stewart. p. [4] “Neil McElroy’s Epiphany”. K.1080/0267257X. Sumaira. ISBN 0-684-83924-5. 19(3).12 (2011): 435–441. [11] Shamoon. In Raymond Miller..asp [9] “41 Brand Names People Use as Generic Terms”. D. “Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.

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