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Lifting line method

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**Epps, Brenden, Jerod Ketcham, and Chryssostomos
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Chryssostomidis. "Propeller blade stress estimates using lifting

line theory." Grand Challenges in Modeling & Simulation:

Proceedings of the 2010 Summer Simulation Multiconference,

SummerSim '10 2010, Ottawa, ON, Canada, July 11-14, 2010.

Web.

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http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2020679

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Association for Computing Machinery

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Wed Dec 30 07:07:03 EST 2015

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http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/78622

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O PEN P ROP began in 2001 with the propeller code PVL developed by Kerwin [2007] as part of his MIT propeller design course notes.Propeller blade stress estimates using lifting line theory Brenden Epps1 . Experimental measurements of the propeller performance over a wide range of off-design operating conditions agree with performance predictions. MIT Sea Grant College Program and Professor. it can design both propellers and axial flow turbines using the same numerical representation [Epps et. MIT Mechanical Engineering 3: Director. 2009]. 1. with trailing vorticity aligned to the local flow velocity (i. This experimental data provides important validation for the off-design performance analysis capability of O PEN P ROP. . incorporated graphical user interfaces for parametric design and preliminary bladerow design [Chung 2007]. Geometry routines were later added which interfaced with the CAD program Rhino to generate a 3D printable propeller [D’Epagnier et. Loads are computed by integrating the 2D section loads over the span of the blade. MIT Sea Grant College Program 2: Graduate student. and Epps [2010] developed an off-design performance analysis capability. Epps et. and extension to the raked or skewed cases is planned. propeller design. Estimates of the blade stress are given for on-design and offdesign operating states of the propeller. The computational model incorporates a standard wake alignment procedure to accurately represent moderate blade loading. the blade shape and pitch angle are determined by scaling 2D section geometry to give the desired on-design loading. This paper presents an extension of the code to predict the normal stresses in the blades due to inviscid and viscous loading.and off-design conditions are also shown. inflow conditions. which draws heavily from the theory presented in [Kerwin 2007. MPVL. Abstract INTRODUCTION O PEN P ROP is a suite of open-source propeller and turbine design codes written in the M ATLAB programming language [Kimball and Epps 2010].and off-design operating conditions. an open-source computational tool for the design and analysis of propellers and horizontal-axis turbines. As an example. Coney 1989.e. As such. The propeller design optimization procedure determines the optimum circulation distribution along the span of the blade. Experimental measurements of the offdesign performance of the propeller are presented for a range of off-design operating conditions. Carlton 1994]. al. and blade 2D section properties. Jerod Ketcham2 . al. in which a propeller blade is represented by a lifting line. For a selected design. The blade itself is modeled as discrete sections. This paper also presents an example propeller design using the current code suite. which is computed using the local induced velocity consistent with the blade loading at the off-design condition. Maine Maritime Academy and University of Maine have contributed to the current O PEN P ROP code. 2007]. The codes are based on the same propeller design theory utilized in codes employed by the US Navy for parametric design of marine propellers [Kerwin 2007]. The first M ATLAB version of this code. the circulation) is proportional to the local 2D angle of attack. blade wake. The induced velocities are computed using a vortex lattice. The blade stress estimates for on. and the present implementation of the code includes an analysis capability to estimate the off-design performance of the propeller or turbine and to make blade stress predictions. 2. O PEN P ROP is designed to be a GUI-based user-friendly tool that can be used by both propeller design professionals as well as novices to propeller design. [2009a] implemented a generalized optimizer routine based on the work of Coney [1989] . which yields the minimum torque for a specified thrust. O PEN P ROP utilizes a lifting-line representation of the blades with constant-diameter helical vortices to represent the METHODOLOGY What follows is a review of the theoretical foundation and numerical implementation of the O PEN P ROP code suite. The numerical model is based on propeller lifting theory. The off-design performance is estimated assuming that the lift coefficient of each blade section (and hence. A team of researchers at MIT. having 2D section properties at each radius. MIT Mechanical Engineering Keywords: O PEN P ROP. propeller analysis O PEN P ROP. and Chryssostomos Chryssostomidis3 1: Postdoctoral research associate. with helical vortex filaments trailing into the wake at discrete stations along the blade. the vector sum of free-stream plus induced velocity). al. The stress analysis currently implemented is applicable to propellers or turbines with zero rake or skew. we present the design and performance of a two-bladed propeller. The present implementation of O PEN P ROP is based on moderatelyloaded lifting line theory. is extended to provide estimates of normal stresses in the blades for both on. These early codes were capable of designing propellers using a simple Lerb’s criteria optimizer routine [Lerbs 1952].

(3) sheer stresses are negligible. i) and u¯t∗ (m. Propeller lifting line representation Fv u∗t < 0 as drawn ea Fi F βi the influence of the vortex lattice at a given radial location. al. one Newton solver iteration is performed to drive the residual vector ∗ p V − (Va + u∗a )2 + (ωOD rc +Vt + ut∗ )2 α − (θ − βi ) CL − (2π(α − αI ) +CL ) I (9) R= 1 ∗ Γ − 2 CLV c u∗ − [u¯∗ ] · [Γ] a a ut∗ − [u¯t∗ ] · [Γ] towards zero. For each operating state. and a more accurate CL (α) curve is currently employed in O PEN P ROP to treat section stall properties [Epps 2010].rc (m). u∗a . as viewed from the tip towards the root of the blade. JOD = Vs nOD D = πVs ωOD R . V∗ . . has magnitude V ∗ = (Va + u∗a )2 + (ωr +Vt + ut∗ )2 and is oriented at pitch angle. (8) and state variables {V ∗ . rc (m). Fv = 21 ρ(V ∗ )2CD c aligned with V∗ . and power coefficients and the efficiency [Epps et. . respectively. Blade stress estimation Given the design state or an off-design state. u¯t∗ }. . which are computed using the approximations by Wrench [1957]. is given by V α ∗ V0 θ βi ua∗ −u∗ t β et The velocity/force diagram shown in figure 1 illustrates the velocities and forces (per unit span) on a 2D blade section in the axial ea and tangential et directions for a propeller rotating with angular velocity ω ea . m = 1 . The axial and tangential induced velocities.2. T=Z (6) i=1 M Va ωr + Vt Γ er M u∗a (rc (m)) = ∑ Γ(i)u¯∗a (m. α. u∗a . circulation.3. Γ er . and (4) the blade has zero rake and skew. (2) normal stresses are due to bending and centrifugal forces. Propeller velocity/force diagram. 2009]. Va + u∗a −1 βi = tan (1) ωr +Vt + ut∗ to the et axis. (inviscid) Kutta-Joukowski lift force Fi = ρV ∗ Γ normal to V∗ . i) are the axial and tangential velocity induced at rc (m) by a unit-strength horseshoe vortex surrounding the ith panel of each of the Z blades. The off-design state is found using a modified Newton solver approach. CL . in which the Z propeller blades are each modeled as a set of M horseshoe vortex elements (which consist of a segment of the lifting line and two helical trailing vortices that extend to infinity). where ρ is the fluid density. M. the blade stresses may be estimated by an application of beam bending theory [Kerwin and Hadler 2010]. i) Fa dr (4) (r er ) × Ft dr (5) where rh and R are the radius of the propeller hub and tip. During each iteration. and so on. torque. and viscous drag force. All velocities are relative to a stationary blade section at radius r. ut∗ . CL . ut∗ } are computed using the standard propeller lifting line model. u¯∗a . α. Note that the third residual is merely notional. Γ. ut∗ }.rv (i). 2. Off-design performance analysis An off-design (OD) operating state is defined by an offdesign advance coefficient.2. These new values are used in the next Newton iteration. blade pitch angle θ = α + βi . u¯∗a . These forces can be projected into axial and tangential components Fa = [Fi cos βi − Fv sin βi ] (ea ) (2) Ft = [Fi sin βi + Fv cos βi ] (−et ) (3) Assuming the Z blades are identical.p The total resultant inflow velocity. i) (7) i=1 Figure 1. This process repeats until convergence of the entire system. These influence matrices are functions of {Z. α. Given the new values of {V ∗ . Since circulation is assumed constant on each panel. βi . the parameters {βi . CD is the drag coefficient. Also shown on figure 1 are the angle of attack. u¯t∗ } are then updated. Γ. The basic assumptions herein are: (1) the blade acts as a cantilevered beam.1. the total thrust and torque on the propeller are Z R rh Z R Q=Z rh ut∗ (rc (m)) = ∑ Γ(i)u¯t∗ (m. c is the section chord. 2.βi (i)}. where u¯∗a (m. {u∗a . the analyzer computes the propeller thrust.

and the propeller had zero rake or skew. The hub diameter (Dhub = 3. which would introduce additional bending moments due to Fc . y) of the section is: σ(x. The blade stress was estimated for both on. The section drag coefficient was assumed to be CD = 0. which are as follows: Z R Ma = ro Z R Mt = ro (r − ro )Fa dr (−et ) (11) (r − ro )Ft dr (−ea ) (12) Since the blade is oriented at pitch angle θ to the et axis. EXAMPLE: PROPELLER DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS A two-bladed propeller was designed for use in this study. ρb is the propeller blade material density.and off-design conditions.25 m ≈ 10 in) was chosen to be as large as possible while still leaving sufficient clearance to the walls of the water tunnel to mitigate blockage effects.08382 [m] hub diameter (3. y) = − Mx y My x Fc − + Ix Iy A (15) where x and y are measured from the centroid of the area of the section. and the torque coefficient and efficiency are typical for this loading. The blade shape was chosen to give a reasonably large chords for most of the span. is the sum of the contributions of all outboard sections Fc = ρb ω2 Z R Ar dr ro (er ) (10) which produces tensile stress Fc /A.25 [m] diameter (≈ 10 in) T 30 [N] required thrust Vs 1. 3. whereas a propeller with three or more blades would be restricted to maximum a diameter of 8 inches. the total normal stress at point (x. and y toward the suction side). Propeller design input parameters. and their justification follows. although measurements of the stress were not made. while also maintaining a rounded . The propeller was designed to operate in the test set-up that will be described shortly. The elemental centrifugal force acting on a blade section from an adjoining section is dFc = ω2 r dm.! !"#($ ! Parameter Value Description Z 2 number of blades N 480 [RPM] rotation rate (n = 8 rev/s) D 0. "# $# &$ !"#$ !$ # %# !"%($ !"%'$ !"#'$ !"%$ !" # Figure 2. Performance measurements were made at the MIT recirculating water tunnel over a range of off-design operating states. where dm = ρb A dr is the mass of the adjoining section. The primary design parameters are listed in table 1. The values for KT and Js meet those prescribed by the input parameters. Since the blade stress requires the loading in physical units.5 [m/s] free-stream speed Dhub 0. Centrifugal forces contribute to the overall tensile stress at each blade section. and A is the section area. in addition to the non-dimensional off-design advance coefficient. The propeller circulation distribution was optimized in O PEN P ROP using the [Coney 1989] method. Thus. The choice of two blades (Z = 2) was driven by the size of the Dimension Elite 3D printer used to fabricate the propeller. the axial and tangential bending moments are projected onto the centroidal axes (x parallel to the chord line. The free-stream speed and thrust were chosen to give a thrust coefficient typical of a marine propeller (see table 2) while having low enough torque that the trolling motor could drive the propeller. The swirl inflow velocity was zero (Vt = 0). the actual value of Vs or n must be specified. The propeller diameter (D = 0. which has an 8-inch by 12-inch planform area for printing. Further details of this procedure are given in [Ketcham 2010]. The total centrifugal force at a section of radius. The inflow velocity profile was not measured prior to propeller design and assumed uniform (Va /Vs = 1 for all blade sections).010 for all blade sections. Tabulated flow parameters for blade sections at the control points are given in table 3. The bending stresses at radius ro are computed from the bending moments about the negative axial and tangentail axes. Equation (15) assumes that the blade does not have rake or skew. Bending moments and resultants.3 in) was chosen to match the diameter of the trolling motor used in the experiments. a two-bladed propeller could be printed with a 10inch diameter. as shown in figure 2 Mx = Ma cos θ + Mt sin θ (−ex ) (13) My = Ma sin θ − Mt cos θ (ey ) (14) Thus. This procedure is implemented in O PEN P ROP to estimate the stress for the on-design loading or any off-design state.3 in) M 20 number of vortex panels Table 1. ro . Axial and tangential loads contribute to bending stresses at each blade section. and the nondimensional design performance of this optimized propeller is shown in table 2.

0151 0.2692 0.9754 0. G = 2πRV .0914 27.4173 0.0489 0.2849 0.8108 0.6748 Table 3.2911 0.1 !0. Figure 4.1449 41.4 motor assembly 25 37 109 all dimensions in centimeters blade tip.2052 0. The actual camber and ideal angle of attack of the sections was scaled by the desired section lift coefficient.7019 efficiency Table 2. 1959.1432 0. non-dimensional circulation.0226 0. which was modified slightly to be amenable to 3D printing. Further details of the design are given in [Epps 2010].0348 0. Optimized blade design: radius/propeller radius. The 3D blade geometry was built from 2D sections.0305 0. s NACA 65A010 NACA 65A010 (modified) 0.0541 17.4502 0.2646 0. The modified shape was obtained by truncating and rounding the trailing edge and then stretching the aft half of the blade section to be the original length.1179 34.0449 0.5158 0. chord/diameter.0272 0.4980 0.1035 30. p.8769 0.0592 20.2494 0.2759 0.0686 22.0467 0. Γ r/R.0519 18.6175 0.4033 0.5101 0.2 0 f0 c t0 c c r/R G θ D 0. trigger signal r we po power supply data acquisition system signal camera trigger force dynamometer water tunnel test section inflow camber ratio.0138 0.0212 0.0332 0.0543 18.5486 0.0 and an ideal angle of attack of α maximum camber ratio of f˜0 /c = 0.6 0.0813 25.0862 26.2571 0.0409 0. This meanline type has an ideal lift coefficient of e I = 1.0726 23. 403].0204 torque coefficient KQ = 0. Design performance parameters.2822 0.3845 0.9426 0.2411 0.0464 0.5815 0.6029 0.2 0.4575 0.0473 0.5226 0. (b) SolidWorks.8841 0. Rendering of the propeller blades: (a) O PEN P ROP.0463 0.1 0.1200 t/c Vs Js = nD KT = ρnT2 D4 3. 0 !0. fc0 .0431 0.06651.8441 0.4068 0.6471 0.7128 0.0162 0.0186 0.7456 0.8 Figure 5.1470 0.2297 0.8710 0.0486 0.2795 0. Blade thickness form: ‘NACA65A010’ versus ‘NACA65A010 (modified)’.4 0. and thickness ratio.0414 0. and blade pitch angle.0256 0.0650 21.9058 0.2713 0.9097 0.0489 0.0484 0.0453 0. The ‘NACA 65A010’ and ‘NACA 65A010 (modified)’ forms are shown in figure 3.1261 36. Experimental results Steady propeller performance tests were performed in the MIT water tunnel using the experimental setup shown in .6553 0.40 with a CeLI = 1.2 0. c D. The data acquisition system triggers the power supply and PIV camera to start the unsteady start-up tests.0173 0. The chord lengths were not optimized.2911 0.0619 20.0768 24.0115 0. Propeller test setup: power is delivered to and Hall-effect signal is acquired from the motor assembly by umbilical.2864 0.0473 0.8 propeller 52 8.0310 0.3908 0.8277 0.0479 0. (modified)’ meanline type [Abbott and von Doenhoff. The meanline selected was the ‘NACA a=0.advance ratio thrust coefficient Q ρn2 D5 s EFFY = TV Qω 0.1.0199 0.0972 29.8113 0.2348 0.2769 0.0356 0.0481 0. tc0 .6143 0.0567 19.0291 0.0383 0. The 2D foil section thickness profile was a version of the ‘NACA 65A010’ thickness form ]Abbott and von Doenhoff.0125 0. 1959.0241 0. 3.0381 0. Large chord lengths enable large blade thickness (required so the blade would not flex during testing) while still having small thickness to chord ratio (required for linear foil theory). fairing 0. p.4830 0.8 1 x/c (b) Figure 3. θ [deg].6799 0.4651 0.2886 0.0250 0.7784 0.75 0.2901 0. 369]. The geometry of each 2D section is defined by the meanline camber profile and thickness forms.0171 0. The resulting 2D and 3D blade geometry is shown in figure 4.1351 38.3517 0. as described in [Epps 2009a].0487 0.2539 0.1103 32.2889 0.

) where k f = 93. Vs = 1. The efficiency of the propeller is by definition KT 10*KQ EFFY experiment EFFY = 10*KQ 0. and (2) achieving that off-design advance ratio with a higher rotation rate.3 [N/V] was the calibration.4 TVs KT Js = Qω 2πKQ Blade stresses Since the performance predictions made by the off-design analysis model agree reasonably well with the measured performance data. im .06454 Nm/A. B(ω). EFFY 0. and the friction torque. In these experiments.5 rev/s). part number 2069060) and situated in the water tunnel test section. which corresponds to Js = 0.3. This is a result of (1) selecting an off-design design advance ratio where both KT and KQ are higher than ondesign. with experimental data. The steady rotation rate.40.2.3 to 1. typical sign conventions for normal stress apply: tensile stresses are considered positive and compressive stresses negative. as determined by calibration tests. and the drag on the motor housing.75. ω. is the slope of a linear fit to the angular-position-versus-time data acquired from a Halleffect sensor mounted to the motor assembly.6 where D p = 0. Blade stress for the on-design state: Js = 0. and of the angular velocity of the propeller Q = km im − B(ω) (17) where km = 0. these model predictions can be used to estimate the blade stresses. Fmotor drag (Vs ).8 Js = Vs / (nD) 1 Figure 6. was inferred from the calibration data [Epps 2010]. The measured data match within 10% of the predicted performance for most advance ratios.5 m/s. Carlton [1994] presents isostress contour lines taken from FEA results.1). showing highest stress near the blade mid-chord in a region that extends close to the tip of the blade and a decreasing stress as one moves away from the midchord to the leading and trailing edges. with Vs = 1.9 m/s) and steady rotation rates (n = 1.75. these data are plotted versus advance coefficient EFFY 0. 10*KQ.KT. These data are normalized in the usual way to form thrust and torque coefficients T ρn2 D4p Q KQ = 2 5 ρn D p KT = (18) (19) Figure 7. n = 15 rev/s. As expected. The stress estimates presented herein agree with the trends presented by Carlton [1994] for a symmetrical propeller blade without skew. The design point is Js = 0. 3.6 0. The torque on the propeller was inferred from measurements of the current supplied to the motor. for the design state. the flow speed was measured using the a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system.8 m/s and n = 8 rev/s. then the stresses would be lower. (Had we chosen Js = 0.2 0 0 Js = KT 0. D = 0. spanning the advance ratios (Js = 0.1 to 1. Thrust and torque measurements were made for a range of steady flow speeds (Vs = 0. In figures 7 and 8. Off-design propeller performance curves. the off-design condition chosen shows higher stresses than the on-design condition.5 m/s. The propeller was mounted on a trolling motor (Minn Kota motor assembly.2 0.4 to 9. as well as an off-design operating state.4 0. The net force on the motor assembly was measured using the force dynamometer. Blade normal stresses were estimated using the procedure outlined in Section 2. so the thrust produced by the propeller was (16) Vs nD p (21) Figure 6 shows good agreement between the O PEN P ROP off-design performance predictions and the experimental results.8 0. was inferred from calibration data [Epps 2010]. .2487m is the actual diameter of the printed propeller.25 m.40 with Vs = 0. These data provide valuable validation for the off-design performance analysis method. T = k f fnet force + Fmotor drag (Vs ) (20) In figure 6. n = 8 rev/s. figure 5.

” Trans. Acknowledgments This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research N000140810080 and NOAA NSG NA060AR4170019. Ketcham. and Propulsion. J. Notre Dame. Istanbul.” SNAME Propeller and Shafting conference.” Technical Report 1116. David Taylor Model Basin.. MIT. Also. namely the (each 3-component) position. Flood. May 2010. 2009a. B. and elemental moments of each blade section.5 m/s. and Hadler. 1959. since the [Wrench 1957] formulae can be used to compute the induced velocities on the radial lifting line.. This offers computational efficiency. Turkey. C. bending stresses due to rake and skew will have to properly be accounted for in the overall stress state of the blade. “XFOIL: An Analysis and Design System for Low Reynolds Number Airfoils. O PEN P ROP v2.” Ph. “O PEN P ROP: An Open-Source Design Tool for Propellers and Turbines. R. One related study is of interest as well.P. I.” In: T. Hydrofoils and Propellers. A. which is the standard model consistent with thin airfoil theory for flat-unswept wings. J.B. Springer-Verlag. J. In the case of flexible blades. A.W. R. H. Comparison of performance predictions between the two vortex lattice geometries are of interest. H. “Principles of Naval Architecture: Propulsion. “Minimum Pressure Envelope Cavitation Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Panel Method” M.-L..E. J. Figure 8.edu. build and test of an axial flow. 1952. Wrench. 1994. Chalfant.B. Thesis.. K. flexible propeller or turbine. elemental forces. Coney. W. Vs = 1. In addition. and Chryssostomidis. Epps. Kimball. Techet. 1989. and Marine Propellers. “A Method for the Design of a Class of Optimum Marine Propulsors”. Theory of Wing Sections. “Moderately Loaded Propellers with a Finite Number of Blades and an Arbitrary Distribution of Circulation.. Stanway. Kerwin.P. B. One study of interest is to augment the vortex lattice such that the lifting line traces the quarterchord of the blade sections and the control points are located at the three-quarter-chord positions. “An enhanced propeller design program based on propeller vortex lattice lifting line theory”. The open-source nature of the code suite (published under the GNU public license protocol) is intended to make it a public resource to enhance the art of propeller and turbine design and analysis. M. J. July 13-16. orientation. J. to appear 2010.. H. 60. The standard propeller lifting line model places the lifting line at the mid-chord and places the control points on the lifting itself. 5-7 June 1989. “Design. n = 15 rev/s. C. Indiana. “The calculation of propeller induction factors. . M. http://openprop. MIT. B. Water Entry of Spheres. E.mit.” Proc. since blade flexure corresponds to a change in the geometry of the vortex lattice. R.3 code. Kerwin. February. Grand Challenges in Modeling and Simulation (GCMS09).” SNAME. Carlton. February 2010. Marine Propellers Butterworth-Heinemann. Blade stress for an off-design state: Js = 0.D. Mueller. The O PEN P ROP project is intended to provide accurate and powerful propeller and axial flow turbine design codes for use by both novice users and experienced designers. 2007. S.40. 4. the vortex lattice will have to be augmented as to find the deflected state of the turbine. PhD thesis. hydrokinetic turbine with fatigue analysis.. “An Impulse Framework for Hydrodynamic Force Analysis: Fish Propulsion.23 notes.. 2010. 2007. J.S.REFERENCE Abbott.. MIT. W. Chung.. CURRENT RESEARCH FOCUS Efforts are currently underway to extend the simple stress analysis presented herein to model large. June 2008. Dover. MIT. for a large.J.W. J.J. Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics: Proceedings for the Conference.. SNAME. 2009. and Von Doenhoff. D = 0. Epps. Epps. Robert Damus of the Project Ocean. Thesis. who was instrumental in securing funds that made some of this research possible. editor. flexible wind turbines. the authors wish to thank Mr. 1-12. v. Lerbs. “OpenProp: An Open-source Parametric Design and Analysis Tool for Propellers.E. USA.” Masters Thesis. B. p. Drela. Kimball. 1957. MIT. and Epps. This introduces 12 unknowns into the Newton solver. MIT course 2. and Kimball. Peterson. thesis.S.25 m.

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