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Best Methods for Different Factors of a PV
Module to Increase its Efficiency
Submitted By
Nidhi Upadhyay (15/PPS/005)
M.TECH. (Power System)

Department of Electrical Engineering

The amount of this generated electricity mainly depends upon some factors like intensity of solar insolation (radiation). ɳ = Pm/ (G×Ac) . Solar energy is the example of renewable energy and Solar photovoltaic (SPV) is the most useful application of solar energy.e. Solar cell efficiency is the ratio the electrical O/P of a solar cell to the incident energy conversion efficiency(ɳ) of a solar cell is the % of the solar energy to which the cell is exposed that is converted into electrical energy. electricity generated.e. Mirror reflection is the most effective one. 2. Each solar system introduces some technique by which intensity of incident light rays can be increased. measurable and non-measurable are checked on system whether in MATLAB/ Simulink or real experimental set up. There are some factors which affects the PV system’s efficiency. Literature Review (a)Effect of intensity of incident light raysIntensity of light is one of key factor on which efficiency depends. G is the irradiance (input light) in W/m2 and Ac is surface area of the solar cell in m2. 1. i. When sunlight (in the form of photons) falls on these semiconductor materials. Solar Photovoltaic is a field of solar energy utilization by which solar radiation (sunlight) is converted into electricity or electricity using a device called photovoltaic (PV) cell or Solar cell.Abstract In this paper impact of different factors is taken in consideration and the best estimation is selected for the optimal efficiency of Photovoltaic generating system. IntroductionRenewable resources are those resources which can be used to produce energy again and again and cannot be depleted. type of semiconductor material and ambient temperature. Sun tracking. Here the best approximation for those factors is examined. Both type of factors i. A solar cell is made up of a semiconductor material like silicon (Si) or other semiconductor materials like GaAs. . diffused reflection and mirror reflection are some ways to improve performance of the system. size of the solar cell.Where Pm is cell’s power output (in watts) at its maximum power point(Pm) . Intensity enhancement is required because O/P current is directly proportional to I/P incidence rays.

𝐼𝑝ℎ = 𝐺𝑘[𝐼𝑠𝑐 + 𝐾𝑖(𝑇𝑜𝑝 − 𝑇𝑟𝑒𝑓)] By comparative analysis of all among three Mirror reflection has been proven most effective method.Fig . .1. its introduction is given here [1]. Experimental Setup with mirror The Mirror were placed at an angle of approximately 120 degree with the panel’s horizontal surface.

The light intensity in this medium will be 2n2(x) times greater than the incident light intensity.004 𝐾 −1 Only few percentage of incident rays can be converted into electricity. 𝛽ref = 0. Basically water having higher heat capacity has the ability to draw more heat out of the solar panel as compared to air when it is operating at higher temperature. water pump cooling system. in such a way it is more advantageous to prefer the PV module with D. Rest part produces heat which increases the temperature of PV system. PV cells have high output power at lower operating temperatures. Use of parabolic concentrating collectors (dish) in order to maximize cell output with minimizes cell area. The relation between efficiency and PV cell temperature can be understand by the following fundamental equation. 𝜂c = 𝜂ref [1 − 𝛽ref (𝑇c − 𝑇ref)] Here. Efficiency of Solar cell is decreased with increasing temperature because large carrier recombination occur in the system as reduces the flow of current. water pump cooling system and solar thermal refrigeration according to the comparative analysis. But heat pipe cooling technique is the best cooling method among all. There are different methods designed for the cooling system like passive cooling technologies.Except this one more approach that can be used for solar intensity enhancement. in which optics of Textured and in homogeneous optical sheets are used . D. In Chennai.C. brushless for cooling etc. solar thermal refrigeration. where n(x)-local index of refraction in the sheet.C. .C. the month of January delivers better O/P than May. This heat can be reduced by introducing the cooling system. On the basis of this concept cooling system also preferred. (b)Effect of temperature – Solar PV panels generate less power in very hot summers as the heat reduces their efficiency (the voltage reduces). D. Photovoltaic conversion is also function of operating temperature. To understand the basics implementation of these techniques or cooling system reference [4] can be taken. This can lead to up to 4n2(x) in the absorption of indirect gap semiconductor like crystalline silicon.

[3] [4] (c)Effect of fill factor- . Brushless Fan And D. (b) Comparitive Conclusion Between Direct Water Cooling And Cooling By Using Heat Pipe Technique- FIG 3: COOLING BY USING HEAT PIPE TECHNIQUE.C. Heat pipe cooling is better cooling method for the PV cells as compare to the direct water cooling. Water Cooling System- Comparison between both kinds of cooling system the PV module with D.Comparative Analysis among Different Cooling System(a) Comparative Conclusion Between D. water pump cooling system is more efficient compare to D. brushless fan cooling system [6].C.C.C.

It is basically to operate PV module in a fashion by which PV system could produce all the power they are capable of. MPPT Block Diagram .F. Increasing the shunt resistance (Rsh) and decreasing the series resistance (Rs) lead to a higher fill factor. MPPT is the interconnection between PV array and electrical load. Fig 4. MPPT stabilizes the voltage for proper operation of load or charging of battery bank irrespective weather conditions and temperature. thus resulting in greater efficiency and bringing the cells O/P power closer to its theoretical maximum [2]. 𝐹𝐹 = 𝜂 ∗ 𝐴𝑐 ∗ 𝐺 𝑉𝑜𝑐 ∗ 𝐼𝑠𝑐 The fill factor is directly affected by the values of the cells series and shunt resistance.) This is the available power at the maximum power point (Pm) divided by the open circuit voltage (Voc) and the short circuit current (Isc).Another defining term in the overall behavior of a solar cell is the fill factor (F. (d)Efficiency improvement by Maximum Power Point TrackerMaximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is a system to improve the efficiency of PV module. With a control circuitry which controls the output voltage (DC) by controlling duty cycle of DC-DC converter. The MPPT is a power electronic system consisting of a DC Chopper (DC-DC converter) to have variable DC from fixed DC.

The external quantum efficiency of a silicon solar cell includes the effect of optical losses such as transmission and reflection. Cells need to have absorbent so as to absorb the maximum number of photons in solar spectrum. 2) Quantum efficiency refers to the percentage of photons that are converted to electric current (i. Solar power plant using satellite and Hybrid PV system. collected carriers) when the cell is operated under short circuit conditions. tandem solar cells with efficiency of 28% have been produced.With this concept.e. This can be achieved by using a series of solar cells with varying band gaps planned in a multilayer structure. The correct approach is to use filters and split the solar spectrum into several spectral regions. (e)Other factors1) Solar cells with multiple band gap absorber materials improve efficiency by dividing the solar spectrum into smaller bins where the thermodynamic efficiency limit higher for each bin. The band gap of a semiconductor is required to match the solar spectrum.To lead maximum possible power O/P to the load the most appropriate MPPT can be chosen from the reference [3] on the basis of application of PV system i.1 to 1. If some of these losses can be recaptured by the other portions of the solar cell array (for example via oblique angle of incidence) the aggregate external quantum efficiency of the system may be increased despite a lower internal quantum efficiency. Aspirations for a high efficiency (75%) cell with 36 semiconductors having the desired band gaps installed in a cascade. the and gap range from 1. Standalone PV system . focusing is required for spectrum beam towards a particular cell that carries a matching band gap and spectral response .4 eV. and for obtaining a high efficiency. Quantum efficiency is most usefully expressed as a measurement (that is a function of photon . Then.e.

their efficiencies reach up to 50%. as it does not convey info about the fraction of power that it converted by the solar cell. PVSC'08. Rizwanur. Tamanna. pp. The maximum theoretically possible conversion efficiency for sunlight is given by a Carnot heat engine operating between the temperature of the sun (5800 K) and ambient condition on earth (300 k).The conversion efficiency for sunlight while extracting maximum work. consisting of solar cells. D. Anderson. . is 86% due to the entropy of the photons emitted by the sun’s surface. Dussinger.layered tandem cell with narrow band gap of 2. and Md Fayyaz Khan. If the sunlight is concentrated on the multi-junction cells. This three . IEEE. Rahman. Scope of Work and Conclusion Solar installation in India use crystalline cells made of low efficiency of 12-18%. The whole discussion concludes that efficiency of PV generating system can be improved by taking optimal values of different factors and environmental conditions . 33rd IEEE. pp. 2008. The spectral response is improved in long wavelength zones by the material provided with narrow band gap characteristic controlled by Ge contents. Sarraf. "Heat pipe cooling of concentrating photovoltaic cells.Since some wavelength are absorbed more effectively than others. [2]. 3. P. In India research on multijunction cells needs to be taken up vigorously." In Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE). "Performance enhancement of PV Solar System by mirror reflection. PV modules.45 eV respectively can attain theoretical efficiency up to 24%. International companies are commercially producing solar cells with over 19% efficiency. 4) Heat developed also depends upon material used for the PV cell. Amorphous Silicon Cells are the best cells used for the PV system. 1. References: [1]. 2008. To make solar mission a success. 2010. M.0. which is 95%. B. IEEE. 1-6. W..wavelength or energy).7. 3) Thermodynamic efficiency also affects a cells conversion efficiency. and S. the challenge is to cut cost and improve efficiency. Quantum efficiency alone is not the same as overall energy conversion efficiency. 163-166." In Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. spectral measurements of quantum about the quality of the semiconductor bulk & surfaces. Latest technology is multi junction cells comprising several layers of semiconductors. and 1. G. 2010 International Conference on. constitute 60% of total cost.

In Universities Power Engineering Conference. 623-628). 2 (2007): 439. no. K. & Shuvo. "Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques. UPEC 2004. Ping. R. 2004. Esram. H. R. N. [4]. K. [6]. September).. Ullah. 24. Akikur. M. & Shuvo." IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion EC 22. Ullah. A review of solar thermal refrigeration and cooling methods. R. 2. Akikur. 24. H. IEEE. [5]. R.. Saidur. pp. Saidur. Chapman. W. W... (2013).. N.. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.[3]. and Patrick L. Trishan. .. K. R. A review of solar thermal refrigeration and cooling methods. H. (2004. K. H. R. Improvement the thermal electric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling and concentration techniques. (2013). A.. 499-513. 39th International (Vol. 499-513. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Farahat. Ping.