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A Synopsis for the subject of Business Communication & Ethics


A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a
reliable form of information storage and transfer. The processes of encoding and decoding,
writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning
behind the sets of characters that make up a script.
The purposes and reasons for a writing system can involve cultural and social aspects as well
as the need to communicate visually. Since a writing system should fit the particular surrounding
society’s culture & language, certain scripts were deemed more optimal than others.
Objective & Scope
The report wishes to highlight the constant evolution and development of various scripts across
the world, over the years. It also studies various modifications which scripts underwent owing to
external factors, leading to phenomenal growth of some scripts; and their lasting influence on
languages & dialects.
Work plan & methodology
What are scripts?
Basic cause:
Writing provides a way of extending human memory by imprinting
information into media less fickle than the human brain. writing was a very useful
invention for complex and high-population cultures. Writing was used for record
keeping to correctly count agricultural products, for keeping the calendar to plant
crops at the correct time. And writing was used for religious purpose (divination
and communicating with the supernatural world) and socio-political functions
(reinforcing the power of the ruling elite).
Most early writing systems begin with small images used as words, literally
depicting the thing in question. But pictograms of this kind are limited. Some
physical objects are too difficult to depict. And many words are concepts rather
than objects.
There are several ways in which early writing evolves beyond the pictorial
stage. One is by combining pictures to suggest a concept. Another is by a form of
pun, in which a pictorial version of one object is modified to suggest another quite
different object which sounds the same when spoken.
: writing was invented independently in at least three places, Mesopotamia,
China, and Mesoamerica. Recent discoveries might also provide evidence that
writing was invented in Egypt and Indus independently of Mesopotamia.

In about 3200 BC temple officials inSumerdevelop a reliable and lasting
method of keeping track of the animals and other goods which are the temple's
wealth. On lumps of wet clay the scribes draw a simpified picture of the item in
question. They then make a similar mark in the clay for the number counted and

made it possible to write just about anything.E.E. In this stage. not the eyes. The Indus script. a word like "Neilson" would be very difficult to write with pictographs unless everyone knew what Neilson looked like as distinguished from other people. which has not yet been deciphered.3000 . each requiring a different rebus. As in the other great early civilizations. For example. with rebus writing. Both Mesopotamian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics used about 700 symbols. D. When allowed to bake hard in the sun. it seems the Egyptians also had an alphabet of sorts that the Phoenicians drew upon. The last of the early civilizations to develop writing is China. This system is based on the fact that we can only make about twenty-five or so different sounds. the bureaucrats of the Indus valley have the benefit of writing to help them in their administration. one for each syllable used in a language. o Significance: . Here the symbols can also mean something a bit more abstract than their literal meaning. However. but little else. Ideographs(c. The alphabet simplifies the process vastly by using just one symbol for each individual sound we make (e.3000 B.2100 . A picture of legs can mean "legs" or "walk".1000 B. Rebus writing (c. For example. Up till now. Rebus writing.C. is known from thousands of seals.C. one could use the sounds suggested by a picture of a man kneeling plus a sun to build the word "Neilson". one related to what the symbols looked like to tell the meaning. from that day to this. since it required hundreds of symbols. a picture of the sun means the "sun".C. although there are severe limits on what one can write this way. With rebus writing. but the system of suggesting objects and concepts is similar. Thus the uses of writing were greatly expanded. It was a complex system. as a working script.E. one used the phonetic sounds of words created by symbols to create new words. Pictographs(c.--B. Phonetic alphabet (c. however. This was a critical turning point.). etc.). one pictograph or symbol means what it looks like. carved in steatite or soapstone. The Egyptian characters are much more directly pictorial in kind than the Sumerian. which the Egyptian and Phoenician systems lacked. in about 1600 BC. A sun can mean "day" as well as "sun".). shortly after the Sumerians. 1000 B.C. is Egypt.3500 . to the present). by making the reader relate to the ears.). This stage was well suited for straight record keeping.E. the clay tablet becomes a permanent document The second civilization to develop writing.2100 B. K. while we can combine those individual sounds into hundreds of symbols.g. But China outdoes the others in devising a system which has evolved. The Greeks completed the process by adding vowels.recorded. Although we generally give credit for the alphabet to the Phoenicians (thus the term "phonetics").

priests. the Phoenician script consisted of only about two dozen symbols. Manichaean.The invention and spread of the much simpler alphabet meant that more people could learn to read. and history. Urdu. The alphabet also meant the uses of writing could expand to such things as literature. Ugaritic. Without it. Balochi. Northern Linear. Berber script. Kyrghyz. such as Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs. Malay. Nabatean script. Pahlavi. With it. The importance of writing to history is hard to overestimate. more people were literate and free to pursue more cultural applications of writing.  . poetry. The name itself comes from the first three letters of the Arabic script. Today. Psalter script. But it is important that we keep in mind that the computer traces its lineage back to those first clay tokens used to keep rudimentary records. especially the lower classes. Phoenician script. Old North Arabic scripts. others Writing styles :Right to left Origin & growth: The first abjad to gain widespread usage was the Phoenician abjad. Persian/Farsi. Hebrew. Types of Scripts here are 30 instances: Arabic script. We should keep in mind that the vast majority of people. Judeo-Arabic Arabic. Palmyrene. Bukhari. Southern Linear. we are witnessing a revolution every bit as dramatic as writing was 5000 years ago. but use them only in special cases. Turkish. Pashto. Two subsequent inventions have built upon writing and expanded our capabilities as a species by quantum leaps beyond what they had been before: the printing press and the computer. Syriac. with the computer. Parthian. and businessmen would not be able to keep track of anything beyond their immediate surroundings. Bosnian. Edessan script. Orkhon. Unlike other contemporary scripts. Ladino. Hatran script. whose status declined accordingly.Kashmiri. Tifinagh. Sogdian. Classical syriac. With the alphabet. trade routes could expand and kings could keep the tax and census records necessary for expanding their city-states into empires. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Yiddish. Hebrew. Early cursive Pahlavi. Hebrew linear. Elymaic script. Mandaic script. Punic script. and Phoenician seafaring merchants took the script wherever they went. Some abjads have signs for vowels. Uyghur. Samaritan script. Aramaic script. Himyarite. Before the alphabet the small number of scribes had to devote most of their energies to running government and business. remained illiterate until about a century ago. Early Sogdian. This made the script easy to learn. Kurdish. Uighur  Language: Aramaic. o    Types of scripts Categories: Abjad: A type of writing system where only consonants are generally written. such as loanwords or special kinds of texts. As a result society was less dependent on scribes. kings.

and the other vowels are represented by a consistent modification of the consonant symbols. Rong. Marathi. Nagari. Kharoshthi. Meroitic. All surviving Indic scripts are descendants of the Brahmi alphabet.Dhives Akuru. Lontara.Burmese. Tibetan script. Liek. Thai script. Kodava. North Indic less so. Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Dives akuru. Meithei.Devanagari – Hindi. Sharada. Old Javanese. with Gujarati and Oriya script as exceptions. Mon.Cham. Sanskrit. Cree. Karen languages. Calukya. Assamese. Cambodia. Gurmukhi.skrit. Mangyan. Konkani. such as Latin and Cyrillic. Khmer script.Kannada.BrahmiSan.Balines.Buhid. Tulu.Bhaiksuki. Sinhalese. Mon script.    Categories: Abugida: A type of writing system in which each character represents a consonant followed by a specific vowel. Old kannada. and Shan.  Language: Ahom. Burmese script. Kachchi. Siddham. The Greek alphabet evolved into the modern western alphabets.Bengali. Kalinga. Oriya script.Gujarāti. Laos. Lao script. Types of Scripts: There are 55 instances: Amharic script. Ranjana.Marathi. 'Phags pa.Sanskrit. South Indic letter forms are very rounded. Proto-bengali. Champa.Prakrit.. Tamil script. Kaithi. Kannada. Gupta.Phoenician gave way to a number of new writing systems. Syloti Nagri. Lanna script. Landa. but not Malaysia or Vietnam). South Indic scripts do not. Today they are used in most languages of South Asia (although replaced by Perso-Arabic in Urdu. Tagbanwa. and Southern Indic scripts used in South India. Evela.  Categories: Alphabet: . Tjarakan. and many other languages of northern India. Telugu script. The primary division is into North Indic scripts used in Northern India. Kaganga. Devanagari. Nepali. Gujarati. a widely used abjad. Golmol and Litumol of Nepal script are rounded. including the Greek alphabet and Aramaic. Bishnupriya Manipuri. Kashmiri and some other languages of Pakistan and India) and mainland Southeast Asia (Burma.Malayalam Writing styles :left to right  Origin & growth: Abugida scripts originated in India and spread to Southeast Asia. Kadamba. Tibet and Bhutan. while Aramaic became the ancestor of many modern abjads and abugidas of Asia. Thailand. Baybayin. Grantha.Punjabi. Nepal. Pallava grantha. Cham. Bengali script. Oromo script. Malayalam script. Sukhothai. though Oriya. Most North Indic scripts' full letters incorporate a horizontal line at the top. Buhid. Batak. Brahmi.

Wawa writing. x. Egyptian demotic. k. Ol. Writing styles :left to right  Origin & growth: Origin of alphabet lies within ancient greek and latin The Greek alphabet. Hungarian runes. Italian. Serbian. y and w only in foreign words. others Bulgarian. Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures. Kutxovani. Turkish. Dania. by borrowings from other alphabets. Carian. Utopian. Ukrainian. Modern syriac. Cirth. Portuguese. A type of writing system whose characters denote morphemes. Avestan. and by modifying existing letters. such as Hawaiian. Varang Kshiti. Cretan hieroglyhpic. Macedonian. . such as æ in Danish and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian. Georgian script. Glagolithic. Theban alphabet. which uses the letters j. Swedish. Lydian. was carried over by Greek colonists to the Italian peninsula. which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Elbasan. Tai Lue. Read alphabet. Chu-nôm. Latin script. Latin. Coptic script. Russian. such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic. Mrglovani. Ewellic. French. One of these became the Latin alphabet. where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to write the Italic languages. Vietnamese. Osmanya. Beitha Kukju. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet. and a subset of whose characters can be used for their phonetic syllabic values without regard to their semantic values. Mongolian script. Types of Scripts: There are 44 instances: Armenian.   A type of writing system that denotes consonants and vowels with separate characters. Polish. Malay-Indonesian. Greek. Geyinzi. Types of Scripts:  here are 22 instances: Chinese script. Shavian. Manchu.  Categories:  Logosyllabary:. Mongolian clear script. Deseret. Etruscan script. Cyrillic. Spanish. Sorang Sompeng. and Italian. Thaana. German. in its Euboean form. Lycian. such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic. Cypro-minoan. Egyptian hieratic. Ogham. the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. Dutch. Buryat. Sidetic. Gothic script. which is a modified d. N'ko. Runic. Language: English. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for most of the other languages of Europe. which came from the Futhark runes. Sarati. Even after the fall of the Roman state.

intended for use in text messaging." All logographic scripts ever used for natural languages rely on the rebus principle to extend a relatively limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values. Kitan large script. include the earliest true writing systems. Tangut. currently including around 300 "icons.use of particular script in day-to-day life. Maya hieroglyphs. Hittite hieroglyphics. A clever way that artists got around this tenet was to use calligrams. images of living things are o o prohibited.In some variations of Judaism and Islam. Proto-Elamite. there has been the additional development of fusing such phonetic elements with determinatives. Linear B. Korean (Hanja). a unique script called Nushu has been in use since the 12th century which is solely used by women and girls only. Rise & fall of scripts: Rise and fall of scripts depends on various factors like popularity of language. such "radical and phonetic" characters make up the bulk of the script. and Central America used some form of logographic writing. Africa.In Hunan.   Language: Chinese. government policies etc. Nushu. and none are known. literacy of population . .[5]Vietnamese (Chu Nom obsolete). for eg Script of tulu extinct because british made kannada as state language for all documentation purpose in Mhaisur state. Indus script. Sumero-akkadian cuneiform. Japanese (Kanji). Elamite cuneiform. apart from one devised for the artificial language Toki Pona. a visual image that is formed entirely out of small words.Egyptian hieroglyphic. Kitan small script. China. A purely logographic script would be impractical for most languages. Proto-cuneiform. Zhuang (Sawndip) Writing styles :Top to bottom  Origin & growth: Logographic systems. Some trivia: . The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the partially phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. or logographies. Jurchin script. Wei writing. Linear A. . a province in Southern China. and both languages relegated simple rebuses to the spelling of foreign loan words and words from nonstandard dialects. In both Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese. which is a purposely limited language with only 120 morphemes. the first historical civilizations of the Near East. either consonantal or syllabic. A more recent attempt is Zlango.

.Development of writing system is constant and it continues with time as language. Scripts increased to be more localized and specific. But globalization and internet can also play main role in revival of scripts which are verge of extinction (like few Russian scripts). people .Fictional scripts and languages were created for starwars movie o Future prospects: According to some scholars. . who was not only the scribe and historian of the gods but also kept the calendar and invented art and science. Thus came the rise in interactions between people from different regions and led to literary development.computerization some styles of writing may get extinct (Many western countries are feared by extinction of cursive ) . due to digitalization . Community evolves - Conclusion Communication techniques demanded written styles to improve. dots. Globalisation has since contributed to make certain scripts widely popular across the world. As a result. and perfect circles made it unique as compare to normal - horizontal/vertical writing system ‘Talking knots’(knots tied into strings) is writing system used by inca civilization In ancient Egypt. pictorial & sign languages grew and gave way to more complex and sophisticated scripts.- Tifinagh alphabets of northern Africa composed of right angles. since relying only on verbal communication had its own problems associated.modernization can result in extinction of original script for some language.According to some other scholars . the invention of writing is attributed to the god Thoth (Dhwty in Egyptian).