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We can say PIPING is about designing, fabricating and constructing lines
conveying FLUIDS.
What is a FLUID?
It can be any of the following
 a GAS
 a mixture of GAS and LIQUID
inside a LIQUID.
Basic properties of conveyed FLUIDS
 FLUID TYPE with particular attention to the CORROSION characteristics
What is a PIPELINE?
A PIPELINE conveys a fluid from one given point of the plant usually called
INLET point of the line, to another part of the plant usually called OUTLET
point of the line.
A PIPELINE can also connect one PIPELINE to another PIPELINE. PIPELINES
can also discharge the conveyed fluid into the environment (VENTS and
Basic characteristics of a PIPELINE
 TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES welded joints (butt welding /
welding) threaded joints flanged joints
 EXTERNAL FINISHING Painting Insulation
 QUALITY CHECKS Hydraulic Testing Non Destructive Examination of
Other characteristics of a PIPELINE
The routing is how the Pipeline is developed into the space.
There are rules and regulations to route a Pipeline according the “Good
Engineering Practice” Cold Pipelines connecting static objects (something
that does not move like Tanks, Vessels, other Pipelines, Headers) can be
straightly routed between the inlet and the outlet point. Cold Pipelines
connecting MACHINES that vibrate or rotate may
need a flexible part between the inlet and the outlet point. Hot Pipelines
must be flexible enough to adsorb the thermal expansion of the Pipeline
from cold to hot condition
Every Pipeline must be supported. Not all Pipelines are supported in the
same way
Cold Pipelines can be supported everywhere with FIXED POINTS Hot
Pipelines cannot be supported only with fixed points, butcertain points

40 / 50 m/ sec Liquid: 2 to 4 m/ s . while are constrained in certain other directions PIPING DESIGN  Specification of Lines It is a document that summarizes all the characteristics of a PIPELINE. Non corrosive fluids Services where impurities are accepted industrial water lines (cooling water) steam lube oil return / before filter lines air lines vents and drains Carbon Steel. meaning that in those points the Pipeline retains a certain numbers of degree of freedom in certain directions. the document specifies all the CHARACTERISTICS of the PIPELINE FLUID TYPE Choice of material 1. Choice of NDE : For Dangerous Fluids 100% of joints are likely to be X. 10 m/ sec TEMPERATURE Choice of MATERIAL . Corrosive fluids Services where impurities are not accepted demineralized water lube oil after filters fuel gas / oil sea water (water containing Chlorine) Stainless Steel No Iron (Fe) Copper/ Nickel Alloys (Cu. Viton Composites: RESIN GLASS FLUID TYPE Choice of CORROSION ALLOWANCE : Thickness increasing taking into account CORROSION Typical corrosion allowance for water is 3 mm that affects THICKNESS Choice of joints: DANGEROUS fluids are conveyed in fully welded pipes.Pressure Losses along the Pipeline Pressure Losses are PROPORTIONAL to the square velocity (v 2 ) .Vibration of the Pipeline Usual Velocity of Fluids inside pipelines are: Gas: 20 m/ s . were leaks cannot occur.SMALL DIAMETER means HIGHER VELOCITY of the conveyed fluid . Starting from the PROPERTIES of the CONVEYED FLUID. Aggressive Chemicals Strong Acids / Bases Plastic: PVC – TEFLON – PE Rubber: NBR.Ni) 3.max.Ray examined FLOW RATE Choice of Diameter For a given flow rate .BIG DIAMETER means SLOWER VELOCITY of the conveyed fluid Velocity of fluids in Pipelines affects .must be only GUIDED.max. Low Alloy Steel (High T) 2.

ray examined.-Steel for High Temperature (Low Alloy Steel Creep Resistant) Calculation of wall THICKNESS Routing Design and calculation of SUPPORTS (STRESS ANALYSIS) -Hot Lines must be routed properly. Specifications starting with “B” are for non. STANDARD MATERIALS FOR PIPING ASTM = AMERICAN SOCIETY for TESTING MATERIALS ASTM developed a collection of documents called MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS for standardizing materials of large use in the INDUSTRY. as PVC. Calculation of Wall Thickness 2. PRESSURE : 1. WELDED PIPE have another . but also the PROCESS through which the material is shaped into the final product.rays -High Pressure Pipelines are usually 100% X.Low Pressure Pipelines can undergo only the Hydraulic Test -For intermediate pressures a 10% to 50% of joints must be examined with X. This is why for a given base material SEAMLESS PIPE have a specification. Choice of the Joint -Low pressure pipelines can be threaded or socket welded -High Pressure pipelines are Butt Welded 4. AMERICAN STANDARDS FOR PIPING DESIGN ANSI = AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDIZATION INSTITUTE ASME = AMERICAN SOCIETY of MECHANICAL ENGINEERS ANSI/ ASME B31.Non process Pipelines (For Example Vents and drain lines) may even have no tests at all . Aluminum alloys and so on). Specifications starting with “D” are for plastic material. Provisions shall be taken so that when temperature rises from ambient to Operating Temperature the thermal expansion of Pipelines does not generate stresses too high for the pipes to withstand. An ASTM Specification does not only specify the basic CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of material. THEY CONTAINS REGULATIONS FOR STRESS ANALYSIS THEY ONTAINS TABLES THAT GIVE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS FOR METALLIC MATERIALS ACCEPTED BY ANSI FOR PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION DEPENDING ON TEMPERATURES. Application of Thermal Insulation -T> 60° C Insulation for Personnel Protection is mandatory for all pipeline parts that can be reached by hands. Brass. Extension of NDE of the joints . Copper Nickel alloys. Specifications starting with “A” are for STEEL.1: POWER PIPING ANSI/ ASME B31.ferrous alloys (Bronze.3: PROCESS PIPING THESE STANDARDS GIVE TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGNING PIPING SYSTEM FOR POWER PLANTS AND CHEMICAL PLANTS THEY CONTAINS FORMULAS TO CALCULATE THE MINIMUM THICKNESS OF PIPELINES THEY CONTAINS ORMULAS TO CALCULATE THE EXTRA THICKNESS THAT A PIPE MUST HAVE WHEN A BRANCH IS CUT INTO IT.

ASTM Specifications belonging to same family of Carbon Steel SEAMLESS PIPES ASTM A53 (Gr. A53 used to be cheaper than A106 and Grade A cheaper than Grade B. usually metallic. Steel is subject to a process called “creep” at high temperatures (T > 540 °C) Creep is a reduction of strength over time due to high temperature. another American Standardization Institute is common and important. A / B) or A106 (Gr. Steel becomes also particurarly fragile if submitted to sudden impacts at low temperatures (< .5% Mo ) P5 C5 1¼ Cr-½ Mo.25% Cr – 0. The presence of carbon into the crystal structure of the iron improve very much the mechanical characteristics of the iron alone. Low Alloy Steel is a conventional denomination for steels where there are small percentages of elements.20 °C). Carbon steel is a conventional denomination for steel that has almost no other metallic elements added into it. Practices and Standards for Oil and Gas Industry are issued by this Institute and followed by almost all Oil and Gas Companies in the world.Si (1. ASTM most employed carbon steel for pipes are ASTM A53 Grade A and B and ASTM A106 Grade A and B. magnesium (Mg). molybdenum (Mo). other than carbon only. manganese (Mn). since its resistance is decreasing with time due to the high temperature. This Institute is API = AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE Rules. As for example following high temperature resistant steels: Denomination Alloy percentage Grade Grade for Castings 5Cr-½ Mo (5% Cr – 0. LOW ALLOY STEEL The introduction of other elements into steel can change very much its mechanical characteristics. nichel (Ni).5% Mo – Si) P11 (WC5) . Alloy steels are usually identified with denominations that recall composition. after a long time at high temperature same steel can withstand much lower pressures. A / B) WELDED PIPES ASTM A134 / A135 / A139 WROUGHT FITTINGS ASTM A234 (WPA / WPB) FORGED FITTINGS A105 CAST PARTS A216 (WCB) API Standards For Oil and Gas Industry. It means that if today the steel can withstand a certain pressure. Today the difference is not so big. Among the many Standards issued by the Institute there is also a Standard for design of Pipelines: API STANDARD 5L Within this Standard Materials for Oil and Gas transportation pipelines are specified. FORGED FITTINGS have another specification.specification WROUGHT FITTINGS have another specification. so that for small quantities ASTM A106 Gr. proves to improve the strength of the steel and its resistance to corrosion also at high temperatures (> 500 °C) or at low temperaturea (< -20 °C). B is usually chosen. The introduction of small percentages of chromium (Cr). large VALVE bodies (normally CAST) have another specification CARBON STEEL Steel is basically a solution of carbon (C) into iron (Fe). with denomination API 5L This is a family of Carbon Steels almost equivalent to ASTM A53 /A106.

This comes from the fact that for uniformity. wall thickness is given in INCHES or mm.316 .Italy.321 CAST PARTS A351 (CF3 – CF3M / CF8 – CF8M) How Pipeline CHARACTERISTICS are defined by the Standards.316 .25 Cr – 1% Mo) P22 WC9 ASTM Specifications belonging to same families of Low Alloy Steels SEAMLESS PIPE A335 (P5 – P11 – P12 – P22) WELDED PIPE ASTM A358 WROUGHT FITTINGS ASTM A234 (WP5 – WP11 – WP12 – WP22) FORGED FITTINGS A182 (F5 – F11 – F12 – F 22) CAST PARTS A217 (C5 – WC5 – WC9) STAINLESS STEEL One of most important problems with carbon and low alloy steels.321 WELDED PIPE ASTM A249 TP304 .316 .oxyde Fe 2 O 3 ) that peels out from the surface. All external diameters pipes according EUROPEAN Standards (DIN .316L . I. It is the usual denomination of Size in Europe where S. ASTM Specifications belonging to same family of Stainless Steel SEAMLESS PIPE A312 TP304 – 304L . so if the Outside Diameter is bigger of the NPS. . Stainless Steel is conventional generic denomination for steels with high percentages of chromium (minimum 16%) and nichel (minimum 8 %). SIZE NOMINAL PIPE SIZE : NPS It is a conventional size expressed solely in INCHES. but bigger. but at one cost: stainless steel is very difficult to weld. the NPS gives more an idea of the internal diameter.321 FORGED FITTINGS A182 F304 – 304L .1Mo (2. Traditional denomination for stainless steel was given first from AISI (American Institute for Steel and Iron) and is still in the tradition and retained in the Grade of ASTM Specifications.12Ni. and change Inside Diameter with different thickness. In fact the presence of high percentages of Cr and Ni improves the resistance of steel against rust. But as usual for alloy steels. UNI . High percentages of chromium (Cr) and nichel (Ni) added into the steel stop this problem. AISI Denomination Alloy Percentage Grade for Castings 304 / 304L 18Cr. pipelines must have same Outside Diameter. related to the cross section diameter of the pipeline. is that the iron exposed to air and water combines with oxygene (O 2 ) and generates rust (di.304L .iron tri. a more precise denomination can refer to composition. Welding of stainless steel can be improved by reducing the content of carbon in it.2Mo (16% Cr – 12% Ni – 2% Mo) CF3M / CF8M 321 18Cr. But in fluid transportation the internal diameter is more significant.Ti (18% Cr – 10% Ni – Ti) Not Available The “L” suffix stands for “Low Carbon”.10Ni.1Cr-½ Mo (1% Cr – 0.316 .304L . is adopted.Germany.8Ni (18% Cr – 8% Ni) CF3 / CF8 316 / 316L 16Cr.321 WROUGHT FITTINGS ASTM A403 WP304 .316L .316L .5 Mo) P12 (WC5) 2¼ Cr. NOMINAL DIAMETER : DN Same as NPS.316L . For smaller sizes the NPS is not usually exactly equal to any real diameter. AFNOR – France) are exactly equal of the equivalent NPS Sizes according AMERICAN and BRITISH Standars (BS) EXCEPT 5” (DN125) WALL THICKNESS (1)1. taking away the thickness. For PIPES and WROUGHT BW FITTINGS. but in mm.

a different system of indicating the wall thickness is used. 60. VALVES and FORGED FITTINGS. 10S. 120. The maximum pressure allowed for a given rating is tabulated in the ANSI standards and depends on þ Temperature þ ASTM Material TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (1) BUTT. THREADED ENDS Parts to be connected are threaded.19 SS Seamless . Sch. 10. THIS IS NOT A RULE. 40 is equal to Std Weight. 40S. This is called PRESSURE RATING. For FLANGES. It is a NUMBER expressed in POUNDS per SQUARE INCH (PSI symbol #) that refers to the maximum internal pressure acceptable for normal operation inside that part. 40. 80S. this is called “Seal Weld”. 100. For example for small diameters.Some series of thicknesses are standardized.WELDING ENDS The end is machined to allow head to head full penetrating welding TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (2) SOCKET WELDING ENDS A socket is provided where pipe can be inserted TYPE OF JOINTS BETWEEN PIECES (3) 3. Schedule Stainless Steel ANSI B16. Std Standard XS Extra Strong Weight Series XXS Extra Extra Strong It happens that for a given diameter the thickess of one Schedule is equal to the thickness of one Weight Series.10 5. For services where leaks are strongly undesired. 20. 60S. & Valves Forged Small Valves (   2”) 900# 1500# 2500# 3000# 6000# 9000# F l a n g e s & V a l v e s Forged Fittings This conventional number is not exactly the actual maximum pressure acceptable inside the part. Carbon Steel ANSI B16. a light weld is carried out at the surface. There are two series of systems of standardized thicknesses. 125# 150# 300# 400# 600# 800# Cast Iron Flanges & Valves (Not in NP Standards) Fl. 20S.10 CS / B36. 30S. 80. 30. and this idea is one of the most common mistakes in piping design. 160. WALL THICKNESS (2)2.19 5S. “Seal” weld STANDARDIZED PIPING OBJECTS PIPES FITTINGS FLANGES VALVES GASKETS BOLTS AND NUTS PIPES: ANSI B36.

They can come in straight size or in reducing size and can have one end machined in a different way than the other. Straight Fittings TYPE BEND 90° LR SIZE NPS 12” (DIAMETER) (DN 300) WALL THICKNESS Std MATERIAL ASTM A234 WPB 2. Pipe Connection Welding Neck Slip On Lap Joint Socket Welding Threaded 2.60° .Electric Resistance Welded No material is added during welding process Electric Fusion Welded Material (Filler Metal) is added during the process of welding HOW TO IDENTIFY A PIPE SIZE NPS 12” (DIAMETER) (DN 300) WALL THICKNESS Sch. B BW FITTINGS : ANSI B16. Reducing Tees. Eccentric Reducers. Reducing Fittings TYPE REDUCING TEE SIZE NPS 12” x8” (DIAMETER) (DN 300x200) WALL THICKNESS Sch. 40 MATERIAL ASTM A106 Gr. Mating Flat Face .11 HOW TO IDENTIFY A FORGED FITTING TYPE ELBOW 90° SIZE NPS 1” (DIAMETER) (DN 25) WALL THICKNESS Rating 3000# JOINT NPT MATERIAL ASTM A105 PIPE NIPPLES They are standardized short pieces of pipe usually 50 mm or 100 mm long normally used between two close fittings.45 ° . Such a variety of combinations is summarized using abbreviations B = Bevelled P = Plain T = Threaded L = Large S = Small E = End Pipe nipples can be used to change among joint types. For example a PExBE Pipe Nipple changes a Socket Welding Line into a Buttwelding Line Beveled End Plain End BW SW FLANGES ANSI B16.5 D Short Radius R= D Tees Straight Full Tees .5 1. Reducers Concentric Reducers. 30x20 MATERIAL ASTM A234 WPB FORGED FITTINGS ANSI B16.9 Bends 30° . Caps HOW TO IDENTIFY A BW FITTING 1.90° Long Radius R= 1.

This solution is used for Stainless Steel lines at low pressure. that means unsevere applications where leaks are not a major issue LAP JOINT A Stub End is welded on the pipe after the flange insertion of it. SLIP ON Used for all sizes. HOW TO IDENTIFY A FLANGE JOINT TYPE -SLIP ON SIZE -NPS 6” (DIAMETER) -(DN 150) WALL THICKNESS -Rating 300# MATING_FINISH . the surface of a flange can be machined. For this eason they are used for severe applications where failure of welda cannot be accepted. A set of circular scares is machined in the surface. so that they are use for low ratings (usually 150# only) and unsevere applications THREADED Can be used for all sized. When the gasket is tightly squeezed etween the flanges. Surface Finishing of Flanges To improve the sealing effect of plane gaskets. SOCKET WELDING Used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”) for unsevere services on Socket Welding lines. Cheap manufacturing. since the heavy flange does not come in contact with the conveyed fluid and can be provided in much cheaper Carbon Steel material. they allow full penetration weld between pipe and flange. since the shape of the flange obliges to start from a heavy forging and waste a lot of material from machining.Raised Face Ring Joint WELDING NECK Used for all sizes. It deforms inside the ring joint grooves assuring sealing at very high pressures. Moreover no weld is required. it penetrates into the scares improving sealing. But they do not allow full penetration weld. also a good thing for Stainless Steel lines. but are preferably used for small sizes (< or equal to 2”). Flat Face Gasket: Full Face Flat It covers the entire surface of the flange Raised Face Gasket: Flat It covers the raised surface of the flange Spiral Wound Also known as Spirometallic.RF – R9 MATERIAL. This does not come free of cost. or Spirotallic. they are very much economical because they are flat and can be obtained from sheets or plates with minimum waste of material from machining. its a wounded spiral of Stainless Steel and Graphite to withstand high temperatures or severely aggressive fluids Ring Joint Gasket: Metallic Ring It is normally made up of Steel.ASTM A105 . cheap installation (no weld is required) but limited to threadel lines.

Electric. hence the name FRACTIONALMETRIC TUBES As per SI requirements. usually less than 1”. Pneumatic. Personnel intervention is required on the pipeline to check the event and the condition of the area.25.ACTUATION OF VALVES To open and close a valve. FRACTIONS of inch are used. before rearming the valve and starting operation again TUBING A TUBE is a circular section of given DIAMETER and THICKNESS. So A 2” OD TUBE has exactly a 2” Outside Diameters. Electric Actuator. Again the value in mm is the actual ouside diameter of the tube. The given numbers correspond exactly to the geometrical dimension they refer. mm is the unit of measure. It is normally specified giving the Ouside Diameter (OD) and the thickness. Hands. These valves are designed to open and discharge the conveyed fluid when the pressure in the pipeline becomes greater than a pecified value called SET. and since tubes for piping purpose (REMEMBER: CONVEYING FLUIDS!) are small. Also connections follows the recognized international standards. Dimensionally. High Pressure Oil you can use in which case you need Handwheel. SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES These valves are installed on pipelines where pressure can exceed by accident the DESIGN PRESSURE of the pipeline. but close again when the pressure returns under the SET SAFETY The valve opens when the pressure goes over the SET. But it can also be specified giving the Inside Diameter (ID) and the thickness. Compressed Air. The internal parts of these valves are specially designed tu suit the particular control task and are non subject to particular Standards. but never closes again. RELIEF The valve opens when the pressure goes over the SET. Hydraulic CONTROL VALVES These valves are used to CONTROL one or more of the PROPERTIES of the conveyed fluid in order to mention the VALUES of the controlled property within a specific ange. Pneumatic ctuator. Anyway. Hydraulic Actuator And is called Manual. . TUBES in PIPING DESIGN. the majority of Control Valve Manufacturers try to respect at least the end to end dimensions given in ANSIB16. Electric Power. there are two big families of tubing 1. FRACTIONAL TUBES The INCH is the unit of measure. so that a DN15 pipe has a rather different OD then a 15 mm tube.

Unite tube to tube (tubing is not welded) 4. Instrument connecting Lines Pneumatic Lines These Lines are small size (usually less than 1”). A large variety of fittings are available for 1.Tubes are not usually used in PIPING DESIGN except for some very particular services. Connecting Tubing to PIPES (Connectors) 5. These fittings are not STANDARDIZED. Passing through steel walls (Bulk Unions) 3. Most popular manufacturers of compression fittings are PARKER. GARILOCK. SWAGELOCK. In typical Oil and Gas Machinery installations. detachment of BRANCHES (Tees) 2. . Parts of HP Hydraulic Lines 2. Connecting Tubes to Flexible Hoses Connection of TUBING with the fitting is achieved through a particular locking system where a RING (“ FERRULE”) is forced to COMPRESS the Tube walls for sealing and joining. TUBES are basically used for: 1. but are branding based and patented. like Nuovo Pignone’s. COMPRESSION FITTINGS Tubing is usually BENT.