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Introduction

If you're writing a paper for a class in the social sciences or business, chances are good that you're going to be asked
to follow the style guide of the American Psychological Association, or APA. (Remember, if you're not certain what
style guide you need to follow, always ask your instructor.) Every style guide has its own particular rules and
guidelines. In this lesson, we will review specific rules for use of APA documentation. For help with MLA
see Documentation: MLA Style.
When you are working in a field where theories and information can change over time, it's important to know the date
of a source. For this reason, APA uses an author/date system to cite sources. Since your citations use the date of
publication as well as the name of the author, get in the habit of jotting down the date for your source while you're
taking notes from that source. It will make it much easier on you to use those sources in your paper.
You are required to give credit to your sources any time that you summarize, paraphrase, or quote information from
the source. Each sentence that includes ideas, facts, and figures from another source should include an in-text
citation. There are a few different methods for citing sources in the text of the paper, and those will be covered below.
APA also requires writers to include a References page. This is a list of all sources which you have cited in the text of
the paper. The References page gives readers all the information they need to find and read your sources for
themselves.
Formatting your paper using APA guidelines
The APA guidelines are designed for manuscripts that will be submitted to journals. However, they can be used for
student papers as well. There are a few conventions that you should observe when you're formatting your paper
following the APA guidelines. (PLEASE NOTE: IF YOUR SCHOOL HAS SPECIFIC GUIDELINES ABOUT FORMAT, THOSE
GUIDELINES TAKE PRECEDENCE OVER ANYTHING WRITTEN HERE OR IN THE APA GUIDE.)

Title page: You do need a title page, and your school or your instructor may give you school-specific guidelines
for this. If you have no other guidelines, include at the least the title of the paper (centered in the middle of
the page), your name (first, middle initial, and last), and the name of the institution or college. Each of these
should appear on a separate line and should be double-spaced.
Using your computer’s header formatting function, insert at the top left corner of the title page the
words "Running head" (quotation marks excluded) followed by a colon and a shortened form of the title
of your document in capital letters. So for example, a paper with the full title “Too Much Too Fast:
Effects of Violent Video Games on Pre-School Aged Children” might have this at the top left of the title
page:

Running head: EFFECTS OF VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES1

Also use the header function to insert the page number 1 in the top right corner of the title page. See
the example of a title page below:

Generally. The purpose of an abstract is to describe the whole paper briefly. summarize relevant background and related research. and concise" (p. and explain what new contribution the paper will offer.Note: After the title page. coherent. Please also note that an abstract is not the same as an introduction. you will usually have an approval page. focusing on its basic points and characteristics. and an abstract. 26). The top of the second page would look like this:  Preliminary pages: If you are writing a thesis or dissertation. abstracts should be between 150250 words and. according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). be "accurate. a table of contents. a list of tables and figures. . an acknowledgement page. Please also note that an abstract is not the same as an introduction. Be sure to check with your school for specific requirements for the abstract since many schools require that the abstract follow the guidelines for inclusion in Dissertation Abstracts International. The purpose of an introduction is to state the problem that the paper addresses and why it is significant. nonevaluative. subsequent pages should include only the actual running head in all caps (not the words “Running head” or the colon) in the upper left corner and the page numbers in the upper right.

. will be enough.. Boldface. When you include the author’s name in a signal phrase. beginning with Table 1 and Figure 1.) Please also note that the header on the title page includes the label “Running head. but most papers do not require that many. APA discourages the use of sans-serif fonts such as Ariel or Verdana. at the top of the page. Place the figure number and caption at the bottom of the figure. but you should also use those same signal phrases to mark any summaries or paraphrases that you might use in your paper. boldface. Running head: Each page should have a running head. . APA allows for the placement of tables and figures within the text of the paper. Generally three levels.25 inch margins.  Figures and tables: In student papers. lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. a shortened version of the paper’s title. You should use signal phrases (according to Smith (2003). be sure to check your school's requirements for the left margin. lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. always remember to double check figures and tables to be sure that they do indeed follow the reference... Citing your sources Like all citation styles. 5 Indented. and APA prefers fonts with serifs because they are easier to read. Some schools require preliminary pages to be numbered using lowercase Roman numerals. you are responsible for setting clear boundaries between the information that you've found in your sources and your own ideas. Since text can change when you make revisions. or perhaps four. Use Arabic numerals to designate the number.) The standard typeface for APA documents is 12point Times New Roman. Both tables and figures are numbered consecutively. and then double space. as they are mentioned in the text. The placement of the headings depends on how many levels you're using. Check with your school for specific guidelines. Thomas (2001) points out.. (Note: if your thesis or dissertation will be bound. APA requires rigorous attention to details in citing your sources. Put the table number and title at the top of the table. 4 Indented. following the reference list and after any appendices. you can make an outline of your paper from those headings. in all caps. While you can work a short table or figure into the text.  Spacing and indentations: Use double spacing throughout your paper.” but that this label should not appear on subsequent pages after the title page. The headings should appear as follows: Level of Heading Format 1 Centered. boldface.  Margins and fonts: Use standard 1 or 1.) to mark your quotations. please note that the year of publication goes in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 2 Flush Left. Using headings to help you with organization APA allows for (and even encourages) the use of different levels of headings to organize your paper. italicized..  The first page of your paper: Type your title. Begin your paper immediately following that. If you're using headings correctly. Please see the title page above for an example. and do not include an extra line of space between paragraphs. (Check with your school for page number requirements. As the writer. italicized. Use two spaces between each sentence by hitting the space bar twice after a period or other end punctuation mark.. Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 3 Indented. a longer table or figure should be included at the end of your paper.. Indent the first line of each new paragraph. of course. Put that header flush left. centered. Boldface. lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. There are five levels of headings available to you. and include the page number flush right. as Jones (2004) notes.  Appendices: If you need to add material (such as your survey instrument or other documentation) you should include those things in appendices following the main part of your document.

It's more difficult to set up those boundaries between your ideas and the information from your sources if you don't use signal phrases. use the name of the first author followed by the words “et al. you should list all authors for the first reference.Gerstl-Pepin (2006) found that social and emotional interventions were more effective in improving academic outcomes than changes in curriculum and teaching.” in the first as well as subsequent citations. Put the date of publication (in parentheses) after the name. When that happens. but APA does not use the first name of the authors in the citations. Lagana-Riordan and Aguilar (2009) explain. Always use only the last name of the author. The use of a signal phrase makes it more apparent that you are describing ideas from another source. Using signal phrases in this way helps to set up clear boundaries between your ideas and the ideas that you found in your sources. Usually. In that case. Using quotations Summaries and paraphrases are always good options. 1999. Ravitch (2010) writes. If your source has no author. Make sure that you introduce any quotation you use so that readers understand where it comes from and what point it supports. For any work with eight or more authors. it is more effective to give the author’s name and year of publication at the beginning of the sentence than at the end. so the author put the three sources in parentheses at the end of the sentence.” as in this parenthetical citation: (Jones et al. you should use the names of both authors if there are two. then you can use a shortened title in place of the author. but once in a while there is something that simply needs to remain just as the author wrote it. Merriam and Caffarella. You should never simply drop a quotation into your paper. you can include the name and date in your parenthetical citation at the end of the borrowed information. If you don't use the author's name in a tag or signal phrase. school social workers can help schools to improve both educational achievement and quality of life for their students” (p.” (meaning. However.. it would be confusing to mention all of them in a signal phrase. there is one specific situation when it is necessary to save the citation for the end of the sentence. Please also note that you should only cite sources you have read and that you should include all the sources you cite in your paper’s References section. . 2002). For a work with three to seven authors. the sources are listed in alphabetical order and separated by semicolons. Because several different sources have mentioned this idea. “Tests are necessary and helpful.  When a work has more than one author..  Use the name of the author or authors in a tag phrase. There is a period following “al. If you have two authors with the same last name. “and others”). 1981. 141). we are in serious trouble” (p. you might have something that looks like this: Research indicates that the two most frequently mentioned deterrents to participation in adult education are lack of money and lack of time (Cross.” are not in italics or quotation marks in the actual citation. The writer cited several authors who have all come to the same conclusion about adult education. Here is an example of how to introduce a quotation with a transition and a signal phrase: For example. Often. you need to use a direct quotation. After that you can simply use the first author's name. you can distinguish between them by using a first initial as well. In this case. “By teaching schools how to address poverty and racism head-on. writers include a summary statement to describe a general body of research that includes several researchers or writers. though. Here are some points to remember about using quotations:  Quotations should usually support and develop ideas that you have already described in other sentences of a paragraph. Introduce a quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s name and the year of publication. 166). Be careful when doing this. 1984). It may also be necessary to include a transition phrase. Note that the words “et al. When we define what matters in education only by what we can measure. Scanlan and Darkenwald. But tests must be supplemented by human judgment. followed by the words “et al.

Jones argues that the dinosaurs died from the sniffles (as cited in Wilson. so the period comes before the citation. p. With a short quotation (anything under 40 words) the page number comes at the end of the quotation. to indicate that it's a page number.” should precede the number. If you have this situation (a quotation within your quotation) in a short quotation. so let's take a look at what a typical paragraph from a paper using APA documentation might look like. You indent the entire quotation five spaces from the left margin. so the period follows the closing parentheses. preceded by the abbreviation p. . however. but you don't change the spacing of your paper. it should remain in quotation marks within an indented. If.” to indicate pages. include the original author's name in the signal phrase. Example: Dr. If you're using paragraph numbers.  If you are using an electronic source. you set it up differently. then you use single quotation marks inside your doubles to indicate that to your readers. the abbreviation “para. The indentation tells readers that you're quoting. give an in-text citation that states "as cited in" followed by the secondary author and page number. something in your original source was in quotation marks. you may not have page numbers to use in your citations. But the citation is not considered a part of the sentence. If your quotation falls on more than one page (as in our example below). long quotation.  With a quotation that is taken from another source. 2009. When you have a long quote. 233). Please see the example above.  With a long quotation (anything 40 words or longer) the page number follows the quotation in a parenthetical citation. That parenthetical citation is actually seen as a part of your sentence. An example might make all of this clearer. You do NOT use quotation marks. Use paragraph numbers or section headings if those are more appropriate. Note: put the secondary source in the reference page. just before the period. in parentheses. then you use the abbreviation “pp. At the end of the sentence. The idea is to make it as easy as possible for your reader to locate the information that you've cited in the text.

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I. if there is no author. two authors a. you cannot include the work on your References page. you'll need to give them more information than the name and date you've included in the text of the paper. Each entry is double-spaced and uses hanging indentation (where the first line is flush with the left margin and subsequent lines are indented from that margin). You provide that information in the References section of the paper. Why adults learn: Towards a theory of participation in adult education. one author a. theses. London: Rutledge. Books. All of the entries included in this section are things that you've referred to in the text of the paper. Citations Courtney (1992) points out that adults learn this way.How are citations and references related? In case your readers want to find your sources to do some reading of their own. encyclopedias. II. look in a good handbook. References provide the bibliographic information for your sources. consult the APA style guide (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association) or check the APA web site Citation and Reference Examples Print sources Books. References . Each source has its own entry. (1992). Below you will find examples of the more commonly used types of citations. dissertations. Your references should always start on a new page. Books. b. using the last name of the author or. S. If you don't find the type of source you've used here. References Courtney. with the word “References” centered at the top of that page (without quotation marks). the title of the work. so if there is no corresponding in-text citation. and they are placed in alphabetical order.

R.. NY: Signet b. & Dolence. References Merriam. 1999). you use an ampersand (&).J. When you put those names in your parenthetical citation or References. H. Citations Muir (1963) points out that “Shakespeare himself might have revised his own play” (p. Adult education: Foundations of practice. b.. VI. IV. S. Kenneth. . III. Note that you use the word "and" when you include the names of the authors in running text. V. xxiv). G.B.). Citations First-time citation: In their latest work.S. Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (2nd ed... References Muir.D. edition not the first a. Strategic change in colleges and universities: Planning to survive and prosper. Rowley. Lujan. (1997). M. San Francisco: JosseyBass.). References Rowley. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (Ed. however. (1997) support this finding. Book with editor a. Lujan. (1982). Books. New York.. three to seven authors a. Without signal phrase: The issues surrounding matriculation are important considerations for prospective students (Merriam & Caffarella. William Shakespeare: The Tragedy of Richard II. References .Darkenwald. (1999). b. D. (1963). and Dolence (1997) tested this theory. b. New York: Harper & Row. Citations As Darkenwald and Merriam (1982) note.. Encyclopedia or dictionary a. & Merriam. & Caffarella. Citations With signal phrase: Merriam and Caffarella (1999) point out many of the issues surrounding matriculation. Book.G. Subsequent citations: Rowley et al. S.

list only the lead editor. A. For more information about the DOI system. I. Studies in Higher Education. Journals and Periodicals Note: Any periodical source that has been assigned a DOI should include the DOI at the end of the References entry. (1993). 432-434). Mature students in higher education: An investigation of approaches to studying and academic performance. Thousand Oaks. pp. Article from an encyclopedia a. Grasslands. In N. K. 1993). 237). E. References Stake. 5-17. VIII.Jost.). one author a. (1993). Journal article. References Richardson. The American heritage college dictionary (3rd ed. Citations Smith (1993) speaks of the dangers of prairie fires for pioneers. even if the copy you have used is a print version. follow by the words et al. Citations Such a definition is in keeping with standard usage (American Heritage College Dictionary. Citations . 20. please see our section on electronic resources below. . . et al. (1995). . In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. K. or general condition. Note: if you do not see an author for the article. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. a danger still common in some areas. use the title in the first position. doi:10. J. Denzin & Y. R. It is not the study of a collective but an instrumental study extended to several cases" (p. J. Citations Grouping a number of different cases into one event forms what Stake (1994) calls a collective case study. Guba (Eds.1080/03075079512331381760 b. Case studies.). one in which "researchers may study a number of cases jointly in order to inquire into the phenomenon. VII. 5. population. 236-247). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. b. b. D. Since dictionaries and other reference works frequently have large editorial boards.). Handbook of qualitative research (pp. (Eds. (1994). Article or chapter from an edited book or anthology a. b. References Smith. CA: Sage.

641-655. Bain.. Citations For all in-text citations. and Gear (2005) report that achievement-based rewards can impact intrinsic motivation in certain circumstances. Pierce. References Scanlan. doi:10. use the first author and et al. Scanlan and Darkenwald (1984) developed a Deterrents to Participation Scale which produced six factors that constrain participation: lack of confidence. Citations In a similar vein. References . cite the name of the first author followed by “et al. Journal article. Pierce. J. K. Kashima.Fernando..01288.. (2005). C. N.x b. J. 12(4) 227-246. & Darkenwald. 34.641 b. Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Asian Journal of Social Psychology.Another study by Richardson (1995) found that mature students generally develop a deeper approach to their studies than do younger students II. Identifying deterrents to participation in continuing education. low personal priority.. S. Citations Cameron. two authors a. (1984). doi:10. Journal article. . . References Cameron. P.” V. time constraints.. Whelan.1111/j. Folk theory of social change. References Follow the above format.1177/0001848184034003004 b. . Journal article. Laham. 155-166.97. lack of course relevance.(For all subsequent citations. K. (For the first citation of the source. cost.) IV.. III. G. (2005) also found a limited impact on motivation if the reward was not clearly based on personal achievement. Y. Banko. 97.2009. Banko.4. Adult Education Quarterly. W. D. citing the first six authors followed by three ellipses points and the last author.1467-839X. J. doi:10. A. three to seven authors a. Peters.) Cameron et al.. use all names.. more than seven authors a. G.. Magazine article a. Haslam. S. (2010).1037/0022-0663. and personal problems. Journal of Educational Psychology. & Gear.

December 28). book. The following is a brief summary of some of the changes in how you cite electronic sources: 1. Your Reference-page entry will end with the words “Retrieved from” plus the URL. Perhaps the most striking change is the inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) available on many scholarly journal articles. the American Psychological Association revised their guidelines for documenting electronic sources. you will not need to include any further information to locate the source. 1A.Elegant. 3. August 28). pp. provide a URL to the home page of the journal. Citations As Finder (2005) reported. Newspaper article a. 168. "officials have realized that a more urbanized version of the ideal campus could attract a population well past its college years" (p. VI. If your source does not have a DOI assigned. You only need to include that retrieval date when the material that you reference is subject to change or when you are not able to find a specific publication date. . In 2009. the DOI can be found on the first page of the article. "A DOI is a unique alpha-numeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet" (p. 2. b. The Country Today. If you are not certain that you have the current information for dealing with electronic sources. (2006. Citations Elegant (2006) notes a decidedly new problem facing "China's ruling class. When you use the Internet to locate a source that does have a DOI assigned. b. and documentation for sources found in that environment is somewhat fluid. The war for China's soul. S. 41). 4. Time. 40-43. 1A). or report publisher. you can check the APA web site: http://www. The following information is based on the information found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). There you will find information about the most current publications. Another significant change concerns the inclusion of the retrieval date in the References entry. (2005. You do not need to include a retrieval date when you reference something that is unlikely to be changed such as a journal article or book.apastyle. Usually. 14A.org. 189). According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). you do not need to include a URL in your References entry. References Finder. Electronic Sources More and more information has become available over the Internet. Rural Colleges Seek New Edge and Urbanize. A. which pays little more than lip service to communist ideology but still strives to control its restive populace" (p. When a DOI is included.

Although not every possible type of source is included. (2008). use the home page or menu page URL instead of the URL for the specific page containing your referenced information. doi: 10.. Citations: . because the article is a PDF and the original page numbers are included in the full text. & Klein. References: Jones. D. Please also note that a URL for a direct link to the article has been provided as the article is not easily located from the journal’s homepage b. B. 6(2). (2011).. the following examples cover some of the most commonly used types of electronic sources. b. It is best to retrieve the PDF version when it’s available so that you have page numbers to cite when you use quotations. Written Communication 25(2). When you do need to include a URL for a web site.5. E-Journal of Applied Psychology. it is still necessary to include the page number in parentheses. J. When you use a quotation from a PDF that you located online. II. and any other move to clear up confusion caused by similar naming" (p. It is no longer necessary to provide a URL for a private database such as ProQuest. Positive psychology and the Internet: A mental health opportunity. Note: the page number is included because a quotation is given. 6. In those cases. Retrieved from: Since this article is in its final published version (whether in print or on the Internet). ERIC.1177/0741088307312940 Note: since a digital object identifier (DOI) has been assigned. 268). I. An exception to this is when the specific article is difficult to locate from the home page. Jones (2008) notes that the term disambiguation is used when "Differentiating articles with similar titles or that cover similar topics. J. 262-289. Article from a peer-reviewed journal with DOI assigned: a. Citations: When discussing the unique terms used in editing Wikipedia articles. Most journal articles that you retrieve from a database will be in the form of PDF. it is acceptable to include the full URL. 30-39. you do not need to include a URL. Vella-Brodrick. Article from a peer-reviewed journal with no DOI assigned: a. or EBSCO as articles in private databases will include a DOI. References: Mitchell. no retrieval date is needed. Patterns of revision in online writing: A study of Wikipedia's featured articles.

Mitchell et al. (2011) explain. it is necessary to cite page numbers when using a direct quotation. Note: Because the article is available as a PDF. February 27). illness. References: . Citations: Bogdanich and Rebelo (2011) explain. Electronic books: the entire book a. Retrieved from http://ies. Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness.org suggests that writers count down from the first paragraph when quoting sentences from an unnumbered online source. Citations: The Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium (2008) found a positive correlation between the Bright Beginnings curriculum and early literacy development.pdf b. Note: The paragraph number has been included instead of the page number because the online version of the article is not a PDF. 9). b. The New York Times. V. “The errors at Downstate raise broader questions about the competence. Online report by a professional or government organization a. “Computers are immune to fatigue.com Note: The URL links to the home page of the newspaper because the reader can easily locate the article via the search engine on the newspaper’s home page.gov/ncer/pubs/20082009/pdf/20082009_rev. training and oversight of technologists who operate radiological equipment that is becoming increasingly complex and powerful” (para. Online newspaper article a. K. 34). IV. References: Bogdanich. W. APAstyle.nytimes. X-Rays and unshielded infants. boredom or other similar human traits” (p. & Rebelo.ed. (2011.. References: Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium (2008). Retrieved fromhttp://www. III.

01414 b. (2003). AAT 3183486) b. References: Kim. Citations: Cesar (2003) suggests that in companies desiring to increase the number of employees pursuing baccalaureate degrees "Managers should reach out by getting more involved with the adult worker and setting goals that will enable the individual to use what was learned in the classroom" (p. Dissertation/thesis retrieved from a commercial database a. L. the society was one "where neither individual autonomy nor privacy were respected as desirable ideals" (p. Adult motivation to complete their baccalaureate degree. 4). Adult learners' motivation in self-directed e-learning. References: . 108). C.Stone.pegleg. Citations: Kim's study (2005) supports the idea that more direct intervention on the part of the instructor is necessary to push students to engage more fully in the course. 2806A. Citations: Stone (1977) notes that prior to the emerging new society developing from 1500-1800.J. Retrieved fromhttp://hdl. Dissertation/thesis retrieved from institutional or personal web site: a. sex. Dissertation Abstracts International. VI. and marriage in England. VII. 1500-1800. (AAT 3117027) b. (1977). K. VIII.net.handle.edu/2027/heb. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. The family.park. References: Cesar. (2005). (Publication No. 66(08). Dissertation abstracted in DAI a.

mit. Retrieved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology MITOPENCOURSEWARE web site: http://ocw. Retrieved fromhttp://digitalcommons. control and meaning is more complex than it seems. L. your citation would include the name of the section and paragraph rather than a page number. Online Encyclopedia a. the sun is not a thing. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. ownership. (2004). Citations: Beinart (2004) reminds us that "The subdivision of the city into public and private domains around issues of use. Lecture 23: Public and private domains.). N. (Doctoral dissertation.). IX." X. process philosophy began with the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus. A case-study of participation and nonparticipation in an employer-provided educational assistance program.htm b. In E. Citations: According to Rescher (2009). but an ever-changing flow. Rescher (2009) writes. of activity. (2001).edu/entries/processphilosophy/ b. “Process is fundamental: the river is not an object. N. Zalta (Ed. Lecture notes a. References: Rescher.edu/dissertations/AAI3034372/ b. 1). para. Process philosophy. 2001).edu/OcwWeb/Architecture/4241JSpring2004/LectureNotes/index. 2001). . but a flaming fire. Citations: People's experiences in school and their attitude toward education can have an impact on their willingness to pursue additional education as adults (Creed. J. Retrieved from http://plato.unl. (2009).Creed.stanford. of change” (Historical section. Everything in nature is a matter of process. References: Beinart. Note: When you quote an online source that includes labeled sections but not numbered pages. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2009 ed.

). but you should not include a reference-page entry: Jones also points out that there are additional factors that should be considered when deciding what school will best suit your needs (personal communication. M. the special for the general or the general for the special. (2001). n. 2008). Online Dictionary a. Citations: St. E-mail or other personal communication (in-text only) Personal communications include phone conversations. it can often be necessary and effective to cite an academic encyclopedia that is specific to one discipline. a. Letter from Birmingham jail. 476). Because your readers cannot access this type of information. interviews. . you should cite it in the text of your paper. In Dictionary. 2009. In S. Kilks. and emails. Cultural conversations: The presence of the past (pp.Note: While it is usually not effective to include a popular encyclopedia for an academic source. Augustine has not been the only person who feels that "An unjust law is no law at all" (as cited in King. XI. Martin's. September 12. 472-486). p. Parfitt (Eds. R. References: King. you must make certain that readers know who is being quoted as well as where you found the information.).d. Retrieved July 5. Citation of work discussed in a secondary source When you want to quote someone who is cited in the source that you are reading. 2001. b. you have what is called a secondary source (the original material would be the primary source). Miscellaneous Sources Citation examples-miscellaneous sources I.d. Hansen & M.com b. There is no corresponding entry in the References. If you want to quote that secondary source. XII. Boston: Bedford/St. from http://dictionary. References: Synecdoche. In-text: Synecdoche is "a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part. (n.).com. as in ten sail for ten ships or a Croesus for a rich man" (Synecdoche. letters.ref.

Citations: Not all novels that have been turned into movies have been disappointments to their fans. United States: Columbia Pictures. Motion picture a. (1995).II. Such works as Sense and Sensibility(Lee. . b. A. Sense and sensibility [Motion picture]. References: Lee. 1995) are sure to remain classics in both genres. (Director).