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Metal machining and
machine tools

Effect of Depth of Cut on MRR in Surface

NAME : Shubham Khatri
ROLL NO. : 14135077


This forces the cutting edge against the workpiece. which cuts external diameters. boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast). The bit is pressed against the workpiece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. It can produce very fine finishes and very accurate dimensions. rubbers.  Cutting process: Cutting is a collection of processes wherein material is brought to a specified geometry by removing excess material using various kinds of tooling to leave a finished part that meets specifications. and paper goods. by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools). Other materials. the waste or excess material. Boring can be viewed as the internal-diameter counterpart to turning. such as plastics. and the finished part. It can be roughly defined as the process of removing material from a workpiece using power-driven machine tools to shape it into an intended design. often multipoint. Most metal components and parts require some form of machining during the manufacturing process. cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled.  Grinding process: Grinding practice is a large and diverse area of manufacturing and tool making. for example as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder. are also commonly fabricated through machining processes. yet in mass production contexts it can also rough out large volumes of metal quite rapidly. and can be used to cut a tapered hole. cutting larger chips .Effect of Depth of Cut on MRR in Surface Grinding What is Machining? Machining is a manufacturing term encompassing a broad range of technologies and techniques. The net result of cutting is two products. Boring is used to achieve greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole. It is usually better suited to the machining of very hard materials than is "regular" machining (that is. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool. Types of Machining Process  Boring Process: In machining.  Drilling process: Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials.

It covers a wide variety of different operations and machines. or they may be along some set of curves or angles. The dull pieces break away. on scales from small individual parts to large. As these abrasive grains wear and become dull. heavy-duty gang milling operations. and until recent decades it was the only practical way to machine such materials as hardened steels. they are capable of controlled fracturing. The grinding wheel is composed of abrasive grains held together in a binder. The requirements for efficient grinding include:    Abrasive components which are harder than the work Shock. usually a rotating wheel brought into controlled contact with a work surface. revealing sharp new grains that continue cutting. Types of Grinding: There are many forms of grinding.  Turning process: Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool. typically a non-rotary tool bit. These abrasive grains act as cutting tools. describes a helical toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. That is. The precision and surface finish obtained through grinding can be up to ten times better than with either turning or milling. Grinding Process: Grinding is a material removal and surface generation process used to shape and finish components made of metals and other materials.  Milling process: Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece advancing (or feeding) in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool. Grinding employs an abrasive product. but the four major industrial grinding processes are:   Cylindrical grinding Internal grinding . The tool's axes of movement may be literally a straight line.and heat-resistant abrasive wheels Abrasives that are friable. removing tiny chips of material from the work.with cutting tools such as tool bits or milling cutters). but they are essentially linear (in the nonmathematical sense). the added resistance leads to fracture of the grains or weakening of their bond. It is one of the most commonly used processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and shapes.

Particle breakage in this cases gives a bimodal particle size distribution comprising fine particles that are released from the surface of the initial particle and particles with a size close to that the initial particles.  Centerless grinding Surface grinding Grinding wheel A grinding wheel is an expendable wheel used for various grinding and abrasive machining operations. In comminution the following three main breakage mechanisms have been identified. The particle size distribution in this case will range between 20 and 70 vol. various profiles and cross sections are available depending on the intended usage for the wheel. Grinding Theory The nature and intensity of the applied stresses on the particles affect the particle size reduction process.  Abrasion occurs when stress is applied on particles along the tangential axis(shear). .  Fracture occurs through rapidly applying intense stresses(impact). % smaller than the initial particles. This produces fragments of sizes 50–80 vol. circular shape.  Cleavage of particles occurs when intense stresses are slowly applied on a particle(compression). % of the size of the initial particle. It is generally made from a matrix of coarse abrasive particles pressed and bonded together to form a solid. Grinding wheels may also be made from a solid steel or aluminium disc with particles bonded to the surface.

The following are a few of the more common reasons:  Produce a very flat surface. This method is seen as the oldest variant of surface grinding and is characterised by low cutting depths (just 0. as well in cases of relatively low machine investment.005 to 0. Cutting tool sharpening. Reciprocating Table Surface Grinder With reciprocating table grinding.2 mm) and high table speeds (15 to 30 m/min). Low cutting depths prevent clean chip formation.Surface Grinding: Surface Grinding is a manufacturing process which moves or grinding wheel relative a surface in a plane while a grinding wheel contacts the surface and removes a minute amount of material. Parts may require surface grinding for several reasons. small batch sizes and low amounts of material removal.  Very accurate thickness tolerance specified. such that a flat surface is created. However. and this can cause flattening of the grain tips and hence high levels of friction during the grinding process. The technique impresses as a costeffective method for materials which are easy to grind. the grinding wheel remains stationary while table on which the workpiece is fixed moves "backwards and forwards" at right angles to the reference edge – the resulting motion is described as being "reciprocating". The term surface grinding designates any process which accurately processes or grinds a surface.   A very smooth surface roughness Ra is specified/required. the cost benefits of this method come at the price of a number of disadvantages. This friction generates .

low cutting depths often lead to vibrations and therefore chatter marks on the surface of the workpiece. . 2. which in turn can lead to thermal damage and grinding cracks. Work piece parameters:  Fracture mode  Mechanical properties  Chemical composition 3.excess heat. Process Parameter: 1.  Structure  Binder  Shape and Dimension. Wheel parameters:  Abrasives  Grain size  Grade. Process parameters:  Wheel speed  Depth of cut  Table speed  Dressing condition. Combined with relatively hard grinding wheels and low machine ridigity.

This can be clearly visualized as the Depth Of Cut increase more metal is removed in one pass. This implies Metal Removal Rate(MRR) is directly proportional to Down Feed .Result and Discussion: As it can be seen through observations that with increase in Depth Of Cut or Down Feed the Metal Removal Rate(MRR) increases. and the time for which workpiece is subjected to grinding remains constant due to constant transverse feed.