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Division of

Psychological Medicine
and Psychiatry

MSc War and Psychiatry


Student Handbook
2010/11
1

Contents
WELCOME TO THE PROGRAMME .......................................................................................................................4
ABOUT KING'S COLLEGE LONDON ....................................................................................................................5
GRADUATE SCHOOL .................................................................................................................................................................5

ABOUT THE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHIATRY...........................................................................................................5


RESEARCH ..............................................................................................................................................................................5
TAUGHT PROGRAMMES.............................................................................................................................................................5
OUR GRADUATE ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................................................................................5
LIBRARIES ...............................................................................................................................................................................6
STATISTICS AND COMPUTING ....................................................................................................................................................6

ABOUT THE MSC WAR AND PSYCHIATRY PROGRAMME................................................................................7


KEY CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................................................................7
PROGRAMME OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................................................................................7
PROGRAMME AIMS & OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................7
PROGRAMME COMMITTEE ......................................................................................................................................................10
CALENDAR 2008/09...............................................................................................................................................................11

COURSEWORK & DISSERTATION .....................................................................................................................13


COURSEWORK .......................................................................................................................................................................12
DISSERTATION .......................................................................................................................................................................12
ASSESSMENT.........................................................................................................................................................................13
MARKING STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................................................................14
EXAMINATION BOARD .............................................................................................................................................................14

LEARNING AND SUPPORT FOR LEARNING .....................................................................................................16


ATTENDANCE .........................................................................................................................................................................16
ACADEMIC AND PERSONAL TUTORIAL SUPPORT ........................................................................................................................16
ESSAY WRITING AND EXAMINATIONS ........................................................................................................................................16
REFERENCING .......................................................................................................................................................................16
ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUPPORT ...............................................................................................................................................17

STUDENT FEEDBACK & REPRESENTATION....................................................................................................18


QUESTIONNAIRES ..................................................................................................................................................................18
PROGRAMME COMMITTEE ......................................................................................................................................................18
STUDENTS FORUM ................................................................................................................................................................18
KINGS COLLEGE LONDON STUDENTS UNION ..........................................................................................................................18
EDUCATION SUPPORT TEAM (SCHOOL OFFICE) .......................................................................................................................18
PERSONAL TUTORS................................................................................................................................................................18

ADVICE..................................................................................................................................................................19
WELFARE ADVICE ..................................................................................................................................................................19
COUNSELLING........................................................................................................................................................................19
KINGS COLLEGE LONDON STUDENTS UNION ..........................................................................................................................19
CAREERS ADVICE ..................................................................................................................................................................20
CODE OF CONDUCT ...............................................................................................................................................................21
EQUALITY & DIVERSITY ..........................................................................................................................................................21
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES..........................................................................................................................................................21
STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES .................................................................................................................................................22
GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE........................................................................................................................................................22
HEALTH AND SAFETY..............................................................................................................................................................22
COLLEGE REGULATIONS .........................................................................................................................................................23

APPENDIX 1 MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES & REQUESTS FOR A BOARD OF EXAMINERS TO REVIEW ITS
DECISION..............................................................................................................................................................24

Deleted: 12

APPENDIX 2 COLLEGE STATEMENT ON PLAGIARISM AND RELATED FORMS OF CHEATING..............28


APPENDIX 3 AWARD SCHEME & CREDIT FRAMEWORK.............................................................................29
APPENDIX 4 AWARD GRANTING POWERS ...................................................................................................31
APPENDIX 5 THE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM .................................................................................32
APPENDIX 6 NOTABLE DATES AND RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS .....................................................................34
APPENDIX 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY / RECOMMENDED TEXTS AND JOURNALS.................................................35

This booklet can also be provided in alternative formats


such as large print, tape and on disc upon request to the
Education Support Team (see page 18).

Welcome to the Programme


Welcome to the MSc War and Psychiatry Programme. This handbook is designed with you in mind and you should
find here most of the information that you will need regarding the Programme, the Institute of Psychiatry and Kings
College London, including details of the programme and modules you will be following, and welfare and other services
which Kings offers. At postgraduate level students are expected to take responsibility for their studies, so please make
sure that you familiarise yourselves with the programme details and assessment regulations. For more information on
Kings matters you should consult Kings website http://www.kcl.ac.uk where you will find a section for current
postgraduate students. Similarly, the Institute of Psychiatry website is a useful resource (http://www.iop.kcl.ac.uk)
offering information and advice in pages aimed at current taught students. The Whats On link is also worth checking
regularly, as it lists forthcoming events such as seminars, lectures and conferences, most of which are open to
students.
All students are automatically entitled to use facilities at Kings campuses including all libraries throughout King's
College London.
Studying at postgraduate level is stimulating and rewarding but it can also be challenging and demanding. It can
sometimes feel as if you are the only person having difficulties, but be reassured that youre not the only one! Our aim
is to support you in your studies and you will be assigned a personal tutor who you should meet at least once a term.
Dont forget that other students can also be a valuable source of mutual intellectual and social support; study groups
and reading groups, for example, are good ways to share ideas and experiences and get to know fellow students.
Whilst we expect you to take your studies seriously, we also hope that you will take full advantage of the galleries,
museums and cultural life that London has to offer. We are fortunate to have good transport links to many places of
interest, including the Tate Modern, South Bank, National Theatre, Royal Festival Hall, the Millennium Bridge and
Shakespeares Globe Theatre, all of which can be reached by train or bus. At Denmark Hill you are a short train
journey away from Southwark Cathedral and on Fridays and Saturdays Borough High Street plays host to one of the
biggest and best food markets in the UK. The interesting shops, cafes and theatres of Covent Garden and the West
End are only a bus ride away and there are lots of good cafs, pubs and places to eat near the campus.
Finally, we hope that you enjoy your time on the MSc War and Psychiatry Programme. Studying can and should be a
pleasurable, interesting experience and we wish you every success with the course.
Prof. Edgar Jones
Linda Daley
Course Team, MSc War and Psychiatry

About King's College London


www.kcl.ac.uk
Kings College London is one of Europes foremost research universities, with an outstanding reputation for teaching and
research.
One of the two founding colleges of the University of London, Kings has four campuses within a square mile on the banks of the
Thames in central London and one at Denmark Hill, south London. Based in London Europes knowledge capital Kings
students have access to an unrivalled concentration of libraries, museums and research institutes.
With some 19,000 students and 5,000 staff, the College offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in nine schools: Institute
of Psychiatry, Biomedical and Health Sciences; the Dental Institute; Humanities; Law; Medicine; Nursing & Midwifery; Physical
Sciences and Engineering; Social Science and Public Policy.

Graduate School
www.kcl.ac.uk/graduate/school
The College has a central Graduate School, based at Waterloo Campus, whose remit is to support current students through
network events, a graduate skills development programme, information sharing, funding opportunities and career progression.
The Graduate School website is an invaluable resource for current events and details of how to access the skills development
programme; please contact graduateschool@kcl.ac.uk for more information.

About the Institute of Psychiatry


www.iop.kcl.ac.uk
The Institute of Psychiatry (IoP) is a global leader in teaching and research in the sciences relevant to mental health. Our work
encompasses almost the entire range of disciplines required to understand the causes of mental disorders, to develop new
treatments, and to evaluate their implementation at patient level, as well as at the level of services and national health and social
care policies.
As a student at the Institute you will be immersed in a vibrant, interdisciplinary research culture. You will mix with senior staff and
fellow students working in complementary fields on a day-to-day basis, in seminars, lectures and, informally, in places like the caf
diner. We have strong connections to the South London and Maudsley Foundation NHS Trust; many of our academics are
involved daily in the care of patients and we consult patient representatives about planning and design of research.

Research
The quality of our research has been recognised by our achievement of the highest 5* rating at the last two Research Assessment
Exercises and our academics rank among the most influential researchers, nationally and internationally. Research is divided into
the following departments:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)

Biostatistics & Computing


Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Forensic Mental Health Science
Health Service & Population Research
Clinical Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Psychological Medicine & Psychiatry
Psychology
Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry

Taught programmes
New current taught student web page
Graduate programmes are taught in relatively small student groups, encouraging specialist knowledge in topics related to
psychiatry, psychology, and neuroscience, developing students for careers as clinicians, therapists, researchers and educators.
We offer an exceptionally wide range of programmes covering subjects such as clinical psychology, neuroscience, cognitive
behavioural therapies, addiction and forensic mental health. Close contact occurs between staff and students throughout the
programmes, which enables students to become part of the dialogue of their chosen discipline.

Our graduate environment


The Institute of Psychiatry has recently undergone major refurbishment work, extending the purpose-designed, specialist research
facilities with state-of-the-art equipment and laboratories.
Four exciting new centres have opened recently, the CCBB (Centre for Cellular Basis of Behaviour), the MRC Neurodegeneration
& Clinical Neuroscience Centre, the Psychosis Centre and a Centre for Forensic Mental Health, along with newly refurbished
facilities for Biostatistics and Epidemiology.

Libraries
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/iss/library/
As students of the Institute of Psychiatry, students on the War and Psychiatry programme have access to the Institutes library and
Weston Education Centre, at the Denmark Hill Campus, and to libraries at other Kings College London campuses. In addition,
Information Services and Systems (ISS) offers a range of services to students including those delivered through Public Access
Workstations Service (PAWS). You will be offered information retrieval training sessions during the first term to help you improve
your searching skills.
The Institute of Psychiatrys library is the largest in Europe dedicated to Psychiatry and its related disciplines, with a stock of
approximately 40,000 books and 200,000 volumes of periodicals. You are advised to make use of this vast resource whenever
possible.
In addition, you will have access to approximately 550 current periodicals, and a wide range of electronic journals and online
information services. Any items not held can usually be requested via a rapid inter-library lending service. Ample seating for
readers is available on three floors of the library and facilities for online computer-based literature searches are provided, as are
microform readers and photocopiers. Training is offered free to library members on the use of data-bases and electronic
information sources.
A number of special collections are housed in the library, including items formerly belonging to key figures in the historical
development of British Psychiatry. The manuscript collections and the Guttman-Maclay collection of psychopathological art are
housed in the archives building of the Bethlem Royal Hospital.
All students are automatically entitled to membership of all the libraries of King's College London, including the nearby King's
College Hospital library, which holds general medical literature. Students are also able to join the University of London Library.
This membership provides further access to a number of special collections, including the British Psychological Society Library
and the library of the Royal Statistical Society. Access may be arranged, if required, to as many as sixty-two other specialised
libraries within the University of London.

Statistics and Computing


http://biostatistics.iop.kcl.ac.uk
The Institute has a Department of Biostatistics & Computing, which runs a statistical consultancy service, offering courses in
statistical techniques and software applications, and providing advice on data processing. The Computing section of the
department offers a helpdesk service: users can send their queries via email or visit the section, although more complicated
issues may require extended appointments.
The Statistics section runs also runs a consultancy helpdesk (Monday to Thursday, from 2.00 - 3.30) offering staff and students
assistance with statistical problems. Should further consultation be needed an appointment will be made for a longer session.
Students should consult their supervisor before seeking help from the helpdesk as most stats problems can be dealt with by
members of the programme staff.
Additionally, the Department offers statistics courses: elementary courses are open to all students and staff of the Institute without
charge; more advanced, specialist short courses are also occasionally available to people outside the Institute for a fee. The
Computing section also runs courses in SPSS throughout the academic year.

About the MSc War and Psychiatry Programme


http://www.iop.kcl.ac.uk/courses/?id=13

Key Contacts
Programme Leader:
Programme Administrator:

Prof. Edgar Jones (edgar.jones@iop.kcl.ac.uk)


Linda Daley (linda.daley@iop.kcl.ac.uk)

Mode of Attendance
Mode of attendance:

Full-time
Part-time

5 days per week


1- 1 day per week

Duration:

Full-time
Part-time

1 year
2 or 3 years

Programme Overview
The Institute of Psychiatry (IOP) and the Department of War Studies jointly founded the Kings Centre for
Military Health Research (KCMHR), which was launched in September 2004. Not only is this new enterprise designed
to undertake research into the health of the armed forces, it is also a vehicle for the wider dissemination of knowledge.
The MSc in War and Psychiatry, therefore, is an essential element in the operation and philosophy of KCMHR.
This course seeks to place military psychiatry in its appropriate cultural, historical and social context.
Seminars provide an opportunity to analyse particular disorders (such as shell shock, post-traumatic stress disorder
and Gulf War syndrome), explore prevention (can recruits be screened for vulnerability to psychological breakdown),
treatments (so-called forward psychiatry, the creation of specialist units close to the front line to treat men with
combat exhaustion), and the roles of military psychiatrists (to conserve the fighting strength) and to draw comparisons
between different nations (including but not restricted to the UK, US, France, Germany and Israel).
With seminars on the reality of war, it attempts to put a human face on combat and to explore what are the
short and longer-term psychological consequences of combat. Seminars on war pensions and veterans seek to
elucidate the dilemma of financial compensation for psychiatric injury. In addition, using evidence from the Second
World War, the psychological effects of air-raids on civilians are also discussed in relation to the current terrorist
threat. By locating these themes in their cultural context, the MSc explores how functional disorders, such as shell
shock, were interpreted by clinicians on the battlefield, and how their meaning changed in the post-war period for
veterans. Similarly, particular treatments drifted in and out of fashion. To explain why a clinical intervention was
popular or considered out dated, requires us to understand not only the state of medical knowledge but also the
demands of planners and commanders. Psychiatric disorders were reconstructed by each new generation of doctors
and administrators. It is vital to place them in their social, medical and military context.

Detailed programme information


Programme Aims
1) To demand responsible study and critical evaluation of the complex methodological, ethical, historical, medical,
cultural and empirical aspects of military psychiatry.
2) To develop an ability to evaluate critically current research and advanced scholarship in the history, development
and practice of military psychiatry.
3) To foster an awareness of a comprehensive range of approaches relevant to the multi-disciplinary nature of
military psychiatry.
4) To instil a systematic and reflexive understanding of the psychiatric and psychological aspects of modern warfare.
5) To promote initiative, originality, creativity and independence in identifying, researching, judging and solving
problems at an advanced level.
6) To develop relevant transferable skills to be found in the learning and assessment schemes in the programme.

Programme Objectives
The programme provides opportunities for students to develop and demonstrate knowledge and understanding and
skills in the following areas:
a) The nature, significance and complexities of the history, development and practice of military psychiatry as revealed
through:
1) Systematic and reflexive investigation of the literature and the conceptual, therapeutic, operational,
historical and ethical issues surrounding the relationship between war and psychiatry.
2) Advanced understanding of a comprehensive range of concepts, theories and methods relevant to military
psychiatry.
3) Specialised studies in one or more aspects of military psychiatry.
b) Intellectual skills:
1) To engage critically with a wide body of literature and to demonstrate the ability to deal with complex
concepts and problems to an advanced level.
2) To exercise informed and independent critical judgment across a range of source material involving
structured and reasoned argument sustained through both essays and a dissertation.
3) To identify, formulate and articulate solutions to intellectual problems at the forefront of military psychiatry
using initiative, originality, creativity and independence.
c) Practical skills:
1) To gather, organise, evaluate and interpret information from a variety of sources, including, where
appropriate, primary materials.
2) To apply concepts, theories and methods in an appropriate, systematic and reflexive manner.
3) To investigate critically, develop and present arguments about, and offer solutions to, complex or narrowly
specialised problems at an appropriately advanced level.
4) To make use of constructive feedback to achieve progression in knowledge, understanding, methods and
judgment.
5) To organise and maintain individual learning strategies.
Entry Requirements
The normal minimum entrance requirement for registration on a Masters degree is:
i)
a second class honours degree of a UK university, or an overseas qualification of an equivalent standard
obtained after a programme of study extending over not less than three years in a university (or educational
institution of university rank), in an appropriate subject; or
ii)
a registerable qualification appropriate to the programme to be followed awarded by a UK university in
medicine or dentistry, or a qualification of an equivalent standard appropriate to the programme to be
followed awarded by a university outside the UK; or
iii)
a professional or other qualification obtained by a formal examination and approved by the Institute.
All teaching at the Institute is conducted in English and it is therefore essential that students have a
sufficient command of the language to follow their course.
Candidates for whom English is not their first language will be required to provide proof that they possess an
adequate level of English competence. The minimum levels are either an IELTS score of 7.0 or a TOEFL score of 600
paper based or 250 computer based. Grade C or above in GCSE English, the Hong Kong Examination Authority
Advanced Use of English or the Malaysian General Certificate of Education: English as a foreign language are also
acceptable.
A candidate possessing alternative qualifications which do not conform with those normally prescribed for
entry may be considered for registration if the candidate, by evidence of their background and experience or general
education, scholarship or training satisfies the Institute as to their fitness to follow the programme and to profit by it.

Teaching Units
To achieve its educational objectives the course has been designed with an introductory core module, which takes
students through the basic concepts of military psychiatry, and a second compulsory core module in Advanced
concepts in military psychiatry. In addition, students are required to study one option course selected from at least
nine options provided by the Department of War Studies. They are also required to complete a 15,000-word
dissertation on a theme chosen from within the broad field of war and psychiatry.
Compulsory Units: The two compulsory core units are as follows:
1) War and Psychiatry: an introduction
Twenty seminars will provide an introduction to the main developments and principles of military psychiatry from 1900
to the present. Key topics include: the issue of shell shock in World War One; the discovery of forward psychiatry
and PIE methods to treat combat stress reaction; attempts to treat battle exhaustion in World War Two; group
therapy at Mill Hill and Northfield; comparative approaches in France and Germany; the realities of war and the impact
of combat on servicemen; the efficacy of forward and base treatments; Vietnam and the rise of PTSD; veterans
pressure groups and war pensions; Gulf War syndrome; psychiatric responses of civilians to trauma and the issue of
risk communication: the need to encourage vigilance without causing panic. There will also be at least one visit to
either: Combat Stress (Ex-Services Mental Welfare Society) or to the Centre for Defence Medicine.
The module is primarily based on the UK experience, though reference throughout will be made to US,
Israeli, French and German examples for comparison. Students will be encouraged to explore cultural differences
between armies. It is a comparative course, which uses the past to inform the present and draws on the differences
between nations.
The twenty seminars are as follows:
1. A general introduction outlining the main developments and principles: the pre-1914 origins of military psychiatry,
World War One and the problem of shell shock together with the discovery of forward psychiatry and PIE methods;
attempts to treat battle exhaustion in World War Two and advances in group therapy at Northfield and Mill Hill;
Vietnam and the politics of PTSD; Gulf War syndrome and subsequent health concerns in Bosnia and Kosovo.
2. Shell Shock and its Legacy
3. World War Two: military psychiatry comes of age
4. Comparative perspectives: France, Russia, Japan and Germany
5. Military psychiatrists: the contributions of key figures
6. The Airforce: lack of moral fibre
7. The realities of war
8. Women in the armed forces
9. Treatment of war-related psychiatric injury
10. Post-combat syndromes
11. Vietnam: war psychiatry, politics and PTSD
12. Gulf War syndrome
13. Veterans, pressure groups and financial compensation
14. Law and ethics of war-related psychiatric injury
15. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
16. The Wars of Israel
17. Civilians: the blitz to Bin Laden
18. Psychiatric casualties: the literary perspective
19. Screening and the military
20. Psychological effects of chemical and biological weapons
2) Advanced Concepts in Military Psychiatry
This second core course is designed to build on the work undertaken in the introductory module. It too is taught in ten
two-hour seminars. Key topics include:
1. Changing nature of war and issues relating to mental health of personnel in the armed forces
2. Contemporary civilian response to disasters
3. The mental health of UK troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

4. Military intervention and humanitarian action: Trends, ethical dilemmas and future directions
5. The Future of Military Psychiatry
6. The psychology of the terrorist and terrorist groups
7. Combat motivation - How soldiers survive intense or prolonged stress
8. PTSD: Contemporary lessons from the field
9. Psychological problems of prisoners-of-war
10. Media and veteran health issues / The role of the media in veterans health issues

3) Option Course
Students are required to complete one full optional course or two half-units to fulfil the course requirements.
Part-time students complete this course in their second year. Based on feedback from students, we have
designed an option course specifically for War and Psychiatry students. It is called Complex Political
Emergencies, Health and Security and is taught by Dr Preeti Patel. The lecture and seminar topics are as
follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Introduction to Complex Political Emergencies, Health and Security


Causes of Conflict
New Security Challenges - Terrorism
Health and Security
Military-Civilian nexus
Forced Migration
Reproductive Health and Conflict
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
Mental Health of Militarised Groups
Military Health and Behaviour
HIV, conflict and security
Disease control in emergencies
Policy and Operational Issues
Global Health from structural adjustment to the Millennium Development Goals
Aid in Conflict Environments
Civil Society and Governance
Role of the Private Sector
Health in Post-Conflict Fragile States
Conflict resolution & Post-Conflict Peace-building

Alternatively, students can take an option course from a list provided by the Department of War Studies. The range
and number of these option courses vary annually depending upon the availability of tutors. Application is directly to
the Department of War Studies and places are not guaranteed.

Programme Committee
The programme committee has overall responsibility for overseeing the programme, including syllabus and assessment criteria.
The membership of the Programme Committee is:
Programme Chair
Programme Leader
Programme Lecturer
Head, Education Support
Head of Department
Dean
Institute Secretary

Prof Simon Wessely


Prof Edgar Jones
Dr Preeti Patel
Karen Langridge
Prof Simon Wessely
Prof Peter McGuffin
Richard Barnard

The responsibilities of the Programme Committee are:

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To consider feedback from students on the programme.

To ensure that the programme is academically sound and compares favourably with other similar programmes.

To enhance and develop the curriculum in line with current trends in the subject.

To ensure the programme falls within the remit of the Institute's academic profile.

To guarantee that entry requirements, teaching methods, assessment procedures and provision of support are suitable
for both the programme and students.

To ensure that assessment procedures are fair and consistent and that the award conferred is appropriate to both
programme and student performance.

To make sure adequate resources are made available to the programme.

To liaise with the Institutes Teaching Committee and consider any business required by that committee.

In practice, responsibility for day-to-day shaping of the programme is devolved to the Programme Learning and Teaching Group,
which comprises of the Programme Chair, Programme Leaders and members of the teaching staff

Calendar 2009/2010
Term Dates

Week commencing to week ending

Autumn Term

27th Sept 2010 - December 10th, 2010

Spring Term

January 11th, 2010 - March 12th, 2010

Summer Term

19th April 2010- June 25th, 2010

Submission deadline for assessed course work

Date

3,000 word essays

At least one essay by Tuesday, January 5th,


2010
All three essays by Friday, March 26th, 2010

5,000 word essay

Submit by July 1st, 2010

Dissertation

Submit by September 1st, 2010

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Coursework & Dissertation


Please ensure you familiarise yourself with the following requirements.

Coursework
Format and word length
All coursework should be submitted in as both electronic and hard copies.
Course work should be presented in the following way
Student number on each page - NO NAME
Typed on A4 white paper with at least 1.5 line spacing
Font size 12
All course work should include one (1) front sheet with the following information
Study Unit Name
Essay title
Name of candidate
Candidate number
Year of study
Word count

Submission
Submission deadline for assessed course work

Date

Introductory core course

At least one essay by Tuesday, January 5th,


2010
All three essays by Friday, March 26th, 2010

Advanced core course

Submit by July 1st, 2010

Dissertation
Dissertations longer than 15,000 words (excluding references) will be penalised
Three (3) copies of the dissertation should be handed to the programme administrator by 12noon on the Friday July 27th 2007.
The dissertation should be presented in the following way: Student number as a header on each page NO NAME
Typed on A4 white paper with at least one & half spacing
Font size 12
All course work should include a removable front sheet with the following information:
Study Unit name
Essay title
Student name
Student number
Word count

Submission
Submission deadline for assessed course work

Date

Dissertation

Submit by September 1st, 2010

Late Submission
Material for assessment, including essays, case studies and dissertations, must be submitted by the dates specified in this
handbook. Material submitted late will normally be failed with a mark of zero unless the candidate has suffered illness or

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other cause found acceptable to the Board of Examiners (refer to the Mitigating circumstances & requests for a Board of
Examiners to review its decision for more details).

Section 1.01 Guidelines for the Presentation of the Dissertation

There are several different styles for the presentation of references etc, as you will notice during
your reading. However, authors writing for publication have to follow the preferred house style
of the publishers and journals for which they write, so it is helpful to get into the habit of using
such a house style. It is also important that there be a level playing field, with all students
working under the same restrictions, for example concerning how many words footnotes absorb.
Quotations
Quotations are meant to amplify or illustrate your argument. You should be sparing and judicious
in their use. Always ask yourself: could I really not say that in my own words? If that is not the
case, then ask yourself: does the quotation really illustrate or add to the point I am making?
Definitely do not provide quotations (or source references in notes) for commonly known facts,
for example, As Michael Howard writes in his biography of the philosopher, Clausewitz was
born in 1780.
In British style, single quotation marks should be used: e.g., All men are liars. Double quotation
marks are used only for quotations within quotations: e.g., I said in my wrath, All men are
liars. The closing quotation mark, in British style, precedes all punctuation marks, except a
question mark, exclamation mark, dash or parenthesis if these form part of the original source.
When a quotation runs to more than three lines of typescript it should be indented. In that case, no
quotation marks are used (except for quotations within the quotation, for which single marks are
used). For example:
I [Gregory of Tours] would like to make a brief comparison between the happy
outcome of the Christians who have believed in the Holy Trinity and the disasters
which have befallen those who have sought to destroy it.... It is, by the way, a great
mystery to me why the voice of the prophet calls spiritus principalis what the
heretics maintain to be something of minor importance.1[1]
There are three more things to note about this quotation:
Editorial additions to the original text are placed within square brackets. Additions are
required to explain what would otherwise be ambiguous to your reader.
If you leave out part of a sentence between the first and the last word you indicate this with
three dots. Four dots should be used if you exclude the end or beginning of a sentence, or one
or more complete sentences.
Non-English words (whether they appear in quotations or in your own writing) should be
printed in italics or underlined.
Proper nouns
United States Department of Defense is a proper noun, and should be spelt exactly as is
customary in American English. When obviously referring to the US DoD, Defense Department
you should ensure that you use the US spelling of Defense. Similar rules should apply to other
proper nouns in the English language, which should be spelt as their owners do.
1[1]

Gregory of Tours (1974), p. 161.

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These rules do not apply to translations from foreign languages. The German
Verteidigungsminister should be translated as Defence Minister using the British spelling.
When quoting URLs for Web sites as references in scholarly papers, the spelling must be exactly
as given in the original. For example, www.defenselink.mil links to the US Department of
Defenses main portal. However, www.defencelink.mil leads to a site not found error.
Footnotes & Endnotes
The purpose of notes is twofold: they provide room for making a point that is peripheral to the
main argument and they provide a home for your bibliographic references (see below).
Notes which contain peripheral information should be used sparingly, as they tend to be
distracting for a reader and may lead you off into the wilderness of irrelevance. You should
always make an effort to include all information except references in the main text. If something
does not fit into your main text, it is often better to leave it out entirely.
Since much of the information you present will be based on the research and writings of other
authors, you have to accept a basic rule in academia: that you credit the authors you use. Failure
to do so may constitute plagiarism. Whether you borrow an argument, paraphrase a section, or
provide a direct quotation, all forms of derivation must be supported by references.
Kings prefers footnotes, that is, notes situated at the bottom of the page to which they refer.
Some word-processing packages do not allow for footnotes. In such cases, endnotes (that is, notes
gathered at the end of your piece of work) are allowed.
Note numbers are usually placed at the end of a sentence, behind all punctuation marks. In
exceptional circumstances, the note number can appear within a sentence. An example of where
this is permissible is when the note refers to a statement you reject or qualify in a further part of
the sentence and ambiguity would result if it were placed at the end of the sentence. Note,
however, that it still has to appear at the end of a clause after a punctuation mark it is never
inserted directly behind a word.
References
To save words, your references to sources in footnotes or endnotes should be in abbreviated form,
and keyed to the full reference to the bibliography. References to the work of other authors
should contain the following information: surname, year of publication in parentheses, and the
relevant page numbers. For example:
Freedman (1989), p. 20
Honig & Both (1996), pp. 35-40
In the case of edited collections and journals, provide the name of the author(s) who wrote the
chapter or article to which you refer, and not the overall editor of the work.
You may use ibid. (short for ibidem or in the same place) only if the work to which you are
referring was the last one to appear in your previous note.
In cases when two authors possess the same surname, and have published work in the same year,
you should differentiate between them by using their initials. For example:
Jones, P. (1974)

15

Jones, A.J. (1974)


Sometimes you may need to refer to multiple pieces of work which have been written by the same
author in a single year. In such cases you should differentiate between them by appending a
lower-case letter to the year of publication, in both the note and the bibliographic reference. For
example:
Smith (1995a)
Smith (1995b)
If the name of an author is not supplied, as in official reports, you should use the title of the
source itself as the alphabetical key to the full bibliographical reference, as follows:
Statement on the Defence Estimates (1996), para.216
When citing very short sources such as newspaper reports, you should give the full reference in
the footnote, rather than listing all of the news articles you have consulted in the bibliography.
You need not mention authors except for editorial or feature articles, and a typical reference
would be:
Milosevic thugs pelt election challenger, The Times, 15 September 2000
Sources which you have found in electronic form, on CD-ROM or on the Internet, should be cited
as far as possible using the same conventions as for published material. Articles, books or reports
will look indistinguishable in the footnote, and only the full bibliographical reference will include
the CD-ROM or website address instead of the normal publication details. Shorter sources should
have a full citation in the footnote, as for newspaper articles. The key thing in either case is to
include the full web address (be accurate!) and the date accessed, since the web is a constantly
changing medium. A typical short reference might be:
MoD Publishes Reappraisal of Initial Training System,
http://news.mod.uk/news_headline_story.asp?newsItem_id=2534, 16 July 2003

Bibliography
All your assessed work should include a bibliography. This should be placed at the end of your
work and contain all the articles and books you consulted in alphabetical order. References to
books should contain the following information: author, year of publication, title (including
subtitle), place of publication, publisher. The name of the publisher is optional, but desirable. You
can use the Harvard system if you wish. The system adopted by the Department of War Studies
follows and can be used as an alternative.

Bond, Brian (1977), Liddell Hart: A Study of his Military Thought (London: Cassell)
van Creveld, Martin (1989), Technology and War: From 2000 B.C. to the Present (New
York: The Free Press)
Delbrck, Hans (1991), History of the Art of War in the Framework of Political History, Vol.
IV: The Modern Era, tr. Walter Renfroe (Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press)

16

Zielonka, Jan (1992), Security in Central Europe, Adelphi Papers, No. 272 (London:
Brasseys for the International Institute for Strategic Studies)
Unlike American authors, British authors often do not give their first name, only their initial(s).
Follow whatever the title page of the book tells you. The title either appears in italic or is
underlined. Do not mix the two. Choose one or the other (the choice usually depends on the
capabilities of your word processor). Also, note carefully the use of punctuation marks in the
above citations, the position of the volume number, the inclusion of the name of a translator, and
the position of the name of a series.
If the book you consulted notes on the title page or copyright page that it is a new edition, note
this as well in your citation. For example:
Freedman, Lawrence (1989), The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, 2nd edn. (London:
Macmillan)
An edited book should be cited as follows:
Freedman, Lawrence, ed. (1994), War (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press)
If there is more than one editor list them all and write eds. behind their names. A chapter from
an edited book is cited as follows:
Waldron, Arthur (1994), Chinese Strategy from the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth
Centuries, in Williamson Murray, MacGregor Knox and Alvin Bernstein, eds., The
Making of Strategy: Rulers, States, and War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press),
pp. 85-114.
References to an article should contain the following information: author, year of publication, title
of the article, name of the journal, volume number, issue number, and page numbers.
Capitalisation of titles applies in the same way that it does to book titles. For example:
McGlynn, Sean (1994), The Myths of Medieval Warfare, History Today, Vol. 44, No. 1,
pp. 28-34.
If the article appeared in an edited volume, cite it as follows:
Paret, Peter (1986), Clausewitz, in Peter Paret, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy from
Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 186-213.
Section 1.02 Further information
The information presented on references is by no means exhaustive. For queries about cases not
covered here, consult Judith Butcher (1992), Copy-Editing: The Cambridge Handbook for
Editors, Authors, Publishers, 3rd edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). The best
reference work, however, is The Chicago Manual for Style (1993), 14th edn. (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press). Although it sets the standards for American usage, it does mention British
practices when these differ.
For more general guidance on writing style and technique, try Gordon Taylor (1989), The
Students Writing Guide for the Arts and Social Sciences (Cambridge: Cambridge University
17

Press). Finally, do not hesitate to consult your Personal Tutor or module tutor about problems
regarding form or substance.

Assessment
Assessment Methods
The course is assessed by means of 4 3,000 word essays, 1 5,000 word essay, and a 15,000 word dissertation.

Assessment Weighting
Each element of assessment carries a particular weighting, that is, it constitutes a proportion of the overall mark. The weighting for
assessments on the MSc War and Psychiatry and associated courses are given below. In order to pass the Programme,
candidates are required to pass each module with a weighted average mark of at least 50 (the weighted average for the module
is the weighted average of all the assessed elements for that module). Refer to the Appendix for the Scheme for the award of the
Masters degree.
Module
Introductory Core Course
Advanced Core Course
Option Course
Dissertation

% of final mark:
23
22
22
33

Assessment Criteria
The tables below show the generic assessment criteria against which all assessed work will be marked. Specific marking criteria
for different elements of assessment (exams, essays, case studies and the dissertation) will be made available during the Autumn
term.
Examinations and other forms of assessment are marked numerically out of 100. The following scheme shows the general criteria
used to assess the quality of the work.
Overall

Equivalent (%)

Distinction

70+%

Merit

60-69%

Pass

50-59%

Fail

<50%

Description
Advanced and comprehensive essay. Logical, organised and systematic
answer, covering all the major aspects of the topic. Evidence of independent
study, originality and critical evaluation demonstrated by selection and
presentation of relevant material. Excellent standard of presentation and
analysis.
Good knowledgeable, logical, organised and accurate answer covering most of
the major aspects of the topic. Some evidence of independent study.
Demonstrates a clear and accurate understanding. High standard of
presentation and analysis.
Accurate answer covering most of the major aspects of the topic, and some
evidence of independent study or critical evaluation.
A weak, superficial essay. Incomplete coverage of the subject or with important
omissions and mistakes. Poor standard of presentation and analysis.

18

Marking Structure
All examined work for all programmes is marked by at least two internal examiners. Before any marks are provisionally awarded,
the essay or report (or other assessed item) is judged against a set of criteria to decide the appropriate grade. The final mark for
each assessed item is scrutinised by the External Examiners and approved by the Programme Board (see below).

Results
Results of examinations and coursework undertaken during the 2007/8 academic year will be sent by post to students after the
programme exam board meets. The marks indicated will be provisional and subject to ratification by the School Board of
Examiners, which meets in November.

Reassessment
A candidate who fails an examination at the first attempt may, at the discretion of the Board of Examiners, be reassessed on the
failed element on one further occasion, normally during the September replacement examination period (see the Calendar section
of this handbook). However, results for retakes are capped at 50%.

Examination Board
Structure and Functions
There are three levels of examination boards:

The College Board of Examiners is responsible for both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes throughout the
College. Its role is to co-ordinate, regulate, advise and to maintain consistent standards throughout the College, ensuring that
procedures and regulations in relation to examinations are properly carried out.

At Institute level, there is an Institute Board of Examiners, which is responsible for all postgraduate programmes within the
IoP. The Institute Board reports to the College Board of Examiners, and membership includes the Chairs of each individual
Programme Board of Examiners (see below). It is responsible for the approval and co-ordination of marking schemes. The
Institute Board meets a number of times a year to discuss and decide on matters relating to examinations. It approves the
recommendations of the Programme Boards of Examiners with regard to all results including the classification of degree
awarded to each student. In this way, the Institute Board ensures that comparable standards are applied across the various
fields of study within the Institute.

Individual Programme Boards of Examiners are responsible for one or several related programmes. The Programme Boards
consider and agree upon the content of examination papers, makes recommendations on the appointment of Visiting
Examiners and on the examination marks for individual students on their degree programmes. The Programme Boards make
recommendations to the Institute Board of Examiners on awards to individual students. Programme Boards may also
recommend that individual students be permitted to re-sit failed examinations.

Membership of Programme Board of Examiners


Chair
Internal Examiners
External (Visiting) Examiners
Intercollegiate Examiner
Head, Education Support Team

Prof Simon Wessely


Prof Edgar Jones,
Dr Marguerite Dupree, Prof Ian Robbins
Prof Christopher Dandeker
Karen Langridge

Terms of reference
1.

To ensure that assessment procedures are fair and consistent and that the award conferred is both appropriate to both
programme and student performance

2.

To ensure that marked components are clear and unambiguous and comprise a fair and appropriate reflection of the
programme itself

3.

To ensure comparability of standards with similar postgraduate programmes

4.

To recommend final degree classification to the Institute Board of Examiners

5.

To report recommendations of the External Examiners to the Programme Committee

19

External (Visiting) Examiners


The main functions of External (Visiting) Examiners are to ensure that the programmes offered at the College and the Institute,
and the grades of degrees awarded, are of a standard comparable with those at other universities in the UK, and that the
examination system is fair and equitably run. They also act as adjudicators in individual cases. External Examiners are therefore
experts (often Professors) in particular fields of study and are drawn from other higher education institutions in the UK. Essentially,
their duties are to:

comment on and approve draft examination papers and advise upon other modes of assessment appropriate to the
subject;

sample examination answer scripts and other assessed material including coursework to ensure an appropriate
standard of marking, and to act as adjudicators on borderline pass/fail cases;

interview students as permitted by College and programme regulations;

approve pass lists;

report formally on the degree programme and its method of assessment so that the Programme Boards and the Institute
Board of Examiners can modify their procedures if necessary.

20

Learning and support for learning


At postgraduate level, independent learning is encouraged and the MSc War and Psychiatry Programme is designed to enable
you to extend your knowledge and understanding of subject and to develop transferable skills, including literature searching,
critical appraisal and research. The Programme is delivered through a range of teaching and learning methods, aiming to provide
up-to-date coverage of subject issues and to offer you opportunities to pursue your own interests through extended essays and
the research-based dissertation.
Seminars and discussions form the core teaching for each module. They cover the main topics and key themes in the curriculum
of each module. You are expected to supplement class work and lecture notes with further reading. Students find it helpful to do
some preparatory reading each week. As well as recommended references, which are linked to each weeks sessions,
independent literature searches will extend your knowledge and understanding and increase your chances of success. During the
first term there will be a library induction and a workshop on literature searching. Studying for a postgraduate diploma or masters
degree is a stimulating and enjoyable experience but it can also place challenging demands upon students, particularly those who
have full-time jobs and families. In addition to taught sessions, postgraduate courses require independent study and personal
commitment and you are expected to dedicate time and energy to your studies. In order to get the most out of the course you
should arrange to devote at least a day a week to your studies (part-time students) or 2-3 days per week (full-time students), in
addition to class contact time.

Attendance
Students are expected to attend all elements of the course. As well as adversely affecting your own learning, non-attendance has
a detrimental effect on fellow students and group morale. Attendance will be monitored regularly. Repeated non-attendance will
be brought to the students attention. If you are unable to attend for more than one week please notify the Programme Office.

Academic and personal tutorial support


Module and Programme Leaders provide academic tutorial support. Students are also assigned a Personal Tutor whose role is to
offer guidance and support in dealing with the demands of postgraduate study. It is best to try to meet your tutor at least once a
term and to keep in contact with them by email. If you experience, or anticipate, difficulties whilst on the course, it is your
responsibility to seek support as soon as possible from academic and personal tutors, who will do their best to help you.

Essay writing and examinations


As part of the programme assessment process, students will be required to either submit coursework (e.g. essays, case studies)
and/or sit examinations in each module. In these, success depends not just on how much, or what you know but, on how you
convey your knowledge and understanding, orally or in writing. For those who have been away from studying for some time, this
can be a daunting task. In recognition of this, module and programme leaders provide opportunities to discuss assignments. There
are also useful study guides available on essay writing and preparing for exams, and many local authorities run short study skills
courses. In addition, the Kings English Language Centre is a very useful resource for international students (see English
Language Support below for more information).

Referencing
www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c4/43/02/citing.pdf
The accuracy and thoroughness of referencing are taken into account in assessing written work, so as well as being part of
academic discipline, acquiring the habit of good referencing is in your best interests. The system of referencing, which must be
used in written work, is a standardised one, closely based on the now widely adopted Harvard System (see Appendix 6).
Simplicity and comprehensiveness are the advantages of this system. Like all systems, this does not provide a single, perfect
answer to every unusual case. However, if you adopt the principles described, you should not go wrong.

21

English Language Support


http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/elc
All teaching at the Institute is conducted in English and it is therefore essential that students have a sufficient command of the
language to follow their course.
The Kings College London English Language Centre is to there to help international students with any problems they might have
concerning their written and spoken English. It offers tuition in General English (EFL/ESL) and English for Academic Purposes
(EAP) courses throughout the year.
Subject to availability, part-time courses are available free of charge to students who require English language support. The
Centre also offers an Advanced English Language course for students wishing to sit the Cambridge Proficiency Examination. In
addition, the Centre offers workshops in communication and study skills for students whose first language is English and who
have problems with essay writing, spelling etc.
For more details about English language tuition and courses contact the Centre on 020 7848 1600 or email elc@kcl.ac.uk.

22

Student Feedback & Representation


Students have the opportunity to provide their views on their programme, facilities, the Institute and Kings through student
representatives on the Programme Committee and in person at Student Forum meetings. We are keen to receive students
comments and ideas for improving the programme, and incorporate these into programme delivery where feasible. There are
three main ways you can make your views known:

Through student representatives (see above).


Termly questionnaires
Yearly questionnaires

Questionnaires
Student feedback on the teaching and content of courses is obtained through termly questionnaires which you will be asked to
complete anonymously. The form covers teaching and learning quality, information resources, administrative support and the
Kings environment, and has space for any other comments. Analysis of the questionnaires by the Programme Leader will allow
your views to be integrated into the future development of the programme.
Student feedback also forms a large part of the annual monitoring process. All programmes are required to produce a report on
the operation of the programme each year. Included as part of this report is a summary of the feedback received from students,
mechanisms used for assimilating and processing students comments and examples of how previous feedback from students has
resulted in changes being made to the programme.

Programme Committee
The Programme Committee meets at least twice a year. It offers students the opportunity, through their student representatives, to
discuss the programme and raise any issues with members of the programme team.

Students Forum
www.iop.kcl.ac.uk/studentforum
The Students Forum of the Institute of Psychiatry meets on a termly basis and provides students with the opportunity to voice
concerns and discuss educational and other matters of mutual interest with key administrative staff.

Kings College London Students Union


http://www.kclsu.org/
All students are automatically members of Kings College London Students Union (KCLSU). KCLSU exists to represent the
interests of all students at Kings and provide a wide range of high quality recreational, social and welfare services at all
campuses. In addition to this, it can provide confidential advice and support on a range of issues see the Advice section below
for more information about this service.

Education Support Team (School Office)


www.iop.kcl.ac.uk/est
You can go the Institutes Education Support Team for advice and information. It is situated in the main Institute building, at the
Denmark Hill Campus and is open from 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday. Staff are on hand to help you with any problems and can
usually point you in the right direction for obtaining advice and assistance if they cannot help directly.

Personal Tutors
All students are appointed a Personal Tutor who will meet students at the beginning of the programme and once a term thereafter.
Students are required to take the initiative in approaching their Personal Tutor if an issue arises outside of these times. Personal
tutors will contact you generally by email, so please make sure that you regularly check your College and personal email
accounts.
The role of the Personal Tutor is to provide independent advice on a range of issues and act as a point of contact for students
experiencing problems not dealt with through the normal process of academic supervision. The Personal Tutor should ensure that
students are aware of the facilities, resources and services offered by the Institute and the College in relation to health care,
counselling and financial assistance.

23

Advice
Welfare Advice
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/welfare
Personal Tutors are available to discuss a range of problems that students may encounter, but students may also wish to talk to
someone from outside their programme.
Institute and Kings College Welfare Advisers offer free, confidential advice and guidance on a range of practical issues for current
students, including finance and money management, social security and disability benefits, housing rights, consumer law and
immigration issues.
The Student Support Officer on the Denmark Hill Campus is based in the Education Support Team, on the second floor of the
main IoP building. Drop-in sessions, lasting about 10 minutes, take place regularly in the Student Welfare and Support Office,
situated by the Caf Lounge, and appointments can be made for more detailed queries. For more information please contact
Becky Cooper (Student Support Officer) on 020 7848 0237, or email: rebecca.cooper@iop.kcl.ac.uk or welfare@kcl.ac.uk.
Should you wish to speak with someone outside the Institute you can phone the Welfare Advisers on the numbers given above to
book an appointment, or visit the office to pencil your name in the Advisers timetable. Most booked appointments are for up to
thirty minutes and take place in a confidential one-to-one setting and, where necessary, follow-up appointments can then be
made.
Emails can be sent to welfare@kcl.ac.uk for initial inquiries or to request information. However, it must be noted that e-mails are
not strictly confidential as other authorised members of the College can obtain access. For confidential or more complex matters it
is therefore advisable to book an appointment to see an adviser.

Counselling
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/about/structure/admin/acareg/studentservices/counselling
The College operates a counselling service which aims to enable students to make the most of their opportunities by helping them
cope with any problems or difficulties that may arise of a personal or emotional nature. The team includes professionally trained
counsellors, group analysts and a psychiatrist. All of the help offered is strictly confidential. The counselling service at the
Denmark Hill Campus is based in the Western Education Centre, by appointment only, every Monday. For appointments
telephone 020 7848 1731, or email counselling@kcl.ac.uk.

Kings College London Students Union


http://www.kclsu.org/
Kings College London Students Union (KCLSU) offers advice services to Kings students primarily through the Advice Centre and
the VP Education and Representation.
The Advice Centre is an independent organisation run through the Students Union, which offers free, confidential and impartial
advice and information on a range of subjects, including:

Academic Queries (e.g. Academic Hearings, Disciplinary Hearings, How to Change Programme/College, Problems with
Programme/Lecturers, etc);
Problems with Halls (e.g. tenancy agreements, rights to repair, deposits;
Employment Issues (e.g. seeking work, employee's contracts, etc);
Legal Advice (e.g. basic help and referrals, etc);
Personal Queries (e.g. harassment, attack, children/childcare, marriage, divorce, etc).

The Advice Unit is staffed by the Academic Caseworker and is based in the KCLSU Resource Centre on the first floor of the
Strand Site. In addition, the Academic Advisor offers appointments at all other College campuses; appointments can be made
using the online form on the KCLSU website www.kclsu.org or by emailing advice@kclsu.org.

24

Careers Advice
www.kcl.ac.uk/careers
Given the specialist nature of the majority of programmes at the Institute, either the Programme Leader or other members of the
programme team are often best placed to offer you careers advice. We hope to have a dedicated careers advisor present at the
IoP from September 2007 (days and times are to be confirmed). For those who want further advice, the College has a Careers
Service which provides careers counselling and information on a wide range of careers and postgraduate programmes.
A vast range of information about careers, postgraduate programmes, employers, and job vacancies is available in the information
library (Waterloo campus), where Information officers can help you find the information you need. Copies of the weekly Job
Opportunities Bulletin are available from the Information Services Centre in the Franklin Wilkins Building, keeping you up-to-date
with latest news and event from the University of London Careers Service
The main Careers Service office and the information libraries are open Monday to Thursday, 09:30 to 17:00, and Fridays
from12:00 to 17:00. Students can meet with a careers adviser for a 10-15 minute Quick Query consultation without an
appointment on Monday to Thursdays from 11:00 to 17:00 during term time and from 14:00 to 17:00 in vacations. If a longer
discussion is required, this can be booked after an initial Quick Query consultation.
For further information please contact:
Kings College London Careers Service
Room G43, Ground Floor
James Clerk Maxwell Building
57 Waterloo Road
London SE1 8WA
Tel: +44 (0)20 7848 4053
Email: careers@kcl.ac.uk

25

College Policies
www.kcl.ac.uk/college/policyzone

Code of Conduct
Lectures are for the benefit of students. It is essential to have a quiet atmosphere to allow the lecturer to make an effective
presentation and the students to concentrate on the lecture. Lecturers who are disturbed by disruptive or interfering behaviour
have a right to ask offending students to leave.
You can contribute to the success of lectures by adhering to the following guidelines:
1.

Arrive punctually so that the lecture can start on time. Late arrivals distract the lecturer and other students, and are
discourteous and inconsiderate.

2.

If the lecture is delayed because students are late, valuable time is lost and this may result in the lecture running over time
into the break. If you are more than five minutes late you should not enter the lecture unless you can do so without causing
any disturbance.

3.

Maintain a quiet atmosphere during the lecture by ensuring that your mobile phone, bleep or pager is switched off.

4.

Do not talk while the lecturer is talking.

5.

Concentrate on the material that is being presented.

6.

If you have a question, you should attract the lecturers attention by raising your hand.

7.

You should not leave a lecture before it ends unless asked to or given the option by the lecturer.

8.

You should complete evaluation forms or offer feedback as requested by the lecturer. Feedback should be constructive to
help the lecturer improve the quality of teaching.

Equality & Diversity


www.kcl.ac.uk/equal_opps
The Equality & Diversity Department provides information and advice for staff and students on equality issues. The Department
has a number of useful web pages providing up to date information such as the College's Race Equality Policy and disabilityrelated information sheets.
The Department includes the Director of Equality and Diversity, the Disability Co-ordinator and the Disability Support Officer. To
make an appointment for advice, information and/or specialist support or student assessment services call 020 7848 3398
(tel/text) or 020 7848 3490 (fax) or email the Department at equality@kcl.ac.uk.

Equal Opportunities
Kings College London is committed to promoting and developing equality of opportunity in all areas of its work. In order to achieve
this aim, the College seeks to:

ensure that prospective and current students, job applicants and members of staff are treated solely on the basis of their
merits, abilities and potential without any unjustified discrimination on grounds of age, sex, disability, family circumstances,
race, colour, nationality, citizenship, ethnic origin, social and economic status, religious belief, sexual orientation, marital
status or other irrelevant distinction;

promote good relations between individuals from different groups; recognise and develop the diversity of skills and talent
within both its current and potential staff and student body;

foster a culture based on trust and mutual respect;

undertake a programme of action to make equality policies effective;

monitor progress towards achieving equality of opportunity on a regular basis;

communicate to staff, students, associates and others the promotion of equal opportunities and College procedures to
sustain it.

Students with Disabilities


If you are a disabled student, or you are experiencing temporary or sudden onset of a disability, the Disability Support Team at
Kings and an IoP based Disability Advisor can assist you in a number of ways. In addition, your Department may be able to

26

provide the following: special seating, handouts or booklists in advance, rearranged time-tables, long book loans, extra time for
examinations and extra support from staff.
If you are a home-domiciled postgraduate student, you may be eligible for the Disabled Students Allowance. This is a financial
package which helps to cover the extra costs of studying with a disability such as notetakers, assistive technology and extra
photocopying costs. Contact the Disability Support Team for more information regarding eligibility and details on how to apply.
If you suspect that you may have dyslexia or learning difficulties, the Disability Support Team can provide advice and guidance. In
the past, Kings has funded Dyslexia Assessments for students through the Hardship fund.
More detailed information for students with disabilities can be found in the College's Disability Handbook: An individual's guide.
This is available online at www.kcl.ac.uk/equal_opps/ or from the Education Support Team and Equality & Diversity Department.
To make an appointment to see the Disability Support Officer or the Disability Co-ordinator contact 020 7848 3398 (tel/text) or
email equality@kcl.ac.uk. To Make and appointment to see the IoP Disability Advisor please contact Juliana Onwumere:
juliana.onwumere@iop.kcl.ac.uk.

Grievance Procedure
In the event of an academic grievance, students should first speak to their Programme Leader or Personal Tutor.
It may be appropriate for a students complaint, particularly if it is of a general rather than a personal nature, to be referred to one
of the following:

Programme Committee
Students Forum
Teaching Committee

In the event of the student being unable to resolve the grievance to their satisfaction, the student should approach the Chair of the
Teaching Committee.
If the grievance still remains unresolved to the satisfaction of the student then the student may submit a request for redress in
writing to the Dean, who will make an initial response within fourteen working days. The correspondence between the Dean and
the student will form part of the evidence that the student has exhausted all local mechanisms in respect of Section 5:5.2.1 of the
College's Grievance procedure for students.
Students whose grievances arise from allegations of sexual or racial harassment from members of staff or other students should
seek redress using the procedures set out in the Colleges Code of Practice on Sexual and Racial Harassment.

Health and Safety


www.iop.kcl.ac.uk/departments/?locator=409
The Institute has a Health and Safety policy which aims to ensure safe working conditions and practices and to assign managerial
and functional responsibilities in order that accidents and other losses are prevented or reduced. The policy applies to all staff,
students and visitors working at the Institute. Where the Institute shares the occupation or control of premises with another
employer then the safety policy and detailed arrangement will be jointly co-ordinated to ensure the health and safety of all
occupants. Where Institute staff or students undertake any work on premises under the control of another employer then the policy
and arrangements of that employer will apply.
Students must register with a doctor and dentist in the area where they live. Overseas students and their dependants are entitled
to free health care under the National Health Service providing that their programme of study is full time and lasts for more than
six months.
Overseas students who are on programmes of study of less than six months are not entitled to free health care under the National
Health Service. Students from European Economic Area countries should complete Form E111. Students from countries outside
of the EEA which have no reciprocal arrangements with the United Kingdom should ensure that they take out medical insurance
prior to leaving their home country.

27

College regulations
http://www.kcl.ac.uk/about/governance/regulations/students.html
Please refer to the College Regulations booklet, which was included in your enrolment pack. For additional copies, please contact
the Education Support Team (educationsupport@iop.kcl.ac.uk) or visit the College Regulations pages on the Kings College
website.

28

Appendix 1 Mitigating circumstances & requests for a Board of Examiners to review its
decision
What do I do if my examinations or assessment are affected by circumstances outside my control?
From time to time circumstances arise which are outside your control and which may prevent you from performing to your
potential. Such circumstances might include illness, the death of a close relative, or an accident. When such things occur close to
your examinations or an assessment deadline, you may feel that your performance will suffer as a result. However, the College
has mechanisms in place to ensure that you will not be disadvantaged in any way provided that your need is genuine and that you
follow the procedures approved by the College.
An overarching principle of the Colleges assessment policy is that if you present yourself for an examination or submit an
assessment, then by doing so you are declaring yourself fit to take that examination or to undertake that assessment,
and therefore whatever mark you are awarded will stand. Only in very exceptional circumstances will a mark awarded be
annulled if you have sat the examination or submitted the assessment.
Request for Withdrawal / Extension
It is therefore essential, if you feel that due to circumstances beyond your control you are not properly fit to enter an examination
or to submit an assessment by the deadline, that you seek to be withdrawn from that examination or request an extension to the
deadline for the submission of an assessment. The procedure for doing this is as follows:

You must submit a Mitigating Circumstances Form (MCF) or an Extension Request Form (EFR). These are standard
forms, available from your School Office (or equivalent) or downloadable from the College website:
www.kcl.ac.uk/college/policyzone/attachments/MCF%2005-06%20Web.pdf/
www.kcl.ac.uk/college/policyzone/attachments/ERF%2005-06%20Web.pdf.

You must complete the form in full, and submit it to your School Office (or equivalent) together with all supporting
documentary evidence (e.g. doctors certificate).
You must submit the form at least 7 days before the start of the first examination from which you wish to be withdrawn, or 7
days before the assessment submission deadline. This 7 day rule is to allow sufficient time for a decision to be made, and for
that decision to be communicated to you.
i)

Once received by your School Office (or equivalent), your MCF and/or ERF will be logged and forwarded to the Chairman of
your Board of Examiners.
The Chairman is required to satisfy him/herself of the following before s/he is able to accept your mitigating circumstances
and grant your request:
i)

That your mitigating circumstances are true it is therefore necessary that you submit as much supporting documentary
evidence as possible.

ii)

That your mitigating circumstances constitute good cause this means that s/he will need to be sure that the
circumstances were outside your control and constitute a good reason for not taking the examination or submitting the
assessment. It is therefore not sufficient if, for example, you were ill several months before the examination or
assessment deadline, are going to a wedding in Australia the week before the assessment deadline, or are playing in a
sporting fixture on the day of the exam!

iii)

That your mitigating circumstances would render you unfit to enter the examination or to complete the assessment by
the deadline, or that they would otherwise prevent you from entering the examination or undertaking the assessment by
the deadline.

iv)

That your mitigating circumstances would have a significant and adverse impact on your performance in the
examination or assessment.

Provided that the Chairman is satisfied that all of these criteria have been met, s/he will accept your mitigating circumstances
and agree to your request. The Chairmans decision will be notified to you as soon as possible.
ii)

Where the Chairman accepts your mitigating circumstances and agrees to withdraw you from an examination, you will be
deferred in that examination and will be offered a replacement examination. You would normally be expected to enter this
replacement examination at the next available opportunity.

29

Where the Chairman accepts your mitigating circumstances and agrees to an extension to a deadline for the submission of
an assessment, the Chairman may determine the new deadline or may allow you to negotiate a new deadline with the
assessment organiser.
The Chairman will also report his/her decision to the next meeting of the Board of Examiners.
iii)

Where your mitigating circumstances do not meet the above criteria and your request is consequently rejected, you will be
required to enter the examination or submit the assessment by the deadline. If you do not, you will receive a mark of zero for
that examination or assessment, the same as any other student who fails to enter an exam or submit an assessment.

Request for Retrospective Withdrawal/Extension2


If your circumstances arise within 7 days of the examination or the submission deadline, or you are otherwise unable to submit
your request at least 7 days before these dates, it will not usually be possible to consider your request in advance. In this case,
you will have to consider how serious and genuine your circumstances are and, referring to the criteria above, make a judgement
as to how likely it will be that your mitigating circumstances will be accepted. You should also bear in mind that if you choose to
enter the exam or submit the assessment you will be deemed to have considered yourself fit to do so, and any mark awarded to
you will stand regardless of the strength of your mitigating circumstances. If you choose not to enter the examination or not to
submit the assessment, you will still have an opportunity to submit your mitigating circumstances and to request to be
retrospectively withdrawn from the examination or granted an extension or alternative assessment. However, in this case your
mitigating circumstances will not be considered until the next meeting of the Board of Examiners, and will be considered by the full
Board and not just the Chairman. The procedure is as follows:
iv)

You must submit a MCF, again to your School Office (or equivalent) together with all supporting documentary evidence (e.g.
doctors certificate).
You must submit the form in advance of the meeting of the Board of Examiners at which the result of your examination or
assessment will be considered.

v)

Once received by your School Office (or equivalent), your MCF will again be logged and will be presented to the meeting of
the Board of Examiners.
Your mitigating circumstances must meet exactly the same criteria as if you had submitted them in advance, as listed above,
i.e. the Board of Examiners must satisfy itself of the following before it is able to accept your mitigating circumstances and
grant your request:
i)
ii)
iii)

iv)

That your mitigating circumstances are true


That your mitigating circumstances constitute good cause
That your mitigating circumstances rendered you unfit to enter the examination or to complete the assessment by the
deadline, or that they otherwise prevented you from entering the examination or undertaking the assessment by the
deadline.
That your mitigating circumstances would have had a significant and adverse impact on your performance in the
examination or assessment.

Additionally, and very importantly, the Board of Examiners must satisfy itself:
v)

That you were unable, or for good reasons unwilling, to request to be withdrawn before the exam or to request
an extension before the deadline.

Therefore if you cannot demonstrate that you had a good reason for not having submitted your mitigation in advance, your
mitigating circumstances will be rejected and you will be awarded a mark of zero for that exam or assessment. Good
reasons would include the circumstances arising less than 7 days before the exam or assessment deadline, or if you were ill
and in hospital up until 7 days before the exam or deadline and therefore not able to submit the MCF or ERF.
Provided that the Board is satisfied that all of these criteria have been met, it will accept your mitigating circumstances and
agree to your request.
vi)

Where the Board accepts your mitigating circumstances and agrees to retrospectively withdraw you from the examination,
you will be deferred in that examination and will be offered a replacement examination. The mark of zero will be annulled,
and the replacement will be considered to be your first attempt (provided that the exam was itself your first attempt). You
would normally be expected to enter this replacement examination at the next available opportunity.
Where the Board accepts your mitigating circumstances and agrees to an extension to a deadline for the submission of an
assessment, the Board may determine the new deadline or may allow you to negotiate a new deadline with the assessment
organiser. The mark of zero will be annulled, and the new submission will be considered to be your first attempt (provided
that the original submission was itself your first attempt). The Board may also require you to undertake an alternative
assessment in place of the original assessment.

Retrospective extension requests must be submitted on a MCF not an ERF

30

vii) Where your mitigating circumstances do not meet the above criteria and your request is consequently rejected, you will
receive a mark of zero for that examination or assessment, the same as any other student who fails to enter an exam or
submit an assessment.
viii) The same procedure and criteria apply if you enter and examination but are unable to complete it due to falling ill.
What If I Have Entered the Exam or Submitted the Assessment?
If you have not been withdrawn from an examination or granted an extension to the deadline for the submission of an assessment,
and enter that exam or submit the assessment, you will be deemed to have considered yourself fit to do so, and so any mark you
achieve will stand.
However, in very exceptional circumstances you may request to be retrospectively withdrawn from that exam or assessment,
as follows:
ix)

You must submit a MCF, again to your School Office (or equivalent) together with all supporting documentary evidence (e.g.
doctors certificate).
You must again submit the form in advance of the meeting of the Board of Examiners at which the result of your examination
or assessment will be considered.

x)

Once received by your School Office (or equivalent), your MCF will again be logged and presented to the meeting of the
Board of Examiners.
Your mitigating circumstances must meet exactly the same criteria as if you had submitted them in advance, as listed above,
i.e. the Board of Examiners must satisfy itself of the following before it is able to accept your mitigating circumstances and
grant your request:

That your mitigating circumstances are true

That your mitigating circumstances constitute good cause

That your mitigating circumstances rendered you unfit to enter the examination or to complete the assessment by the
deadline

That your mitigating circumstances had a significant and adverse impact on your performance in the examination or
assessment.

Additionally, and very importantly, the Board of Examiners must satisfy itself:
v)

That you were, for good reason, unable at the time of entry or submission to recognise that you were unfit to
enter the examination or undertake the assessment by the deadline (e.g. due to the nature of an illness).
Therefore if you cannot demonstrate that, due to your state of mind, you genuinely did not appreciate that you were not
properly fit to enter the exam or to undertake the assessment, your mitigating circumstances will be rejected and the
mark you achieved in that exam or assessment will stand.
However where the Board is satisfied that all of these criteria have been met, it will accept your mitigating circumstances
and agree to one of the following:

xi)

Where the Board accepts your mitigating circumstances and agrees to retrospectively withdraw you from the examination,
you will be deferred in that examination and will be offered a replacement examination. The mark achieved will be annulled,
and the replacement will be considered to be your first attempt (provided that the exam was itself your first attempt). You
would normally be expected to enter this replacement examination at the next available opportunity;

a.

Where the Board accepts your mitigating circumstances and agrees to an extension to a deadline for the submission of an
assessment, the Board may determine the new deadline or may allow you to negotiate a new deadline with the assessment
organiser. The mark achieved will be annulled, and the new submission will be considered to be your first attempt (provided
that the original submission was itself your first attempt). The Board may also require you to undertake an alternative
assessment in place of the original assessment;

b.

For final year students where the Board accepts your mitigating circumstances and the offer of a replacement
examination/assessment is deemed inappropriate it may decide to consider your circumstances at the final award stage
when classifying your degree.

Where your mitigating circumstances do not meet the above criteria and your request is consequently rejected, the mark
achieved will stand.
What If I Dont Agree With My Results?

31

All students at Kings have the right to request a review of a decision of a Board of Examiners.
However a decision of a Board of Examiners cannot be challenged on academic grounds, that is to say because your view of your
performance in any examination or assessment differs from that of the Board.
The criteria which must be satisfied before a Board of Examiners will agree to reconsider or review a decision which it has made
are very precise. If your representations do not meet the criteria equally precisely, a Board can not reconsider or review the
decision in question. Even where the criteria for a review are met, a review by a Board of Examiners does not necessarily mean
that the Board will change its original decision.
In relation to mitigating circumstances, the most important criterion that your representation will need to meet is that you will need
to demonstrate that there is new information which you were not able to bring to the attention of the Board before it made its
original decision.
Therefore, if you have entered an examination or submitted an assessment, but wish to challenge your mark or result on the basis
of mitigating circumstances that you did not previously submit to the Board, you will not only have to satisfy the Board that all the
criteria listed above are met (see What if I have entered the exam?), but also demonstrate that you had a good reason for not
having submitted your mitigating circumstances to the Board before it reached its original decision.
If you believe that you have a sufficiently strong case, and wish to request a review of a decision of a Board of Examiners, a form
is provided for this purpose (EDR2). EDR2 forms are available from School Offices (or equivalent) or can be downloaded from the
College website at www.kcl.ac.uk/college/policyzone/attachments/EDR2%20FormSept06.doc
The EDR2 form also gives details of other grounds on which you are entitled to request a review of a decision of a Board. You are
also advised to consult Regulation A2 14.2 of the General regulations for examinations.
Completed EDR2 forms must be submitted to the Deputy Registrars office, together with all relevant mitigation and supporting
documentation, within 14 days of the publication of the results of the Board, where it is logged and forwarded to the Chairman of
the appropriate Board. The Board will then meet to consider your request, typically with 28 days of the publication of the results,
and you should hear the Boards decision, communicated to you by the Deputy Registrars office, within a further two to three
weeks.

32

Appendix 2 College Statement on Plagiarism and related forms of cheating


Plagiarism is the taking of another persons thoughts, words, results, judgements, ideas, etc, and
presenting them as your own. Plagiarism is a form of cheating and a serious academic offence. All allegations of
plagiarism will be investigated and may result in action being taken under the Colleges Misconduct Regulations. A
substantiated charge of plagiarism will result in a penalty being ordered ranging from a mark of zero for the assessed
work to expulsion from the College.
Collusion is another form of cheating and is the unacknowledged use of material prepared by
several persons working together. Students are reminded that all work that they submit as part of the requirements for
any examination or assessment of the College or of the University of London must be expressed in their own words
and incorporate their own ideas and judgements. Direct quotations from the published or unpublished work of others,
including that of other students, must always be identified as such by being placed inside quotation marks with a full
reference to the source provided in the proper form. Paraphrasing - using other words to express another persons
ideas or judgements - must also be acknowledged (in a footnote or bracket following the paraphrasing) and
referenced. In the same way, the author of images and audiovisual presentations must be acknowledged.
Students should take particular care to avoid plagiarism and collusion in coursework, essays and reports, especially
when using electronic sources or when working in a group. Students should also take care in the use of their own
work. Credit can only be given once for a particular piece of assessed work. Submitting the same piece of work (or a
significant part thereof) twice for assessment will be regarded as cheating. Unacknowledged collaboration may result
in a charge of plagiarism or in a charge of collusion. Students are advised to consult School and departmental
guidance on the proper presentation of work and the most appropriate way to reference sources; they are required to
sign and attach a statement to each piece of work submitted for assessment indicating that they have read and
understood the College regulations on plagiarism. Students should be aware that academic staff have considerable
expertise in identifying plagiarism and have access to electronic detection services to assist them.

Examination Offences
The following shall be regarded as examination offences, although other types of offence or irregularity which are
not prescribed here may also constitute an offence. The guidance given does not purport to be exhaustive, but is
provided for the information of staff and students:

prior disclosure of questions for an unseen examination;


failure to observe the regulations or instructions for the examination;
the introduction, handling or consulting of unauthorised material or aids during an examination;
plagiarism;
collusion or conferring with others during an examination;
leaving an examination without permission or supervision and returning to the examination;
impersonation of another candidate.

33

Appendix 3 Award Scheme & Credit Framework


Award Scheme
In order to be eligible for the award of a Masters degree, candidates must satisfy the following requirements:
Award

MSc requirements for the award

Distinction

In addition to the requirements for a pass, a candidate must achieve, at the first attempt:
a weighted average mark of 70 or better across all modules; and
a mark of 70 per cent or better in any dissertation module

Merit

In addition to the requirements for a pass, a candidate must achieve, at the first attempt:
a weighted average mark across all modules between 60 and 69; and
a mark of 60 or better in any dissertation module.

Pass

An overall weighted average mark of at least 50 for each module, with no mark for any piece of
assessment falling below 40.

Fail

An overall weighted average mark of less than 50 for each module, with marks for any piece of
assessment falling below 40

In order to be eligible for the award of a Postgraduate Diploma degree or Postgraduate Certificate degree candidates must
satisfy the following requirements:
Award

Distinction

Merit

Pass

Fail

PgDip / PgCert requirements for the award


In order to be eligible for the award of a postgraduate diploma or postgraduate certificate with
Distinction, a candidate should achieve at the first attempt a weighted average mark of 70 or better
across all modules.
In order to be eligible for the award of a postgraduate diploma or postgraduate certificate with Merit, a
candidate should achieve at the first attempt a weighted average mark across all modules between 60
and 69.
In order to be eligible for the award of a postgraduate diploma or postgraduate certificate, a candidate
should achieve:
i) an overall weighted average mark of 50, with no mark for any module falling below 40;
ii) a mark of at least 50 in 90 credits (postgraduate diploma) or 30 credits (postgraduate certificate) and
a mark of at least 40 in the remainder
An overall weighted average mark of less than 50 for each module, with marks for any piece of
assessment falling below 40

Confirmed marks of 69, 59, 49, and 39 will be taken to indicate the agreement of the Examiners that a script or other form of
assessment is not deserving of the class above. In cases of disagreement, Examiners should refer to the External Examiner(s).
Under exceptional circumstances, a Programme Board of Examiners, with the agreement of its appointed External/Intercollegiate
Examiners, may propose a change to the class of a candidate who has not met the requirements for the award of merit or
distinction (as set out above) within a 2 per cent margin of either the overall weighted average mark across all elements or the
dissertation mark but not both. Any proposal must be made in writing to the Chair of the relevant School Board of Examiners
which will reach a final decision in the matter.

34

Credit framework regulations


From September 2007 all new students joining one of the Colleges taught programmes, apart from some very limited exceptions,
will be governed by the credit framework (students transferring to a programme that has already commenced, eg transferring into
the second or third year of study will be subject to the same regulations as the other students in their cohort).
The credit framework requires programmes and their component modules to be described in terms of their level (ie difficulty) of
study, and their credit volume (ie the notional time/learning hours needed for the associated teaching, private study, reflection and
assessment). As a general guide one credit equates to 10 hours of notional learning. Undergraduate honours degrees are
usually composed of modules at levels 4, 5, and 6, integrated masters programmes eg MSci, MEng will additionally include level 7
modules and taught postgraduate programmes are composed of modules at level 7 and sometimes level 6. For example (choose
example as appropriate for the particular handbook)
Four year integrated masters degree
Level = M
Credit volume of programme overall = 480
Credit level of modules = levels 4, 5, 6 and 7
Credit volume of modules = usually 15 or 30 credits and maybe 60 credits at level 7
Postgraduate diploma
Level = M
Credit volume of programme overall = 120
Credit level of modules = level 7, and possibly some at level 6
Credit volume of modules = combination of 15, 20, 30, 40, 45 or 60 credits
Masters degree
Level = M
Credit volume of programme overall = 180
Credit level of modules = level 7, and possibly some at level 6
Credit volume of modules = combination of 15, 20, 30, 40, 45 or 60 credits
In addition to the credit volume of the programme overall, each programme specifies the minimum amount of credit that has to be
achieved at a particular level in order for a student to be eligible for the particular award. The credit framework regulations
(available from the Policy Zone http://www.kcl.ac.uk/college/policyzone/ ) provide more detailed information, for example Table 1
shows the levels of all the Colleges awards and Table 2 provides the minimum credit requirements (both level and volume) for
each type of award. Regulation 6.5 details the College pass marks for the level of study of a module (although there may be
additional qualifying marks required by specific programmes), section 8 details the amount of credit required for progression for
undergraduate programmes, and sections 9, 10 and 11 cover the award requirements (Regulation 10 for undergraduate
programmes and Regulation 11 for taught postgraduate programmes). Specific programme details relating to core, compulsory,
requisite and optional modules or credit requirements over and above the College minimum can be found in the relevant
programme specification.

35

Appendix 4 Award Granting Powers


http://www.kcl.ac.uk/about/structure/admin/acareg/stureg/docs/degreawardingpowers.html
In July 2006 the Privy Council granted the College degree awarding powers in its own right. Subsequently, the College
successfully applied to the University of London to award its own degrees, while remaining as a constituent college of
the University. From September 2007 new students will be registered for awards made by the College. There are two
exceptions: one is the small number of degree programmes (in the School of Humanities), which are currently
organised and examined under the federal system of the University of London and will remain University of London
awards for the time being; the other concerns Medical and Dental undergraduate degrees.
In this latter case, there is a need over and above the Privy Council decision to make amendments to the Medical and
Dental Acts. It is expected that these changes will be enacted early in the session, at which time these students will be
registered for College awards. The enactment of this change in awarding authority will not affect College awards. The
enactment of this change in awarding authority will not affect the degree programme curricula, the teachers of the
methods of teaching, the modes of assessment, or the high quality of the academic and associated support provision.

36

Appendix 5 The Harvard Referencing System


References
References should be indicated in the text, not in a footnote. They should be indicated by giving the author's name, followed
by the date of publication in brackets.
Example: This is, as Davies & Craig (1998) and Murray (1995) have shown, often the case with
Where you want to insert a reference without it interrupting the flow of text, then the whole reference should be in brackets.
Two or more references should be separated by a semi-colon.
Example: Reports of an excess of unipolar depression in first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia has not reliably
been confirmed (Kendler et al 1993; Parnas et al 1993).
If you want to refer specifically to page numbers or sections, then do so like this, Author (date: page number).
Example: Warner (1994:3) argues that schizophrenia is an illness which is shaped by political economy.
When there are joint authors, name them but if there are more than three authors write 'et al':
Example: Silverman and Treffers (2001) and Bowden et al (1994)
Where you use a reference that is cited by an author whose book/article you are using, you must make this clear:
Examples:
1. Hawton (2000) cited by Gelder (2001), reports that suicidal intent
2. Studies of communication in families of schizophrenic patients have given rather conflicting results (Hirsch and Leff 1975,
cited in Gelder 2001:360).
In the example above, Gelder (2001) is the source of your references. The text that is your source is listed in your
bibliography, not the article/text that you have referred to (see section on bibliography).
Quotations
If you want to quote directly from a text, as distinct from referring to it, then you need to indicate this by using quotation marks
followed by (author date: page no.) Quotes of more than about 25-30 words (or three lines) should be indented as a
separate paragraph.
Example:
Compared with the risk associated with alcoholism and other drug abuse, the risk associated with major
mental disorders such as schizophrenia and affective disorder is modest indeed. Clearly, mental health
status makes at best a trivial contribution to the overall level of violence in society.
(Monahan 1992:510).
The Bibliography
All the texts (books, articles, reports etc) which you have used directly in researching and writing your piece of work must be
listed under one heading Bibliography - at the end of your essay, project etc. The bibliography is a list of your sources. Do
not list in the bibliography:
works which you have not read or
references that you have obtained through your source texts and which have been mentioned in the body of your
essay. The sources of these should have been cited in the essay (see previous section).
The bibliography should list texts in alphabetical order by author.
For books, the name of the author comes first, followed by the author's initial and then the date of publication in
brackets, followed by the title, place of publication and publishers.
Articles follow the same format, except that instead of place of publication and publisher, the title of the Journal and
the page number are listed.
Chapters used in books are listed in the bibliography as follows: author(s) of chapter, year, title of chapter (not
underlined), 'in', name of editor '(ed)', title of book (underlined), page numbers of chapter, place of publication,
publisher.
In the bibliography
book titles should be italicised
titles of articles should be in 'single inverted commas'
titles of journals should be italicised
Example:
Andreason, N.C and Hoenck, P.R. (1980). Adjustment disorder in adolescents and adults. Archives of General Psychiatry

37

37, 1166-70.
Benjamin, H. (1966). The transsexual phenomenon. New York: Julian Press.
Brockington, I. (2000). Obstetric and gynaecological conditions associated with psychiatric disorder. In The New Oxford
Textbook of Psychiatry (eds. Gelder, M.G., Lopez-Ibor J.J. and Andreason A.A), Chapter 5. Oxford:.Oxford University Press.
Foa, E.B., Davidson, J.R.T. and Frances, A.J. (1999b). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical
Psychiatry 60, suppl 10.

38

Appendix 6 Notable Dates and Religious Festivals


Buddhist
Wesek (Buddha Day)
Dharma Day
Chinese
Lunar New Year (3 days)
Lantern Festival
Dragon Boat Festival
Mid-Autumn Festival
Christian - Western
Advent Sunday
Christmas Day
Ash Wednesday
Palm Sunday
Good Friday
Easter Sunday
Ascension Day
Whit Sunday
Trinity Sunday
Christian Eastern Orthodox
Lent Monday
Easter Day
Pentecost
Hindu
Janmashtami
Diwali
Mahashivratri
Islamic
Ramadan (1st Day)
Eid-ul-Fitr (end of
Ramadan)
Eid-ul-Adha
Al Hijra (Islamic New
Year)
Ashura
Milad al-Nabi (Prophets
Birthday)
Lailat al-Isra wal Miraj

Jewish
New Year (Rosh Hashanah) 18 Sept 2009
Day of Atonement (Yom
27 Sep 2009
Kippur)
First Day of Tabernacles
2 Oct 2009
(Sukkot)
Festival of Lights
11-18 Dec 2009
(Hanukkah)
Purim
28 Feb 2010
First Day of Passover
29 Mar 2010
(Pesach)
Feast of Weeks (Shavuot)
18 May 2010
Roman Catholic Holy Days of Obligation
All Saints Day
1 Nov 2009
Immaculate Conception
8 Dec 2009
(Scotland & Ireland)
Christmas
25 Dec 2009
Solemnity of Our Lady
1 Jan 2010
Epiphany (not Ireland)
6 Jan 2010
St Patrick (Ireland)
17 Mar 2010
St Joseph (Scotland)
19 Mar 2010
Ascension
13 May 2010
Corpus Christi
3 June 2010
Assumption
15 Aug 2010
Secular
Christmas Day Bank
25 Dec 2009
Holiday
Boxing Day Bank Holiday
29 Dec 2009
New Years Day
1 Jan 2010
Good Friday Bank Holiday 2 Apr 2010
Easter Monday Bank
5 Apr 2010
Holiday
Early May Bank Holiday
3 May 2010
Spring Bank Holiday
31 May 2010
Summer Bank Holiday
30 Aug 2010
Sikh
Diwali
17 Oct 2009
Martyrdom of Guru Tegh
24 Nov 2009
Bahadur
Birthday of Guru Gobind
5 Jan 2010
Singh Ji
Vaisakhi
14 Apr 2010
Birthday of Guru Nanak
14 Nov 2009
Dev Sahib
Martyrdom of Guru Arjan
16 June 2010
Dev Sahib

27 May 2010
26 July 2010
14 Feb 2010
28 Feb 2010
16 June 2010
3 Oct 2009
29 Nov 2009
25 Dec 2009
17 Feb 2010
28 Mar 2010
2 Apr 2010
4 Apr 2010
13 May 2010
23 May 2010
30 May 2010
15 Feb 2010
4 Apr 2010
23 May 2010
2 Sep 2010
17 Oct 2009
12 Feb 2010
11 Aug 2010
20 Sep 2009
27 Nov 2009
18 Dec 2009
27 Dec 2009
26 Feb 2010
8 July 2010

39

Appendix 7 Bibliography / Recommended texts and Journals


Bibliography/recommended texts and journals
Introductory Reading
Ahrenfeldt, R.H. (1958), Psychiatry in the British Army in the Second World War, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Binneveld, H. (1997), From Shell Shock to Combat Stress, A comparative history of military psychiatry, Amsterdam,
Amsterdam University Press.
Cooter, R., Harrison, M. and Sturdy, S. (editors) (1998), War Medicine and Modernity, Stroud: Sutton.
Cooter, R., Harrison, M. and Sturdy, S. (editors) (1999), Medicine and Modern Warfare, Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Jones, E. and Wessely, S. (2001), The origins of British military psychiatry before the First World War, War and Society 24:
91-108.
Jones, E. and Wessely, S. (2005), Shell Shock to PTSD, Military Psychiatry from 1900 to the Gulf War, London: Psychology
Press.
Shephard, B. (2000), War of Nerves, Soldiers and Psychiatrists 1914-1994, London: Jonathan Cape.
Strecker, E.A. and Appel, K.E. (1945), Psychiatry in modern warfare, New York: Macmillan.

Shell shock
Bogacz, Edward. (1989) War neurosis and cultural change in England, 1914-22: the work of the War Office Committee of
Enquiry into Shell-Shock, Journal of Contemporary History 24, 227-256.
Bourke, J. (1996), Dismembering the Male, Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London: Reaktion Books.
Feudtner, C. (1993). Minds the dead have ravished: shell shock, history, and the ecology of disease-systems, History of Science
31: 377-420.
Johnson, W. and Rows, R.G. (1923). Neurasthenia and war neuroses. In W.G. Macpherson, W.P. Herringham, T.R. Elliott
and A. Balfour (editors), History of the Great War based on official documents, medical services, diseases of the war, volume
2, London: HMSO, pp. 2-61.
Kardiner, Abram (1941), War, Stress and Neurotic Illness, New York: Paul B. Hoeber.
Leed, E. (1979). No Mans Land. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leese, P. (2002), Shell Shock, Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War, London: Palgrave
Macmillan.
Myers, C.S. (1940), Shell Shock in France 1914-1918, Based on a War Diary, Cambridge: University Press.
Southborough, Lord (1922), Report of the War Office Committee of Enquiry into Shell Shock. London: HMSO.
Stone, M. (1985), Shellshock and the psychologists. In W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter and Michael Shepherd (editors), The
Anatomy of Madness: Essays in the History of Psychiatry, London: Tavistock, pp. 242-71.

World War Two


Copp, T. and McAndrew, B. (1990), Battle Exhaustion: Soldiers and psychiatrists in the Canadian Army 1939-1945,
Montreal: McGill/Queens University Press.
Grinker, R.R. & Spiegel, J.P. (1945), Men under Stress, London: J. & A. Churchill.
Harrison, T. (2000). Bion, Rickman, Foulkes and the Northfield Experiments, Advancing on a Different Front. London,
Jessica Kingsley.
Shephard, B. (1999), Pitiless Psychology: the role of prevention in British military psychiatry in the Second World War,
History of Psychiatry, 10: 491-524.
Strecker, E.A., & Appel, K.E. (1945). Psychiatry in Modern Warfare. New York: Macmillan.

Comparative perspectives
Addison, P. and Calder, A. (1997). Time to Kill, The Soldiers Experience of War in the West 1939-1945, London: Pimlico.
Lerner, P. (2000), Psychiatry and casualties of war in Germany 1914-18, Journal of Contemporary History, 35: 13-28.
Lerner, Paul (2004), Hysterical Men, War, Psychiatry and the Politics of Trauma in Germany, 1890-1930, Ithaca: Cornell
University Press.
Merriman, Catherine (2002), Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia, London: Penguin Books.
Micale, M.S. and Lerner, P. (2001), Traumatic Pasts, History, Psychiatry and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870-1930,
Cambridge: CUP.
Roudebush, M. (2001), A battle of nerves: hysteria and its treatments in France during World War One, in Micale and Lerner,
Traumatic Pasts, 253-79.
Schmiedebach, Heinz-Peter (1999), Post-traumatic neurosis in nineteenth century Germany: a disease in political, juridical
and professional context, History of Psychiatry, 10: 27-57.

Military psychiatrists
Gillespie, Robert (1942), The Psychological Effects of War on Citizen and Soldier, New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Glass, A.J. (1966), Lessons learned, in A. Glass and R. Bernucci (editors), Medical Department, United States Army,
Neuropsychiatry in World War II, Vol. 1, Zone of Interior, Washington DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the
Army, pp. 735-59.
Jones, E. (2004), Doctors and trauma in World War One: the response of British military psychiatrists, In Gray, P. and Oliver, K.
(Eds), The Memory of Catastrophe, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 91-105.
Wilson, Charles [Lord Moran] (1945), The Anatomy of Courage, London: Constable.
Myers, C.S. (1940), Shell Shock in France 1914-1918, Based on a War Diary, Cambridge: University Press.
James, G.W.B. (1945), Psychiatric lessons from active service, Lancet, 2: 801-05.
OConnell, Morgan (1986), Stress-induced stress in the psychiatrist: a Naval psychiatrists personal view of the Falklands
conflict, Stress Medicine, 2: 307-14.
Rees, J.R. (1945), The Shaping of Psychiatry by War, New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Sargant, W. (1967), The Unquiet Mind, The Autobiography of a Physician in Psychological Medicine, London: Heinemann.
Slobodin, R. (1978), Rivers, New York: Columbia University Press.
Whitehead, I.R. (1999), Doctors in the Great War, Barnsley: Leo Cooper.

Aviation psychiatry
Brandon, S. (1996), LMF in Bomber Command 1939-45: diagnosis or denouncement? In 150 Years of British Psychiatry,
Volume Two, (eds H. Freeman & G. Berrios), pp. 119-129. London: Gaskell.
English, A.D. (1995), A predisposition to cowardice? Aviation psychology and the genesis of lack of moral fibre, War and
Society, 13: 15-34.
McCarthy, John (1984), Aircrew and lack of moral fibre, War and Society, 2: 87-101.
Reid, Geoffrey E. (1999), Aviation psychiatry, in Ernsting, Nicholson and Rainford (eds), Aviation Medicine. London:
Butterworth.
Wells, M.K. (1995). Courage and Air Warfare, The Allied Aircrew Experience in the Second World War. London: Frank Cass.

The realities of war


Beevor, Antony (2002), Berlin, The Downfall 1945, London: Viking.
Bourke, J. (1999), An Intimate History of Killing, Face to Face Killing in Twentieth Century Warfare. London: Granta Books.
Bowlby, Alex (1969), The Recollections of Rifleman Bowlby, London: Cassell.
Coppard, George (1968), With a Machine Gun to Cambrai, A Story of the First World War, London: Cassell.
Hynes, S. (1997), The Soldiers Tale, Bearing Witness to Modern War, London: Pimlico.
Jones E. and Wessely, S. (2001), Psychiatric battle casualties: an intra- and inter-war comparison, British Journal of
Psychiatry 178: 243-45.
Jnger, Ernst, (1920), Storm of Steel, Translated by Michael Hofman, London: Allen Lane (2003).
Marshall, S.L.A. (1947), Men against Fire. New York.
McManners, H. (1994), The Scars of War, London: Harper Collins.
Richardson, F.M. (1978), The Fighting Spirit, Psychological Factors in War, London: Leo Cooper.
Stouffer, S.A. et al (editors) (1949), The American Soldier: Combat and its Aftermath, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press.
Wilson, Charles, [Moran, Lord] (1945), The Anatomy of Courage, London: Constable.

The literary perspective


Blunden E. (1937), Undertones of War [1928]. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Fussell, P. (1975), The Great War and Modern Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Graves R. (1960), Goodbye to All That [1929]. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Remarque, E.M. (1929), All Quiet on the Western Front, London: Vintage.
Richards, F. (1931), Old soldiers never die. London: Faber and Faber.
Sassoon, S. (1937), The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston. London: Faber and Faber.
Winter J. (1995), Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning, The Great War in European Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Treatment
Belenky, G.L. and Jones, F.D. (1987), Introduction: combat psychiatry an evolving field. In G.L. Belenky (Ed.),
Contemporary studies in combat psychiatry (pp. 2-5). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood.
Debenham, G., Sargant, W., Hill, D. and Slater, E. (1941), Treatment of war neuroses. Lancet 1: 107-109.
Glass, A.J. (1954). Psychotherapy in the combat zone. American Journal of Psychiatry, 110, 725-731.
Hadfield, J.A. (1942), War neurosis, A year in a neuropathic hospital, Aetiological factors: quantitative estimate, British
Medical Journal 1: 320-323.

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Hunter, D. (1946), The work of a corps psychiatrist in the Italian campaign. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 86:
127-130.
Jones, E., & Palmer, I.P. (2000), Army psychiatry in the Korean War: The experience of 1 Commonwealth Division, Military
Medicine, 165: 256-260.
Jones, E. and Wessely, S. (2003), Forward psychiatry in the military: its origins and effectiveness, Journal of Traumatic Stress,
16(4): 411-19.
Jones, E. (2004), War and the practice of psychotherapy: the UK experience 1939-1960, Medical History (in press).
Ludwig, A. and Ranson, S. (1947), A statistical follow-up of effectiveness of treatment of combat-induced psychiatric
casualties: 1. Returns to full combat duty. Military Surgeon, 100: 51-62.
Shephard, Ben (1996), The early treatment of mental disorders: R.G. Rows and Maghull 1914-1918. In H. Freeman & G.
Berrios (Eds), 150 Years of British psychiatry, London: Gaskell, pp. 434-64.

Post-combat syndromes
Howell, J.D. (1998), Soldiers Heart: the redefinition of heart disease and speciality formation in early twentieth-century
Great Britain. In: Cooter, R., Harrison, M. and Sturdy, S. (Editors). War, Modernity and Medicine. Thrupp, Stroud: Sutton
Publishing, 85-105.
Hyams, K.C., Wignall, F.S. and Roswell, R. (1996), War Syndromes and Their Evaluation: From the U.S. Civil War to the
Persian Gulf War, Annals of Internal Medicine 125(5): 398-405.
Jones, E., Hodgins Vermaas, R., McCartney, H., Everitt, B., Beech, C., Poynter, D., Palmer, I., Hyams, K. and Wessely, S. (2002),
Post-combat syndromes from the Boer War to the Gulf: a cluster analysis of their nature and attribution, BMJ 324: 321-24.
Jones, E. and Wessely, S. (2004), Hearts, guts and minds: somatisation in the military from 1900, Journal of Psychosomatic
Research 56, 1-5.
Rosen G. (1975), Nostalgia: a forgotten psychological disorder. Psychological Medicine 5: 340-354.
Wood, P. (1941), Da Costas Syndrome (or Effort Syndrome), The Mechanism of the Somatic Manifestations, British Medical
Journal 1 (31 May): 805-811.
Wood, P. (1941), Aetiology of Da Costas Syndrome, British Medical Journal 1 (845): 845-851.

Vietnam: war psychiatry, politics and PTSD


Bourne, P. (1970). Military psychiatry and the Vietnam experience. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 481-488.
Burkett, B.G. and Whitley, G. (1998), Stolen Valour, How the Vietnam Generation was robbed of its Heroes and History,
Dallas: Verity Press.
Figley, C.R. (editor) (1978), Stress Disorders among Vietnam Veterans, Theory, Research and Treatment, New York:
Brunner/Mazel.
Jones, F.D. (1967). Experiences of a division psychiatrist in Vietnam. Military Medicine, 132, 1003-1008.
Lifton, R.J. (1974), Home from the War, Vietnam Veterans: neither Victims nor Executioners, London: Wildwood House.
Scott, W.J. (1993), The Politics of Readjustment: Vietnam veterans since the war, New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Sonnenberg, S.M. et al (editors) (1985), The Trauma of War: Stress and Recovery in Vietnam Veterans, New York:
American Psychiatric Press.
S. Wessely and E. Jones (2004), Psychiatry and the lessons of Vietnam: What were they, and are they still relevant? War
and Society 22: 89-103.

Gulf War syndrome


Coker, W.J., Bhatt, B.M., Paton, J.Y. and Wallis, C. (1999), Clinical findings for the first 1000 Gulf war veterans in the
Ministry of Defences medical assessment programme. BMJ 318: 290-94.
Ismail, K., Kent, K., Brugha, T., Hotopf, M., Hull, L., Seed, P., Palmer, I, Reid, S., Unwin, C., David, A.S. and Wessely, S.
(2002), The mental health of UK Gulf War veterans: phase 2 of a two-phase cohort study, BMJ, 325(7364): 576-79.
Lee, H.A., Gabriel, R., Bolton, J.P.G., Bale, A.J., and Jackson M. (2002). Health status and clinical diagnoses of 3000 Gulf
War veterans. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 95: 491-97.
Martin, J.A., & Cline, W.R. (1996), Mental health lessons from the Persian Gulf War. In J.A. Martin, L.R. Sparacino and G.
Belenky (editors), The Gulf War and Mental Health: A comprehensive guide, Westport: Praeger, pp. 161-78.
Unwin, C., Blatchley, N., Hull, L., Wessely, S., David, A. and Palmer, I. (1999), The health of UK servicemen who served in
the Persian Gulf War. Lancet 353: 169-178.
Wessely S. (2001), Ten Years On, What do We Know About the Gulf War Syndrome? Clinical Medicine (Journal of the Royal
College of Physicians), 1: 28-37.

Veterans, pressure groups and financial compensation


Barham, Peter (2004), Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Centers for Disease Control Vietnam Experience Study (1988), Health status of Vietnam Veterans. 1: Psychosocial
characteristics. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259: 2701-2707.

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Cohen, Deborah (2003), The wars returns, Disabled veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939, in R. Chickering and Stig
Forster (editors), The Shadows of Total War, Europe, East Asia and the United States 1919-1939, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp. 113-27.
Cohen, Deborah (2001), The War Come Home, Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939, Berkeley: University of
California Press.
Gregory, A. (1994), The Silence of Memory, Armistice Day 1919-1946. Oxford: Berg.
Jones, E., Palmer, I. and Wessely, S. (2002) War pensions (1900-1945): changing models of psychological understanding, British
Journal of Psychiatry, 180: 374-79.
Lee, K.A., Vaillant, G.E., Torrey, W.C. and Elder, G.H. (1995), A 50-year prospective study of the psychological sequelae of
World War Two combat, American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(4): 516-22.
Shephard, B. (1999). Pitiless Psychology: the role of prevention in British military psychiatry in the Second World War,
History of Psychiatry, 10: 505-10.
Wooton, G. (1956), The Official History of the British Legion. London: Macdonald & Evans.
Wooton, G. (1963), The Politics of Influence, British ex-servicemen, Cabinent decisions and cultural change (1917-57).
London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Law and ethics of war-related psychiatric injury


Camp, N. (1993), The Vietnam War and the ethics of combat psychiatry, American Journal of Psychiatry, 150: 1000-1010.
Collbach, E.M. (1985), Ethical issues in combat psychiatry, Military Medicine, 150: 256-65.
Dubey, J. (1967), The military psychiatrist as social engineer, American Journal of Psychiatry, 124: 52-58.
Jay, Robert and Glasson, Jonathan (2004), The PTSD litigation, Journal of Personal Injury Law, 2: 120-30.
Veatch, R.M. (1977), The psychiatrists role in war, in Veatch, R.M. (editor), Case Studies in Medical Ethics, Massachusetts,
Harvard University Press.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)


Creamer, Mark and ODonnell, Meaghan (2002), Post-traumatic stress disorder, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15: 163-68.
Dean, Eric T. (1997), Shook over Hell, Post-Traumatic Stress, Vietnam and the Civil War. Cambridge, Massachusetts,
Harvard University Press.
Johnson, D.R., Rosenbeck, R., Fontana, A., Lubin, H., Charney, D. and Southwick, S.M. (1996), Outcome of intensive
treatment for combat-related posttraumtic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153: 771-777.
Jones, E., Hodgins Vermaas, R., McCartney, H., Beech, C., Palmer, I., Hyams, K. and Wessely, S. (2003), Flashbacks and posttraumatic stress disorder: the genesis of a twentieth-century diagnosis, British Journal of Psychiatry 182: 158-63.
Kulka, R.A., Schlenger, W.E., Fairbank, J.A., Hough, R.L., Jordan, B.K., Marmar, C.R., et al. (1990). Trauma and the
Vietnam War generation: Report of findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York:
Brunner/Mazel.
Merskey, H. (1995). Post-traumatic stress disorder and shell shock. In Roy Porter and German Berrios (eds.), The Clinical
History of Psychiatry 1841-1991, London: Athlone, pp. 490-500.
OBrien, L.S. (1998). Traumatic events and mental health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van der Kolk, B., McFarlane, A. and Weisaeth, L. (editors) (1996), Traumatic Stress: The effects of overwhelming experience
on Mind, Body and Society, New York: Guilford Press.
Young A. (1995), The Harmony of Illusions, Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press.

The Wars of Israel


Levav, I., Greenfield, H., & Baruch, E. Psychiatric combat reactions during the Yom Kippur War (1979), American Journal of
Psychiatry, 136: 637-641.
Levy, A., Witztum, E., & Solomon, Z. (1996), Lessons relearned- when denial becomes impossible: Therapeutic response to
combat stress reaction during the Yom Kippur War (1973), the Lebanon War (1982) and the Infitada. Israel Journal of
Psychiatry and Related Science, 33: 89-102.
Noy, S., Levy, R., & Solomon, Z. (1984), Mental health care in the Lebanon War 1982. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences,
20: 360-63.
Solomon, Z., & Benbenishty, R. (1986), The role of proximity, immediacy, and expectancy in frontline treatment of combat
stress reaction among Israelis in the Lebanon war. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143: 613-617.
Solomon, Z., Shalev, A.Y., Spiro, S., et al. (1992), Negative psychometric outcomes: self report measures and a follow-up
telephone survey. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(2): 225-246.

Civilians: the blitz to Bin Laden


Bleich, A., Dycian, A., Koslowsky, M., Solomon, Z. and Wiener, M. (1992), Psychiatric implications of missile attacks on a
civilian population, Israeli lessons from the Persian Gulf War, JAMA, 268: 613-15.
Titmuss, R.M. (1950), Problems of Social Policy, London: HMSO.
OBrien, T.H. (1955), Civil Defence, London: HMSO.

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Calder, Angus (1969), The Peoples War: Britain 1939-45, London: Jonathan Cape.
Calder, Angus (1991), The Myth of the Blitz, London: Jonathan Cape.
Harrisson, Tom (1976), Living through the Blitz, London: Collins.
Hassett, A.L. and Sigal, L.H. (2002), Unforeseen consequences of terrorism, Medically unexplained symptoms in a time of
fear, Archives of Internal Medicine, 162: 1809-13.
Jones, E., Woolven, R., Durodi, B. and Wessely, S. (2004), Civilian Morale during World War Two: responses to air-raids
re-examined, Social History of Medicine 17: 463-79.
Lewis, Aubrey (1942), Incidence of neurosis in England under war conditions, Lancet, 2: 175-83.
Mackay, Robert (2002), Half the Battle, Civilian Morale in Britain during the Second World War, Manchester: Manchester
University Press.
McLaine, Ian (1979), Ministry of Morale: Home front morale and the Ministry of Information in World War Two, London: Allen
& Unwin.
Silver, R.C., Holman, E.A., McIntosh, D.N., Poulin, M. and Gil-Rivas, V. (2002), Nationwide longitudinal study of
psychological responses to September 11, JAMA, 288: 1235-44.
Waller, Maureen (2004), London 1945, Life in the Debris of War, London: John Murray.
Ziegler, Philip (1995), London at War 1939-1945, London: Alfred A. Knopf.

Screening for psychological vulnerability


Brewin, C.R., Andrews, B., and Valentine, J.D. (2000), Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in
trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68: 748-66.
Crang J. (1999), Square pegs in round holes: other rank selection in the British Army 1939-45. Journal of the Society for
Army Historical Research 77: 293-8.
Jones, E., Hyams, K. and Wessely, S. (2003), Screening for vulnerability to psychological disorders in the military: an historical
survey, Journal of Medical Screening 10: 40-46.
Sharp, W.L. (1950), Fate of 395 mild neuropsychiatric cases salvaged from training period and taken into combat. American
Journal of Psychiatry 106: 801-7.
Stouffer, S.A., Lumsdaine, A.A., Lumsdaine, M.H., et al. (1949), The American Soldier: combat and its aftermath, Volume II.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Strecker, E.K. (1945), Psychiatry and Modern Warfare, New York: Macmillan.

Psychological effects of chemical and biological weapons


Alexander, D.A. and Klein, S. (2003), Biochemical terrorism: too awful to contemplate, too serious to ignore, British Journal
of Psychiatry, 183: 495-96.
Carter, G.C. (1992), Porton Down: 75 Years of Chemical and Biological Research, London: HMSO.
Cook, T. (2000), Against God-inspired conscience: the perception of gas warfare as a weapon of mass destruction, War
and Society, 18: 47-69.
Haber, L.F. (1986), The Poisonous Cloud, Chemical Warfare in the First World War, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Harris, Robert and Paxman, Jeremy (1982), A Higher Form of Killing, The Secret Story of Gas and Germ Warfare, London:
Chatto & Windus.
Richter, Donald (1994), Chemical Soldiers, British Gas Warfare in World War I, London: Leo Cooper.
Spiers, Edward W. (1986), Chemical Warfare, London: Macmillan.
Spiers, E.W. (1999), Chemical warfare in the First World War, in B. Bond, Look to Your Front, Studies in the First World
War, London: Spellmount.
Stuart, J.A., Ursano, R.J., Fullerton, C.S., Norwood A.E. and Murray, K. (2003), Belief in exposure to terrorist agents: report
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Sturdy, Steve (1998), War as experiment, Physiology, innovation and administration in Britain 1914-1918: the case of
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