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A Prairie Pharmacy

:
An Introduction to

Herbalism
S U S A N A. M O O R E

T

hree years ago I was asked to teach a new course
titled Medical Biology. The purpose of the course
is to teach anatomy, physiology, medical theory and terminology for undergraduate, nonmajor business students entering the healthcare field. Because of the terminology introduced in the course, I was faced with a
problem: Many biology majors who had completed a
full year of anatomy and physiology were enrolled. One
of the many tasks, then, was to develop a laboratory
experience that would challenge an enrollment with a
variety of skills, while neither boring, nor overwhelming
the students. My solution was to use the laboratory to
introduce the concept of responsibility for one’s own
health. I used the physical exam to cover anatomy and
physiology, and I brought in professionals who intro-

SUSAN A. MOORE, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Biology at The
Franciscan University, Clinton, IA 52732, e-mail:
susmoo@tfu.edu.

duced different methods of treatment and theories of
medicine. From this perspective, the laboratory design
fell into place for me. Since I wanted to cover as many
medical modalities as possible, one of the laboratories
had to cover the oldest form of medicine, herbalism.
The Prairie Pharmacy, as I call this laboratory, stirs
interest in all of the students with its direct application
to their own personal health. This exercise also gives me
the opportunity to introduce many different perspectives in the approach to medicine, including history,
economics, botany, environmentalism, and chemistry.
This helped in uniting a classroom of very different abilities and backgrounds. In addition, students enjoy the
opportunity to go outside and identify medicinal plants.
Herbalism — the knowledge and study of herbs —
may not be a term in the active vocabulary of my students, but it is a reality in life. Mustard on the kitchen
table and many of the spices on the kitchen shelf come
from herbs; most of the vegetables in a salad are herbs.
A PRAIRIE PHARMACY 249

medicine. “What exactly is an herb?” In some texts the definition is “a nonwoody plant” (Barnhart. Kindscher. there is much practical and theoretical knowledge to be rediscovered. and the use of these plants by various tribes of Native Americans. bush doctors. The Assyrian and Babylonian scribes wrote herbal recipes on cuneiform tablets. I review the identification process. The Ebers papyrus of the ancient Egyptians lists 85 herbs. 1998). and sense of well being. This database introduces students to the cultural basis of herbalism in their region. Herbs must be used with knowledge and responsibility. VOLUME 65. It is important to introduce a number of key points in lecture before venturing outdoors. Indeed. It is easy to conclude that herbs are very useful in improving one’s health. relies on herbal expertise for its primary healthcare. 2000). like mint. debate regarding their safety and efficacy is generated. or in some way for their scent or flavor” (Foster & Duke. contains over a thousand herbal remedies. it is important for the students to become familiar with these herbs and their medicinal qualities. both prescription and over-the-counter. All native cultures have a well-developed understanding of local plants. Students must select two herbs from a list provided (see Table 1). even today. some of which. 1999). Plant remedies. or roots are useful for food. Herbalism Today Much of today’s renewed interest in herbalism is due to side effects of the potent synthetic drugs. This allows for verification or falsification of herbal remedy claims. The Greek Hippocrates (477-360 BC) mentions herbs.” However. Shamans.org). The Alternative Medicine Foundation has a wonderful web site that contains HerbMed — an Interactive Electronic Database (available on the web at http://www. 1999). are used in a similar way today. 4. A first identifying structure is the flower. remedies. Herbalism is the oldest form of medicine in the world and the history of herbalism is extensive. Preparation Before Collection Before the collection. in some way. The second identifying factor is the leaf arrangement. One notes color.herbmed. allergic reactions can occur with herbal medicines just as with synthesized drugs. As more and more Americans seek out herbs for their proposed medicinal qualities. NO. The public is demanding specific information about what works. Plants are not 250 THE AMERICAN BIOLOGY TEACHER. In addition. This web site allows my students to access information regarding evidence for activity that includes clinical trials. herbs. Another definition is “a useful plant. the most important uses of herbs were medicinal. petals. In addition to providing a very thorough index of medicinal plants. This allows the students the ability to have information at their fingertips regarding the herb’s efficacy and allows the students to make an informed decision regarding these herbal medicines. A discussion of how these plants evolved with these properties would be very advantageous. appearance. 1992). Perhaps a better definition is “a plant whose leaves. and treatment stratagems which are still valid (Shealy. The Medicinal Plants of Native America database available online is also very useful (ARS Genome Database Resource. This could be a useful exercise in evolutionary theory. The use of herbal supplements has increased exponentially in recent years. and that historically . These drugs are in pure and concentrated form with only fillers and other inactive ingredients. and fiber-source.. observational data and case studies.org) as discussed earlier. research the medicinal qualities of the plants. wise women. We begin with the question. In addition. man has had limited resources for treating injuries and disease. These synthetic drugs can carry increased risk of complications. 1992. APRIL 2003 in and of themselves “healthy” or even necessarily safe. and some of the most highly toxic chemical poisons were originally developed from those of plants. Students come into this course with many misconceptions of medicine and herbalism. and empirical knowledge from long standing folk or traditional use. Another ethnobotanical guide is the well-written Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie by Kelly Kindscher (Kindscher. These two sources emphasize that native cultures have a well-developed understanding of local plants. oxygen production. Many herbs may be therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another (FughBergman. flowers. 1990. and most of the world. dye-.herbmed. traditional healers. one can argue that all plants are herbs because practically all plants are useful. 1998). The Chinese herbal. and determine the type of medicine to be prepared. Pen Tsao. since many medicinal properties of plants do not apparently add to the overall fitness of the plant. 1992). stem. Shealy. 1998). There are very potent plant poisons. 1964). Another source of information is from the Herb Research Foundation which continually updates information from a variety of clinical trials (Herb Research Foundation. it also includes plant use by food-. and native medicine workers carry on a tradition thousands of years old (Kindscher. and association to the stem. represent the most continuous and universal form of treatment. For most of our existence. Students are encouraged to access the Alternative Medicine Foundation web site HerbMed (www. With herbals there is a comparative decreased risk of side effects since the active ingredients are present in lower concentrations and also work more slowly over a longer period of time than synthetic drugs (Brad et al.Historically.

Oswego tea (Monarda didyma) June-September Leaf tea used for colds.Table 1. anti-inflammatory. 1998) do offer some warnings about toxicity and dangers associated with the plant material. colds. fevers. by Steven Foster and James A. rashes. headaches. and flatulence. Rough Blazing-Star (Liatris aspera) August-September Butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa) June-September Root poultice used for skin irritations. COMMON NAME (GENUS SPECIES) Big Bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardii) Wild Onion (Allium canadense) Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) White Sage (Artemisia ludoviciana) FLOWERS September-November MEDICINAL PROPERTIES Leaf infusion used as an external wash for fevers. tea used for pleurisy. and as a digestive stimulant. and immunostimulant. 1990). Wild Bergamot. Medicinal Plants (Foster & Duke. premenstrual syndrome. March-July Bulb tea for coughs. anti-inflammatory. it is also important to understand the dangers of the herbs the students collect. especially poison ivy or poison oak. and diuretic. Bee-balm. Pale Purple Coneflower (Echinacea pallida) Daisy Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus) May-August Less active than E. July-September Leaf and flower infusions act as an expectorant. and the web site at the Herb Research Foundation (Herb Research Foundation. 1998) offers a web site that contains easily accessible information on A PRAIRIE PHARMACY 251 . and immunostimulant. coughs. Duke (Foster & Duke. asthma. Cup Plant (Silphium perfoliatum) July-September Plant oil used to promote healing of burns. Root decoction for diarrhea and fevers. In addition to understanding the medicinal value of their herb. demulcent. Medicinal Plants. Common Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) June-September Seed oil has been shown effective in treating eczema. August-September Tea used as wash for itching. Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia) June-September Root used for decoction. 1990) combines ethnobotany with more currently documented medicinal usage of herbs. man’s survival has largely depended upon the use of herbs for treating injuries and diseases. and stomachache. and skin eruptions. Inc (Alternative Medicine Foundation. with warnings regarding the use of the plant material. Leaf poultice for ulcers. angustifolia and E. tincture and capsules of dried herb as an antiseptic. Purple Bee-Balm (Monarda fistulosa) June-September Leaf tea used for colds. antispasmodic. Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata) July-September Leaf or root tea used for colds. purpurea. Sweet Goldenrod (Solidago odora) July-September Leaf tea used as an astringent. and piles. and bronchitis. As an added bonus. Root tea used as diuretic and gargle for sore throats. and hypercholesterolemia and as a source of gamma-linolenic acid New England Aster (Aster novae-angliae) August-October Leaf and stem used for decoction for skin eruptions. however the Alternative Medicine Foundation. this guide contains beautiful photographs that are useful in identification. The Peterson field guide. May-July Plant tea used as diuretic and astringent. tincture and capsules of dried herb as an antiseptic. Poultice for bee stings. diuretic. and ear infections. tumors. fevers. Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) June-September Entire plant used for decoction. and flatulence. fevers. Prairie herbs. Flower-infused oil for earaches. The Peterson field guide. Students can plan which herbs they seek and what part of the plant they wish to harvest.

Again. rheumatism. There is a blind spot in medicine. Root decoction acts as liver tonic. mild laxative. .toxicity and interactions with other medications. lotion. I felt it appropriate to focus on local. If such an area does not exist. Healing and astringent. namely the lowly dandelion. A lot of information on herbs comes from other countries and other cultures. This is an area where native prairie grasses and plants were planted by the Sisters of St. and of course. Medicine and Culture. April-September May-October 252 THE AMERICAN BIOLOGY TEACHER. and gout. June-October Leaf and root infusions and decoctions used as a diuretic. and other skin irritations. APRIL 2003 Leaf infusion for colds. anti-inflammatory. If you cannot find a convenient area as a source of medicinal herbs. the United States. The college faculty has always been encouraged to use this prairie as a classroom and I saw the opportunity to find a safe place to gather herbs (See Table 1). then turn to the kitchen and collect your herbs from the spice rack (see Table 3). and antibacterial. The advantage in using turf herbs is that they are readily identifiable and familiar to nearly all individuals. Healing and astringent. 1992). They must be skeptically well informed to make the best patients in the future. and many in the field of medicine feel that their way is the right way and that others may be ‘primitive’ or unfounded. one must be very familiar with the area to protect against exposure to hazardous chemicals and problems of trespassing. plantain. value judgments. this lab can be adapted to the herbs found in a turf lawn. Near the college where I teach. and white clover. Turf herbs. native flora. Blooming plants are essential for many reasons: First. historically. In addition. I concentrated on the tall grass prairie because. Iowa’s landscape was dominated by the tall grass prairie (Kindscher. This gives me the opportunity to discuss different cultural approaches to medicine and to clinical trials that may test herbs. Many fallow fields contain residues of herbicides or pesticides from farming. or tincture for insect bites. focusing upon Germany. Remember. In gathering herbs. Great Britain. France. just because an herb is natural does not mean it is safe. Much of the information that can easily be obtained online comes from commercial sites that are eager to make a profit. they indicate that the plant is healthy. and other skin irritations. and science. or tincture for insect bites. After choosing an area. Even a child can identify the everpresent dandelion. there is a restored prairie. Many of these herbs are available fresh in most supermarkets and again are very familiar to most individuals. it is always good to scout it out in advance to determine which herbs are plentiful and blooming. lotion. Leaf poultice. allergic rashes. March-September Leaf infusion act as diuretic. all of which contain medicinal qualities and thrive in nearly every part of the country (see Table 2). I would suggest contacting your county conservation board for such information. fever. the site must be away from roads and parking areas to avoid plants exposed to car and truck emissions. and second and probably more important. In my particular location. Francis to restore a fallow field to a tall grass prairie habitat. Herb Sources Many students are not aware that there are herbs growing all around them. I review these different resources with my class and encourage students to use a skeptical eye when viewing information on herbs. If no such area exists. or the seasons are against you. Different countries treat the same disease in different ways. 4. Lynn Payer compares medical cultures in her book. the flower Table 2. oil. VOLUME 65. take time to learn the lawn’s history of exposure to chemicals. Another advantage is that they are present very early in spring and in late summer and early fall. NO. A very good adage is “consider the source” (of information) when viewing herbal medicine. COMMON NAME (GENUS SPECIES) Narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Chicory (Cichorium intybus) Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) White clover (Trifolium repens) Common plantain (Plantago major) FLOWERS April-November MEDICINAL PROPERTIES Leaf poultice. The role of the patient in making medical decisions is expanding. This allows the class to become familiar with local plants. and stimulates discussions regarding the history of the area and the protection of habitat. allergic rashes. history. oil. My students begin to see that medicine is a combination of culture.

and that are plentiful. that you can easily identify. Materials Needed For Herb Collection: • Scissors or shears • Paper bags or newspapers • Field guides For Medicinal Preparation: • Rubber bands. I schedule this laboratory as the second laboratory of the fall semester (the end of August to the first week of September). there are many herbs blooming. and string • Vodka or tequila (optional) • Sweet almond oil (available at health stores) or olive oil • Vegetable glycerine (available at health stores) • Knife and cutting boards • Mortar and pestle • Hotplate • Glass tea carafes or beakers A PRAIRIE PHARMACY 253 . This may not be the ideal time to collect leaves and roots. Table 1 contains the suggested list of herbs and their flowering time.aids in identification. I recommend taking a camera and photographing the flower and leaf arrangement. paperclips. and making note of the height of the plant. This could be a deadly mistake. however the identification of the plant is the most important aspect of the exercise. It is also helpful in avoiding some toxic look-alike plants like the Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum) which is often confused with the Wild Carrot or Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota). This helps create a permanent record of the herbs. At this time. This list is helpful in establishing which plants the students will use. Make a list of the herbs that are blooming.

this is probably responses to irritating plants and stinging insects. gently disorders. The students may get warm. 4. 254 THE AMERICAN BIOLOGY TEACHER. or seeds for their medicine Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaf tea is calmative and useful for gastrointestinal preparations. but can still participate. They are asked to collect enough material that might fit • Small 4 oz jars (I use canning jars and lids) into two teabags. earache. use in massage oil and sors. leaves. such as vanilla and mint. Typically on the day of the collection. Kitchen herbs. To accomplish mouth ulcers. lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Flowers should be harvested before the of the area. students collect liniments to ease rheumatic pain. plants may rise over your head I try to promote an environmentally and ethically and you can be enveloped. it must be confirmed by the instructor. the students must find 11 individual plants Garlic (Allium sativum) Bulb is antibacterial. this. After students have identified the herb they wish to collect. he or she must choose another herb. from wild sources plays a considerable role in the loss Any individuals who suffer from allergies (plants. If the student toothache. Leaf must never collect more tincture or tea for night sweats. NO. and antiparasitic. tea is cooling to the skin.Table 3. stems. Students need very little • Honey plant material for the production of their medicine. rather than harvestalso use some non-toxic herbal-based insect repellents ing from wild sources. gargle for than 10% of the herb sursore throats. and then before harvesting. conscious method of collecting herbals. Leaf tea used as hair conditioner and digestion aid. Of all things but avoiding contact can prevent skin sensitivity the students learn from this laboratory. flowers. Externally. We students to grow their own herbs. swellings. Beneficial for infected gums and veyed. COMMON NAME (GENUS SPECIES) MEDICINAL PROPERTIES Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Leaf infused oil used for massage to improve circulation and ease aches and pain. When harvesting leaves or • Cheesecloth branches of a plant. oil is wrapping them in newsused in massage to relieve muscular pain. of biodiversity (Glausiusz. hopefully they will approach it ter of the prairie searching for their herbs. With a set Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Leaf tea makes a gargle or mouth wash. appropriate dress is long pants and long sleeved shirts. coughs and colds. and stings. antifungal. Leaf oil is paper or placing them in good for digestion and nausea. To prevent problems of over harvesting. A ‘clear cutting’ approach may guar• Drying racks antee plenty of herbs for infusions and decoctions. but would prevent future trips. colds. before the heat of the sun has a chance to wilt I do impose several rules for harvesting safely. May also cannot find this number. the most important. The collection of medicinal plants part of the fun of exploration. 2000). I therefore encourage pollen. Leaf oil is of pruning shears or scisantibacterial. fruits and seeds appear. antibacterial and antifungal. VOLUME 65. antifungal. In the tall grass prairie. a paper bag. and them. I discourage root collection since this destroys the plant. They miss in a responsible way. If they choose to further pursue Students who are not properly dressed walk the perimeherbalism in their lives. The parts of the Rules for Herb Harvesting plant above ground should be harvested in the morning. It is preferable to do so when the dew is still on to prevent overharvesting or destruction of biodiversity the plants. students are encouraged to leave plenty of leaves for the plant to survive. and to treat to harvest. and insects) are encouraged to be prepared. one Sage (Salvia officinalis) Leaf poultice for bruises. of the species they wish Also used as a digestive tonic. they must confirm their identification by consulting a colleague. APRIL 2003 .

Make sure your herbs have dried thoroughly before storing them for further use or you may discover that you have a moldy mess instead of a medicinal herb. or lotion) on the skin and examining at 20 minutes. Liniment A liniment is a soothing rub to relieve fatigued and stiff muscles and joints. 24 hours. Strain through cheesecloth before use. Put the fresh herb in a jar and cover with olive oil. and chopped into small pieces to be sure they dry uniformly and thoroughly. dried leaves. Throw away used herbs. stirring from time to time. or pain). Individual leaves can also be dried in the microwave by placing between two paper towels and checking the material every 30 seconds. scraped. which can be used as it is. Lotion Finely chop fresh herb to fill a small jar. Roots should be carefully washed. Tea A tea is an aqueous extraction of the herb. tinctures. Leaves are stored whole or crumbled for use in teas. Strain through cheesecloth before consuming. seeds. Examine periodically. Wrap a rubber band carefully around the base of the plant. This can be made with boiling water (infusion or decoction) or with cold water. Fleshy leaves are dried individually on wire racks with good air circulation to prevent molding. Syrups and honeys can be used to sweeten other herbal preparations or added to food or drink. which may take an hour. Bulbs are tied together and strung up to dry. since they can overheat and do catch fire easily. Strain through cheesecloth before use. stems. This does not guarantee that the students will not have an allergic reaction if the preparation is taken internally. Medicine Preparation Drying When using an entire plant. students need to be prepared for such an event if they have previously had allergic symptoms. Attach a paperclip onto the rubber band and suspend the plant upside down to dry. or roots of the plant (similar volumes as for infusion) and simmering for 2 to 3 minutes. wood. and syrups. In addition. Simple Syrups & Honeys Make a standard decoction with herb and water. stirring until completely dissolved. Put the remaining half of unused herbs in a pan and simmer for another two hours. If A PRAIRIE PHARMACY 255 . It moisturizes and soothes at the same time. or thickened with beeswax to make a thin cream. Reduce by heating to a third of original volume. Add canola or olive oil to cover the herbs and place in a double boiler and simmer for 2 hours. students return with their “treasures” to the laboratory for preparations. and 48 hours for a wheal and flare skin response (swelling. Add sufficient glycerin to cover the leaves.5g) of fresh plant (less if using dried herbs) and allowing the mixture to steep for approximately 10 minutes. Roots are usually ground into powder for use or are left in small chunks for uses in decoctions. Poultice This is a remedy for the skin made by bruising or crushing plant material to a pulp and then heating. redness. The same applies to blossoms. This is a beverage (a tea) made by combining 1 cup (250 ml) of boiling water and 1 to 2 teaspoons (1-1. This double method makes strong infused oil. Add equal or twice the volume of honey or sugar. Therefore. Decoction: This is an extraction made by combining again boiling water and the bark. The test is performed by placing a drop of herb suspension (infusion. it is customary to hang the plant upside down in a dry area free from pests to allow it to dry. oil. They are ideal for children because they are sweet. Students need to be informed of the symptoms of allergic reactions to prevent any complications associated with this laboratory. itching. for mold growth. Many plants in the prairie are capable of eliciting allergic reactions. Strain and place oil into clean bottles. tincture. Teas can be used internally or as an external wash. Strain through cheesecloth before use. Stand for 2 weeks. no herbal remedies are utilized unless students perform a skin test. one can infuse oil by chopping the herbs and placing half into a clean pan with a lid. Strain. mixed with tincture (see below) for a liniment. Alternatively. Leave for up to 6 weeks.Allergic Reactions Test After herbs are collected. I use a mint olive oil preparation with sea salt for a wonderful foot massage. Infusion: One can use fresh or dried leaves to make an infusion. The dried portions can then be stored according to your needs. Teas used as a wash are usually more concentrated than infusions taken internally.

while lotions and cold infused oils last approximately one month. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America. (1999. 1998). J. KS: University Press of Kansas. Moerman. Kava Kava and St. Boston: Element Books Inc. Bad medicine for mother earth. (1998). There is a growing trend to place these herbs into iced tea. APRIL 2003 products may actually contain none of what is promised on the label. 21. The herbs are drugs and should be treated with respect. This product is only produced when students are of age. in a gentle and temperate way. L. (2000). John’s Wort. Much of the world’s population today is still dependent upon herbs as a source of medicine. The American College Dictionary. There is no monitoring of quality control by the FDA and some 256 THE AMERICAN BIOLOGY TEACHER. Lawrence. Aug). . A. (1998). NO. Lancet. VOLUME 65. (1964). Herb Research Foundation. Discussion This particular laboratory exercise is coupled with lecture material regarding pharmaceuticals and the cultural use of pharmaceuticals. S. Over 25 percent of current prescription medicines contain at least one ingredient derived from nature (Fugh-Bergman. What is actually sold as dietary supplements is anybody’s guess. & Duke. and France. Perhaps this approach to herbalism will allow students to see the importance of plant drugs to our health and stress the importance of protecting and promoting plant diversity. then layering the plant material. and that they are currently undergoing more rigorous testing of their efficacy. Dried herbs are usually suitable for use for 6 months to a year. 20. soft drinks. (1998). Feverfew. Today. K. especially if refrigerated. forests.html) Fugh-Bergman. A. a plaster is made by placing a cloth against the skin. The Medicinal Plants of Native America. infusions. Discover. Mexican yams and progesterone. deserts. tinctures. 2000).html) Barnhart. (1999). Instead of antihistamines. D. (Available on the web at http://www. Strain through cheesecloth before use. concerns are raised due to the lack of herbal regulation by the Federal Drug Administration and the lack of standardization of many of these products.5-1. Medicine and Culture: Varieties of Treatment in the United States. Glausiusz. Herb Research Foundation — Herbs and Herbal Medicine for Health. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie: An Ethnobotanical Guide. In addition. Students are encouraged to examine their own philosophy toward medicines and write a two-page reflective paper regarding their own philosophy. they abound in medicine (Shealy. Foster.. (2000. Inc. Examples include willow bark and aspirin. N. many of the individuals who are turning to herbs are not practicing herbalism. & Brad. and then another layer of cloth (like a mustard plaster). C. foxglove and digitalis. Tinctures are very potent and are used in drop dosages. Shealy.needed.org) ARS Genome Database Resource. The drugs of tomorrow may exist in prairies of today. The use of herbs by man has occurred in every native culture. L. sedatives. and other foods. the pulp is mixed with corn meal or bread and milk to make it adhesive. Brad. 4. approximately one to two years. (Available on the web at http://arsgenome. or plant parts. Payer.0 g) in 100 ml dilute alcohol (half vodka or tequila and half water) over a period of 2 weeks.edu/botany. S. and antidepressants. whether in prairies or throughout the native habitats of our world’s jungles.cornell. This is then applied directly to the skin and a cloth is wrapped around the affected area to hold in the moisture. L. 134. Herbalism is described as a holistic approach to medicine that uses plants. 56-63. E. M. C. I typically pick a few common plantain leaves to use in a poultice for any insect bites that may occur on the collection trip. References Alternative Medicine Foundation. Tinctures have perhaps the longest shelf life of the herbal remedies. West Germany. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 355(9198). England. J. (Ed.. Tincture This is an extraction made by dissolving plant material (1/2-1 teaspoon or 0. New York: Random House. If the plant materials are an irritant. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Natural Remedies. Alternative medicine man: Why so many doctors hate Andrew Weil. Beckstrom-Sternberg. A key component of this laboratory exercise is to remind students that the medicinal properties of these plants were discovered by means of trial and error and observation. (1996).org/index. Duke. they are continuing a “pill-popping” approach to health.. Herb-drug interactions.). L. J. oils and lotions are stored in opaque glass bottles that have a good seal. Native prairies are increasingly being recognized for their intrinsic value and should be protected and preserved. or oceans.herbs. A. (1992).. Discover. 18. (Ed. analgesics. This would not be an appropriate medicinal to prepare in younger classes. Kindscher. HerbMed — an Interactive Electronic Database. Storage of Herbs Typically all liquids. they are popping capsules of Echinacea. (Available on the web at http://www.).herbmed. (1990). New York: Henry Holt and Company. August).