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Metal machining and
machine tools


NAME : Shubham Khatri
ROLL NO. : 14135077


boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast). cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled. by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools). The net result of cutting is two products. often multipoint. cutting larger chips . Boring can be viewed as the internal-diameter counterpart to turning. and the finished part. It can produce very fine finishes and very accurate dimensions. the waste or excess material. Most metal components and parts require some form of machining during the manufacturing process.  Drilling process: Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. yet in mass production contexts it can also rough out large volumes of metal quite rapidly. Boring is used to achieve greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool. for example as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder. Other materials. which cuts external diameters. such as plastics. and can be used to cut a tapered hole.  Grinding process: Grinding practice is a large and diverse area of manufacturing and tool making. This forces the cutting edge against the workpiece. are also commonly fabricated through machining processes. The bit is pressed against the workpiece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. It is usually better suited to the machining of very hard materials than is "regular" machining (that is. Types of Machining Process  Boring Process: In machining.  Cutting process: Cutting is a collection of processes wherein material is brought to a specified geometry by removing excess material using various kinds of tooling to leave a finished part that meets specifications.STUDY OF METAL REMOVAL RATE WITH FEED RATE What is Machining? Machining is a manufacturing term encompassing a broad range of technologies and techniques. It can be roughly defined as the process of removing material from a workpiece using power-driven machine tools to shape it into an intended design. rubbers. and paper goods.

workpiece. The cutter is typically a single-point cutting tool that is also secured in the machine. which is used to create rotational parts by cutting away unwanted material. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the fixture. tapers. and cutting tool.with cutting tools such as tool bits or milling cutters). The tool's axes of movement may be literally a straight line. It covers a wide variety of different operations and machines. such as holes. and until recent decades it was the only practical way to machine such materials as hardened steels. typically axisymmetric. on scales from small individual parts to large. perhaps for prototypes. which itself is attached to the turning machine. and allowed to rotate at high speeds. a material removal process. various diameter steps. although some operations make use of multi-point tools. The turning process requires a turning machine or lathe. typically a non-rotary tool bit. parts that have many features. but they are essentially linear (in the nonmathematical sense). threads. heavy-duty gang milling operations. Parts that are fabricated completely through turning often include components that are used in limited quantities. and even contoured surfaces. fixture.  Turning process: Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool.  Milling process: Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece advancing (or feeding) in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool. Turning is also commonly . The cutting tool feeds into the rotating workpiece and cuts away material in the form of small chips to create the desired shape. describes a helical toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. It is one of the most commonly used processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and shapes. Turning Process: Turning is a form of machining. such as custom designed shafts and fasteners. or they may be along some set of curves or angles. grooves. Turning is used to produce rotational.

Different types of turning operations that are performed internally and externally:             Face turning or facing Straight turning Eccentric turning Shoulder turning Tapper turning Grooving Thread cutting Cut-off Drilling Boring Tapping Reaming Tooling The various angles. Also. and sizes of a single-point cutting tool have direct relation to the resulting surface of a workpiece in machining operations. Due to the high tolerances and surface finishes that turning can offer. relief angle. cutting-edge angle. nose radius exist and may be different with respect to the workpiece. shapes. such as V-shaped and Square. a special toolholder is used to hold the cutting tool firmly during operation. it is ideal for adding precision rotational features to a part whose basic shape has already been formed.used as a secondary process to add or refine features on parts that were manufactured using a different process. Usually. there are many shapes of single-point cutting tools. Different types of angle such as rake angle. side rake angle. .

machine tool rigidity and spindle power.Cutting force is depends on the material. Feed  The distance the tool advances into the material in one revolution is called "feed".Turning Theory Forces The relative forces in a turning operation are important in the design of machine tools. It supplies the energy required for the cutting operation. Speeds and feeds Speeds and feeds for turning are chosen based on cutter material. coolant choice. It is specified as mm per revolution (mm/rev). vibrations. It is also called the feed force because it is in the feed direction of the tool.  The axial or feed force acts in the longitudinal direction. There are three principal forces during a turning process:  The cutting or tangential force acts downward on the tool tip allowing deflection of the workpiece upward. or chatter during the operation. The machine tool and its components must be able to withstand these forces without causing significant deflections. and other factors. workpiece material. setup rigidity. .The specific cutting force required to cut the material is called specific cutting force. This force tends to push the tool away from the chuck.  The radial or thrust force acts in the radial direction and tends to push the tool away from the workpiece.

In some operations the tool feeds into the workpiece and in others the workpiece feeds into the tool. measured in inches per tooth (IPT). For a multi-point tool.The distance that the cutting tool or workpiece advances during one revolution of the spindle. the cutting feed is also equal to the feed per tooth. measured in inches per revolution (IPR).  Cutting feed .Cutting speed for different metals: Material type MPM SFM Steel 15 to 18 50 to 60 Cast iron 18 to 24 60 to 80 Alloy steels 20 to 37 65 to 120 Carbon steels 21 to 41 70 to 130 Stainless steel 23 to 40 75 to 130 Bronze 24 to 45 80 to 150 Mil steel 30 to 38 100 to 125 Free cutting steels 35 to 69 115 to 225 Aluminum 75 to 105 250 to 350 Brass 90 to 210 300 to 700 Leaded steel 91 300 Cutting Parameter: In turning. the speed and motion of the cutting tool is specified through several parameters. These parameters are selected for each operation based upon the workpiece material. and more. tool material. . multiplied by the number of teeth on the cutting tool. tool size.

a feature is typically machined in several passes as the tool moves to the specified axial depth of cut for each pass. a feature is often machined in several steps as the tool moves over at the radial depth of cut. Adjust the machine to run the job to a required cutting speed. .  Radial depth of cut . Therefore. If the spindle speed is held constant. Cutting speed .  Feed rate . Therefore.The speed of the cutting tool's movement relative to the workpiece as the tool makes a cut. Change the feed rate of the machine while keeping the RPM and the depth of cut constant and measure the corresponding MRR BY weight loss. Observe the variation (graphically) between feed and MRR.The rotational speed of the spindle and the workpiece in revolutions per minute (RPM). measured in surface feet per minute (SFM). Fix the cutting tool in the tool post and do the centring of then workpiece so that its axis coincides with the axis of the lathe machine. A large radial depth of cut will require a low feed rate. PROCEDURE      The work piece is fixed in the 4-jaw chuck with sufficient overhang.  Spindle speed . the spindle speed must vary based on the diameter of the cut.The depth of the tool along the radius of the workpiece as it makes a cut.  Axial depth of cut . or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. as in a facing operation. as in a turning or boring operation.The depth of the tool along the axis of the workpiece as it makes a cut.The speed of the workpiece surface relative to the edge of the cutting tool during a cut. then the cutting speed will vary. or else it will result in a high load on the tool and reduce the tool life. The feed rate is measured in inches per minute (IPM) and is the product of the cutting feed (IPR) and the spindle speed (RPM). The spindle speed is equal to the cutting speed divided by the circumference of the workpiece where the cut is being made. In order to maintain a constant cutting speed. A large axial depth of cut will require a low feed rate.

This implies Metal Removal Rate(MRR) is directly proportional to Feed. . and the time for which workpiece is subjected to turning remains constant.Result and Discussion: As it can be seen through observations that with increase in Feed the Metal Removal Rate(MRR) increases. This can be clearly visualized as the Feed increase more metal is removed per revolution.