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f wGuf
pm&if;ppftwnfjyKNyD;onfh trSefpm&if;(Actual)
rsm;ESiphf yfvsO;f onfh jynfoaYl iGpm&if; yl;aygif;aumfrwD
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u zwfMum;wifjy&m jynfaxmifpv
k w
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ajrmufykHrSeftpnf;ta0; 40 &ufajrmufaeYudk
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aMumif; od&onf/
(owif;pOf)

twGif; aqmif&GufcJhrIokH;oyf
tBuHjyKcsuf
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tpnf;ta0; usif;yonfh umv
udk trsm;qkH; 6 vtxdom
owfrSwfoifhaMumif;? vTwfawmf
tpnf;ta0;rsm; usif;yonfh
vTwfawmfjyu'def(Calendar)udk
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a&;qGJ xkwfjyefoifhaMumif;?
vT w f a wmf ud k , f p m;vS , f r sm;
vTwfawmftwGif; vkyfief;wm0ef
rsm; aqmif&Guf&mwGif ygwDpkH
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yk*dKvfpGJ? ygwDpGJ? vlrsdK;pGJ? bmompGJ?
a'opGJrsm;rxm;&SdbJ EdkifiHhtusKd;?
jynfolYtusKd;a&S;INyD; wyfrawmf
om; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifhtwl
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aumfrwDtwGif;a&;rSL;
aumfrwD0if
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OD;apmvSxGef;
OD;wifarmif
xnfhoGif;wifjycJhonf/
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(owif;pOf)
jynfolYvTwfawmf vTwfawmf tBurd f vTwaf wmfoufwrf;umv

aejynfawmf Zefe0g&D 27
yxrtBudrf jynfaxmifpk
vTwaf wmf (13)Burd af jrmuf ykrH eS f
tpnf;ta0; 39 &ufajrmuf
aeYodkY a&G;aumufcHxm;&Sdonhf
ud,
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f opfrsm;jzpfaom
jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f
275 OD;? trsKd;om;vTwfawmf
ukd,fpm;vS,f 149 OD;ESihf zdwf
Mum;xm;onhf ygwD 17 ckrS
txl;avhvmol 72 OD; pkpak ygif;
496 OD;wdkYonf jynfaxmifpk
vTwfawmftpnf;ta0; usif;y
aeyHkukd
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MunhfI
jyefvnfxGufcGm
oGm;aMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
(owif;pOf)

Zefe0g&D 28? 2016

zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrsm; (LDCs) owfrSwfcsuf pwifay:aygufvmykH


0ifaiGerd u
hf sNy;D zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;twGuf pD;yGm;a&;zGUJ pnf;ykq
H ikd &f m
t[efYtwm; tm;enf;csufrsm;jzifh BuHKawGUaeMuonfh urmhEdkifiH
rsm;tm; txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;ay;tyf axmufyHhulnDEdkif&ef 1964
ckEpS w
f iG f *seD AD mNrKd U usi;f yaom yxrtBurd f ukvor* ukeo
f ,
G rf EI iS hf
1
zG H U Nzd K ;wd k ; wuf r I n D v mcH /-wG i f pwif aqG ; aEG ; cJ h M uygonf /
tusK;d quftjzpf pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlraI &;aumifpD (Economic and Social
Council - ECOSOC) \ taxmuftuljyKtzGUJ jzpfaom zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrI
rl0g'aumfrwD (Committee for Development Policy -CDP) 2/- u
vlwpfOD;ysrf;rQxkwfvkyfrIwefzdk; (GDP per capita)? GDP wefzdk;wGif
pufrIukefpnf xkwfvkyfrIwefzdk;yg0ifrItcsKd; (share of manufacturing
in GDP)ESifh oufBuD;pmwwfajrmufrIEIef;(Adult Literacy) wdkYjzifh
wdkif;wm&ef owfrSwfcJhNyD; 1971 ckESpfwGif zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiH(25)
EdkifiHpm&if;tm; wifjycJhygonf/ tqdkygpm&if;udk pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
vlrIa&;aumifpD(ECOSOC) ESifh ukvor* taxGaxGnDvmcHwdkYu
twnfjyKay;cJh&mrS zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrsm;pm&if; (Category of the
Least Developed Countries-LDCs)[l ay:aygufvmcJhygonf/
zG H U Nzd K ;rI t enf ; qk H ; Ed k i f i H (LDCs) pm&if ; rS vG w f a jrmuf a &;qd k i f & m
owfrSwfpHEIef;rsm;
urmvkH;qdkif&majymif;vJrIjzpfpOf(Globalization) udkaemufcHjyK
vsuf urmhpD;yGm;a&; (Global Economy)ajymif;vJvmrI jzpfpOfrsm;ESifh
zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;twGuf &ifqikd Bf uKH awGU&onfh pD;yGm;a&;zGUJ pnf;ykq
H ikd &f m
t[efYtwm;tay: okawoejyKvkyfxm;onfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk
xnfo
h iG ;f pOf;pm; vuf&t
dS ajctaersm;ESihf udu
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owfrw
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f ;kd pdppfvsu&f ydS gonf (u) wpfOD;us0ifaiGqdkif&mpHEIef; (Gross National Income -

&Syd gonf/ LDCs pm&if;rS 1994 ckEpS w


f iG f abmhqmG ;em;(Botswana) Edik if ?H
f iG f armfv'f u
dk f
2007 ckEpS w
f iG f udwAf m'D(Cape Verde)Edik if ?H 2011 ckEpS w
(Maldives)EdkifiH? 2014 ckESpfwGif qmrdktm (Samoa)EdkifiHwdkY toD;oD;
vGwfajrmufcJhMuygonf/ EdkifiH\ vlrI-pD;yGm;a&;tajctaersm;aMumifh
topf0ifa&mufcJhonfhEdkifiHrsm;rSm 2003 ckESpfwGif wDarmvufpfaw
(Timor-Leste) EdkifiHESifh 2012 ckESpfwGif awmifql'ef (South Sudan)
EdkifiHwdkY jzpfMuygonf/ vuf&SdtcsdefwGif LDCs EdkifiH pkpkaygif; 48 EdkifiH
&SdNyD; tmqD,Ha'owGif;rS jrefrmEdkifiHESifhtwl uarm'D;,m;EdkifiHESifh
vmtdkEdkifiHwdkY yg0ifygonf/
jrefrmEdkifiH zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrssm;
m;(LDCs)pm&if;0if jzpfvmykH
jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;csdef 1948 ckESpfrSp EdkifiHzGHUNzdK;
wdk;wufa&;twGuf EdkifiHjcm;a<u;NrDrsm;&,lcJh&m 1987 ckESpfwGif
,if;a<u;NrDrsm;udk twdk;a&mt&if;yg jyefvnfay;qyf&rnfhtcsdefodkY
usa&mufvmcJhygonf/ ,if;a<u;NrDrsm;udk jyefvnfay;qyf&ef enf;vrf;
&SmazGonfhtcg t"dua<u;&SifEdkifiHrsm;jzpfMuonfh *syefEdkifiHESifh *smreD
EdkifiHwdkYu if;wdkY\ a<u;NrDrsm;udk avQmYcsay;&ef jrefrmEdkifiHtaejzifh
zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrsm;pm&if;0ifEdkifiHjzpf&ef vdktyfaMumif; tBuHjyK
aqG;aEG;cJhygonf/ odkYjzpf&m 1987 ckESpfrSpwif jrefrmEdkifiHonf zGHUNzdK;
rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrsm;pm&if;odkY 0ifa&mufcJhygonf/
xdkYaemuf rMumrDumvtwGif; 1988 ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiH\ EdkifiHa&;
tajctae ysufjym;,dk,Gif;vmcJhonfhtm;avsmfpGm jrefrmhwyfrawmfrS
EdkifiHawmftmPmudk vTJajymif;&,lcJh&ygonf/ xdkuJhodkY wyfrawmfrS
tmPmvTJajymif;&,lcJhonfudk taMumif;jyK taemuftkyfpk pufrI
zGHUNzdK;NyD;EdkifiHrsm;u jrefrmEdkifiHtm; pD;yGm;a&; ydwfqdkYta&;,lrIrsm;udk
GNI per capita)
pwifjyKvkyfcJhMuygonf/ ,if;pD;yGm;a&;ydwfqdkYrIrsm;aMumifh uwdjyKxm;
(wpfOD;us0ifaiGqdkif&mpHEIef;udk wGufcsuf&mwGif EdkifiH\ aom EdkifiHrsm;\ a<u;NrDavQmYcsa&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk aqmif&GufEdkifcJhjcif;
pkpkaygif;jynfwGif;xkwfukef (GDP)ESifh jynfyrS tom;wif r&SdcJhonfhtjyif LDCs EdkifiHtaejzifh &&SdcHpm;cGifh&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;
0ifaiG (Net Primary Income) aygif;jcif;tay: tajccH
wGufcsuf&ygonf)
(c) vlom;t&if;tESD;Tef;udef;qdkif&mpHEIef; (Human Assets
Index - HAI)

(vlom;t&if;tESD;Tef;udef;qdkif&m pHEIef;wGufcsuf&mwGif
tm[m&"mwfcsKdUwJhrI? uav;aoqkH;rIEIef;? tv,fwef;
ausmif;om; ausmif;tyfESHEIef;ESifh oufBuD;pmwwfajrmuf
rIEeI ;f wdt
Yk ay:rlwnf wGucf suyf gonf/ CDP \ owfrw
S f
csuft& 2018 ckESpfrS pwif rdcifaoqkH;rIEIef;udkyg
xnfhoGif;wGufcsufoGm;rnfjzpfygonf/)
(*) pD;yGm;a&;xdcdkufepfemvG,frIpHEIef; (Economic Vulnerability Index EVI)

(pD;yGm;a&;xdcdkufepfemvG,frIpHEIef; wGufcsuf&mwGif vlOD;


a&? t"duaps;uGufrsm;odkY a&muf&Sd&ef ysrf;rQc&D;tuGm
ta0;? jynfyydkYukefyg0ifrItcsKd;tpm;? GDP wefzdk;wGif
v,f,mpdkufysdK;a&;? opfawmESifhom;ig;u@ xkwfvkyfrI
wefzdk; yg0ifrItcsdK;? urf;dk;wef;a'o ajredrfhydkif;wGif
aexdik o
f nfh vlO;D a&tcsKd ;? jynfyydu
Yk ek rf wnfNird rf ?I obm0
ab;tE&m,f'Pfc&H aom 'kuo
nfrsm;? v,f,mpdu
k yf sK;d a&;
xkwfukefrwnfNidrfrI ponfh Tef;udef;rsm;tay:rlwnf
wGufcsufygonf/)
xdkYtjyif vlOD;a&yrmPrsm;jcif;onf jynfwGif;aps;uGufBuD;rm;
rIEiS hf vlpY rG ;f tm;t&if;tES;D jznfph rG ;f ay;Edik rf w
I t
Ykd wGuf tusK;d &Sad Mumif;
ok;H oyf CDP u 1991 ckEpS rf S pwif vlO;D a& 75 oef;xufausmv
f eG f
aomEdik if u
H kd zGUH NzKd ;rItenf;qk;H Edik if t
H jzpf rxnfo
h iG ;f &ef qk;H jzwfcyhJ gonf/
LDCs EdkifiHrsm;tm; ay;tyfonfhEdkifiHwumtxl;oD;oefYtultnD
rsm; (International Support Measures-ISM)
rsm;
zGUH NzKd ;rItenf;qk;H Edik if rH sm;taejzifh zGUH NzKd ;Ny;D Edik if rH sm;? zGUH NzKd ;rIrw
d zf uf
EdkifiHrsm;ESifh urmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJU(World Trade OrganizationWTO) wdr
Yk S ay;tyfaom ukeo
f ,
G af &;OD;pm;ay;rI (Trade Preference)?
w&m;0ifzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wufrt
I ultnD (Officials DevelopmentAssistanceODA)? taxGaxGaxmufyHhrIrsm; (General Supports) &&SdcHpm;Edkifyg
onf/ taxGaxGaxmufyrhH rI sm;wGif ukvor*Nird ;f csr;f a&;xde;f odr;f rI
tzGJUrsm;odkY xnfh0ifaiGtm; yrmPwpfcktxdom xnfh0ifcGifhay;jcif;?
c&D;oGm;vmp&dwf axmufyHhjcif;ponfh tultnDrsm;yg0ifygonf/
zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrsm; (LDCs) tjzpfrS vGwfajrmufcJhaomEdkifiHrsm;
ESifh LDCs EdkifiHpm&if;odkY aemufqkH;0ifa&mufcJhaomEdkifiHrsm;
1971 ckESpfrS pwif LDCs pm&if;owfrSwfNyD;aemufydkif; xyfrH
0ifa&mufvmonfh Edik if rH sm;&So
d vdk vGwaf jrmufomG ;aom Edik if rH sm;vnf;
1

/- (First Session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and


Development - UNCTAD)
2

/- 1965 ckEp
Sw
f iG f Committee for Development Planning trnfjzifh
zGJUpnf;cJhNyD; 1998 ckESpfrSpwif Committee for Development
Policy [k trnfajymif;vJcJhonf/

udkvnf; tjcm;aom LDCs EdkifiHrsm;uJhodkY jynfhjynfh00 cHpm;cJh&jcif; r&Sd


aMumif; awGU&Sd&ygonf/
zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrssm;pm&if
m;pm&if;rS vGwfajrmuf&efenf;vrf;rsm;
zGUH NzKd ;rI tenf;qk;H Edik if rH sm;taejzifh LDCs pm&if;rS vGwfajrmuf&ef
enf;vrf;okH;oG,f&Sdygonf/ yxrenf;vrf;rSm CDP \ okH;ESpfwpfBudrf
ok;H oyfcsuw
f iG f owfrw
S x
f m;aom pHEeI ;f ok;H ckteuf tenf;qk;H ESpcf Ek iS hf
ESpfBudrfqufwdkuf udkufnD&ef vdktyfrnfjzpfygonf/ 'kwd,enf;vrf;rSm
EdkifiH\ GNI pHEIef;onf okH;ESpfwpfBudrf okH;oyfcsufESpf&yfvkH;wGif
vGwfajrmufa&;pHEIef; owfrSwfcsufxufESpfq (Oyrm vGwfajrmufa&;
GNI pHEIef; US$ 1200? EdkifiH\ GNI pHEIef; US$2400) jzpfvQifvnf;
tjcm;pHEIef;rsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&efrvdkbJ zGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH;EdkifiHrsm;
pm&if;rS vGwfajrmufEdkifygonf/ wwd,enf;vrf;rSm EdkifiHa&;qE
oufoufjzifh rdrdbmom aMunm LDCs pm&if;rS vGwfajrmufaMumif;
aMunmjcif;jzpfygonf/
zGUH NzKd ;rItenf;qk;H Edik if rH sm;pm&if;rS vGwaf jrmufa&; pHEeI ;f rsm;ESiu
hf u
kd n
f rD I
tajctaetay: 2015 ckESpf tpD&ifcHpm (2015 Triennial Review)
tajctaetay:
2015 ckESpf okH;ESpfwpfBudrfokH;oyfcsufyg0ifaom ukvor* zGHUNzdK;
wdk;wufrIrl0g'aumfrwD (CDP) \ tpD&ifcHpmudk 2015 ckESpf ZGefvwGif
pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlrIa&;aumifpD ykHrSeftpnf;ta0;odkY wifjytwnfjyKcJhyg
onf/ tqdkygtpD&ifcHpmwGif jrefrmEdkifiHonf pHEIef;okH;ckvkH;wGif odom
xif&mS ;aom wd;k wufrrI sm;&&Sv
d maMumif;? xdaYk Mumifh vuf&dS zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wuf
rIt&Sdefudk qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;Edkifygu vmrnfh 2018 ckESpf okH;ESpf
wpfBudrfokH;oyfcsufwGif vGwfajrmufa&;qdkif&m owfrSwfpHEIef;rsm;jzifh
yxrtBudrf udkufnDzG,f&SdEdkifaMumif; xnfhoGif;azmfjyxm;ygonf/
jrefrmEdik if \
H Edik if aH &;? pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;wd;k wufrrI sm;aMumifh zGUH NzKd ;
wdk;wufrIrsm; jznf;jznf;rSefrSef &&SdvmcJhygonf/ tqdkygtcsufudk
atmufazmfjyyg 2006 ckESpfrS 2015 ckESpftwGif; jyKvkyfcJhaom CDP \
ok;H ESpw
f pfBurd f ok;H oyfcsuZf ,m;rsm;t& LDC rS vGwaf jrmufa&;qdik &f m
pHEIef;owfrSwfcsufrsm;(Graduation Thresholds) ESifh jrefrmEdkifiH\
a&muf&Sdaeaom tajctaetMum; uGm[csufusOf;ajrmif;vmrItajc
taeu oufaojyvsuf&Sdygonf -

2006
2009
GNI per capita (US $)
Graduation threshold 900
1 086
Myanmar
167.0
306.3
Gap (absolute)
-733
-780
Gap (%)
-81%
-72%
Human Asset Index HAI
Graduation threshold 64
66
Myanmar
68.4
66.0
Gap (absolute)
4.4
0.0
Gap (%)
7%
0%
Economic Vulnerability Index EVI
Graduation threshold 38
38
Myanmar
42.2
37.4
Gap (absolute)
-4.2
0.6
Gap (%)
-11%
2%

2012

2015

1 190
704.0
-486
-41%

1 242
1 063.0
-179
-14%

66
68.8
2.8
4%

66
72.7
6.7
10%

32
45.0
-13.0
-41%

32
33.7
-1.7
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Zefe0g&D 28? 2016

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Zefe0g&D 28? 2016

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Zefe0g&D 28? 2016

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touf (80)

q&mrBu;D a'gufwmarmfvaD rmifonf 25-1-2016 (wevFmaeY)wGif


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touf (80)

q&mrBu;D a'gufwmarmfvaD rmifonf 25-1-2016 (wevFmaeY)wGif c&pfawmf


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touf (80)

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a'gufwmarmfvDarmif
B.Sc (Hons),M.Sc,Ph.D(Queensland)

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&efukefwuodkvf(1993-1997)

touf (80)

q&mrBu;D a'gufwmarmfvaD rmifonf 25-1-2016 (wevFmaeY)


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Zefe0g&D 28? 2016

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