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SED: The Plasma - LCD ‘Killer’?

 Introduction

 History

 A Review of CRTs

 Creating the Picture on SED TV

 SED-TV Pros & Cons

 Comparison of SED TV with Other Televisions

 Life Expectancy of SED TV

 SED Display Advantages

 SED Display Disadvantages

 References
For years, the picture on every television set came from a Cathode Ray Tube
(CRT). CRTs can make a high-quality picture with great colors, which is
why many TVs still use them. Unfortunately, they're also bulky and heavy,
and they can't support the big screens that people want today.

Most of the new TV types on the market have improved on CRT's size and
weight, but some have a down side when it comes to the picture. Narrow
viewing angles, poor black level, burn-in and various visual artifacts can
plague newer TVs.

The surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) is yet another new

TV. But unlike the others, it combines the picture quality of a CRT with the
compact design of a flat-screen plasma display. An SED-TV can have a
huge screen with a great picture, and it's only a few centimeters thick.

SED, or Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Displays are a new, emerging

technology co-developed by Canon and Toshiba Corporation. The hope for
this technology is a display which reproduces vivid color, deep blacks, fast
response times and almost limitless contrast. In fact, if you take all of the
claims made by the backers of SED you would think that there should be no
reason to buy any other type of display. A long life filled with bitter
disappointments and lengthy product-to-market times have increased my
skepticism and lowered my tendency to act as a cheerleader until products
start to hit the market. As far as the specs go, this is one hot technology.

SED display electron emitters are supposed to be printable using inkjet

printing technology from Canon while the matrix wiring can be created with
a special screen printing method. The obvious result is the potential for
extremely low production costs at high volumes once the technology is

This article will investigate exactly how the SED-TV creates a picture. We'll
start with reviewing how CRTs work, and we'll also look at the
manufacturing process behind SED-TV's microscopic components.
Canon began SED research in 1986. Their early research used PdO electrodes
without the carbon films on top, but controlling the slit width proved difficult. At
the time there were a number of flat-screen technologies in early development, and
the only one close to commercialization was the plasma display panel (PDP),
which had numerous disadvantages – manufacturing cost and energy use among
them. LCDs were not suitable for larger screen sizes due to low yields and
complex manufacturing.
In 2004 Canon signed an agreement with Toshiba to create a joint venture to
continue development of SED technology, forming "SED Ltd." Toshiba
introduced new technology to pattern the conductors underlying the emitters using
technologies adapted from inkjet printers. At the time both companies claimed that
production was slated to begin in 2005. Both Canon and Toshiba started
displaying prototype units at trade shows during 2006, including 55" and 36" units
from Canon, and a 42" unit from Toshiba. They were widely lauded in the press
for their image quality, saying it was "something that must be seen to believe[d]."
However, by this point Canon's SED introduction date had already slipped several
times. It was first claimed it would go into production in 1999. This was pushed
back to 2005 after the joint agreement, and then again into 2007 after the first
demonstrations at CES and other shows.
In October 2006, Toshiba's president announced the company plans to begin full
production of 55-inch SED TVs in July 2007 at its recently built SED volume-
production facility in Himeji.
In December 2006, Toshiba President and Chief Executive Atsutoshi Nishida said
Toshiba was on track to mass-produce SED TV sets in cooperation with Canon by
2008. He said the company planned to start small-output production in the fall of
2007, but they do not expect SED displays to become a commodity and will not
release the technology to the consumer market because of its expected high price,
reserving it solely for professional broadcasting applications.
Also, in December 2006 it was revealed that one reason for the delay was a
lawsuit brought against Canon by Applied Nanotech. On 25 May 2007, Canon
announced that the prolonged litigation would postpone the launch of SED
televisions, and a new launch date would be announced at some date in the future.
Applied Nanotech, a subsidiary of Nano-Proprietary, holds a number of patents
related to FED and SED manufacturing. They had sold Canon a perpetual license
for a coating technology used in their newer carbon-based emitter structure.
Applied Nanotech claimed that Canon's agreement with Toshiba amounted to an
illegal technology transfer, and a separate agreement would have to be reached.
They first approached the problem in April 2005.[15]
Canon responded to the lawsuit with several actions. On 12 January 2007 they
announced that they would buy all of Toshiba's shares in SED Inc. in order to
eliminate Toshiba's involvement in the venture.[16] They also started re-working
their existing RE40,062 patent filing in order to remove any of Applied Nanotech's
technologies from their system. The modified patent was issued on 12 February
On 22 February 2007, the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas, a
district widely known for agreeing with patent holders in intellectual property
cases, ruled in a summary judgment that Canon had violated its agreement by
forming a joint television venture with Toshiba.[18] However, on 2 May 2007 a
jury ruled that no additional damages beyond the $5.5m fee for the original
licensing contract were due.[19][20]
On 25 July 2008, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit reversed the lower
court's decision and provided that Canon's "irrevocable and perpetual" non-
exclusive license was still enforceable and covers Canon's restructured subsidiary
SED. On 2 December 2008, Applied Nanotech dropped the lawsuit, stating that
continuing the lawsuit "would probably be a futile effort".
In spite of their legal success, Canon announced at the same time that the financial
crisis of 2008 was making introduction of the sets far from certain, going so far as
to say they would not be launching the product at that time "because people would
laugh at them".
Canon also had an ongoing OLED development process that started in the midst of
the lawsuit. In 2007 they announced a joint deal to form "Hitachi Displays Ltd.",
with Matsushita and Canon each taking a 24.9% share of Hitachi's existing
subsidiary. Canon later announced that they were purchasing Tokki Corp, a maker
of OLED fabrication equipment.
In April 2009 during NAB 2009, Peter Putman was quoted as saying "I was asked
on more than one occasion about the chances of Canon's SED making a comeback,
something I would not have bet money on after the Nano Technologies licensing
debacle. However, a source within Canon told me at the show that the SED is still
very much alive as a pro monitor technology. Indeed, a Canon SED engineer from
Japan was quietly making the rounds in the Las Vegas Convention Center to scope
out the competition."
A Review of CRTs
Some people think of CRTs as old or outdated, especially compared to
newer display types like LCD, plasma, DLP and LCoS. But CRT technology
is still superior in some ways, and understanding the CRT is central to
understanding SED-TV.
Basically, a CRT fires electrons at a phosphorescent screen. When an
electron hits the screen, that point, or pixel, glows. The CRT usually uses
three streams of electrons, which each strike different phosphors for red,
green and blue. Your eye and brain combine the glowing points to create the
image you see.

The electrons in the CRT come from a heated filament called a cathode. A
cathode is simply a negative electrode, and in a CRT it's similar to a light
bulb filament. When electrical current reaches the cathode, electrons stream
from it toward the positively-charged anode. The anode accelerates the
electrons toward the screen. Electromagnetic steering coils direct the
streams of electrons, causing them to paint the image one line at a time, from
the top of the screen to the bottom.

Commonly called an electron gun, this collection of cathodes, anodes and

electromagnets is the heart of a CRT television..
An SED-TV creates a picture in much the same way. It's essentially a flat-
panel television that uses millions of CRTs instead of one electron gun.
These miniature CRTs are called surface-conducting electron emitters
(SCEs). A set has three SCEs for every pixel -- one each for red, green and
blue. A widescreen, high-definition set can have more than 6 million SCEs.
Creating the Picture
SED technology works much like a traditional CRT except instead of one
large electron gun firing at all the screen phosphors that light up to create the
image you see, SED has thousands of tiny electron guns known as "emitters"
for each phosphor sub-pixel. Remember, a sub-pixel is just one of the three
colors (red, green, blue) that make up a pixel. So it takes three emitters to
create one pixel on the screen and over 6 million SED emitters to produce a
true high definition (HDTV) image! It's sort of like an electron Gatling gun
with a barrel for every target positioned at point-blank range. An army of
electron guns, if you will.
This may bode well for video purists who feel that CRTs offer the best
picture quality, bar none. One prototype has even attained a contrast ratio
of 100,000:1. Its brightness of 400cd/m2 is a tad on the low side for an LCD
TV and nowhere close to a plasma. This is expected to increase in the future,
but still works out to about 116 ftL (foot Lamberts) or more than twice a
regular TV. To put this in perspective, a movie theater shows a film at about
15 ftL.
The heart of an SED-TV is the millions of miniature CRTs, called surface-
conduction electron emitters (SCEs). An SCE is microscopic, and it consists
of a layer of carbon with a gap down the center. One half of the carbon layer
connects to a negative electrode, and the other connects to a positive
electrode. When the circuitry delivers about 10 volts of current to the SCE,
electrons appear at one side of the gap.
An SED-TV has millions of these SCEs arranged in a matrix, and each one
controls the red, green or blue aspect of one pixel of the picture. Rather than
directing electrons to create the image one row at a time, the matrix activates
all the SCEs needed to create the picture virtually simultaneously.

As with a CRT set, the inside of an SED-TV is a vacuum. All of the SCEs
are on one side of the vacuum, and the phosphor-coated screen is on the
other. The screen has a positive electrical charge, so it attracts the electrons
from the SCEs.
When they reach the screen, the electrons pass through a very thin layer of
aluminum. They hit the phosphors, which then emit red, green or blue light.
Your eyes and brain combine these glowing dots to create a picture.

Any part of the screen that's not used to create pixels is black, which gives
the picture better contrast. There's also a color filter between the phosphors
and the glass to improve color accuracy and cut down on reflected light.

To tie it all together, when the SED-TV receives a signal, it:

1. Decodes the signal

2. Decides what to do with the red, green and blue aspect of each pixel
3. Activates the necessary SCEs, which generate electrons that fly
through the vacuum to the screen

When the electrons hit the phosphors, those pixels glow, and your brain
combines them to form a cohesive picture. The pictures change at a rate that
allows you to perceive them as moving.

This process happens almost instantaneously, and the set can create a picture
sixty times per second. Unlike a CRT, it doesn't have to interlace the picture
by painting only every other line. It creates the entire picture every time.

The idea of a big-screen picture with CRT quality in a package that's about a
quarter of an inch thick is pretty amazing. We'll look at the pros and cons of
this TV technology next.

A conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) is powered by an electron gun,

essentially an open-ended vacuum tube. At one end of the gun electrons are
produced by "boiling" them off a metal filament, which requires relatively
high currents and consumes a large proportion of the CRT's power. The
electrons are then accelerated and focused into a fast-moving beam, flowing
forward towards the screen. Electromagnets surrounding the gun end of the
tube are used to steer the beam as it travels forward, allowing the beam to be
scanned across the screen to produce a 2D display. When the fast-moving
electrons strike phosphor on the back of the screen, light is produced. Color
images are produced by painting the screen with spots or stripes of three
colored phosphors, one each for red, green and blue (RGB). When viewed
from a distance, the spots, known as "sub-pixels", blend together in the eye
to produce a single colored spot known as a pixel.
The SED replaces the single gun of a conventional CRT with a grid of
nanoscopic emitters, one for each sub-pixel of the display. The surface
conduction electron emitter apparatus consists of a thin slit across which
electrons jump when powered with high-voltage gradients. Due to the
nanoscopic size of the slits, the required field can correspond to a potential
on the order of tens of volts. A few of the electrons, on the order of 3%,
impact with slit material on the far side and are scattered out of the emitter
surface. A second field, applied externally, accelerates these scattered
electrons towards the screen. Production of this field requires kilovolt
potentials, but is a constant field requiring no switching, so the electronics
that produce it are quite simple.

Each emitter is aligned behind a colored phosphor dot, and the accelerated
electrons strike the dot and cause it to give off light in a fashion identical to
a conventional CRT. Since each dot on the screen is lit by a single emitter,
there is no need to steer or direct the beam as there is in an CRT. The
quantum tunneling effect that emits electrons across the slits is highly non-
linear, and the process tends to be fully on or off for any given voltage. This
allows the selection of particular emitters by powering a single horizontal
row on the screen and then powering all of the needed vertical columns at
the same time, thereby powering the selected emitters. Any power leaked
from one column to surrounding emitters will cause too small a field to
produce a visible output; if that emitter was not turned on the leaked power
will be too low to switch it, if it was already on the additional power will
have no visible effect. This allows SED displays to work without an active
matrix of thin-film transistors that LCDs and similar displays require, and
further reduces the complexity of the emitter array. However, this also
means that changes in voltage cannot be used to control the brightness of the
resulting pixels. Instead, the emitters are rapidly turned on and off using
pulse width modulation, so that the total brightness of a spot in any given
time can be controlled.

SED screens consist of two glass sheets separated by a few millimeters, the
rear layer supporting the emitters and the front the phosphors. The front is
easily prepared using methods similar to existing CRT systems; the
phosphors are painted onto the screen using a variety of silkscreen or similar
technologies, and then covered with a thin layer of aluminum to make the
screen visibly opaque and provide an electrical return path for the electrons
once they strike the screen. In the SED, this layer also serves as the front
electrode that accelerates the electrons toward the screen, held at a constant
high voltage relative to the switching grid. As is the case with modern
CRT's, a dark mask is applied to the glass before the phosphor is painted on,
to give the screen a dark charcoal grey color and improve contrast ratio.

Creating the rear layer with the emitters is a multi-step process. First, a
matrix of silver wires is printed on the screen to form the rows or columns,
an insulator is added, and then the columns or rows are deposited on top of
that. Electrodes are added into this array, typically using platinum, leaving a
gap of about 60 microns between the columns. Next, square pads of
palladium oxide (PdO) only 20 nm thick are deposited into the gaps between
the electrodes, connecting to them to supply power. A small slit is cut into
the pad in the middle by repeatedly pulsing high currents though them, the
resulting erosion causing a gap to form. The gap in the pad forms the
emitter. The width of the gap has to be tightly controlled in order to work
properly, and this proved difficult to control in practice.

Modern SEDs add another step that greatly eases production. The pads are
deposited with a much larger gap between them, as much as 50 nm, which
allows them to be added directly using technology adapted from inkjet
printers. The entire screen is then placed in an organic gas and pulses of
electricity are sent through the pads. Carbon in the gas is pulled onto the
edges of the slit in the PdO squares, forming thin films that extend vertically
off the tops of the gaps and grow toward each other at a slight angle. This
process is self-limiting; if the gap gets too small the pulses erode the carbon,
so the gap width can be controlled to produce a fairly constant 5 nm slit
between them.

Since the screen needs to be held in a vacuum in order to work, there is a

large inward force on the glass surfaces due to the surrounding atmospheric
pressure. Because the emitters are laid out in vertical columns, there is a
space between each column where there is no phosphor, normally above the
column power lines. SEDs use this space by placing thin sheets or rods on
top of the conductors that keep the two glass surfaces apart. A series of these
is used to reinforce the screen over its entire surface, which greatly reduces
the needed strength of the glass itself. A CRT has no place for similar
reinforcements, so the glass at the front screen has to be thick enough to
support all the pressure. SEDs are thus much thinner and lighter than CRTs.
SED-TV Pros & Cons
SED-TVs were scheduled to hit the market sometime in 2006, and people
who've seen them at CES and other electronics shows say that they have a
remarkably good picture. SED-TVs have all of the best features of CRT
televisions, like good color quality and black level, without a CRT's bulk or
weight. SED-TVs have a wide viewing angle, and the SCE structure gets rid
of the blurring that can happen around the edges of some CRT sets. The sets
are compact and lightweight, and they consume less power than other flat-
panel sets.

Figuring out the downsides of owning an SED-TV will be a little tricky until
more people actually own and use them. But many people suspect that the
sets will be too expensive for most people to afford -- rumors place the
starting price of a 55-inch set at around $10,000.

SED-TV's release has also been delayed repeatedly. The original date was
spring 2006. Then, Toshiba and Canon announced that it had been pushed to
late 2007 for cost reasons. In the spring of 2007, the companies announced
that the set would come out on an unspecified future date, citing patent,
supply and production difficulties [source: Reuters].

SED-TV is something that no amount of words can describe. It is something

that must be SEEN to be believed; literally. SlashGear journey in to the
world of SED-TV through an actual demo. But, what exactly is SED-
TV?Tounravel the mysteries of SED-TV, a history lesson is quite helpful.
55-inch SED Display with 100,000:1 contrast ratio exhibited at the “FPD
International 2006” in Pacifico Yohohama convention center.

There’s nothing like a great rivalry between companies, especially if it’s

over one product. The consumer decides who wins this tug of war, and in the
process gets the best possible end result. Both companies strive to win over
the customer, by any means necessary, whether it is a lower price, more
extras, or just anything that takes that extra step to make us happy. This is
what lies in store for the electronic giants Toshiba and Canon.
Canon began to visualize and develop SED-TV as early as 1986. In 1999,
Canon joined forces with Toshiba in the development of this new
technology. With the future looking so bright, the two started a joint venture
company: SED Inc. However, fate has brought these two seemingly friendly
corporations in to a battle for a better SED-TV. That’s right; SED-TV will
be available from BOTH. Who will become the leading company to place
their name on it? Well, that part is up to us.

So, now that the history lesson is done, you might be wondering what
exactly SED-TV is. In many ways, SED-TV is the future of display as
we know it. SED stands for “Surface-conduction Electron-emitter
Display”, a name that those not blessed with “digi-genius” will be unable to
comprehend. Simply put, this type of display takes the best parts of CRT
monitors (the fat one’s), and puts it in to the body of flat panel one’s (skinny
For simpletons, this explanation will do, but for those who are brave, read on
for more details on what will undoubtedly revolutionize display viewing.

For the tech junkies, here’s how SED-TV works. The display consists of two
flat piece of glass, sealed with a vacuum in between. One of the glasses is
covered with electron emitters, while the other is covered with phosphorus.
These are both methods used in CRT televisions today. The vacuum in
between the glasses is only half an inch thick, which allows for extremely
thin monitors. Each electron emitter is matched up with a pixel on the
monitor, allowing extreme precision in images! Imagine the clear
concentration of each pixel, offered in an extremely thin package; this is
essentially SED-TV. These are just the basics of the technology, and for
more information be sure to watch SlashGear’s EXCLUSIVE interview
with Michael Zorich (Director of Marketing of Canon).

So, the technology is brilliant, but what is the end result? Again, this is
something that must be seen to believe, but a basic description is possible.
With the extreme precision of SED-TV, visual quality is superior to
anything we have seen on the market. For one, angle viewing is no longer a
problem. With other flat panels, sitting on the side of the monitor at an
angle, there is a significant loss of quality and view. This is not a problem
with SED-TV, as everyone sees the same gorgeous images!

SED-TV is also so precise, that an object moving at high speed can still
offer crisp clear letters! On any other TV, a blur would utter this
impossible, but not with the SED-TV display. Colors are extremely vivid
and unbelievably sharp, offering views that are as lifelike as it gets. Words
do this display no justice; it must be viewed to fully comprehend what SED-
TV is. Luckily, SlashGear offers an exclusive demo of SED-TV that you
will not find anywhere else. So, click on that link, sit back, and enjoy
viewing the mind-blowing quality.

It’s important to note, that the demo is running on 720p, and is a video, so
the quality is a bit worse than the actual technology. The final product is
slated to run on 1080p, which only adds to the solidity of the display. Also,
the demonstration is running on a 36” monitor, but final products will be
much larger, including an announced 55” version with 8600:1 contrast
ratios! The final product should become available sometime in 2007
Now, wipe off your drool and face the facts. Such revolutionary technology
doesn’t run cheap. Though no official word on price has been announced,
think BIG. Most people will probably be unable to afford one of these 55”
badboys in the living room . This product will most nearly be aimed at large
companies that host big social events. For example, a big SED-TV monitor
would be perfect for a movie-of-the-year premier.
SED-TV is the future of digital image displays; it’s as simple as that. There
is currently nothing on the market that comes remotely close to Canon’s
offering. Now, the question remains, how will Toshiba respond to Canon’s
extremely successful debut of SED-TV technology? Either way, we are all
in for a great treat as this technology becomes more widespread. Well, that’s
enough text about SED-TV, go ahead and click on the videos, and see the
breathtaking future in action.
Comparison with Other Televisions
SED TV Compared to CRT

SED is flat compared to the traditional CRT, which has one electronic gun,
that produce picture side to side and from top to bottom being deflected by
an electromagnetic sides. CRTs are as wide as they are deep.If they are not
built like this, screen would get curved too much for watching tv. SED get
all the advantages of a CRT, in a few inches of thickness. Screen size can be
as large, as you want. CRTs can have image problems in the far edges of the
picture, which is a not a problem for SED.

SED is flat. A traditional CRT has one electron gun that scans side to side
and from top to bottom by being deflected by an electromagnet or "yoke".
This has meant that the gun has had to be set back far enough to target the
complete screen area and, well, it starts to get ridiculously large and heavy
around 36". CRTs are typically as wide as they are deep. They need to be
built like this or else the screen would need to be curved too severely for
viewing. Not so with SED, where you supposedly get all the advantages of a
CRT display but need only a few inches of thickness to do it in. Screen size
can be made as large as the manufacturer dares. Also, CRTs can have image
challenges around the far edges of the picture tube, which is a non-issue for

SED TV Compared to Plasma TV

Compared to plasma the problem lays in black levels. There is no black in
SED, but also not in plasma. Plasma has been getting better, but still has a
long way to go to compare with CRT. They’re improving SED technlogy,
so the black will be black and not dark-grey. SED is using only half the
power that a plasma does with small variations.

Compared to plasma the future looks black indeed. As in someone wearing a

black suit and you actually being able to tell it's a black suit with all those
tricky, close to black, gray levels actually showing up. This has been a major
source of distraction for most display technologies other than CRT.

Watching the all-pervasive low-key (dark) lighting in movies, it can be hard

to tell what you're actually looking at without the shadow detail being
viewable. Think Blade Runner or Alien. SED's black detail should be better,
as plasma cells must be left partially on in order to reduce latency. This
means they are actually dark gray – not black. Plasma has been getting better
in this regard but still has a way to go to match a CRT. Hopefully, SED will
solve this and it's likely to. Also, SED is expected to use only half the power
that plasma does at a given screen size although this will vary depending on
screen content.

SED TV Compared to LCD

LCDs have had a couple problems at first, bu they are getting better. First,
16ms speed needed in order to keep up with a 60Hz screen update. Also,
LCDs have an issues with viewing angles. This will not be an issue for
SED’s self illuminated phosphors. LCD does have the advantage in BURN-
IN, which all phosphor-like TV have.

LCDs have had a couple of challenges in creating great pictures but they are
getting better. Firstly, latency has been a problem with television pictures
with an actual 16ms speed needed in order to keep up with a 60Hz screen
update. That needs to happen all the way through the greyscale, not just
where the manufacturers decide to test. Also, due to LCD's highly
directional light, it has a limited angle of view and tends to become too dim
to view off axis, which can limit seating arrangements. This will not be an
issue for SED's self illuminated phosphors. However, LCD does have the
advantage of not being susceptible to burn-in which any device using
phosphors will, including SED. SED is likely to use about two-thirds the
power of a similarly sized LCD. Finally, LCD generally suffers from the
same black level issues and solarisation, otherwise known as false
contouring, that plasma does. SED does not.

SED TV Compared to RPTV

SED is flat and RPTVs aren't. RPTV also has limitations as to where it can
be viewed from, particularly being vertically challenged with regard to
viewing angles. A particular RPTV's image quality is driven by its imaging
technology such as DLP, LCoS, 3LCD or, more rarely recently, CRT. With
the exception of CRT, these units need to have their lamps changed at
various times but usually at around 6,000 hours, costing an average of $500.
Plasma and LCD HDTVs may soon be sharing shelf space at your local
electronics store with a new flat panel technology called SED TV.
Developed jointly by Canon and Toshiba; SED stands for Surface-
conduction Electron-emitter Display.
Canon started development on this imaging technique back in the mid 1980s
and joined up with Toshiba for the project in 1999. Both formed a dedicated
company for the technology called SED Inc. in 2004. Neither of these
companies is a notable player in the flat screen arena, but they are looking to
make a big splash with SED TV. Test production runs are already underway
with limited product availability expected by spring 2006. At present, it
looks as if Toshiba will start manufacturing HDTV panels in earnest in 2007
barring any production problems.
Life Expectancy
It does look like SED TVs will last a good while as it has been reported that
the electron emitters have been shown to only drop 10% after 60,000 hours,
simulated by an "accelerated" test. This means that it is likely the unit will
keep working as long as the phosphors continue to emit light. That can be a
while. Maybe yours will even show up on the Antiques Roadshow in
working condition in the far distant future. Time will tell but "accelerated"
testing results should always be taken with a grain of salt as it only imitates
wear and tear over time.

SED Display Advantages

 CRT-matching black levels
 Excellent color and contrast potential
 Relatively inexpensive production cost
 Wide viewing angle

SED Display Disadvantages

 Unknown (though optimistic) life expectancy
 Potential for screen burn-in
 Currently prototype only