Trip Distribution Models TransCAD

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Trip Distribution Models TransCAD

© All Rights Reserved

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Murtaza Haider

murtaza.haider@ryerson.ca

Tel: 416.979.5000, ext. 2480

Goal: understand how to use TransCAD to:

Generate inputs for trip distribution

Run the trip distribution

Understand, interpret and analyze procedure results

Trip Distribution

Trip distribution makes the link between the trips produced

by each zone and the trips attracted to each zone

Models predict trips for each zone and estimate the flow of

trips going from zone i to zone j for all i to j zone pairs

The estimated flow of trips going from i to j may depend on

the affinity i and j have for each other (e.g. distance,

average travel time)

Required

Zone or point layer joined to balanced productions and

attractions for each trip purpose

Optional

Square matrix of costs of travel between the zones. The

IDs of the matrix must match the IDs of the zones

Scaling an existing matrix by applying

multiplicative factors based on input balanced

productions (rows) and attractions (columns). In the

end, the matrix cells of one row will sum to the row

productions and the matrix cells of one column will

sum to the column attractions

Method sometimes called Iterative Proportional

Fitting or Fratar

Choose File-Close All, then choose File-Open or

click on the toolbar.

Open the workspace UTOWN_GF.WRK in

TCW\TUTORIAL.

Choose Planning-Trip Distribution-Growth Factor

Method.

Choose UTOWN Base OD from the Matrix File

drop-down list.

Select Production under Constraint Type.

Check the Use HBW checkbox.

Choose [HBW_P 2000] from the Production Field

drop-down list and click OK.

Enter MYGFACT as the output filename and click

OK. TransCAD applies the growth factor method

and generates an output matrix.

Original data

Balanced Matrix

Advantages

Easy to use

No information about transportation network is

necessary, thus it is good for short term planning in cases

where network is unchanged

Limitations

Cannot model changes in network well

No behavioral explanation behind model

Gravity/Entropy Model

Operates on the premise that flow between zones

decreases as the cost (or impedance) between zones

increases

Gravity models estimate flows between all zones,

given an input matrix of impedances from zone to

zone, and balanced vectors of productions and

attractions

Friction Factors

Gravity models generally use measures of relative

attractiveness rather than impedances to estimate

flow

Relative attractiveness is often a function of

impedance

Popular transformations are gamma, exponential and

inverse power functions of impedance

Transformations can also be in table format

ImpedanceExponentiaInverse

Gamma

1 0.980199

1 0.980199

2 0.960789 0.933033 0.896448

3 0.941765 0.895958 0.843782

4 0.923116 0.870551 0.803619

5 0.904837

0.85134 0.770324

6

0.88692 0.835959 0.741429

7 0.869358 0.823171 0.715631

8 0.852144 0.812252 0.692156

9

0.83527 0.802742 0.670506

10 0.818731 0.794328 0.650341

11 0.802519 0.786793 0.631417

12 0.786628 0.779977 0.613552

13 0.771052 0.773759 0.596608

14 0.755784 0.768046 0.580477

15 0.740818 0.762765

0.56507

16 0.726149 0.757858 0.550318

17

0.71177 0.753278 0.536161

18 0.697676 0.748984 0.522549

19 0.683861 0.744946

0.50944

20

0.67032 0.741134 0.496797

21 0.657047 0.737527

0.48459

22 0.644036 0.734104

0.47279

23 0.631284 0.730848 0.461373

24 0.618783 0.727744 0.450316

25 0.606531

0.72478 0.439601

26 0.594521 0.721943

0.42921

27 0.582748 0.719223 0.419126

28 0.571209 0.716612 0.409335

29 0.559898 0.714102 0.399824

30 0.548812 0.711685 0.390581

31 0.537944 0.709355 0.381594

32 0.527292 0.707107 0.372852

33 0.516851 0.704934 0.364346

34 0.506617 0.702833 0.356067

35 0.496585 0.700799 0.348006

36 0.486752 0.698827 0.340156

37 0.477114 0.696915 0.332508

38 0.467666 0.695059 0.325056

39 0.458406 0.693256 0.317793

40 0.449329 0.691503 0.310712

Choose File-Close All, then choose File-Open or

click on the toolbar.

Open the workspace FRIC_FAC.WRK in

TCW\TUTORIAL.

Choose Planning-Trip Distribution-Synthetic

Friction Factors.

Choose Friction Factor Shell from the Matrix File to

Fill drop-down list.

Check the Use this matrix checkbox.

Select Inverse Power under Impedance Function.

Enter 1.4 as the value for b.

Choose Impedance from the Matrix File drop-down

list.

Select HBNW FF in the Matrix list.

Enter 4.1 as the value for b.

Select HBO FF in the Matrix list

Enter 3.3 as the value for b and click OK.

TransCAD fills the NEWFF matrix file with friction

factors and displays a status report. This matrix is

now ready to be an input into the Gravity Model.

Required Inputs:

Friction factor matrix, or definitions for friction factors

Geographic view with balanced productions and attractions for

each zone

Selection set of zones to be included in output matrix

IDs in the friction factor matrix must be the same as the IDs of

the zone geographic view

Output:

Zone-to-zone trip matrix

Choose File-Close All, then choose File-Open or

click on the toolbar.

Open the workspace UTOWN_FF.WRK in

TCW\TUTORIAL.

Choose Planning-Trip Distribution-Gravity

Application.

In the name field enter HBW Trips

Choose HBW_P from the Production drop-down

list.

Enter 20 for the Iterations.

Click on the Friction Factors tab

Choose FRICTFACT Matrix File from the FFactors drop-down list.

Check Use HBW Friction Factor.

Click on the General tab

Click the Add button

In the name field type HBNW Trips

Choose HBNW_P from the Production drop-down

list.

Click on the Friction Factors tab

Selection HBNW Friction in the Matrices list.

Click on the General tab

Click the Add button

Call the third model NHB Trips

Choose NHB_P from the Production drop-down list

and click OK.

Click on the Friction Factors tab

Select NHB Friction in the Matrices list.

Check Use NHB Friction Factor.

Click OK and enter MYGRAVEV as the output

filename. TransCAD evaluates the three models and

creates a matrix file with the one matrix for each

type of resulting trips (3 matrices).

Friction Factors

Constraint Type

K-Factors

Extra matrix that is multiplied with the friction factors to

adjust and fine-tune the friction factors

K-Factor matrices are the same size and contain the same

IDs as the friction factor matrices

Gravity Calibration #1

The values in a friction factor table or the

parameters for an impedance function are often

determined from an iterative process

This process, called Gravity Calibration, matches

the parameters to the Trip Length Distribution

(TLD) of observed riders

TransCAD provides a Gravity Calibration

procedure

Gravity Calibration #2

Inputs

Base year P-A matrix, impedance matrix, zone layer and

selection set

Process

Initial parameters or friction factor table

Apply the gravity model and estimate TLDs

Compare TLDs with observed TLDs and change

parameters or table as necessary

Apply gravity model and compare again

Choose File-Close All, then choose File-Open or

click on the toolbar.

Open the workspace GRAV_CAL.WRK in

TCW\TUTORIAL.

Choose Planning-Trip Distribution-Gravity

Calibration.

Choose the matrix file UTOWN Base OD from the

Base drop-down list.

Check the Use HBW checkbox, select Inverse

Power under Function, and choose Impedance from

the Matrix File drop-down list.

Click on HBNW in the scroll list.

Check the Use HBNW checkbox, select Inverse

Power under Function, and choose Impedance from

the File drop-down list.

Click on NHB in the scroll list.

Check the Use NHB checkbox, select Inverse

Power under Function, choose Impedance from the

File drop-down list and click OK.

Enter MYGRAVCL as the output filename and

click OK. TransCAD performs the calibration on

the three trip types and estimates the parameters.

Constraint Types

TLD Maximum

K-Factor Calibration

Results in an exact calibration solution, creates a K-factor

matrix

UTPS-like Calibration

Friction factors are weighted by productions, in

production constrained calibration, and attractions, in

attraction constrained calibration

Tri-Proportional Models

Doubly-constrained models require that the output

flow matrix match input productions and attractions

Tri-proportional models add the extra constraint that

groups of cells in the output flow matrix must sum

to specified values

Useful if you know that a sub-area has a known

amount of total trips

Zone layer with balanced productions and

attractions

Selection set of zones

Zone-to-Zone matrix that contains integer value of

the class to which the zone belongs

Lookup table of the totals of each class

1. Friction Factor Matrix

3. Matrix of Classes

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