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Health, Education, Social Protection

News & Notes 08/2010


A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GTZ
(Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit)
11 April 2010

You can download back issues (2005 - 2010) of this newsletter at: http://hiv-prg.org/en/newsletters

Table of Contents:

NEWS FROM THE GERMAN BACKUP INITIATIVE .......... 4


German BACKUP Initiative Guidelines ................................................................................... 4
BACKUP Newsletter Issue No. 10 - April 2010....................................................................... 4

BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
Planning Sustainable Cities - Global Report on Human Settlements 2009 ............................ 4
Building Cities: Neighbourhood Upgrading and Urban Quality of Life .................................... 4
Economic Report on Africa 2010 ............................................................................................ 5
Science and Innovation for Development ............................................................................... 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 5


HIV - AIDS - STI ........................................................................................................... 5
Seven-year experience of a primary care antiretroviral treatment programme in Khayelitsha,
South Africa............................................................................................................................. 5
Unplanned ART treatment interruptions in southern Africa: what can we do to minimise the
long-term risks?....................................................................................................................... 6
Estimating the distribution of new HIV infections by mode of transmission............................ 6
HIV incidence using cross-sectional surveys: recent theoretical developments..................... 6
Antiretroviral therapy for HIV prevention: many concerns and challenges, but are there ways
forward in sub-Saharan Africa?............................................................................................... 7
Stopping HIV: Treatment as prevention .................................................................................. 7
The Role of Religious Communities in Addressing Gender-Based Violence and HIV ........... 7
HIV/AIDS Monitor: Are Funding Decisions Based on Performance? ..................................... 8
Sexual & Reproductive Health ..................................................................................... 8
When I dare to be powerful… - On the Road to a Sexual Rights Movement in East Africa ... 8
Sexuality and counselling........................................................................................................ 8
Trauma, Guilt & Self Esteem - Counselling Training Manual.................................................. 9
Sex Redefined: The Reclassification of Oral-Genital Contact ................................................ 9
Healthy, Happy and Hot: A young person’s guide to their Rights, Sexuality and Living with
HIV........................................................................................................................................... 9
Between patriachy, pornography and pleasure: Sexuality discourses in Africa ................... 10
Platform for Action: Towards the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
(FGM/C)................................................................................................................................. 10
Planning for Life: Final Evaluation......................................................................................... 10
Scaling up Community-Based Service Delivery of Implanon................................................ 10
Female condoms now! - How European governments can help to increase access to female
condoms for women in developing countries ........................................................................ 11
Achieving Contraceptive Security and Meeting Reproductive Health Needs in Southeast
Asia........................................................................................................................................ 11
Maternal & Child Health ............................................................................................. 11
Facts for Life.......................................................................................................................... 11
Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of
obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania.............................................. 12

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 1


Effect of a participatory intervention with women’s groups on birth outcomes and maternal
depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial ............... 12
Effect of scaling up women’s groups on birth outcomes in three rural districts in Bangladesh:
a cluster-randomised controlled trial ..................................................................................... 12
Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to
promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review .......................... 13
Deadly Delivery: The Maternal Health Care Crisis in the USA ............................................. 13
Obstetric Fistula: Women Confront Fistula in Rural Uganda ................................................ 13
The Humanitarian Action Report 2010: Partnering for children in emergencies................... 14
Improving Newborn Survival in Low-Income Countries: Community-Based Approaches and
Lessons from South Asia ...................................................................................................... 14
Malaria........................................................................................................................ 14
Testing the sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescence microscope (Cyscope®) for
malaria diagnosis .................................................................................................................. 14
Long-lasting insecticide-treated net usage in eastern Sierra Leone - the success of free
distribution ............................................................................................................................. 15
Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants for the Prevention of Malaria in Rural Western
Kenya: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial ............................................ 15
Plasmodium vivax clinical malaria is commonly observed in Duffy-negative Malagasy people
............................................................................................................................................... 15
Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................... 16
Tuberculosis Drug Information Guide ................................................................................... 16
Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Coinfected Patients: A Systematic Review and
Meta-Analysis........................................................................................................................ 16
Outcomes and safety of concomitant nevirapine and rifampicin treatment under programme
conditions in Malawi .............................................................................................................. 16
Other Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 17
Prospects for the Development of Odour Baits to Control the Tsetse Flies Glossina
tachinoides and G. palpalis s.l. ............................................................................................. 17
Essential Medicines.................................................................................................... 17
Growing threat from counterfeit medicines ........................................................................... 17
Social Protection ........................................................................................................ 17
From Few to Many - Ten Years of Health Insurance Expansion in Colombia ...................... 17
Delivering Money: Cash transfer mechanisms in emergencies ............................................ 18
Financial Inclusion Opportunities for Micro Health Insurance in Nepal ................................ 18
Human Resources...................................................................................................... 18
A systematic review of task shifting for HIV treatment and care in Africa............................. 18
Health Systems & Research ...................................................................................... 19
Are We Reaching the Poor and Vulnerable? ........................................................................ 19
The Netherlands: Health System Review ............................................................................. 19
Strong Ministries for Strong Health Systems ........................................................................ 19
Effective Ways to Realize Policy Reforms in Health Systems .............................................. 20
Information & Communication Technology ................................................................ 20
Searching PubMed during a Pandemic................................................................................. 20
Reaching the Unreached: Community based Village Knowledge Centres & Village Resource
Centres .................................................................................................................................. 20
Education ................................................................................................................... 21
Raising Clean Hands: Advancing Learning, Health and Participation through WASH in
Schools.................................................................................................................................. 21
The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India..................................................................... 21
Harm Reduction and Drug Use .................................................................................. 21
UNODC Annual Report 2010: Promoting health, security and justice.................................. 21
Millennium Development Goals.................................................................................. 22
2010 Reality Check: Time is running out to meet the MDGs ................................................ 22
Development Assistance............................................................................................ 22
The EU Role in Global Health ............................................................................................... 22
Making Aid Work: Towards Better Development Results ..................................................... 22
Cash on Delivery: A New Approach to Foreign Aid .............................................................. 23
Public financing of health in developing countries: a cross-national systematic analysis .... 23
Crowding out: are relations between international health aid and government health funding
too complex to be captured in averages only?...................................................................... 23

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 2


Diversity in Donorship: Field lessons .................................................................................... 24
What does an effective multilateral donor look like?............................................................. 24
Multilateral Aid Organisations: Stakeholder Views on Effectiveness .................................... 24
Others......................................................................................................................... 24
An Introduction to Human Rights in the Middle East & North Africa – a Guide for NGOs.... 24
Cryptorchidism: A Comprehensive Clinical Review .............................................................. 25
Managing Chronic Conditions: Optimizing Health Throughout Life ...................................... 25

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 25


Directory of Grants and Fellowships in the Global Health Sciences..................................... 25
Africa Health Vol. 32 No. 3, March 2010............................................................................... 26
Bulletin of the World Health Organization (BLT) ................................................................... 26

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 26


DengueWATCH..................................................................................................................... 26
Girls Discovered - Global Maps of Adolescent Girls ............................................................. 26
The International Health Links Centre (IHLC) at Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine...... 27
PREVAL - Monitoring and Evaluation for Rural Development .............................................. 27
The Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN)....................... 27

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 27
Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria ........................................................................................... 27

CONFERENCES................................................................ 28
Harm Reduction 2010: IHRA’s 21st International Conference.............................................. 28

CARTOON ......................................................................... 28

TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 29


Open all type of files.............................................................................................................. 29
About MP3 Players................................................................................................................ 29

Fair Use:
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The views expressed in this newsletter, do not necessarily represent those of GTZ or the editor of HESP-News & Notes.
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HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 3


NEWS FROM THE GERMAN BACKUP INITIATIVE
http://www.gtz.de/backup

German BACKUP Initiative Guidelines

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, March 2010

9 pp. 188 kB:


http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/gtz2010-en-backup-guidelines.pdf

Global funding offers developing countries the opportunity to significantly improve their
health services. However, many of the countries affected lack the expertise and struc-
tures needed to submit viable project proposals and put the money acquired to effective
use. This is where the German BACKUP Initiative offers assistance. The aim is to en-
able government and civil society partners to use global financing more efficiently in or-
der to implement measures for controlling HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in an effective
and sustainable way.

Read also:
BACKUP Newsletter Issue No. 10 - April 2010
Quarterly news on developments within the German BACKUP Initiative

4 pp. 88 kB:
http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/gtz201004-en-backup-news.pdf

BOOKS
Planning Sustainable Cities - Global Report on Human Settlements 2009

by Ben C. Arimah, Inge Jensen, Naison D. Mutizwa-Mangiza et al.


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), 2009

338 pp. 3.5 MB:


http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/GRHS2009/GRHS.2009.pdf

The book assesses the effectiveness of urban planning as a tool for


dealing with the unprecedented challenges facing 21st-century cities and for enhancing
sustainable urbanization. There is now a realization that, in many parts of the world, ur-
ban planning systems have changed very little and are often contributors to urban prob-
lems rather than functioning as tools for human and environmental improvement.

***

Building Cities: Neighbourhood Upgrading and Urban Quality of Life

Editor: Eduardo Rojas


Inter-American Development Bank and David Rockefeller Center for
Latin American Studies, Harvard University, 2010

271 pp. 5.6 MB:


http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=35132311

The efforts of governments to reach the Millennium Development Goals have resulted in

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 4


an increase in the resources devoted to neighbourhood upgrading programmes, as well
as in a diversification of the solutions offered for populations living in irregular settle-
ments. “Building Cities” reviews the experiences of the Latin American and Caribbean
region in the design and implementation of neighbourhood upgrading programmes.

***

Economic Report on Africa 2010


Promoting high-level sustainable growth to reduce unemployment in Africa

by Adam B. Elhiraika, Stephen Karingi, Isatou Gaye et al.


Economic Commission for Africa and African Union, 2010

236 pp. 4.0 MB:


http://uneca.org/eca_resources/Publications/books/era2010/ERA10_Book.pdf

The current global economic crisis has demonstrated the vulnerability of Africa to the
fortunes of the global economy. It has also demonstrated that Africa cannot rely on ex-
ternal sources to finance its development in a sustainable way. There is therefore a
need for African countries to increase their efforts to mobilize domestic resources to fi-
nance development. In the final analysis, Africa’s development is the responsibility of Af-
ricans, and the argument that Africa is a poor continent that cannot finance its own de-
velopment is getting tired.
***

Science and Innovation for Development

by Gordon Conway and Jeff Waage


UK Collaborative on Development Sciences (UKCDS), 2010

398 pp. 29.2 MB(!):


http://www.ukcds.org.uk/_assets/file/book/science_innovation_book_lowres.pdf

Using the Millennium Development Goals as a framework the book demonstrates the
value of science in combating hunger, improving health, achieving environmental sus-
tainability and adapting to climate change. Science is only one of many factors which
can contribute to development, but the authors want that factor to be well understood.
The book clearly presents numerous innovations that are helping to increase agricultural
production combat hunger and improve health.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
HIV - AIDS - STI

Seven-year experience of a primary care antiretroviral treatment pro-


gramme in Khayelitsha, South Africa

Andrew Boullea, Gilles Van Cutsema, Katherine Hilderbrand et al.


AIDS 2010, 24:563-572 (20 February 2010)

11 pp. 425 kB:


http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/95573/1/Khaylelit
sha%20AIDS%202010.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 5


The authors report on outcomes after 7 years of a community-based antiretroviral ther-
apy (ART) programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa, with death registry linkages to cor-
rect for mortality under-ascertainment. At a time of considerable debate about future
global funding of ART programmes in resource-poor settings, this study has demon-
strated substantial and durable clinical benefits for those able to access ART throughout
this period, in spite of increasing loss to follow-up.

***

Unplanned ART treatment interruptions in southern Africa: what can we do


to minimise the long-term risks?
Final Report

by Nina Veenstra, Alan Whiteside, Andrew Gibbs et al.


Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD), 25 Janu-
ary 2010

43 pp. 464 kB:


http://www.heard.org.za/downloads/unplanned-art-treatment-
interruptions-in-southern-africa-final-report.pdf

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to optimise treatment outcomes


and prevent the development of drug resistance. It is however compromised under a
number of situations in the countries most heavily affected by HIV/AIDS. This report
considers the longer term impact of unplanned ART treatment interruptions and makes
suggestions as to how they might be avoided and managed in future.

***

Estimating the distribution of new HIV infections by mode of transmission

by Eleanor Gouws
South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), April 2010

3 pp. 31 kB:
http://www.sacemaquarterly.com/docs/HIV_by_mode_of_transmission_Gouws.pdf

Effective planning and delivery of HIV prevention programs depends on an understand-


ing of where new infections are occurring and on the behaviours associated with those
infections. A simple mathematical model developed by the UNAIDS Reference Group
for Estimates, Modelling and Projections helps countries estimate the proportion of new
infections that occur through key transmission modes. This type of in-country analysis
could be used to inform the planning of appropriately targeted intervention programmes.
However, improved biological and behavioural surveillance in countries is needed to
provide more reliable data for input into such analyses.

***

HIV incidence using cross-sectional surveys: recent theoretical develop-


ments

by Thomas McWalter
South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), April 2010

3 pp. 31 kB:
http://www.sacemaquarterly.com/docs/HIV_Incidence_McWalter.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 6


Prevalence and incidence are the two most important indicators of the state of an epi-
demic. The most common way in which incidence is measured is by follow-up of an ini-
tially uninfected cohort. For infections with a relatively short duration, another method for
estimating incidence is available using a cross-sectional survey. Unfortunately, HIV has
a long asymptomatic phase before the onset of immune failure and AIDS. In this article
a way to estimate HIV incidence using biomarkers in cross-sectional surveys is de-
scribed and the challenges of this approach are discussed.

***

Antiretroviral therapy for HIV prevention: many concerns and challenges,


but are there ways forward in sub-Saharan Africa?

by R. Zachariaha, A.D. Harriesb, M. Philips et al.


Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,
4 January 2010

5 pp. 211 kB:


http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/95574/1/RZ%20Transac-
tions%20Ways%20ahead%20for%20HIV%20SubSaharan%20Afric.pdf

The likelihood of achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015
and universal ART access by 2010 are extremely low. A new window of opportunity may
have now opened, but there are many unanswered feasibility and acceptability issues.
In this paper, the authors highlight four key operational challenges linked to acceptability
and feasibility and discuss possible ways forward to address them.

***

Stopping HIV: Treatment as prevention

by Brian G. Williams
South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), April 2010

2 pp. 21 kB:
http://www.sacemaquarterly.com/docs/HIV_treatment_as_prevention_Williams.pdf

Behaviour change interventions have not brought about a sufficient reduction in HIV
transmission. The question is whether anti-retroviral therapy (ART), used to effectively
treat HIV patients, could also be used to stop transmission. This article discusses
whether treatment-as-prevention is feasible, by determining the extent to which ART re-
duces the infectiousness of HIV-positive people. Furthermore, it looks at whether this is
a realistic approach, by considering the levels of acceptance and compliance that might
be achieved, the cost of the drugs, the rate of development of resistance, drug delivery
and patient management.
***

The Role of Religious Communities in Addressing Gender-Based Violence


and HIV

by Britt Herstad
Futures Group, Health Policy Initiative, Task Order 1; August 2009

42 pp. 625 kB:


http://www.healthpolicyinitiative.com/Publications/Documents/867_1_The_Role_of_R
eligious_Communities_in_Addressing_GBV_and_HIV_FINAL_9_24_09_acc.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 7


This report summarizes a USAID initiative to improve the capacity of religious leaders
and faith-based organizations (FBOs) to respond to gender-based violence and its links
to HIV.
***

HIV/AIDS Monitor: Are Funding Decisions Based on Performance?

by Nandini Oomman, Steven Rosenzweig and Michael Bernstein


Center for Global Development, 2010

56 pp. 893 kB:


http://www.cgdev.org/files/1424030_file_CGDPerformance_based
_funding_FINAL.pdf

To what extent do the major funders of HIV/AIDS programs in developing countries use
past performance to guide decisions about future funding? A comparison of approaches
as practiced by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S.
President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and the World Bank’s Multi-Country AIDS
Program for Africa in Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia.

Sexual & Reproductive Health

When I dare to be powerful… - On the Road to a Sexual Rights Movement


in East Africa

by Zawadi Nyong’o, Christine Butegwa, Solome Nakaweesi-Kimbugwe


Akina Mama wa Afrika (AMwA), February 2010

136 pp. 1.1 MB:


http://www.hivos.nl/english/content/download/28842/184110/file/10
0322%20WhenI-dare-to-Be-Powerful-Worker-Herstory.pdf

This publication breaks the silence regarding women’s sexuality. Governments,


women’s rights activists and other social movements, often fail to understand the con-
nection between sex work, forced early marriage, land rights, poverty, education, prop-
erty and inheritance rights. We need to understand the politics behind sexuality, sexual
rights and sex work because the liberation of all women, the equitable distribution of
power and resources, and the ability to control our own bodies are indeed critical to our
feminist agenda.
***

Sexuality and counselling


Exchange No. 1, April 2010
Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) in collaboration with Southern Africa HIV
and AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS)

16 pp. 10.0 MB(!):


http://www.kit.nl/net/KIT_Publicaties_output/showfile.aspx?e=1634

HIV and AIDS as a facet of sexuality is an area seeking more attention. It cannot be
adequately addressed through traditional health promotion or sexuality education pro-
grammes. It requires the nuanced personalised attention of sexuality counselling. As the
overview article states, sexuality counselling should not be confused with sexuality edu-
cation, although the two concepts are closely related.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 8


Trauma, Guilt & Self Esteem - Counselling Training Manual

International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), South Asia Re-


gional Office, February 2009

70 pp. 1.3 MB:


http://www.ippfsar.org/NR/rdonlyres/7835E15C-3142-4C46-87EA-
6D30F8E74B06/3657/IPPF_Handbook.pdf

Counselling is a vital part of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services for
women, men and young people. Strong counselling skills have been identified as a ma-
jor area of capacity building to address key challenges in serving the needs of adoles-
cents/youth, combating HIV and AIDS, making abortion safe and increasing access par-
ticularly for the poor and the marginalised. Therefore, it is important to build the capacity
of the existing counsellors in dealing with trauma, counselling to address guilt and loss
of self esteem of the clients.
***

Sex Redefined: The Reclassification of Oral-Genital Contact

by Jason D. Hans, Martie Gillen and Katrina Akande


Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, June 2010

5 pp. 471 kB:


http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/psrh/full/4207410.pdf

Although partially anecdotal, some evidence suggests that oral-genital contact is in-
creasingly excluded from young people’s notions of what behaviours constitute sex. The
authors conclude from this study that socio-cultural conceptualizations of oral-genital
contact have shifted in a way that may leave people who engage in this activity unmind-
ful of its potential health risks.
***

Healthy, Happy and Hot: A young person’s guide to their Rights, Sexuality
and Living with HIV

by Lia De Pauw, Alex McClelland, Adam Garner et al.


International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)
January 2010

20 pp. 1.3 MB:


http://www.ippf.org/NR/rdonlyres/B4462DDE-487D-4194-
B0E0-193A04095819/0/HappyHealthyHot.pdf

‘Healthy, Happy and Hot’ is a guide for young people living with HIV to help them under-
stand their sexual rights, and live healthy, fun, happy and sexually fulfilling lives. The
guide aims to give information on how young people living with HIV can increase sexual
pleasure, take care of their health, practice safer sex, have children, develop strong in-
timate relationships and access support.

***

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 9


Between patriachy, pornography and pleasure: Sexuality discourses in Af-
rica

by Kavinya Makau and Zawadi Nyong’o


Pambazuka News, Issue 476, 1 April 2010

Read online at:


http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/63525

Mention sex in most places on the African continent and you are likely to be met with
questioning glances. Venture into speaking about controversial sexual rights and you
are likely to cause a furore. But if we are to deal effectively with the HIV/AIDS pandemic,
these are issues we need to think about, whether we consider them vile or not.

***

Platform for Action: Towards the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutila-


tion/Cutting (FGM/C)
A matter of gender equality

The Donors Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, De-


cember 2008

6 pp. 282 kB:


http://www.fgm-cdonor.org/publications/dwg_platform_action.pdf

The Donors Working Group supports the abandonment of the practices


of FGM/C. The Platform for Action summarizes its elements used to significantly reduce
the practice of FGM/C in the coming decade.

***

Planning for Life: Final Evaluation

by Mahua Mandal
International Youth Foundation (IYF), October 2009

49 pp. 466 kB:


http://www.iyfnet.org/uploads/Planning%20for%20Life%20Final%20Evaluation.pdf

The Planning for Life project sought to increase knowledge and skills on the integration
of youth reproductive health (YRH) and family planning (FP) in youth development pro-
grams on three levels: among International Youth Foundation staff, among IYF’s global
partner network, and through pilot projects. The four pilot projects were conducted in
Tanzania, India, and the Philippines and were intended to integrate YRH and FP into
youth livelihood, education, and HIV prevention programs. This document reports on the
final evaluation of the project’s effectiveness at all three levels of implementation.

***

Scaling up Community-Based Service Delivery of Implanon


The Integrated Family Health Program’s Experience Training Health Ex-
tension Workers

by Mengistu Asnake and Yewondwossen Tilahun


Pathfinder International, January 2010

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 10


8 pp. 394 kB:
http://www.pathfind.org/site/DocServer/LAFP.pdf?docID=18321

This paper details the process and results of a service-delivery based training of com-
munity providers for Implanon insertion. The five-day training of health extension work-
ers (HEWs) provided over 2,700 women with implants. In the first two months after train-
ing the HEWs served an additional 4,500 women.

***

Female condoms now! - How European governments can help to increase


access to female condoms for women in developing countries

by Fionnuala Murphy
Interact Worldwide on behalf of Countdown 2015 Europe, 2009

8 pp. 4.5 MB:


http://195.23.38.178/cig/portal/bo/documentos/Countdown_2015_
Preservativos_Femininos.pdf

This briefing is based on evidence gathered by Interact Worldwide in Malawi. The case
studies profiled here demonstrate that Malawian women and men want female con-
doms, and show that when female condom programmes are adequately funded and
properly run they do work. The final section recommends measures which European
governments could take to support scale up of female condom provision in Malawi and
elsewhere.
***

Achieving Contraceptive Security and Meeting Reproductive Health Needs


in Southeast Asia

by Rosalia Sciortino
Asia Pacific Alliance (APA) for Sexual and Reproductive Health and
Rights, March 2010

46 pp. 2.0 MB:


http://www.asiapacificalliance.org/images/stories/contraceptivese
curityreproductivehealthneedsweb.pdf

The report reviews the provision of contraceptive services and commodities in South-
east Asia. It also assesses progress in achieving contraceptive security and meeting re-
productive health needs in countries of the region.

Maternal & Child Health

Facts for Life


4th edition

Produced by UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP


and the World Bank, January 2010

216 pp. 3.5 MB:


http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/SMAR-
84A8VQ/$file/factsforlife-en-full.pdf?openelement

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 11


Nearly 9 million children died in 2008 from preventable illnesses before reaching their
fifth birthday. It is possible to save lives and greatly reduce human suffering by expand-
ing low-cost prevention, treatment and protection measures. The challenge is to ensure
that this knowledge is shared with parents, caregivers and communities, who are the
first line of defence in protecting children from illness and harm. ‘Facts for Life’ delivers
essential information on how to prevent child and maternal deaths, diseases, injuries
and violence.
***

Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improv-


ing the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in
Tanzania

by Declare Mushi, Rose Mpembeni and Albrecht Jahn


BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2010, 10:14 (1 April 2010)

23 pp. 181 kB:


http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2393-10-14.pdf

The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood in-
tervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at deliv-
ery. This improvement is attributed to the trained safe motherhood promoters’ home vis-
its and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health ser-
vices.
***

Effect of a participatory intervention with women’s groups on birth out-


comes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India: a cluster-
randomised controlled trial

by Prasanta Tripathy, Nirmala Nair, Sarah Barnett et al.


The Lancet, Vol. 375, Issue 9721, pp. 1182-1192, 3 April 2010

11 pp. 914 kB:


http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673609620420.pdf?i
d=5bbe37e152166496:-31819420:127c28cb5bb:3dab1270283575051

Community mobilisation through participatory women’s groups might improve birth out-
comes in poor rural communities. The authors therefore assessed this approach in a
largely tribal and rural population in three districts in eastern India. They conclude that
this intervention could be used with or as a potential alternative to health-worker-led in-
terventions, and presents new opportunities for policy makers to improve maternal and
newborn health outcomes in poor populations.

***

Effect of scaling up women’s groups on birth outcomes in three rural dis-


tricts in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

by Kishwar Azad, Sarah Barnett, Biplob Banerjee et al.


The Lancet, Vol. 375, Issue 9721, pp. 1193-1202, 3 April 2010

10 pp. 276 kB:


http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673610601420.pdf?i
d=5bbe37e152166496:-31819420:127c28cb5bb:3dab1270283575051

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 12


Two recent trials have shown that women’s groups can reduce neonatal mortality in
poor communities in Nepal and India (see previous article). The authors assessed the
effectiveness of a scaled-up development programme with women’s groups to address
maternal and neonatal care in three rural districts of Bangladesh. Their study shows that
participatory women’s groups did not significantly reduce neonatal mortality in poor rural
populations of Bangladesh. This finding might reflect underlying secular trends in mortal-
ity seen in other parts of Bangladesh, and merits further investigation.

***

Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed coun-


tries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A
systematic review

by Eric Chamot, Sibylle Kristensen, Jeffrey S.A. Stringer et al.


BMC Women's Health 2010, 10:11 (1 April 2010)

31 pp. 209 kB:


http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6874-10-11.pdf

There have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries
through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection
of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy
or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). When performed in resource-limited
settings by qualified providers, cryotherapy and LEEP are not associated with excess
harm. However, available data are insufficient to propose fully evidence-based protocols
for routine screening of HIV-infected women and women of reproductive age.

***

Deadly Delivery: The Maternal Health Care Crisis in the USA

Amnesty International, 2010

154 pp. 1.8 MB:


http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR51/007/2010/en/926e
361c-4941-45c5-9368-ab18859254fd/amr510072010en.pdf

Women have a greater lifetime risk of dying in pregnancy-related causes in the USA
than in 40 other countries. For women of colour the risks are especially high. Despite
the huge sums of money spent on the health care system, women continue to face a
range of obstacles in obtaining the services they need. This report shows the human
cost of these systemic failures and highlights the steps that are urgently needed to
move towards a health care system that respects, protects and fulfils the human right to
health without discrimination.
***

Obstetric Fistula: Women Confront Fistula in Rural Uganda


Digital Stories - Facilitator’s Guide

EngenderHealth and FistulaCare, 2010

43 pp. 2.8 MB:


http://www.fistulacare.org/pages/pdf/Training/Facilitators-guide-FINAL.pdf

This facilitator’s guide is designed to help those who wish to have conversations about

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 13


fistula and to educate groups such as health care providers, women with fistula, com-
munity members, and policy makers. Specifically, this is a guide to facilitating discus-
sions about digital stories made about 11 women with fistula in which they share how
fistula has affected their lives.
***

The Humanitarian Action Report 2010: Partnering for children in emergen-


cies

by Dermot Carty, Christine Knudsen, Marika Hofmeister et al.


United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), February 2010

186 pp. 6.9 MB:


http://www.unicef.org/har2010/files/UNICEF_Humanitarian_Action
_Report_2010-Full_Report_WEB_EN.pdf

The report highlights 28 of the most pressing crises impacting children and women
around the world and the innovative partnership approaches to meet the needs of chil-
dren and families affected.
***

Improving Newborn Survival in Low-Income Countries: Community-Based


Approaches and Lessons from South Asia

by Nirmala Nair, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost et al.


PLoS Med 7(4): e1000246 (6 April 2010)

9 pp. 261 kB:


http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=1DABAFBDDC053EB6252
EF52F9AD175A0?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000246&representation=PDF

The main obstacles to improving newborn survival are that many babies are born at
home without skilled attendance, care-seeking for maternal and newborn ailments is lim-
ited, health workers are often not skilled and confident in caring for newborn infants, and
inequalities in all these factors are felt by those most in need. In this paper the authors
emphasise programs in which work with communities to identify problems and solutions
is a specific strategy to increase newborn survival.

Malaria

Testing the sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescence microscope (Cy-


scope®) for malaria diagnosis

by Saad El-Din H Hassan, Somia I Okoued, Mahmoud A Mudathir et al.


Malaria Journal 2010, 9:88 (31 March 2010)

16 pp. 114 kB:


http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-9-88.pdf

The gold standard light microscopy technique for diagnosis of malaria has high sensitiv-
ity, but is a relatively time-consuming procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and
specificity of a new diagnostic tool - the Cyscope® fluorescence microscope, which is
based on the use of Plasmodium nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes to facilitate de-
tection of the parasites even in low parasitaemia conditions. The Cyscope® microscope
was found to be sensitive, specific and provide rapid, reliable results in a matter of less

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 14


than 10 minutes. It should be considered as a viable, cheaper and time-saving option for
malaria diagnosis.
***

Long-lasting insecticide-treated net usage in eastern Sierra Leone - the


success of free distribution

by Sibylle Gerstl, Sophie Dunkley, Ahmed Mukhtar et al.


Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 15 No 4 pp 480-488, April
2010

9 pp. 86 kB:
http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/95555/1/Long-
lasting%20insecticide%e2%80%93treated%20net%20usage%20in%20eastern%20Sierra%20Leone%20-
%20TM%26IH%20-%2015-04%202010-04.pdf

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) runs a malaria control project in Bo and Pujehun dis-
tricts of Sierra Leone that includes the mass distribution, routine delivery and demon-
stration of correct use of free, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). The results
show that MSF achieved good usage with freely distributed LLINs. It is one of the few
areas where results almost achieve the new targets set in 2005 by Roll Back Malaria to
have at least 80% of pregnant women and children under 5 years using LLINs by 2010.

***

Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants for the Prevention of Malaria in


Rural Western Kenya: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled
Trial

by Frank O. Odhiambo, Mary J. Hamel, John Williamson et al.


PLoS ONE 5(4): e10016 (2 April 2010)

11 pp. 140 kB:


http://clinicaltrials.ploshubs.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=BED6644085F187C68A8
3A62FB591C2AD?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010016&representation=PDF

The authors conducted a trial with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus 3 days of ar-
tesunate (SP-AS3), 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3), or 3 days of short-
acting chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD3) administered at routine expanded programme of
immunization visits. They conclude that intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi)
with long-acting regimens provide protection against clinical malaria for up to 8 weeks
even in the presence of high insecticide-treated nets coverage, and that the prophylactic
rather than the treatment effect of IPTi appears central to its protective efficacy.

***

Plasmodium vivax clinical malaria is commonly observed in Duffy-negative


Malagasy people

by Didier Ménarda, Céline Barnadasa, Christiane Bouchier et al.


Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; Published online before print March 15, 2010

5 pp. 420 kB:


http://www.pnas.org/content/107/13/5967.full.pdf

Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed of the malaria parasites. Although vivax
malaria is generally not as serious as that caused by P. falciparum, the disease burden

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 15


is nevertheless considerable. In Africa, vivax malaria does not pose a problem for many
ethnic groups, who are considered to be immune, but new research suggests that this
situation may be changing.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Drug Information Guide

by Ann M. Loeffler, Charles Peloquin, Gisela Schecter et al.


Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center (CNTC), 2009

52 pp. 850 kB:


http://www.nationaltbcenter.ucsf.edu/tbdruginfo/docs/tbdruginfo.pdf

The correct and effective use of chemotherapy for treating TB and latent tuberculosis in-
fection (LTBI) is an essential component for controlling the disease and preventing the
development of drug resistance. This Guide can help any physician, nurse, or pharma-
cist who participates in the management of patients with TB or LTBI.

***

Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Coinfected Patients: A Systematic


Review and Meta-Analysis

by Faiz A. Khan, Jessica Minion, Madhukar Pai et al.


Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010;50:1288-1299 (1 May 2010)

12 pp. 407 kB:


http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/651686

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis have an
increased risk of death, treatment failure, and relapse. A systematic literature review of
active tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected persons found very limited evidence. Meta-
analysis of the available studies demonstrated better treatment outcomes with longer ri-
famycin therapy, daily therapy in the first 2 months, and use of antiretroviral therapy.

***

Outcomes and safety of concomitant nevirapine and rifampicin treatment


under programme conditions in Malawi

by M. Moses, R. Zachariah, K. Tayler-Smith et al.


Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14(2):197–202 (2010)

6 pp. 270 kB:


http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/95554/1/Moses
%20Outcomes%20Nevirapine%20Malawi%20IJTLD.pdf

In a rural district in Malawi, concomitant nevirapine and rifampicin treatment is associ-


ated with good Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and appears safe. Further follow-up of
patients would be useful to ascertain the longer-term effects of this concurrent treat-
ment.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 16


Other Infectious Diseases

Prospects for the Development of Odour Baits to Control the Tsetse Flies
Glossina tachinoides and G. palpalis s.l.

by J. B. Rayaisse, I. Tirados, D. Kaba et al.


PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(3): e632 (16 March 2010)

13 pp. 593 kB:


http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=7F57C0B1D381A1CF2CF
D29A2868CCD1F?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000632&representation=PDF

Field studies were done of the responses of Glossina palpalis palpalis in Côte d’Ivoire,
and G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides in Burkina Faso, to odours from humans, cattle
and pigs. The results suggest that odour-baited traps and insecticide-treated targets
could assist the AU-Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign
(PATTEC) in its current efforts to monitor and control Palpalis group tsetse in West Af-
rica.

Essential Medicines

Growing threat from counterfeit medicines


Bull World Health Organ 2010;88: 247-248 (April 2010)

2 pp. 908 kB:


http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/4/10-020410.pdf

Lifesaving drugs are not exempt from the trade in counterfeit medicines.
The World Health Organization (WHO) is working with Interpol to dislodge
the criminal networks raking in billions of dollars from this cynical trade.

Social Protection

From Few to Many - Ten Years of Health Insurance Expansion in Colombia

Edited by Amanda L. Glassman, María-Luisa Escobar, Antonio Giuffrida,


Ursula Giedion
Inter-American Development Bank and The Brookings Institution, De-
cember 2009

199 pp. 2.7 MB:


http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=35026183

The publication describes the challenges and benefits of implementing social health re-
forms in a developing country, exploring health care financing, institutional reform, the
effects of political will on health care, and more. After more than a decade of implemen-
tation, health insurance in Colombia has achieved dramatic results in access, utilization,
and financial protection, particularly for the poor. The reforms have provided important
lessons not only for continued reform in Colombia, but also for other nations facing simi-
lar challenges.
***

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 17


Delivering Money: Cash transfer mechanisms in emergencies

by Paul Harvey, Katherine Haver, Jenny Hoffmann and Brenda Murphy


The Cash Learning Partnership - Save the Children UK, 2010

85 pp. 451 kB:


http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/SNAA-
8449F6/$file/Delivering_Money_low_res.pdf?openelement

International aid agencies and governments are increasingly giving cash payments as a
way to provide relief to people after disasters. The use of cash, as opposed to ‘in kind’
assistance, is a relatively new approach. Aid agencies are at the early stages of devel-
oping guidelines, policies and organizational capacity to implement cash projects. This
report documents lessons learned from previous experience and provides guidance for
project managers needing to make choices about how best to deliver cash to people.

***

Financial Inclusion Opportunities for Micro Health Insurance in Nepal


An Exploratory Analysis of Health Incidence, Costs and Willingness to Pay in Dhading
and Banke Districts of Nepal

by Siddharth Srivastava, Atanu Majumdar, Jacquiline Roberts Singh


Micro Insurance Academy (MIA), January 2010

154 pp. 2.8 MB:


http://www.microfinancegateway.org/gm/document-
1.1.4939/Financial%20Inclusion%20Opportunities.pdf

The baseline study and the analysis described in this report have proven the need for
health insurance, and the feasibility of launching community based mutual insurance in
the Banke and Dhading districts of Nepal. Levels of willingness to pay for health insur-
ance, while modest, make it possible to form several options of a benefits package, al-
lowing prospective clients to choose according to their priorities.

Human Resources

A systematic review of task shifting for HIV treatment and care in Africa

by Mike Callaghan, Nathan Ford and Helen Schneider


Human Resources for Health 2010, 8:8 (31 March 2010)

28 pp. 249 kB:


http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/pdf/1478-4491-8-8.pdf

Task shifting, or delegating tasks performed by physicians to staff with lower-level quali-
fications, is considered a means of expanding rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in
resource-poor or human resources for health (HRH)-limited settings. The main chal-
lenges to implementation include adequate and sustainable training, support and pay for
staff in new roles, the integration of new members into healthcare teams, and the com-
pliance of regulatory bodies. Task shifting should be considered for careful implementa-
tion where HRH shortages threaten rollout programmes.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 18


Health Systems & Research

Are We Reaching the Poor and Vulnerable?

Interpretation of Data for Policy Implementation - A Review of Findings


from Kenyan Health System Related Studies

by Anna-Carin Kandimaa Matterson and Michael Moeller


GTZ Health Sector Programme Kenya, February 2010

14 pp. 1.2 MB:


http://zunia.org/uploads/media/knowledge/Reaching%20the%20Poor1270110520.pdf

This paper summarises the key findings of six different health systems related assess-
ments conducted in Kenya. This is complemented by a brief analysis and suggested
measures to address some of the shortcomings and inequities that were frequently iden-
tified in the surveys. Despite the methodological limitations of the surveys and studies
examined for this paper, some coherent patterns emerged after the comparative analy-
sis that are summarized in the publication.

***

The Netherlands: Health System Review


Health Systems in Transition Vol. 12 No. 1, 2010

by Willemijn Schäfer, Madelon Kroneman, Wienke Boerma et al.


The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies

267 pp. 4.9 MB:


http://www.euro.who.int/Document/OBS/NEThit2010.pdf

The Health Systems in Tranransition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that pro-
vide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or un-
der development. Undoubtedly the dominant issue in the Dutch health care system at
present is the fundamental reform that came into effect in 2006. With the introduction of
a single compulsory health insurance scheme, the dual system of public and private in-
surance for curative care became history. Managed competition for providers and insur-
ers became a major driver in the health care system.

***

Strong Ministries for Strong Health Systems

by Francis Omaswa and Jo Ivey Boufford


The Rockefeller Foundation, January 2010

32 pp. 1.5 MB:


http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/uploads/files/8819cca6-1738-
4158-87fe-4d2c7b738932.pdf

While health systems have received worldwide attention, little has been done to
strengthen ministries of health, the central institutions responsible for stewardship of
health systems at the country level. This report addresses the gaps in our understanding
of the roles ministries play, their needs and the challenges they face, so that we can
take effective action to fortify them.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 19


Effective Ways to Realize Policy Reforms in Health Systems

by Jeremy Hurst
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) March 2010

33 pp. 349 kB:


http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2010doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00000F96/$FILE/JT03280896.PDF

This paper is based on evidence from the countries which have seen their health sys-
tems reviewed by the OECD in recent years and on a selected review of the literature. It
considers four issues in particular, these being the ones used across all the different re-
form areas covered by the Making Reform Happen project. It concludes that a number
of stages of reform need to be implemented before a reform can be said to be success-
ful; failure in one of them will generally lead to failure of the reform.

Information & Communication Technology

Searching PubMed during a Pandemic

by Ole Norgaard and Jeffrey V. Lazarus


PLoS ONE 5(4): e10039 (7 April 2010)

7 pp. 170 kB:


http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F
10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010039&representation=PDF

Due to inconsistent naming, while searching for scientific material about rapidly evolving
situations such as the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, there is a risk that one will miss
relevant articles. To address this problem, the international scientific community should
agree on nomenclature and the specific name to be used earlier, and the National Li-
brary of Medicine in the US could index potentially relevant materials faster and allow
publishers to add alert tags to such materials.

***

Reaching the Unreached: Community based Village Knowledge Centres &


Village Resource Centres

M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), 2009

106 pp. 6.5 MB:


http://www.suchit.net/books/Reaching-the-Unreached.pdf

Through community-owned Village Knowledge Centres (VKCs) and Village Resource


Centres (VRCs), the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation provides specially-
designed websites, in the local language, that present the information requested by the
respective community. Village volunteers are then trained to use and maintain the com-
puters, as well as gather and input information. By providing a detailed account of how
the knowledge centres work and the impact they have had, this publication tells the sto-
ries of the people who work with and benefit from these centres.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 20


Education

Raising Clean Hands: Advancing Learning, Health and Participation


through WASH in Schools

by CARE, Dubai Cares, Emory University Center for Global Safe Water
et al., 2010

24 pp. 3.0 MB:


http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/SMAR-
8494UE/$file/raisingcleanhands_2010.pdf?openelement

Despite widespread knowledge of the relationship between poor water, sanitation and
hygiene (WASH) education quality and the burden of disease on children, many coun-
tries have inadequately addressed water and sanitation facilities in their schools. Poli-
cymakers as well as school administrators have been unable to devote adequate atten-
tion to WASH in Schools programmes, and as a result, schools either do not have
WASH facilities or they are in poor condition due to lack of maintenance.

***

The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

by Christopher Colclough and Anuradha De


Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty (RECOUP), 2009

44 pp. 491 kB:


http://recoup.educ.cam.ac.uk/publications/wp27.pdf

In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. Interna-
tional commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an
important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and
agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial
and influenced aspects of both policy implementation and management, it is shown that
Indian education policy priorities remained self-determined.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use

UNODC Annual Report 2010: Promoting health, security and justice


Cutting the threads of drugs, crime and terrorism

by Mary Albon
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), April 2010

74 pp. 3.6 MB:


http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-
84BMWS/$file/UNODC_Annual_Report_2010_.pdf?openelement

This report highlights UNODC’s integrated approach to dealing with drugs, crime and
terrorism. These threats cannot be tackled in isolation. Strengthening integrity tackles
the corruption that enables crime. Improving health prevents the spread of drug addic-
tion and blood-borne diseases - particularly in the developing world. And cutting criminal
networks disrupts a range of illicit activities that carve out paths of death and destruction
through some of the world’s most fragile regions.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 21


Millennium Development Goals

2010 Reality Check: Time is running out to meet the MDGs

by RebekahWebb
Action for Global Health, April 2010

24 pp. 3.1 MB:


http://www.actionforglobalhealth.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/_temp_
/Action_Aid__WEBLORES_.pdf

The report urges European leaders to focuses on 3 issues which can break the cycle of
poverty and ill health in developing countries. By supporting free healthcare, strong
medical work forces and community participation, EU leaders can - and should recog-
nise the crucial importance health plays in enabling societies to progress and develop.
But time is running out.

Development Assistance

The EU Role in Global Health

European Commission, 31 March 2010

11 pp. 55 kB:
http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/COMM_PDF_COM_2010_0128_EN.PDF

Global health is a term for which no single definition exists. It is about worldwide im-
provement of health, reduction of disparities, and protection against global health
threats. Addressing global health requires coherence of all internal and external policies
and actions based on agreed principles. This Communication proposes an EU vision on
global health, defines the guiding principles that should apply to all relevant policy sec-
tors and presents a number of areas where the EU could more effectively act.

The Communication is accompanied by three Staff Working Documents dealing respec-


tively with: "Contributing to Universal Coverage of Health Services through Development
Policy"; "Global health: responding to the challenges of globalization" and "European
Research and Knowledge for global health" where the policy issues herein are detailed.

***

Making Aid Work: Towards Better Development Results


Practical guidance for parliamentarians on the role of parliaments in development effec-
tiveness

by Alan Hudson, Leni Wild, Julia Weinstock


Published by Inter-Parliamentary Union, March 2010

30 pp. 364 kB:


http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4799.pdf

Parliaments and parliamentarians have a key role to play in ensuring that aid and other
resources are spent effectively in support of poverty reduction. This Guidance Note ad-
dresses some of these challenges and seeks to provide parliamentarians and those
who work with them with a common understanding and clear guidance on what they can

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 22


do to promote more effective and accountable use of aid in particular and of develop-
ment resources in general.
***

Cash on Delivery: A New Approach to Foreign Aid

by Nancy Birdsall and William D. Savedoff


Center for Global Development, January 2010

Download chapter by chapter (136 pp.) at:


http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/1423949/

Foreign aid has no shortage of critics. Some argue that it undermines development and
inherently does more harm than good; others insist that aid must be seriously reformed
to work properly. Cash on Delivery (COD) Aid proposes serious reform to make aid work
well by forcing accountability, aligning the objectives of funders and recipients, and
sharing information about what works.
***

Public financing of health in developing countries: a cross-national sys-


tematic analysis

by Chunling Lu, Matthew T Schneider, Paul Gubbins et al.


The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 9 April 2010

13 pp. 1.6 MB:


http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673610602334.pdf

Government spending on health from domestic sources is an important indicator of a


government’s commitment to the health of its people, and is essential for the sustainabil-
ity of health programmes. The authors conclude that development assistance for health
(DAH) is shown to have had a negative effect on domestic government spending on
health, while DAH to the non-governmental sector apparently had a positive effect.

***

Crowding out: are relations between international health aid and govern-
ment health funding too complex to be captured in averages only?

by Gorik Ooms, Kristof Decoster, Katabaro Miti et al.


The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 9 April 2010

3 pp. 65 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673610602073.pdf?i
d=4d037fefcb72946c:-7761571b:127e29ad6c3:36221270821405706

Referring to the another article in The Lancet (see above) the authors point to the com-
plexity of relations between international health aid and government health funding and
describe some ways in which governments respond to increased development aid for
health. They plead for more transparency and a Global Fund for Health to ensure pre-
dictable financing.
***

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 23


Diversity in Donorship: Field lessons

by Edited by Adele Harmer, Ellen Martin, Barnaby Willitts-King et al.


Humanitarian Policy Group at Overseas Development Institute, March
2010

70 pp. 676 kB:


http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4802.pdf

In the past few years there has been increased attention paid to the role of non-DAC
donors in humanitarian action, however little work has been done to understand how
these donors engage in responding to specific crises. The study examines issues such
as how non-DAC donors work with affected states, how decisions are made regarding
the nature of their support, their relationships with implementing partners, their coordina-
tion with the rest of the international community, and how they measure and evaluate
the impact of their support.
***

What does an effective multilateral donor look like?

by Cecilie Wathne and Edward Hedger


Overseas Development Institute, April 2010

4 pp. 165 kB:


http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4800.pdf

Recipients have their own views on who are the most effective multilateral donors, and
feel that it is depth of commitment, responsiveness to country circumstances and sup-
port for recipient-driven policy that are critical. This Project Briefing draws on evidence
from three separate studies (see one below), finding that recipients and donors agree, in
general, on what makes aid effective, but some crucial differences in perspective re-
main.
***

Multilateral Aid Organisations: Stakeholder Views on Effectiveness

by Cecilie Wathne, Simon Burall and Edward Hedger


Overseas Development Institute, August 2009

51 pp. 559 kB:


http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3772-stakeholder-effectiveness.pdf

The study sought to capture perceptions of donor effectiveness at two levels: partner-
ship behaviour and interactions within projects. In addition, interviewees in Ethiopia, Si-
erra Leone and Zambia were asked questions about the relevancy and usefulness of
current indicators. Although the questions were contextualised by reference to multilat-
eral donors, responses are generally applicable to donor effectiveness more broadly.

Others

An Introduction to Human Rights in the Middle East & North Africa – a


Guide for NGOs

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 24


by Anass Bendrif, Sahira al Karaguly, Mohammadi Laghzaoui et al.
networklearning.org, 2009

46 pp. 1.0 MB:


http://www.networklearning.org/index.php?option=com_docman&t
ask=doc_download&gid=123&Itemid=52

Some NGOs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) may be interested in the field
of Human Rights (HR), but feel that they do not know enough about it. Or perhaps they
do not know where to start. This manual is designed to help them. It is intended to be an
Ideas Box, introducing important problems and approaches around which are valuable
roles for NGOs.
***

Cryptorchidism: A Comprehensive Clinical Review

by LH Braga, B Cameron and J Pemberton


McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

11 pp. 415kB:
http://www.ptolemy.ca/members/current/Cryptorchidism/Cryptorchidism.pdf

“Surgery in Africa” is pleased to announce the April 2010 review that is intended for all
surgeons taking care of children, and it is expected that general surgeons in Africa
should be trained to do orchidopexies.
***

Managing Chronic Conditions: Optimizing Health Throughout Life

by Leine Stuart
Family Health International (FHI), December 2008

41 pp. 490 kB:


http://www.fhi.org/NR/rdonlyres/eoqoqmc3ihpbkrcyejdbxsdiec6fyf52ptip
4fyyn42lykxkxa37frxmn2antzujdqfrhklcp5kz2j/ManagingChronicCareHV.pdf

The enormous burden currently posed by chronic disease in low-resource countries,


and the realistic prospect that this burden will continue to increase, provide compelling
reasons to rapidly address chronic illness from both a public health perspective and the
impact on individual lives. This document is intended for FHI Country Office staff and
other health programme implementers in resource-limited areas.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Directory of Grants and Fellowships in the Global Health Sciences

http://www.fic.nih.gov/funding/directory_fellowships.htm

Fogarty International Center - National Institutes of Health, (NIH) Bethesda, MD USA

The Directory includes a comprehensive compilation of international funding opportuni-


ties in biomedical and behavioural research, separated by category.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 25


Africa Health Vol. 32 No. 3, March 2010

http://www.africa-health.com/latest_issues.html

Africa Health is a journal of continuing medical education information for


physicians and other health professionals in Africa. Issues surrounding the
continuing professional development needs of Africa’s health workforce
are central to Africa Health journal. The human resources for health crisis
is not going to be resolved until the health workforce is properly trained, remunerated
and motivated. Health system strengthening in Africa is not going to be achieved without
the right people on the ground to make it happen, be they physicians, nurses, commu-
nity health workers, para health professionals or managers.

***

Bulletin of the World Health Organization (BLT)


Volume 88, Number 4, April 2010, 241-320

http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/4/en/index.html

IN THIS MONTH'S BULLETIN:


Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and the Sudan; High cost
of cutting; Bangladesh; Seeking care at childbirth; Brazil; Improving child nutrition;
China; Wrestling with tobacco control; India; Risks of city living; South Africa; Childhood
tuberculosis; Causes of fatal injury in children; Switzerland; What? No waiting lists?; Viet
Nam; Estimating tuberculosis prevalence; Gaps in epilepsy care; Underused interven-
tions; Counterfeit medicines: the 75 billion dollar trade

INTERESTING WEB SITES


DengueWATCH

http://www.denguewatch.org/index.html

Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) DengueWATCH website will display breaking
news articles from reliable sources on a world map. DengueWATCH is an important
public health tool providing instant access to news regarding dengue fever epidemics
and their impact on global health.
***

Girls Discovered - Global Maps of Adolescent Girls

http://www.girlsdiscovered.org/

As a comprehensive source of maps and data on the


status of adolescent girls worldwide, ‘Girls Discovered’
helps donors, policy makers and implementing agencies
target their investments. This one-stop shop for informa-
tion on adolescent girls is sourced from organizations operating in the public interest,
and is meant for researchers, practitioners, advocates, policy-makers and the public -
anyone who seeks change for the world’s 600 million adolescent girls.

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 26


The International Health Links Centre (IHLC) at Liverpool School of
Tropical Medicine

http://www.ihlc.org.uk/index.htm

The goal of the IHLC is to enhance access to health care in the developing world by
promoting international partnerships that will increase the number and skills of the
health workforce. IHLC membership is free. Members may register as institutions and/or
individuals. Members have access to a searchable database where they can identify po-
tential institutional partners or individuals with expertise in varied fields and experience
in links.
***

PREVAL - Monitoring and Evaluation for Rural Development

http://preval.org/en

PREVAL is a Regional Programme working in Latin America and the Caribbean in part-
nership with experts, governments, project and programme technical units, and grass-
roots organisations to build and strengthen their capacity to develop and implement
Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PM&E) systems as opportunities to produce in-
formation to feed into decision making and learning.

***

The Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN)

http://www.mopanonline.org/

MOPAN is a network of 16 like-minded donor countries with a


common interest in assessing the organisational effectiveness of the major multilateral
organisations they fund. MOPAN members agree to carry out joint assessments, share
information and draw on each other’s experience in monitoring and evaluation.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria

28th - 30th June, 2010


London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
London, United Kingdom

Course Content: Identification of parasites by microscopy using thin and thick blood
films, staining methods, effects of EDTA and drugs on parasite morphology, parasitae-
mia counts, non-blood film methods of diagnosis (antigen detection).

Target Audience: Haematologists and others involved in the laboratory identification of


human malaria.

Language: English
Fees: £ 380.00

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 27


For more information and an application form contact:
John Williams
john.williams@lshtm.ac.uk
or see: http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/prospectus/short/sldm.html

For more courses and conferences see also:


http://www.going-international.at/index.php?lang=EN

CONFERENCES
Harm Reduction 2010: IHRA’s 21st International Conference
International Harm Reduction Association (IHRA)

25-29 April 2010, Liverpool, UK


“Harm Reduction: The Next Generation”

Over five days, this conference will be the main meeting point for all those interested in
harm reduction, and an invaluable platform for advocacy, debate, and discussion. For
nearly two decades, these events have been the key forum for the dissemination of
harm reduction ideas and practice, and have helped to put harm reduction on the map.
For more information see: http://www.ihra.net/Liverpool/Home

CARTOON

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 28


TIPS & TRICKS
Open all type of files

Do you have old disks laying around with important stuff on them but the software that
created them is no longer around? The first thing you try with an old, unknown file for-
mat is to open it with Notepad (assuming it is a document and not a picture or some-
thing). You would be surprised how often that little trick works. If that doesn’t work,
sometimes MS Word or Corel WordPerfect may have the ability to open the file. Note
that with both of the above document opening tricks, you will need to select ‘All files’
from the File of type drop box on the Open screen. If you don’t, you probably won’t be
able to access the file you are trying to open at all.

Another way of opening almost any file without the corresponding software, including
.exe, is a free application called ‘Universal Viewer’ that you can download for free (4.4
MB) at: http://www.uvviewsoft.com/

***

About MP3 Players

So the progression goes… We started with vinyl records, moved to


tapes and then, eventually, compact discs came around and made
all of them obsolete. Now the MP3 reigns, bringing music out of the
confines of physical media and transforming it into digital data. No
longer do we have to worry about our discs scratching, or our tapes
unwinding. Now we just have to worry about what kind of device to
put the stuff on.

There are the ever-famous iPods but what is not told is that although
iPods are nice, the extra functions - like games, video support and
iTunes downloads have little impact on their music playing ability. If
you just want to get music on device to go, then just about any MP3
player out there should suffice.

Another misconception is that MP3 players are difficult to get music onto. This process
can be as easy as plugging the USB cable that came with your music player into your
computer and dragging files over from your hard drive whereas the iPod family requires
iTunes, playlists and other protocol to do this.

It is a lot easier than you think, and if you want to bring your music collection with you
everywhere you go there is no better way than the MP3.

Best regards,

Dieter Neuvians MD

HESP-News & Notes - 08/2010 - page 29