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Silicon, a common element in our daily lives, generally exists in nature as silicon dioxide ± or silica. It was found that silica particles are spherical and have diameters of 143 and 378 nm. Silicon is a major constituent of glass, ceramics and computer chips. Next to oxygen, silicon is the earth¶s most abundant element and is found in sand, silt and clays ± the mineral constituents of soils. The solubility of silicon in water varies greatly a mong its various forms.
SILICA AND TEXTILES
Silica textiles are highly resistant to corrosion and deterioration caused by chemicals, have good electrical insulation capabilities and remain flexible and drapable at high temperatures. Besides these excellen t qualities, silica textiles are resistant to thermal shock, will resist molten metal splashing, welding splatter and direct flame impact. Silica materials are often used as filters in the production of casting acid, and also as moisture -resistant filling in composite materials that require unimpeded performance at high temperatures( The melting point of silica textiles is above 1600ºC ) There are many types of applications for silica, each one is perfectly qualified for its own field of usage.
Silica fabrics ± Used primarily for high temperature insulation, thermal
protection for several technical branches, blankets, molten metal splash protection, open flame and refractory padding.
Silica yarns ± These equalized twisted yarns are made in several plies.
The yarns are comprised of a collection of hundreds of single
continuous filaments. During the production process they are subjected to thermal and chemical treatments to assure superior quality.
Silica meshes ± These meshes are used for filtering and cleaning of
melted materials and are placed directly under the pouring gate of the moulding box.
Silica fibre ± Chopped silica fibres are used as thermal insulation in a
wide variety of applications.
Silica felt ± This combination of fluffy fibres is frequently used as filler
for mattresses and also employed for high temperature thermal insulation and protection.
PROPERTIES OF SILICA
Some of the most useful properties of silicone include:
Good electrical insulation. Because silicone can be formulated to be electrically insulative or conductive, it is suitable for a wide range of electrical applications.
Thermal stability (constancy of properties over a wide operating range of í100 to 250 °C).
Though not a hydrophobe, the ability to repel water and form watertight seals.
Excellent resistance to oxygen, ozone and UV light (sunlight). This has led to widespread use in the construction industry (e.g. coatings, fire protection, glazing seals), and automotive industry (external gaskets, external trim).
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Does not stick. Low chemical reactivity. Low toxicity, but does not support microbiological growth.
High gas permeability: at room temperature (25 °C) the permeability of silicone rubber for gases like oxygen is approximately 400 times that of butyl rubber, making silicone useful for medical applications (though precluding it from applications where gas -tight seals are necessary).
Silicon finish is a thin layer of special silicon resin is applied on the surface of coating . This kind of finishing was initially developed to avoid sticky problem of the coating, and meanwhile, this provide fabrics a smooth hand feeling, and improve water-resistance and washability of fabrics. In the textile applications segment, Silicones can be modified with structural and functional modification in the base product to offer a myriad range of finishes. Silicone finishes are widely recognized as the best materials for increasing the softness of fabrics, enhancing their aesthetic feel and imparting an excellent ³hand.´ They improve several physical properties, such as tear strength, abrasion and wrinkle resistance, stretch recovery and shrinkage reduction. They can provide either water absorption or water repellency with littl e to no impact on fabric whiteness. They make fabrics more comfortable and more desirable to touch, purchase and wear.
COMPONENT OF THE FINISH
A silicone-based fabric finishing agent which comprises: an aminoalkyl substituted diorganopolysiloxane; a reacti on product of an aminoalkyl substituted organopolysiloxane and an epoxy -containing organic compound; a hydrolysis product of an epoxy-containing hydrolyzable organosilane coupound; and, optionally, an aminoalkyl -substituted organopolysiloxane
MAIN FEATURES OF SILICON FINISH
Premium ³hand´ Very good softness Excellent fiber-fiber lubrication Substantive to fibers Good stretch and recovery Improved elasticity and resiliency Excellent drape Good durability Excellent sewability Exhaustible Forms microemulsions readily Very low yellowing (depending on type) Hydrophobic or hydrophilic
SPECIALITY SILICONE FORMULATIONS FOR:
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Polyester finishing Nylon microfilament fabric finishing Acrylic yarn and fabric finishing Antimicrobial finishing Wrinkle free finishing on garments Crease resistant finishing on fabrics.
SILICON AS A SOFTNER
Silicon softener also decreases kinetic and static friction of the cloth. By increasing density of the softener, friction decreases. Kinetic friction index is always lower than static friction index. Softener causes increasing filaments slipping. It is permanent and doesn¶t vanish by washing several times.
It also decreases the friction of cloth and makes it soft. These groups of softeners are adaptable with various colors and completing materials, so they are usable during dyeing or completion processes. These groups of softeners easily changed to emulsion in cold water and give the fabric special underlying This agent has low yellowing characteristics, wrinkle resiliency and sets up very well; suitable all type of fabric material. This agent offers good thickness and anti -yellowing qualities, can be mixed with other agents and increases softness and feel Containing epoxy, this agent is especially recomme nded for mixing with flouride water-proofing agents in finishing. This agent is a dry softener that can be used in combination with water-proofing agents and increases softness The results indicate that silicone softeners provide better durable press performance with a higher retention of me chanical properties and durability The results also suggest that improvements in wrinkle recovery are mainly due to the formation of an elastic silicone polymer network, which entrapps fibers within its matrix, thus improving the fabric's ability to recover from deformation. Silicone-based screen printing inks, for example, allow manufacturers to print on a wide range of high -performance garments. The inks are durable, with a non-tacky finish, and offer high elongation on stretch fabrics. For athletes in high-impact sports, the Active Protection System eliminates the need for heavy padding, which can reduce speed and agility.
Instead, the 'smart' impact protection textile uses a silicone coating that remains soft and flexible under normal conditions. When struck by a high-impact force, the material hardens instantly to help protect the wearer against injury. When the impact force is removed, the material immediately returns to a flexible state.
Colloidal silica is a nano metric particle size solution of silica particles in water or other mediums. It finds uses in diverse applications which can be briefed as follows:
Ceramic slurry binder for making investment casting shells Grain binder in refractory( refractory monolithic, gunning and ramming masses, LCC, ULCC , high temperature refractory and ceramic products like vacuum formed fiber shapes, high temperature ceramics , insulation wools , fabrication of artificial dentures etc.
As a retention and dewatering aid in paper processing For surface sizing and anti-slip treatment of natural fibers, textiles Surface anti-static treatment of polyester films Packaging (Paper Bags) & Cardboard (Box) Paper Coating for AntiSkid & Anti-Soiling properties, etc.
Polyester Films / Fibers for Anti-Block & Anti-Slip & Abrasion Resistance etc.
Coating material for CRGO Electrical Steel Sheets.
Textile Auxiliary Formulations for spinning & sizing (dimensional stability and anti-skid properties), finishing etc.
Additive for Floor Wash, for Anti-skid & Anti-soiling properties Silicon Wafers for Polishing purpose. Waterborne Inorganic Paints / Coatings. Cement Paints / Sealants. Construction additives for water proofing/ improving longevity of concrete structures, nano pore coverage in dams, tunnels, buildings etc.
Silicon is the principal component of glass, cement, ceramics, most semiconductor devices, and silicones, the latter a plast ic substance often confused with silicon. Silicon is also an important constituent of some steels and a major ingredient in bricks. It is a refractory material used in making enamels and pottery.
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