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INTERNSHIP REPORT

2015
BGMEA University of Fashion &
Technology

Internship Industry- Mark

Designers ltd.

Acknowledgement

First and foremost, I express my thanks and gratitude to Mark Designers


limiteds owner, General Manager, Production Manager, Senior
Merchandisers and other employees in mid-level and low-level for helping me
in my internship. If they werent helping me, it wouldnt be so easy to gather
knowledge and get experienced. So, I deeply thank those peoples in Mark
Designers ltd.
My supervisor M. Mahbubur Rahman (M.B.A) always shows me the path
where I can find my information. He guided me to make my internship
valuable. And I had learnt many things about industry, merchandising etc. by
him.
I would like to extend my gratitude to Sr. Merchandiser Mr. Shiplu Rahman for
his feedback. I used to work under his team. And that was a perfect team
with some intelligent merchandisers. By this I had a lot to know, to achieve
experience by their work. That was a wonderful experience in my life.
Finally, I am going to thank Mr. Ejaj Ahmed the owner of the industry. He has
been related in this sector since 1990s. And founded the whole industry by
his own effort. He is a hard working man, honest, very punctual and
intelligent. Those make him a good person. My internship wont be done
without him. So Im grateful to this man always.

And thanks to my honorable person my mentor Mohammad Obaidullah Sr.


Asst. professor & Proctor in BUFT. He made me to do this, and this is the
reason I am able to submit the report. It is really helpful for my future and
my first step to future life.

BUFT
2016

Abstract
In present time, Bangladesh is best known for its clothing industry. Around
5000 or more RMG industries are related to manufacturing and exporting
garments. Knit garments are playing very much important role in this sector.
It includes T-shirt, Denim products etc.
Mark Designers ltd. is one of the superior and 90s industry in this sector. It
produces denim products like- Jeans, shorts, jackets, denim shirts, kids wear
etc. And the buyers are- ZARA,
C & A, GARCIA, ALCOTT, NO EXCESS,
SPRINGIELD, KIABI etc. It is a well reputed industry in our country over years.
It has Sisters Company like, Mark wear ltd, Mark 2000 ltd, Mark wash &
dyeing ltd etc.
In Mark Designers ltd. there are each department well divided and well
managed. So it is so easy to move from one department to another. It can do
time saving also. In a industry store is the heart of all. So, the workers
managed it like that, it is clean and the products stored by its serial number.
The product development department, where products are being developed
and trends set by designers. The designers Mr. Mahbub managed well his
department. In this department it also has a CAD room. The cutting
department, sewing department is full of workers where they work with
patient and love to each other. Its like a family to them. The most important
department is merchandising department, Where senior merchandisers
works with their team, includes junior merchandisers, trainee. Mark
Designers ltd. has couple of teams. Each team works with individual buyers.
And it is also we managed. Commercial department of Mark Designers ltd. is
so much good in work. They handle all the commercial works. After all
departments it comes to Compliance department, likewise Marks
compliance department take good care of the workers like- schedule fire

training, fire extinguishers, workers rights, problems, immediate solutions,


workers payment etc.
Overall Mark Designers ltd. is well organized industry in our country. Though
it is not composite but still it can be categorized in well maintain industry.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
..7
1.1 INTERNSHIP
OBJECTIVES
...7
1.1.1 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
TARGETS...7
1.2 EXPECTATIONS
7
1.3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW.
8
1.4 INDUSTRY
ORGANOGRAM.
.9

2. DEPARTMENT
ORGANOGRAM
.10
2.1 STORE
10
2.2 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT(SAMPLE).
13
2.3 CUTTING
DEPARTMENT
.15
2.4 SEWING
DEPARTMENT
..17
2.5 MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT
..22
2.6 WASHING
DEPARTMENT
..25
2.7 FINISHING
DEPARTMENT
..26
2.8 QUALITY CONTROL/ASSURANCE
DEPARTMENT..29
2.9 MERCHANDISING & MARKETING
DEPARTMENT.31
2.9.1 COMMERCIAL
.31
2.9.2 OFFICIAL.
31
2.10 COMMERCIAL
DEPARTMENT
...32
3. LACKS OF MARKS DESIGNERS
LTD.33
4. STRENGTH OF MARK DESIGNERS
LTD.33
5. CONCLUSION
33
5.1 INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE
SUMMARY..33

5.2
RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................
..............33
5.2.1 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE INTERNSHIP
COMPANY...33
5.2.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE INTERNSHIP
COMPANY......34
SPECIAL TOPIC
1. INTRODUCTION
..35
1.2 HISTORY OF WORKER
UNREST..35
1.3 WORKER UNREST IN RMG SECTOR OF
BANGLADESH..36
1.4 IMPACT OF WORKER
UNREST
38
1.5
CONCLUSION
.39
REFERENCES
..39

1. Introduction
1.1 Internship Objectives
The reason behind internship is to develop ourselves by experience and
knowledge through 3 month. This is the only chance to prepare ourselves for
future professionals. And the duration in not so long, its just about for 3/2
months. But in this time we have to get valuable knowledges what we can.
Working as a trainee merchandiser, performing duties and activities is a
huge responsibility. So I setup my mind to do my job with perfection and
punctuality. As a trainee it is not so easy task to do perfect. So the working
environment is also very important to sustain. but every tough work could be
easy if it can be done with concentration.

1.1.1 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT TARGETS:


During my internship, I want to improve my English language to
conversations with buyers. Because language is the root to start. I also want
to practice and improve the different skills I developed during my education
such as:

Observing and researching different subjects


Preparing industrial stages
Planning and organizing
Develop skills

1.2 Expectations
Before my internship began my expectation were high, because I was never
in this profession before. So felt little nervous, But I also felt that life is

changing. So I welcome the internship with open heart. And I made myself
believe that every successful story has a start, either it is good or bad. But
we have to start.
With the knowledge I obtained, I knew I could learn much and knew I could
achieve my learning objectives. And finally I learnt many facts about what a
merchandising deal with, what makes our country proud by RMG industry in
the world. My expectations were not fulfilled but what I got is unforgettable.

1.3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Mark Designers ltd.


It is a 100% export oriented woven readymade garments Manufacturer
Company. It was established since 1995 in Mirpur. It has the only one owner
who started his journey in this sector named Mr. Ejaj Ahmed. He is the proud
owner of this wonderful industry. He also established the sister company of
Mark Designers ltd, like- Mark wear ltd, Mark 2000 ltd, Mark wash & Dyeing
etc. Here is the detail of Mark Designers ltd.

Factory Address plot# 12-14, Road#03, Section#07, Mirpur, Dhaka- 1216.


Date of establishment May 13th 1995
Total Factory Area 47,201 sq. ft.
Production Area 33,715 sq. ft.
Bonded warehouse 8,437 sq. ft.
Total human resource 850
Total Production Lines 04
Total No. of M/C 440 sets

Monthly Production Capacity 1, 00,000-1, 20,000 pc


Products Mens/Ladies/Boys/Girls/Kids clothing, especially Denim Long
pants, Short &
Long, Cargo pants, Chino pants,
Long/short pants, Bermuda, Jackets & Skirts etc.
Clients Inditex: Zara, C & A, V & D, JBC, Garcia, Shoeby, Bristol, Spring
Field, Jeans Center, LPP, Lake Side etc.
Export Country Netherlands, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Norway,
Belgium, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Poland.
Website www.markdesignersltd.com

1.4 INDUSTRY ORGANOGRAM

Mark Designers ltd.


ORGANOGRAM

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2. DEPARTMENT ORGANOGRAM
2.1 STORE
In store inventory is the stock of any item or resources used in an
organization. It is the important part to do organize work.

Accessories Inventory:
Flow sequences of accessories inventory is given below

Import receive
Physical inventory
Swatch making
Swatch approval from buyer
Register/Record the entry
Supply to sub store according to demand
Issue to bulk production

Accessories inventory item:


Hanger size:Identify the size of the garment by hanger.
Label: Labels are the most important trimmings by which customer easily,
know about the product. Here two types of label are available
1) Main label: It contains the name of buyer and country. Ex. ZARA, SPAIN
etc.
2) Sub label:
a) Size label
b) Care label
c) Washing code
d) Bleaching code
e) Ironing code
f) Dry cleaning code
g) Drying code
h) Cost label
i) Composition
j) Barcode label
k) Alarm label
Sewing thread:
Different types of sewing threads are available in store room. Such as

40/2,
20/2,
20/3,
20/6,

Button:

60
50
50
32

cone=4000
cone=3000
cone=2000
cone=1500

meter
meter
meter
meter

Horn button
Purl button
Shank button
Snap button
Coconut button
Chalk button

Amount determination of button:


There are two systems of determination the amount of amount. These are
given below.
1. 1G.G=12 GRS
2. Each cartoon contain 750 gross
1 gross=144 pcs
750 gross=1448*750=108000 pcs
Interlining:
Types of interlining are available in store room are given below.

Dot fuse
Paper fuse
T.C interlining
Woven fabric fuse
Non fuse etc.

Packing Section:
Various types of packing accessories are available in store room such as
polybag, packing board, tissue, paper, hanger, scotch tape, gum tape, gum
tape, cartoon etc.
Fabric Inventory:
The types of fabric defect are check in 4 point inspection system

Oil spot
Missing yarn
Dye defect
Hole
Color yarn
Drop pick
Net

Knot
Broken yarn
Slub yarn
Color shading

4 point inspection system:


Defects (length wise):Penalty point:
1. 0-3inch.1
1.1.
3-6inch..2
1.2.
6-9inch..3
1.3.
9inch & above..4
1.4.
Any hole & Miss pick..4
Various types of fabric and accessories such as sewing thread, button,
interlining, zippers, label etc. are stored in central room. Here also m/c
spares parts and stationary are stored in store room.
The flow sequence of fabric inventory is given below:

Receive the fabric


Pre-inspection
Physician inventory
Make the swatch card
Prepare blanket shade
Shade segregation
Issue fabric to cutting room
Fabric is separated and stored according to lot number.

2.2 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (Sample)


Product development is the very first stage of introduction of new style. The
concept of new style or design is developed by fashion designers which is
merely a design or sketch on the paper.
Product development is the business policy of the organization which
includes the development of the new designs and styles within the
organization. This activity brings the more business to organization, by
showing pro-activeness in design development buyer also impress. The role
of production merchandiser in this activity is plays very important role.
Production merchandiser must keep update to buyer time about the product

development done by industry.

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There are mainly eight types of sample needed for completing a garment.
Like
1.
2.
3.
4.

Proto sample
Fit sample
Size set sample
Counter sample

5.
6.
7.
8.

Salesman sample
Pre-production sample
Top over production sample
Shipment sample

In sample room there is a sequence of work


-

Pattern
o Consumption
Sewing
Garment check
Quality inspection

Some special sewing m/s uses in sample room


Fit of Arm: it basically do chain stitch. One of the essential m/c for denim
sewing. It sewings with multiple threads like 20/3, 20/4, 20/6. This m/c can
use highly 12 threads.
Kansa: It is the most important m/c for yoke sewing in denim pant. Kansa
m/c can do 2/3 needle sewing. It has no inner yoke. And it can use by 17
threads mostly.
Fedaring sewing: It used for mainly pocketing and also in T-shirt. Mostly
can use by 5 threads and normally use by 4 threads.

2.3 CUTTING DEPARTMENT


When the fabrics are received it needs to be checked. Because, faulty fabrics
can be supplied from dyeing and finishing. But the cutting section has to
check it. Otherwise the end product will be faulty. And for this, quality
inspector checks the fabrics.

Fabrics receive: In the stages of a cutting room the first stage is receiving
fabric. And fabrics need to be check for its quality, size, and color.
Fabric Relaxation: This process for relaxation of fabric is applied for the
original nature. When it comes from dyeing and finishing, the fabric remains
hot. In dryer, stenter and compactor heat is applied on fabric. So, moisture of
the fabric is removed. This is not an actual condition. If we keep the fabric in
normal temperature and pressure for a certain time, the fabric absorbs
moisture from the atmosphere and regains its original nature. And this
process is called fabric relaxation.
Fabric relaxation time is varied from fabric to fabric. But the minimum time is
twelve hours. This could also vary according to the buyers recommendation.

Relaxed Loop

Elongated Loop

Marker Making: It is the main important chapter or stage for a industry to


make profit or loss. It can do highest usage of fabric and for lowest wastage
of fabric. Marker is a thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces
for all sizes for a particular style of garments. The marker is placed on the
material and provides guideline for cutting. Marker width is equal to the
minimum fabric width and its length depends on the no of pattern sizes that
will be drawn.
Preparations:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Marking grain line


Fabric measurement
Fabric faults
Cutting table

Methods using for marker making:


1. Manual method
2. Computerized method

Fabric spreading: It is for the cutting according to the marker. It can be


done by manually or machine.
In manually, Worker laid fabrics in the table according to fabric width. Like
150 meter fabric to 1 lay= 164.04 yds.
=10 lay fabric.
Cutting: After completing fabric spreading then the fabric cutting is started.
Fabric cutting have to done accurately as per pattern pieces in the marker. In
manually cutting procedure some sides have to take care of, like sharpness
of knife, attentiveness of operator, skill of operator. To avoid the problem of
fused edge formation, the following steps may be taken
-

Reduce the height of the lay


Reduce the cutting Speed
Use anti-fusion paper in the lay at regular interval
Lubricate the knife during cutting

Fabric cutting methods are as follows:


Manual Method
Scissor
Round knife
Band knife
Straight Knife

2.4 SEWING DEPARTMENT


After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the
garments parts are joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the
components are respects on buyer requirement.

Sewing section is the most important department of a garment


manufacturing industry. Sewing m/c of different types is arranged as a
vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types of sewing m/c
arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operations.

Sewing sequence of denim pant manufacturing process:

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After sewing, the sewing area is observed for any defects, if present which
affects outlook. Normally it is expected that there will be no defective view of
stitches, seam pucker or unsightly view.
There are various types of sewing problems found in sewing floor. Among
these problems are stitch formation, seam pucker and fabric damage in the
seam line.
Sewing problem:
Sewing defects are

Stitch formation
Damage of fabric on seam line
Seam pucker

Damage of fabrics on seam line:

Mechanical damage
Needle heating damage

Various types of garments defect:

Broken stitches
Broken buttons
Different shades within the same
Broken snaps
Defective snaps
Dropped stitches
Loose/hanging sewing threads
Exposed notches
Missing buttons
Inoperative zipper
Needle cuts/chews
Pulled/loose yarn
Open seams
Stain
Zipper too short
Unfinished buttonhole

Trims and Accessories:

Its the essential part of a garment. There are a lot of trims and accessories
used in a garment.
Trims The raw materials which are used in garments other than fabric are
called trims. These are materials which are directly used in a garment.
Accessories which are used to decorate garment by not permanently
attaching these are called garment accessories.
Here is a list of Trims & Accessories used in garment
SL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Trims
Button
Label(s)
Padding
Zipper
Interlining
Down
Thread
Elastic
Twill Tape
Stopper
Logo Print
String/Draw Cord
Eyelet/Grommet
Rivet
Velcro Tape
Seam sealing Tape
Cable
Elastic Threads
Shoulder Tape

Buttons:
Here is some kind of buttons

Pearl button
Chalk button
Horn button
Jeans button
Snap button: 2 ports, 4 ports
Handicraft
Coconut button
Wooden button

SL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Accessories
Poly Bag
Poly Bag
Master Carton
Mini Poly Bag
Inner Carton
Size clip
Tag pin
P.P.band
Brass Pin
Collar Stand
Scotch Print
Safety Pin
Tissue Paper
Numbering Stickers
Carton Pad
Both Side Tape
Iron Seal
Size Tag
Carton Sticker

Real horn button


Real shell button etc.

Zipper:

Depend On End
Depend On Teeth Size
3 sizes
4 sizes
5 sizes

Packing Accessories:
The accessories which is used for garment packing is called packing
accessories. Here are some kinds of accessories
Poly bag, tissue paper, packing board, hanger, gum tape, scotch tape, carton
etc. are used.
Type of carton:
1. Depend

2. Depend
3. Depend

4. Depend

5. Depend

on paper
Duplex carton
Box carton
on stitching
on ply
5 ply carton
7 ply carton
on liner
Outside liner carton
on size
Master carton

2.5 MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT


The job responsibility of this department includes maintain various m/c and
equipments, Plant maintenance, store maintenance, servicing, repairs etc.

2.6 WASHING DEPARTMENT


For a garment wash is very much important. It gives a garment better look
and softener the garment. For doing wash have to use various types of
expensive chemicals. But if there is no skill n sound operator to do the
process than it can cost a lot. But if the process maintained under good
operator that it could be profitable.
Types of washing:
Wet and Dry processes are mentioned belowI.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

Normal wash/Rinse wash


Pigment wash
Enzyme wash
Stone wash
Bleach wash
Acid wash
Sand blasting & Hand scraping
P.P spray
Overall wrinkle
Permanent wrinkle
Grinding & Destroy
Dip dyeing

Types of m/c used for washing:


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Sample washing m/c(Horizontal/Vertical)


Hydro extractor m/c
Dryer m/c(steam)
Dryer m/c(gas)
Chemical mixer m/c
Industrial oven(gas/electric)
Boiler
Grinding m/c
Sand blasting chamber

Sequence of process of any garment washing:

Lot size
L-R Liquor ratio
Temperature
Chemicals
Time

Stone Enzyme Wash:


It is the most popular wash in our country now days. A process of stone
enzyme wash of 60 kg batch o Denim Long pant as mentioned below:
1st step: - Pre-Treatment/Designing

Batch size..60 kg Denim Long pant


Add water at LR= 1:9540 liter
Start the m/c.
Temperature..60 degree c.
Add designing agent at 0.6gm/liter..324gm
Add detergent/Anti stain at 1gm/liter.540gm
Time15 to 25 min
Drop the liquor

Second step: Hot wash


Add water at L R= 1.9..540 liter
Temperature60 degree c.
Time..5 min
Third step:

Add water at L R= 1:8480 liter


Add pumice stone at vol of garments
Add Enzyme at 1.50gm/liter.720gms
Add acetic acid at 0.6 gm/liter..288gms
Add Anti stain at 0.8 gm/ liter..384gms
Temperature..40 degree c
Time (Depend upon the shade)..60 to 70 min.
Then temperature raise to 90 degree c or 1 minute
Drop the liquor
Rinse twice, each 3 minutes.
Then pumice stone out from washing m/c

Fourth step: Bleaching

Add water at LR=1:8.480 liter


Machine running
Add bleaching powder (k.g) at 10 gm /liter4800 gms
Add soda ash at 5 gm/liter.2400 gms
Temperature..60 degree c.
Time (depend upon the shade).12 to 15 min.
Drop the liquor
Rinse twice, each 3 minutes

Fifth step: Neutral wash

Add water at LR =1:9..540 liter


Add sodium hypo sulphite at 3 gm/liter..1620 gms
Temperature.40 degree c
Time.10 to 12 min
Drop the liquor
Rinse one

Sixth step: Soft wash

Add water at L R=1:8..480 liter


Add acetic acid at 0.6 gm/liter..288 gms
Cationic softener at 1 gm/ liter480 gms
Time..5 min
Drop the liquor
Unload the garments to trolley

Seventh step: Hydro-extractor M/C


Hydro-extraction the garment to remove excess water from the
washed garments
Eight step: Drying Machine

Load 40 kg garments
Set temperature75 degree c to 85 degree c
Time.35 to 40 min
Time..10 minutes in cold dry

Ninth step: Delivery


After quality checking garment will be delivery.

2.7 FINISHING DEPARTMENT


After sewing process the garments comes to finishing section. In finishing
section there are some processes

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Here sewn garments are received for finishing the garments


Sewn garments are checked here by the quality controller. If found
major sewing problems then garments sent again to the sewing section
for rectification.

Sometimes garments contain various types of spots which are removed


here carefully.
It is one of the important processes in garments finishing. Here
garments are ironed by following measurement chart of that garments.
After completing ironing or finishing, garments are inspected again
here by quality controller to confirm the correct measurement o the
garments.
In this section, hang tag have to attach with the garments.
After completing all the above processes, garments are folded here.
Garments are poly bagged here to keep the garments dust, dirt and
other impurities free. Send the garments safely in to the buyer.
In this section, garments should be passed through a metal detector
m/c to identify metal lies in the garments.
Finally all the garments should pack to send the garments safely in to
the buyer.

2.8 QUALITY CONTROL/ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT


The quality assurance section is assigned to maintain consistency for uniform
quality of the material in process & various stages of garment
manufacturing. In the garment industry quality assurance is practiced right
from the initial stage of sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished
garment.
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2.9 MERCHANDISING & MARKETING DEPARTMENT


There is two types o merchandising in Garment Company:
1. Commercial
2. Official

2.9.1 Commercial They manage the export related document and


ensure that the buyer LC is accurate. After production they also manage the
document o shipment.

2.9.2 Official They manage the production process and see whether the
product is produced regarding the requirement of the buyer and delivery the
produced good within the shipment date.
Overall marketing /merchandising activities are as follows
Through various sources try to get garments order inquiry from buyer.
Study the order inquiry correctly and to decide If it is acceptable.
To collect the price of fabric and accessories this will be required for
the inquiry order.
To assess the productivity of the item for the factory & also to assess
the CM charges as
Per market rate.
If there is any other point to consider.
Make costing on the garments inquiry.
On the inquiry quote price to the buyer.
To finalize the price of the garments & to confirm the order with the
buyer through
bargaining.
To check the master L/C, garments order sheet & the other necessary
documents
received from buyer.
To make the material estimate sheet for fabrics & accessories for the
confirm order.
To get price of the fabrics & accessories from the suppliers to confirm
the rate through
bargaining.

To get samples of the fabrics & accessories from the suppliers to get
approval of them
from buyer.
To confirm the approval of the quality of the fabrics & accessories to
the suppliers.
To place booking of the fabrics & accessories with the suppliers.
To receive proforma invoice from the suppliers for each of the item, to
check them for
all details & if all are ok then to give it to the
commercial with proper note for opening
of all details & if all are ok
then to give it to the commercial with proper note for
opening of
back to back L/C.
To keep the communication with the suppliers for timely production &
shipment of the
goods against booking.
To check the inventory report for all the items against the garments
order & if there is
any discrepancy, then to take necessary steps
immediately so that production &
shipment of do not hamper.
To get all the necessary samples for the garments approved from buyer
before going
for bulk production.
To get the trim cards ready & to get it approved from buyer before
going production.
To get the production file ready with all the necessary
documents & to deliver same to
the concerned people before going
for production.
To making planning of garments production so that buyers garments
delivery date can
be meet.
To stat the production of garments orders timely.
To check that all details are being properly maintained in the garments
production as
per buyers instruction.
To give booking with the shipping/air lines for the space for shipment of
the garments.
To ensure that the packed goods have been handed over to the
shipping agencies for
shipment after proper formalities of customs.
To fax/e-mail the shipment documents to buyer as soon as they are
received.

To check that commercial has sent the shipment documents properly


to the buyers bank
as per L/C details.
To check with commercial that payment of the shipped garments has
been received
from buyer dully.
To keep the essential documents & samples reserved for some time
after shipment
Of goods so that for any claim, if there is any, from buyer, the actual
status can be understood.

2.10 COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT


The commercial department of Mark Designers ltd. Prepares pro-forma
invoice for the respective buyer. The invoice includes the quantity of the
buyers order, its unit price and total price.
The Commercial department also transfer master L/C on the name of
selected supplier.
This department also maintains all clerical activities such as maintaining the
accounts of daily transaction, maintaining payroll, keeping the accounts of
daily expenditures etc.

3.

LACKS OF MARK DESIGNERS LTD

Fail to attract big buyers Despite effectiveness and efficiency one of the
weakness of Mark Designers ltd. its short capacity. It is derived from potential
growth resulting from its present reputation, which could be achieved
otherwise.
HR Department HR department is one of the essential and effective
departments in an industry. This department handles workers salary, their
benefits, holidays etc. But in Mark Designers ltd. there is no HR department.
So many important works cant be done for that reason. So there is no one to
give training to the employees and appraisals to evaluate them.
Not International standard certified Mark Designers ltd. Is not ISO
certified organization. Not to say that, being as a proof of quality, ISO
certified is very much essential for the spreading of its market.

4. STRENGTH OF MARK DESIGNERS LTD.


Skilled workforce from its beginning Mark Designers ltd. looks into the
combination of effectiveness and efficiency regarding its objectives. As a
result within a few days it got the higher regard from its buyers.
Collaboration with suppliers To provide higher value in their value
delivery process Mark Designers ltd. has built the long-term relationship with
some competent suppliers. This collaboration makes this organization honest
to its commitment of quality and scheduled delivery to its buyers.

Permanent buyers For its reputation of committed organization it has built


a marketing network with some prominent buyers. These buyers are not
easily vulnerable to each other factories, as they are satisfied with Mark
Designers ltd. For its efficiency and effectiveness.
Long term relationship with buyers Mark Designers ltd. Honors the longterm relationship with their buyers. So the buyers remain loyal to the
company. This is the reason long-term relationship with their buyers is
strength of the company

5. CONCLUSIONS
5.1 INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE SUMMARY
The Past months of my internship have been very instructive for me. Mark
Designers ltd. has offered me opportunities to learn and develop myself in
many areas. I gained a lot of experience, especially in the merchandising
department. A lot of the task and activities that i have worked. I worked in
different department with different people, and feel like familiar work what I
have studied in university.
As an additional benefit, I observed how they make plan to take an order,
how they communicate with foreign buyers, how they plan to work. They
take quick action and effective solution to a problem. They work as a family,
team with lots of space.
The school work and real work is divided here. We learnt to do things in
university is not same in real work. There are many substances in the
professional world. Tasks, their solutions, processes, immediate actions all
are different here. But my university study helped me a lot to understand the
job nature. Sometimes I got opportunity to put my suggestions in a
discussion. That was really a good experience.

5.2 RECOMENDATIONS
5.2.1 RECOMEDATIONS FOR THE INTERNSHIP COMPANY
Though Mark Designers ltd. is a superior industry but it has also some
weakness previously showed. But those weaknesses also have to finish for
the industrys better future. But those problems would not solve only by
high-level employees, mid and low-level worker also have to come forward.

Here are some suggestions that can be effective to the industry-

The industry is already a compliance industry. so it will be good for the


company if they try to achieve ISO certificate. It will help them to
attract buyers. And it is also a positive side for the factory.
In Mark Designers ltd. there is shortage of space. So it is a problem for
production. If it is possible to extend some space then the production
would not harm the storage.
The management should train their communication department
employees. Because they always got engaged with lot of foreign
buyers. So it is important to have a good business conversation.
The management should think about workers little more. Because
there were some complains about holidays and overtime. The workers
need proper wages and payment of their overtime and holidays. Then
it will end up worker unrest.

5.2.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE UNIVERSITY

SPECIAL TOPIC
WORKER UNREST IN RMG INDUSTRY

1. INTRODUCTION
Labor-force is an important input in industrial production and this is truer in
garment industry of Bangladesh. Mechanization and automation have not
diminished the role of human element in industrial establishments. In fact,
the role of workforce has become highly critical in garment industry. Nor
have the economic reforms belittled the significance of labor. Human
resource is taken to be an important factor to increase productivity, improve
quality and reduce costs; all necessary to survive in the competitive world.
But the basic needs of the labor force must be mitigated. The socio-economic
condition of labor force of RMG industry of Bangladesh, in no way, can be
said well. As most of them are uneducated and unskilled, they get very poor
salary in contrast to ever-increasing expense of livelihood. Very often they do
not get their salary, bonus and overtime bills in time. In many factories they
are forced to work long hours in unhygienic condition. Maltreatment by the
mid-level officers is their common fate. As there is no provision for trade
unionism, they dont have any access to the policy-making process. In such a
situation, they come to the street to raise their voice and involve themselves
in vandalism and rampage. Despite having a significant achievement in
national economy, labor unrest in this sector is diminishing all its credit. In
order to survive in the quota-free competitive international market,
addressing labor unrest has been a crying need.

1.2 HISTORY OF LABOR UNREST


History of labor unrest is as old as history of industrialization.
Industrialization process requires two classes of people - owners or elite class
and working class. History of the Industrial Revolution in England in late 18th
century records the plight and struggle of working class people. Workers
were to work for a long hours in an unhygienic environment for a low wage.
They lived in shabby slums of Lancashire and London and were deprived of
nutritious food, medicine and health care, education for their children. There
were no day care centre and women with children had to work in the factory
keeping their children asleep with sleeping syrup. Frederick Engels
comments, in truth, they were not human beings; they were merely toiling
machines in the service of the few aristocrats who had guided history down
to that time. He further says, intellectually, they were dead; lived only for
their petty, private interest, for their looms and gardens, and knew nothing
of the mighty movement which, beyond their horizon, was sweeping through
mankind10. However, in course of time, government realized the
importance of workforce and adopted welfare policies such as increasing
wages, limiting working hours, providing trainings, establishing day care
centers and schools for the children of the workers etc. and thus made an
industrial revolution possible. The condition of workforce of RMG industry of
Bangladesh which emerged in late twentieth century can easily be compared
with the condition of working class in England at the outset of Industrial
revolution. But the government as well as the owners association is yet to
realize the importance of the workforce. Garments workers in Chicago fought
against working 12 hours a day and seven days a week in 1886, some 125
years ago. Every year on 1st May, International Labor Day is observed in
commemorating the sacrifice of garment workers in Chicago while the
phenomenon still remains same in Bangladesh. The conflict of interests
between buyer and seller of labor power has become conspicuous and this
has led to the rise of trade union movement throughout the world. The
tradition of the parallel development of the nationalist and the trade union
movement, which has originated in British India, continued through the
Pakistan period down to the birth of Bangladesh. Bombay Mill Hands
Association, first of its type in India, formed in 1890 gave impetus to the
trade union movement in British India. The establishment of ILO in 1919
provided a source of inspiration for the workers to organize themselves and
shape their destiny. Birch Berberoglu, in his book Class, State and
Development in India in Historical Perspective observes, with the growth of
industrial working class in India, conflict between labor and capital

intensified. The capitalist assault on workers wage and democratic rights


met with stiff resistance from organized labor and trade union movement
and led to the radicalization of large segments of working class, whose
demands became increasingly political. Threatened with these developments
and fearful of a general social explosion based on a revolutionary alliance
between workers and peasants, the bourgeois state became more
10
Mentioned in Introduction of Condition of the working class people in
England 31 repressive. It also opened its door to transnational monopolies,
thus seeking refuge in imperialism. History is the evident that the outburst of
workforce deriving from their struggle for a humble living can never be
subdued. Coercive measures to disperse the agitation only infuriate the
workforce which can take the shape of a revolution. Taking necessary steps
to solve labor unrest in RMG industry is a demand of time.

1.3 LABOR UNREST IN RMG SECTOR OF BANGLADESH


Labor unrest has been a common phenomenon in the RMG industry of
Bangladesh. Workers are being embroiled in clashes frequently; they call
strikes often to make their demand home. It causes enormous loss to the
owners, cripples the economy and tarnishes the image of the country
aboard. It also makes foreign buyers reluctant to render future orders. In
addition the industry is losing competitive edge for this. In July 2009, due to
massive labor unrest, Hameem Group, a leading garment manufacturing
factory incurred a loss of around 100 crore taka and two workers died with
resultant loss of 2000 jobs11. Causes of labor unrest are many. First and
foremost is the long-standing grievance of the workers. The growth of RMG
industry of Bangladesh much depends on hard work of the labor force. But
unfortunately they are deprived of minimum facilities. They are to live a substandard life in city slums for years. The wage they get is low. Very often
they do not get their salary, overtime bills and bonus in time. Their
recruitment system is hiring and firing as they do not get any appointment
letter and identity card of the factory and at any time they can be dismissed
by owners for any reason. They dont know anything about their job contract.
Being maltreated by owners and mid-level officers, working long hours in
congested environment without sufficient rest, lack of nutritious foods,
medicine, right to legitimate protest against ruthless exploitations etc are
their daily destiny. They dont have any access to the decision making
process. Factory building collapse, fire accident, stampede render many dead
and injured. Nevertheless, if any worker protests against owners or
management, he/she is threatened by various types of harassment such as

dismissal, arrest or even physical assault by the hired hooligans of owners.


Common causes of labor unrest in the RMG sector in Bangladesh are
discussed briefly below. Most of the labor force of this sector are uneducated
and unskilled and have come from rural area simply in search of livelihood.
They have to work hard in return for a very poor salary. The detailed 4th
wage structure for the garment workers is shown in the following table.
Grade with
posts

Basic

Medical
Allowance

Net Salary

TK. 6,500

House
rent(40% of
Basic)
Tk. 2,600

Grade 1:
Pattern
Master, Chief
quality
controller
Grade 2: M/C,
Electrician,
Cutting
Master
Grade 3:
Sample
Machinist,
Senior
Operator
Grade 4:
Sewing M/C
operator,
Quality
Inspector,
Cutter,
Packer, Line
Leader
Grade 5:
Junior M/C
Operator,
Junior Cutter,
Junior Marker

TK. 200

TK. 9,300

TK. 5,000

2,000

TK. 200

TK. 7,200

TK. 2,870

TK. 1,148

TK. 200

TK. 4,218

TK. 2,615

TK. 1,046

TK. 200

TK. 3,861

TK. 2,395

TK. 958

TK. 200

TK. 3,553

Grade 6:
Operator of
General
sewing/Butto
n M/C

TK. 2,230

TK. 892

TK. 200

TK. 3,322

Grade 7:
TK. 2,000
TK. 800
TK. 200
TK. 3,000
Assistant
Sewing M/C
Operator,
Assistant Dry
Washing
man, Line
Iron Man
Table 1.3 4th minimum wage structure for the garment workers
Source: Minimum Wage Board
The board recommended the minimum wages in light of 10 issues cost of
living, living standards, production cost, productivity, cost of the goods
produced, inflation rate, job pattern and associated risks, business capacity,
socio-economic condition of the specific industrial sector and the country as
well as other relevant issues.

1.4 IMPACT OF LABOR UNREST


Whatever might be the cause of labor unrest in the RMG sector, impact is,
beyond doubt, catastrophic. All the four parties- the workers, the owners,
government and foreign buyers will be affected. If labor unrest continues, the
foreign buyers will cancel their orders and divert to other exporters like,
India, China or Cambodia. Hundreds of factories will be closed. Many owners
may be bankrupt. Labors, losing jobs will lose their livelihood and many will
involved in criminal activities. This will create burden on the existing
unemployment problem and increase various types of crimes in the country.
The government will be deprived of huge foreign exchange and revenue
income. The industrialization process of the country will be impeded. The
foreign buyers, who could buy quality garments at a low price and make
huge profit in the US or EU market will have to eye on another exporter
country from where they have to count a high price for the same garments.
Hundreds of businesses, grown based on RMG industry, will suffer. The whole
economy of Bangladesh will be adversely affected.

1.5 CONCLUSION
Labor unrest is a social phenomenon of enormous complexity and it is very
difficult to give any complete explanation of this phenomenon. It is a matter
of controversy whether the predominant factors underlying labor unrest are
economic or non-economic. It has been concluded that so long as income
remained the all important means for satisfying human wants and needs,
wage would continue to be major consideration in labor unrest. Labor force
has been the most important factor in RMG industry. It is the labor force
which can help the sector reach to the optimum goal as well as down it to
the dust. Labor unrest originated mainly from deprivation and longstanding
grievances of the workforce can diminish all achievement of the RMG sector.
Hence addressing the problem is a crying need. Government is to play a vital
role in addressing the problem. By formulating policy regarding management
of labor force of RMG industry, by involving the workers in the decisionmaking process, by regular monitoring the factories and conditions of the
workers, by evaluating the implemented policies and reviewing opinions of
the stakeholders, government can help a lot to solve the problem and
continue the success story.

REFERENCEShttps://www.ndc.gov.bd/lib....../Labor_Unrest_in_the_RMG_
Sector_of_Bangladesh
http://mwb.gov.bd/